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March 19, 1958
Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 BAVARIAN TARGET STUDY: EXPELLEES AND EMIGRES "NOCINVNT NO. st-4. santamo NO orwmT. f9 (UV; � n rlf".r.C.,47"1 Tr it i wyrr Evnr.,1 0 // t.U�71; 114 70.2i DATE1 //'/&14:1>'L'- 19 March 1958 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET BAVARIAN TARGET STUDY: EXPELLEES AND EMIGRES Contents I. Introduction page 1 II. Expellees 2 A. General Characteristics 2 B. The Sudeten German Expellees 5 C. The Silesian German Expellees 10 D. Conclusions 11 III. Emigres 12 A. Roof Organizations 12 B. Rumanians 15 C. Bulgarians 20 D. Yugoslays 22 E. Czechoslovaks 24 F. Hungarians 28 G. Ukrainians 33 H. Emigres From USSR, Including The Caucasus and Central Asia 39 APPENDIX A: List of Expellee Organizations and Institutions A-1 in Munich APPENDIX B: Biographic Information on Selected Expellee B-1 Leaders in Western Germany APPENDIX C: Sources C-1 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET BAVARIAN TARGET STUDY: EXPELLEES AND EMIGRES Problem To examine the expellee groups in Bavaria with particular refer- ence to economic and political factors, leaders and organizations; and to assemble information on emigre organizations, leaders and publications. Scope and Limitations This report was prepared primarily for DDP internal use. It consists of a narrative describing the expellee group in Bavaria with special attention to the two most significant groups, the Sudeten Germans and the Silesians; and a directory in outline form of emigre organizations, which have headquarters or representatives in Bavaria. The study is based on research material available in Washington, both in the Agency and the Department of State. In accordance with the requester's wish, no attempt has been made to levy special requirements on the field. The information on emigres contained in Part III is limited by the fact that available material is in many cases out of date. These reports give a comprehensive picture of the emigre groups with which they deal. However, the fact that they are in some cases several years old means that the information cannot now be considered current or complete. The biographic data in Appendix B, with the exception of the report on Dr. Koch, was prepared by Biographic Information Divi- sion of the Department of State. SECRET (b)(1) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET BAVARIAN TARGET STUDY: EXPELLEES AND EMIGRES Operational Intelligence Support Branch Requirements Fl Prepared by Prepared for Case number Date of completion: : EE/Plans 19 March 1958 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET BAVARIAN TARGET STUDY: EXPELLEES AND EMIGRES I. Introduction The presence in Bavaria of large numbers of foreign born resi- dents is an important factor in the political, economic, and social life of the Land. The non-native residents fall into several cate- gories: the expellees (Vertriebene), the refugees (Fluechtlinge) and the non-German speaking emigres. For the purpose of this paper, expellees are considered to be the inhabitants of the German provinces east of the Oder-Neisse line and the ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) whose homes were outside the boundaries of the German Reich as of December 31, 1937. Refugees are those former inhabitants of the Soviet zone and East Berlin who fled to West Germany for reasons of personal safety, political or economic con- siderations. Non-German speaking emigres are foreign nationals from the USSR, the satellites or Yugoslavia, who are opposed to the current political regimes in their homelands. Of the three groups, the expellees are most important in the Bavarian scene because of their large numbers, the problems involved in their integration into the Federal Republic, and their irreden- tism. Section II of this report deals with the expellees as a whole, describing their current economic and political situation and their organizations. The two most important expellee groups, the Sudeten Germans and the Silesians, are considered in detail. The refugees, coming into a culture very similar to that which they left and consisting to a greater degree than the expellees of young employable individuals, have assimilated rapidly into the Federal Republic. Although political and cultural associa- tions have been formed by the refugees, they have not attracted sufficient interest or support to be effective pressure groups. The desire of the refugees to "disappear" in West Germany to avoid pressure which might be exercised against them from the East Zone has also tended to discourage the formation of identifiable groups or the rise of refugee leaders. Refugees, therefore, while in- cluded in some of the material dealing with expellees, are not discussed separately as a group in the following report. Emigres, of minor interest in the political or economic develop- ment of Bavaria, have nevertheless an intelligence value as sources of information on the homeland, propagandists, or potential leaders in case of a change of government in their former homes. Section III on emigres identifies where possible their organiza- tions, leaders and publications. SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET II. EXPELLFES A. General Characteristics The problem of assimilating the expellees was more severe in Bavaria than in other Laender of the Federal Republic. Although expellees possessed a language and a cultural background gener- ally similar to that prevailing in West Germany, each expellee group had its own history, traditions and habits and in many cases had adopted some elements of the