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December 28, 2022
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August 7, 2017
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January 29, 1975
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Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01434879 29 January 1975 PROJECT BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE 1. The basic memorandum explained the origins of Project BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE in OSI. This adddhdum concerns the indi- cations of activity by other offices in this program. 2. The bulk of the material in OSI files concerns the work of OSI in analyzing foreign activities related to the use of drugs and psychochemicals in interrogations. There are how- ever memoranda for the record concerning Agency meetings at least through 1955. These MRs contained brief references to work being done under the auspices of other offices in the U.S. In at least one instance OSI provided support for the domestic R&D effort when an OSI chemist, an expert in toxic plants, went to Mexico in December 1952 to pick up some plants with "anesthetic qualities" for subsequent evaluation. 3. At just what time Project ARTICHOKE changed from an inter-agency program concerned with production of intelligence on foreign activities to an agency-operated R&D program (the forerunner of MKULTRA?) is not clear from the files. By late 1952, however, a change had taken place and the players now were the Security Officer, CIA, the Chief, Medical Services, Chief, TSS as well as the AD/OSI. A paper of 16 July 1953 from the Security Officer, CIA to ARTICHOKE representatives, entitled "Restatement of Program", notes the following basic aims: "a. to perfect techniques utilizing existing drugs, hypnosis, and other elements for the extraction of information from individuals whether willing or not. b. to provide field teams for testing, �experimenting and refining tech- niques for the extraction of information from indigenous personnel under field conditions. TS-184903-75 Copy No. *1 of .3 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01434879 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01434879 � c. arrange for research and experimentation for the development of means for the con- trol of the activities and mental capacities of individuals whether willing or not." Other items through (i) concerned other details of the progra(b)(3) 4. A note in the record dated 23 October 1953 by ODA notes that "I&SO has prepared a new set of "by laws" for the Committee, which will include approval of testing of drugs on volunteers amon A ency personnel". A reference �of 29 October 1953' also by refers to draft memoranda to be returned to the (13)(3) ARTICHOKE Committee, one of which is entitled "Experimental Project Utilizing Trainee Volunteers". No copy of this memo- randum could be found. A record of a conversation between and )f OTS date(b)(3) 14 December 1953 refers to the activity at Detrick and contains the following cryptic notation: knew of Frank R. Olson. No inhibitions. Baring of inner man. Suicidal tendencies. Offensive � (b)(3) lu)(o) 6. One of the last references in OSI files to ARTICHOKE(b)(3) is in the form of a copy of a trip report filed by of the Office of Security following a visit he made to the for discussions with (b)(3) and others regarding research on drugs for intelligence purpo This trip report contains intimations of more than casual Affpnry interest in U.S. use of drugs for intelligence purposes. TS-184903-75 Page 2-of 2 (b)(3) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01434879 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01434879 OSI Project Bluebird/Artichoke Following WW II, it appeared to many that the Soviets had succeeded in controlling human reactions and perfecting the art of breaking down the human mind. Of the many instances of trials behind the Iron Curtain *here bizarre confessions were being obtained probably the most famous was that of Cardinal Mindszenty in February 1949. The press called it brainwash- ing, brainchanging, or brain warfare (the latter name was the title of a speech on the subject presented by Allen Dulles in April 1953). In the opinion of OSI, the incongruities in the confessions and the anomolous behavior of the defendants could best be explained as the results of the application of procedures which led to basic changes in the functional organization of the defendant's mind with associated changes in character structure. � Stimulated by the implications of these developments, the Agency undertook the analysis of foreign work on certain uncon- ventional warfare materials and techniques between 1949 and 1956 with the general aim of finding ways of protecting informationtb)p] of vital significance to the security of the U.S. In accumu- lating background for the project, a review was made of drug- (b)(3)I related work going on in such institutions as the University of Illinois University of Michigan, the University of Minnesota, 0 0:30P the and the National Institutes Of Health. An extensive review, of foreign literature was conducted on the subject, particularly work in the Soviet Bloc. (b)(3) The designation Project BLUEBIRD was given to the Agency effort which had the following objectives: (a) possible means of conditioning Agency personnel (or persons of interest to the Agency) to prevent unauthorized obtaining of information from them by any known means; (b) the possibility of obtaining con- trol of the future activities (physical or mental) of any in- dividual, willing or unwilling, by application of special inter- rogation techniques; (c). possible techniques for obtaining accurate information from both willing individUals who may have difficulty recalling what they know as well as unwilling in- dividuals; and (d) possible ways of preventing any unauthorized source from gaining control of the future activities (physical or mental) of Agency personnel. TS-184902-75 Copy No. 1 of 3 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01434879 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01434879 In the course of the project, many techniques were suggested for investigation, including the use of sound, blinking lights, hypnotism, and psychochemicals. Of more than routine interest was lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which had just become available, and whose effects were largely unknown. A proposal was made late in 1953 to carry out experiments with LSD using Agency personnel as volunteers but such experiments were not undertaken. Also expenditure of funds to buy up the existing stocks of LSD held by the manufacturers to get it off the market was app ovea nut tne aeal was not carried through. In August 1951 the project name was changed to ARTICHOKE. In November 1952, Project responsibility was transferred from OSI to the Inspection and Security Office (I&SO -- now the Office of Security -- ) and OSI retained responsibility for the evaluation of foreign intelligence aspects of the problem. Thereafter, OSI performed a monitoring function only and one study in support of the project entitled "Strategic Medical Significance of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25) and Related Compounds" was drafted in mid-1955. OSI interest in the project terminated in 1956 and its files were closed. There is nothing in the OSI holdings to indicate that testing of any drugs on humans was performed by CIA personnel or in' behalf of CIA by contractors. TS-184902-75 Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 C01434879 riCiV:7;s7; '- Approved for Release: 2017/01/18 CO1434879 Project 1.11CULTRA was an umbrella project for funding sensitive projects in TSD/Dre (as then styled) approved by Allen Dulles on 3 April 1953. Cryptonymbil