native culture of its former home- land. Bavaria, with its strong local traditions and characteristic reserve or even hostility towards newcomers, experienced more fric- tion than did other less particularistic areas. In addition, other factors complicated the situation. The relatively backward state of communications and the long distances between rural communities in the Land made it difficult to move expellees who had been un- suitably placed in the first distribution. The agrarian structure of the country--small farm holdings and not much free land avail- able--made an additional problem in settling the agrarian expellees satisfactorily. The usual solution of employing them as farmhands suited neither the formerly independent expellees nor the highly individualistic Bavarian peasants. ji Of the approximate eight and one-half million expellees located in the Federal Republic, 1,850,200 are in Bavaria. They account for 20.2 per cent of the population, a percentage exceeded only by Schleswig-Holstein (28.1 per cent) and Lower Saxony (25.8 per cent). By far the largest group of expellees are the ethnic Germans who inhabited the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia before World War II. According to statistics compiled in 1950, of the 1,912,000 Sudetens living in West Germany, over one-half, (1,026,400), are settled in Bavaria. The next largest group were the Silesians, of which 461,000 or about one-fifth of the total number in West Germany were in Bavaria. Other substantial groups of expellees in Bavaria are the former residents of East Prussia, West Prussia, Memelland and Danzig (10)1,600),, ethnic Germans from Yugoslavia (67,500), from Hungary (49,200), from Poland (48,800, from Rumania (46,100), and from the former German province of Pomerania (34,800). German expellees from the USSR total 10,700 and from the former Baltic nations, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, 8,900. V In sex and age composition, the expellee group shows the same structure as the post-war resident population, i.e. a deficit of males, especially young adults, and a preponderance of middle aged individuals, especially women. However, the displaced popu- lation shows a more normal age-sex structure than the resident population, having a smaller proportionate surplus of females, fewer aged and a stronger representation of young adults, especi- ally young men. I/ The expellees are younger than the rest of the population, the median age for males being 28.5 years and for females 32.5 years, according to statistics dated September 1950. The dif- ference in age and sex structure between the expellee and the resident groups resulted from the higher birth rate of the Eastern European Germans, the selective processes of flight and expulsion, and the fewer war casualties suffered by the German minorities. 2.-V In terms of occupational skills, the expellees represent a strong industrial population. In contrast with the Bavarian labor force which in 1939 had 38.2 per cent of the total employed in agriculture, 34.3 per cent in industry and handicrafts, 14.5 per cent in trade and transportation, and 13 per cent in other 2 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET vocations, the expellees in their former occupations had 39.7 per cent engaged in industry and handicrafts, 35.1 per cent in agri- culture, 14.3 per cent in trade and transportation and 10.9 per cent in other vocations. East Zone refugees show an even higher proportion of workers in the industrial, handicrafts, trade and transportation groups. ..51 ' Although the difficulties involved in finding work in their new locations has meant occupational downgrading for many expellees who have taken jobs in which their previous skills are not used, it is estimated that the largest occupational group among the ex- pellees is employed in the manufacturing trades. Expellee employ- ment generally is increasing. In September 1950, unemployment among expellees was about twice as high as for the rest of the population; in April 1956, it was estimated that the expellees accounted for 24 per cent of the unemployed as opposed to 17 per cent of the total population. f/ The increasing integration of the expellees into the predomi- nantly agricultural Bavarian economy has tended to diversify and industrialize it. In 1951, although expellee and refugee indus- trial, handicraft and trade establishments amounted to less than 10 per cent of all such establishments in Bavaria, in textiles, glass and processing of artificial materials, the share was much higher. Expellee effort, mainly on the part of the Silesians and Sudetens who came from areas where the textile industry was highly developed, has made an important contribution to the embroidering and knitting mills in Oberfranken and South Schwaben. Large glass making centers have grown up in Kaufbeuren, Schwaben, Bayreuth and Oberfranken where Sudeten expellee groups are practicing their traditional skills. The costume jewelry industry in Neu Gablonz, an important dollar earner, was established and developed by Sudeten initiative. V The relatively high degree of economic integration which the expellees have reached in Bavaria is the result in part of action by the Land government in providing funds, both loans and grants, to help expellees establish themselves. Bavaria also set up a Committee for Refugees and Expellees, supported by Landtag funds, whose function was to aid expellee industry, recommend legislation to improve expellee conditions, answer inquiries, and provide legal aid. Resettlement and land reform programs were also under- taken ._/ Politically the expellees have not tended to unite in a single party. The closest thing to an expellee party is the All-German Bloc-League of Expellees and Disenfranchised (Gesamtdeutsche Block-Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteten - GB-BHE), which, however, does not include all or even the most prominent expellees active in political life. Moreover, the BHE does not consist exclusively of expellees and refugees. Its local chairman in Bavaria, Willi Guthsmuths, has only a tenuous claim to the Sudetenland having served there as a government official from 1941 until 1945. The disappearance of the BHE as a national party in the September 1957 elections indicates a growing tendency among the expellees to work toward their aims through the major political parties rather than as members of a special interest group. In Bavaria the leaders of the BHE are attempting to divorce the party from its original concept as an expellee and refugee group. The statement announcing the party's withdrawal from the four-party Land coalition following the national elections was made in the name of the Gesamtdeptsche Block (GB), the initials BHE having been dropped entirely. There are indications �that some of the party leaders believe that its future lies in the 3 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET formation of a new right of center party which would include the BHE, FDP and other conservative elements. 21 Contrary to the early expectations voiced by Allied observers, expellees have not joined extreme rightist political parties in any considerable numbers. The extreme Left, as might be expected, attracts no support among expellees who resent the Communists as the authors of their exile. Expellee organizations have been formed for economic, social, cultural and professional reasons. The principal group, organized on the federal level is the League of Expelled Germans (Bund der vertriebenen Deutschen - BvD), which has principally represented expellee and refugee economic interests. The BvD provides its mem- bers with information on their financial claims, lobbies for social and economic benefits, and attempts to further the nomination of expellee candidates for public office. It has made special efforts to further such legislation as the Equalization of Burdens Law (Lastenausgleich Gesetz), and the Federal Law on the Legal Status of Expellees and Refugees (Bundesgesetz ueber die Angelegenheiten der Vertriebenen und Fluechtlin4e). The three chairmen of the BvD Land chapter in Bavaria are: Dr. Joachim Borngraeber, Josef Boehm and Herbert Rubusch. 12/ Probably more important in Bavaria are the homeland associations (Landsmannschaften) of expellees from the same country of origin which have concentrated on maintaining the cultural ties between the expellees and their former habitations and on seeking to ob- tain recognition of their homeland claims from the Federal govern- ment, the Western allies and the satellite exile groups. The Landsmannschaften are organized according to the regional location of the expellees in West Germany into Land chapters (Landesverbaende), which are subdivided into Bezirksverbaende, Kreisverbaende, and Ortsverbaende according to the size and location of the expellee groups. 22/ Within the Landsmannschaften there are also groups (Heimatgruppen) of expellees who claim the same locality of origin in the homeland. Nineteen expellee Landsmannschaften have joined together to form a Federal roof organization, the League of Homeland Associa- tions (Verband der Landsmannschaften - VdL). A loose association whose primary purpose is to coordinate policy, the VdL has been moderate in pres.sing its claims to the homeland and enjoys good relations with the Bonn government from which it receives some financial support. The chairman of the Bavarian Land chapter is Dr. Hans Menzel; Dr. Paul Tiling is the manager. A number of the member associations maintain headquarters or regional offices in Munich. The Sudetens and the Silesians are the most significant of these groups because of their large memberships and aggressive attitude toward their eventual return to the homeland. L21 Expellee youth has its own organization: The German Youth of the East (Deutsche Jugend des Ostens - DJO). Formed in 1951, it is composed of semi-autonomous youth groups sponsored by the individual Landsmannschaften. The national chairman is a Bavarian Sudeten youth leader, Ossi Boese. Although dedicated to keeping alive the memory of the homeland among its members, the DJO ap- pears to be generally inactive in political and Landsmannschaft affairs. The rapid assimilation of expellee youth into their new environment suggests that their indifference toward expellee matters is likely to increase. 1.21 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Other expellee organizations* centered in Munich are scientific and cultural institutions, religious and welfare groups, and re- search institutions concerned with refugee questions. One of the most interesting of these is the Eastern European Institute (Ost- Europa Institut) at the University of Munich, directed by Dr. Hans Koch.** A center for Eastern European studies, principally in the fields of law, history and politics, the Institute sponsors publi- cations and lectures on Eastern European subjects. It is re- portedly financed by the Federal Republic and Land governments. Dr. Koch, a long time specialist on eastern affairs, is frequently consulted by the Federal Republic Foreign Ministry on eastern prob- lems. He accompanied Adenauer to Moscow in 1955 as an advisor. Lit B. The Sudeten German Expellees The Sudetens are the most nationalistic and best organized group among the expellees. The Sudeten German Landsmannschaft has about 350-360,000 members in Western Gemany of which an estimated 197,000 are in Bavaria. The Landsmannschaft spokesman, Dr. Rudolf Lodgman von Auen, a long time exponent of Sudeten interests, has been for many years the leader of the organization and of the Sudetens generally. Recently, however, his leadership has been challenged by groups both within and without the Landsmannschaft who feel that at 79 he is too old to exercise his authority com- petently and that his handling of Sudeten affairs is too much a one-man show. In addition to the VdL, Sudetens form a strong group in the BvD. Sudetens also play an important part in the expellee youth organization, the DJO. A Bavarian Sudeten, Ossi Boese, the DJO national chairman, is as well the chairman of the Sudeten German youth group, a member of the Executive Committee of the Sudeten German Landsmannschaft and of the Sudeten German Council. In Munich the Adalbert Stifter Society is a Sudeten-sponsored cultural organization. 1.2/ Several factions with varying political complexions and aims exist within the Sudeten group. Of these the most influential, in that its aims correspond generally with the majority of Landsmannschaft members, is the Witiko Bund. Small in numbers-- it has an estimated 400 members--it nevertheless includes some of the most aggressive and energetic personalities in the Lands- mannschaft. Leader of the Bund is Frank Seiboth, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Landsmannschaft. Federal Minister of Transport Hans Cristoph Seebohm is also reputedly a member, as are Dr. Walter IBecher, *** Secretary General of the Sudeten German Council, and Dr. Herbert Tusch, personal aide of Seebohm and a functionary of the Deutsche Partei (DP) in Bavaria. ly Said to be a continuation of an earlier group of the same name which was organized in Bohemia in 1901 by a group of German- speaking intellectuals to defend German interests, the Witiko Bund was revived in Germany after the post-war expulsion. It is composed of right wing elements who describe themselves as national though not nationalistic, i.e. aggressive in defense of Sudeten * See Appendix A: "List of Expellee Organizations and Institu- tions in Munich." * * * * * See Biographic Appendix. See Biographic Appendix. 5 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET interests but tolerant of the rights of other national or ethnic groups. Nominally non-political, the Bund aims to propagandize Sudeten objectives quietly and among small groups by placing its members in leading organizations and offices in German life. Among political parties it is closest to the BHE and the Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei - FDP), although some of its more raTITC-71 elements incline to the rightist fringe parties. 1././ According to a report dated 1 June 1954, a small section of extreme nationalists were cooperating at that time in certain Com- munist propaganda objectives. The Deutsche National Zeitun , a weekly newspaper published in Munich and reported to be subsidized by Communist sources in the Soviet Zone, had several members of the Witiko Bund associated with it and, in connection with the 1954 Sudetendeutsche Tag, published a special edition devoted entirely to the Sudetens. Sudetens were urged to repudiate the policy of Dr. Lodgman, which called for a federation of the Danubian basin areas, and to work for a neutral and unified Germany. Despite the large sale of the special edition (40,000 copies), it does not appear that the paper has much following or influence among the Sudetens generally or the Witiko Bund in particular. The majority of the Witiko Bund members follow a policy of identification with the West. They see the solution of the Sudeten problem in the incorporation of the Sudetenland into a unified Germany. .L_8/ The second faction within the Landsmannschaft is the Seliger Gemeinde, a group of Social Democrats who wish to work out expellee problems within the framework of Social Democratic domestic and foreign policies. Since approximately 30 per cent of the Sudetens are Social Democrats, they appear to have a solid base for influ- encing the party. The results of the recent national elections, however, suggest that the Gemeinde has not enjoyed much success in its efforts. The poor performance of the Social Democratic Party (Social-Demokratische Partei - SPD) in Bavaria, particularly in the border areas adjacent to the Iron Curtain, is thought to be due to the unpopularity of the SPD position on foreign and defense poli- cies. Wenzel Jaksch, Sudeten-German SPD Bundestag member from Hesse and a co-chairman of the Seli er Gemeinde, decried SPD "bungling" in a recent article on the elections in the SPD-Sudeten publication Die Bruecke. Leading figure in the Gemeinde in Bavaria is Sni-Bundestag deputy Richard Reitzner, one of three co-chairmen. 22/ The third grouping among the Sudetens is the Ackermann Gemeinde. Named after the Ackermann aus Boehmen (The Plowman from Bohemia, a 14th century discourse on life and death), it grew out of a nucleus of members of the pre-war Catholic students' and workers' associations in the Sudeten areas. Its membership, which includes Catholic clergymen and laymen active in religious affairs, amounts to about one per cent of the Sudeten group. However its close association with the Catholic Church, from which it receives financial support, and its good political connections give it a more consequential position than its numbers suggest. The Ackermann Gemeinde's basic goal is to teach its members to lead a life consonant with religious ideals and to maintain the cultural traditions of their homeland. 22/ Politically it is close to the CLU/CSU and supports Adenauerls policy of integration with the West. For east-central Europe it advocates a form of federalized structure in which the Sudeten areas would have an autonomous status. Its conservative and Catholic orientation attracted the monarchist element among the Sudetens and, according to a report dated 1 June 1954, it had close ties with Otto von Hapsburg who had recently moved near 6 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Munich. The leaders of the Ackermann association were then stated to be Hans Schuetz, CSU Bundestag deputy, Pater Sladek, a Jesuit priest, and Emil Franzl, a Catholic convert and former Marxist theoretician. Eli The three factions among the Sudetens do not differ on long term Sudeten aims which are: recognition of the Sudetens' right to return to their homeland, their right to compensation for losses suffered during their forced expulsion from Czechoslovakia, and their right to equality of treatment with other peoples in the area of Czechoslovakia on the basis of self-determination. They disagree on immediate goals and on the methods by which both long and short term aims can be accomplished. Lodgman, although he i5 in accord with the general program for the Sudeten future, has had frequent differences of opinion with each of the three group- ings, particularly the Witiko Bund, whose tendency toward radical- ism he reportedly deplores. ly Several recent developments have diminished Lodgman's influ- ence and position within the expellee group. An internal reor- ganization, carried out in 1954, relieved him of the administra- tive work of the Landsmannschaft. Lodgman declined reelection as Landesobmann of the Bavarian branch of the Sudetendeutsche Lands- mannschaft in favor of his follower, Rudolf Gertler, in order to devote himself to policy-making. .2.3/ During the same year the local organizations of the Lands- mannschaft elected a legislative body, the Federal Assembly, and an executive organ, the 14-member Federal Council. Dr. Lodgman was unanimously elected Speaker (Sprecher). However his candi- date for chairman of the Council was defeated by Frank Seiboth, a rival for Sudeten leadership. Dr. Seebohm became President of the Assembly. The new alignment, while testifying to Lodgman's personal prestige, appeared to contain more members of the oppo- sition than Lodgman supporters and represented a successful revolt against his authority. .24/ In the field of foreign policy the Working Committee for the Protection of Sudeten German Interests (Arbeitsgemeinschaft zur Wahrung Sudetendeutscher Interessen) was reorganized. This group, formed in 1947, concerned itself with the �conduct of Sudeten affairs in international politics and in relation to other na- tional groups. It drew up memoranda for the United Nations, col- lected documentary material on the expulsion and negotiated the agreement with the right wing exile Czech group headed by Gen. Lev Prchala on the return of the Sudetens to their homeland.* In April 1955, it was reorganized as the Sudeten German Council (Sudetendeutscher Rat) with 28 members including a presidium of four chairmen. �THe four chairmen who officiate in rotation for a period of six months each are: Dr. Rudolf Lodgman, Richard Reitzner, Hans Schuetz, and Dr. Johannes Strosche,**a member of the BHE. Dr. Walter Becher, chairman of the BHE Landtag faction and former secretary of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft, is Secretary General of the Council. 2.2/ * The agreement between the Czechoslovak National Committee headed by Prchala and the Working Committee under the leadership of Lodgman was signed in August 1950. Its terms provided for the Sudeten right to return to Czechoslovakia without defining the future boundary of that country and granted restitution of damages suffered by both Czechs and Germans either as exiles or refugees. **See Biographic Appendix. 7 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET The establishment of the Council was due at least in part to a desire on the part of some of the Sudeten factions to widen the base of authority for conducting foreign relations rather than leaving it exclusively in the hands of Dr. Lodgman. Although Dr. Lodgman has retained a position of authority on the Council's presidium, he shares it with Reitzner and Schuetz, both of whom represent distinct factions within the expellee group and politi- cal parties with whose policies Lodgman is not always in sympathy. Furthermore, Lodgmants physical frailty--he has recently had to forego his turn as chairman--has decreased his activity and influ- ence. L61 One of the principal issues of controversy between Lodgman and other Sudeten leaders is the group of young men who surround Lodgman and staff his office. Some of these, it is felt, shelter behind the Sprecherls office and prestige while attempting to manip- ulate Sudeten policy in the direction they desire. The principal target for criticism is Lodgmants personal assistant, Dr. Rudolf Hilf. Dr. Hilf has been intimately involved in the Czech language broadcasts from Radio Madrid. These programs were initiated in December 1955 under the joint sponsorship of the Czech-Sudeten German Federal Committee* and the European Documentation and Infor- mation Center (EDIC), a monarchist organization controlled by Otto von Hapsburg. Although the Sudeten group had long agitated for broadcasts urging Czech-Sudeten understanding and a new approach to the problems of Central Europe, and had complained bitterly that their position was not properly represented by Radio Free Europe (RYE) and other Western radio stations, the Madrid programs have been a source of friction between various Sudeten expellee groups. ?I/ The Socialist and BHE-oriented segments accuse Lodgman of trying to bypass the Sudeten-German Council on a matter of foreign policy. They feel, in addition, that the scripts, which are reportedly written by Hilf and Locher, are of such low quality that they will not provide effective propaganda and will be easy for the Czech regime to ridicule and refute. Further aspects which arouse dis- trust among many Socialist Sudetens include the connection be- tween EDIC and the Abendlaendische Akademie, an extreme rightist organization active in Bavaria since 1951, and the employment for the broadcasts of Dr. Bohdan Chudoba, who had been accused of anti-semitic activities under the Nazis and of Communist collabora- tion in the early post-war period. Among the expellee adherents of the BHE, the feeling that the programs would confuse the issue of the fight against Communism was expressed. 213/ The most persistent critic of Dr. Hilf and other young men in the Kanzlei of the Sprecher, is Erich Maier, member of the Witiko Bund and publisher of a number of expellee publications including the newspaper, Der Sudetendeutsche, Der Vertriebenen Anzeiger, a weekly newspaper for expellees in general, and two weekly newsletters, Mitteilungs und Informations Dienst (MID), covering events of interest to expellees, and Mid-Ost, devoted to developments within the satellite countries. Maier has not attacked Lodgman directly but has criticized his staff on several issues including the Madrid broadcasts, the forged "Spellman" * This body, formed in about 1951 to foster Sudeten-Czech rela- tions, consists of Lodgman, Reitzner and Schuetz for the Sudetens and Prchala,Locher, and Kervicer of the London Czech group. 8 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 � Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET letters,* and the continuous disregard for the Sudetendeutsche Rat as a policy-making organization. Dr. Hilf has been defended in the columns of the Sudetendeutsche Zeitun ** with the result that the differences between the Sudeten factions have developed into a well-publicized and running controversy. 221 It seems probable that with Lodgman's increasing disability or death the struggle for leadership among the Sudetens will con- tinue and be intensified. Since none of the other Sudeten leaders command the respect or popular support that Lodgman does, the chances of unifying opinion among the various groups are small. Should the partisans of the Sudetendeutsche Rat win a greater degree of influence within the movement, it is possTETe that the Sudetens could develop relations with other more flexible and conciliatory Czech exile groups instead of limiting their contacts to the adher- ents of General Prchala. However, in view of the hostility which the Sudeten expellees have demonstrated toward RFE and the Czechs involved in its broadcasts to Czechoslovakia,*** one of the few subjects upon which Sudetens of all shades of political opinion seem to agree, such a development does not appear probable in the near future. Some observers have suggested that the Madrid broad- casts, by giving the Sudetens an opportunity to voice their own problems and opinions, may reduce the friction between them and RFE. Even if the Sudetens succeed in reaching a position of amity among themselves and in extending their relations beyond the extreme right wing of exile Czechs, they do not appear to have any consider- able potential as a political influence in Germany under present circumstances. The moderate tone of their recent public pronounce- ments, the tendency for expellees to align themselves with one of the established West German political parties rather than the special interest BHE party, and the increasing degree of economic integration achieved by the expellees in West Germany all indicate that, at least as long as the present stability of West German political and economic life is maintained, the Sudeten problem is progressively less significant. * A series of forged letters, allegedly written by Cardinal Spellman, expressing support of Lodgman. The letters were made public and hailed by Dr. Hilf as being of great political significance. ** Munich daily newspaper devoted to Sudeten interests. It was reported in 1955 to be under the joint ownership of the firm Eides Gmbh. (75 per cent control) and Dr. Lodgman (25 per cent control). Dr. Hilf is said to be influential in the formation of the paper's editorial policy. 12/ *** RFE frequently has been attacked by the Sudetens as anti- German. Wenzel Gaksch, CSU deputy to the Bavarian Landtag, presented a bill of complaints to the Landta in August 1955 in which he charged that the station's activities hindered German-Czech understanding by. tacitly approving the expropria- tion of German property and by slandering General Prchala. More recently RFE was sharply criticized by the Sudetendeutsche Zeitung for its role in the Hungarian crisis. A leading article published in February 1957 demanded that the Federal govern- ment make representations in Washington to influence a change in the RFE,s expellee policies. 321 9 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET C. The Silesian German Expellees Silesian Germans make up the largest expellee group in West Germany (2,053,300) of which approximately one-fifth (461,100) are located in Bavaria. They are organized on the Federal level in two Landsmannschaften--the Silesian with headquarters in Bonn, and the Upper Silesian with headquarters in Frankfurt. 121 The Silesian Landsmannschaft is represented in Bavaria by a local branch (Landesverband) with an estimated 50,000 members. Landes- verband officials (as of 1955) were: Herbert Hupka,* 1st Chairman; Franz Zdralek, 1st deputy Chairman; Karl Klammt, 2nd deputy Chair- man. Of these, Hupka, who is also deputy chairman of the Federal organization is reported to be sympathetic to the aims of the SPD and Zdralek is an SPD Landtag deputy from Nuremburg; Klammt is a member of the BHE. The election of these officials appears to indicate a growing influence on the part of SPD or SPD-oriented members in the Landsmannschaft and a further decline in the con- servative elements, never very strong at any time. The CSU/CDU has not attracted much support among the Silesians although it should be noted that Dr. Walter Rinke, honorary chairman of the Federal Landsmannschaft and probably the most influential person- ality in the organization, is a CDU/CSU Bundestag deputy. 12/ The Upper Silesian Landsmannschaft is a small organization of expellees who wish to preserve ale traditional distinction between Upper and Lower Silesia. It has several branches, possibly one in Bavaria. Other Silesian organizations include The Friends of the Eichendorf Guild (Freunde der Eichendorfgilde), a cultural association located in Munich.--The Silesians have cooperated with the Sudeten and other expellees in the VdL and the BvD and maintain a youth group which is a member of the expellee youth group, the DJO. The Silesian expellees have as their long time aim the return to the homeland. Cognizant however of the practical difficulties which the realization of this aim entails, they have been moderate in their demands for support and appear to enjoy good relations with the Federal government. They have on the whole supported Adenauerls foreign policy although some expellees, notably the Bavarian group, are unenthusiastic about German rearmament, believ- ing that it will further postpone reunification and the settle- ment of their claims. 3_51 The Silesian expellees have attempted to make contact with Polish exile groups in order to work out a solution for the central European problem for the future. These attempts, however, have foundered on the Oder-Neisse question, since neither group is willing to make concessions as to where the final Polish-German boundary should be. 161 Although Herbert Hupka, at the 1955 meeting of the Bavarian branch of the Silesian Landsmannschaft, cited statistics which he claimed indicated that the organization was growing and that the number of local branches in Bavaria was increasing, it seems improbable that there has been in fact a real increase in interest among the expellees. The membership of the Landsmann- schaft appears rather to be declining and the Silesians, as is the case with other expellee groups, are more inclined to look to the political parties for advancement of their aims. * See Biographic Appendix. 10 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET D. Conclusions The expellees constitute a substantial section of the Bavarian population. They are represented by able and vigorous leaders who take an active part in both Federal and Land politics. Expellee organizations maintain a unity of national and cultural traditions among the various groups and keep alive their claims to return to the homeland. However, in spite of these factors making for separatism, the expellees appear to be increasingly integrated into the political, economic and social life of the community and less significant as a separate group capable of influencing German policy into extremist courses. 11 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET III. EMIGRES The following information on emigre groups, centered in Bavaria or with members and affiliations in Bavaria, is drawn from avail- able State Department and Agency material. It should be noted that much of this information is now out of date; source material in general dates from 1954-1955 although some is even earlier. A. Roof Organizations 1. Anti-Bolshevist Bloc of Nations (Anti-Bolschewistischer Bloc der Nationen - ABN) Headquarters: Zeppelinstrasse 67/0, Munich 8 Executive Committee: (1954) Presidium of the Executive Committee President: Jaroslav Stetzko, Ukrainian Vice Presidents: Ferenc Farkas de Kisbarnak, Hungarian Christo Stateff, Bulgarian Secretary General: Prince Niko Nakaschidse, Georgian Presidium of the People's Council President: Dr. F. Durcansky, Slovakian Vice Presidents: Dr. Ostrowski, White-Ruthenian Lev. Prchala, Czech Secretary General: J. Gytis, Lithuanian Arbitrary Committee Chairman: Dr. Dimiter Waltscheff, Bulgarian Members: Financing: Dr. Wilhelm von Szepesvaraljay- Haendl, Hungarian Peteris Biezais, Latvian Dr. Kukolja, Croatian Mgr. Jaroslau Bencal, Ukrainian Donations from members and followers. The major part of the budget is raised by the groups of Ukrainian emigration which sympathize with ABN. Other contributors are: Ukrainian Congress Committee, Congress of the Ukrainians in Canada, Friends of the ABN in America, and the Scottish League for European Liberty. 12 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Aims: To coordinate national liberation move- ments aimed at fighting Communism and Russian imperialism and to restore inde- pendent national states within the ethnic frontiers of the peoples in Eastern Europe. � Member Organizations: a. Bulgarian National Front (Dr. D. Waltscheff, Kirill Ewdokimoff) b. Estonian Liberation Movement (Dr. 0. Loorits) Estonian Organization VEKO (Otto Kiesel) c. Georgian National Organization (Michael Alschibaja, Prince N. Nakaschidse, Dr. Georg Kordsachia) d. Cossack National Liberation Movement (N. Moltschanov) e. Croatian National Liberation Movement (Hinko Alabanda, M. Beljan) f. Latvian Farmers! Union (V. Hazners, Peteris Biezais) g Lithuanian Regeneration Movement (J. Gytis) h. Slovakian Liberation Committee (Dr. Durcansky, Dr. Otibor Pokorny) 1. Czech Movement for Liberty (Za Svobodu) (Jaroslav Myslivec) j � National Turkestan Unity Committee (Veli Kayum-Khan, Dr. Baymirza Hayit) k. Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Bandera wing) (Jaroslav Stetzko, Jaroslav Bencal, Dr. Wasyl Stronickj) 1. Hungarian Liberty Movement (Ferenc Farkas de Kisbarmak, Dr. W. von Szepesvaraljay) in. White-Ruthenian Central Committee (R. Ostrowski, Polikarp Mankov) n. National Committee for Free Albania (Hussein M. Matrova) o. Committee for Free Armenia Characteristics: Politically right wing, dominated by Ukrainians. Progressively less influen- tial as emigre coordinating center. Publications: ABN Correspondence - published monthly 17�English, French and German editions. Editor: Slawa Stetzko. ABN Hiraldo (Hungarian section). 13 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 2. Democratic Exile Union (Demokratische Exil-Union - DEU) Headquarters: Reulandstrasse 25, Munich 25 Organized: 1954 Executive 'Com- mittee (1955): Secretary General: Organizing Committee: Member Organi- zations: ** Matus Cernak* Ion Gheorghe -Vasil GlaskOV V. Pekelsky Dr. Stefan Buc, Croatian Mr. Schamia, Croatian Gen. Gustav Hennyey, Hungarian Eng. Glasgov, Cossack Mr. Gakachvili, Georgian Mr. I. Popinceanu, Rumanian Mr. Pekelsky, Czech Mr. Lilaikis, Lithuanian Bylorussian National Center Bulgarian National Committee (D. Penew) Hungarian National Committee Supreme Cossack Representation (Cossack Supreme Council) (W. Glaskov) League of Free Rumanians Croatian National Committee in Europe (Stipe Buc) Slovak National Council (Matus Cernak) Union of Democratic Groups and Parties from Czechoslovakia (V. Pekelsky) Characteristics: Anti-Communist. Formed by dissident ele- ments in ABN which split off in December 1954 as the result of a revolt against the authority of the President, Dr. Stetzko. An attempt on the part of Pekelsky, Cernak and Gheorghe to find a broader platform for their political ambitions. Organization's activities are hampered by lack of funds and sponsorship. * Died April 1955. ** Another list of member organizations, compiled at the same time (1954), gives the Latvian National Guard as a member and omits the Hungarian National Committee and League of Free Rumanians. SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET B. -Rumanians 1. Union of Rumanian Associations and Institutions in Germany (Union of All Rumanian Associations and Institutions; Federation of Rumanian Associations of Germany - UARG) /EV Organized: 9-10 October 1954 Member Organi- zations: a. b. C. d. e. f. g. h. i. J. k. 1. Association of Rumanians Germany (Munich) Association of Rumanians west Germany (Freiburg) Association of Rumanians west Germany (Cologne) of South of South- of North- Association of Free Rumanians of Germany (Munich) Association of Orthodox Youth Abroad (Bonn) Association of Rumanians in Berlin (The Rumanian Colony of Berlin) The Rumanian Library (Freiburg) The Mihai Eminescu Library of Delmhorst (The Rumanian Library in Delmhorst) Association of Rumanian University Students* Association of Unitary University Students* General Association of Rumanian Students in Germany (Munich)* The N. Balcescu Association of Rumanian Students* Officers: President: Gheorghe Racoveanu 1st Vice President: 2nd Vice President: Secretary: Treasurer: Censors: Gheorghe Blotescu (Bordea) Valeriu Dobrescu Gheorghe Acrivu Sorin Nicolae Mircea Crendovici Constantin Nagacerschi Vasile Barbulescu * Items i and j appear as "founding members" on list compiled in 1954; k and 1 on list dated 1955. Whether they are identical organizations under different names or different groups is not known. 15 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Church Repre- sentatives: Father Emilian Vasiloschi (Orthodox) Father loan A. Tautu (Greek-Catholic) Functional. Sections: a. Culture and Education: Aims: Virgil Mihailescu Leonida Lututovici Gheorghe Carsteanu b. Social Assistance: Dr. Dumitr Parau c. Legal: Romolu Opris d. Economic: Gheorghe Branea e. External Relations: Vacant At the time of founding, the organization's aims were social and cultural. It hoped to establish other "Unions" in other Western states and eventually to evolve an exile Rumanian government. Characteristics: Member groups of the Union are mostly former adherents of the Iron Guard who have broken with Horia Sima. General Ion Gheorghe, leader of the Free Rumanian group, although not among the officers, is very influential within the organization. ,2. Movement of Legionaries - Iron Guard (Legionaerdbewegung - Eisene Garde) �1.1" Established: January 1941 Headquarters: Munich Membership: Unknown. Formerly the largest and most politically active of Rumanian emigre groups. In 1954 a more moderate faction led by Vasile Iasinschi, Ilie Garneata, and Constantin Papanace, split off and formed an independent organization (see below), leaving a small group of Horia Sima adherents behind. The Sima rump is said to wield less influence among the emigres as a result. Characteristics:- Anti-Communist; rightist. 16 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 3. Old Legionaries - "Liberal" Group (Alt-Legionaere) _21 Established: 1954 Headquarters: Munich Executive Com- mittee (1955): Ilie Garneata Vasile Iasinschi Constantin Papanace Membership: Unknown. Represents dissident faction which seceded from Sima Iron Guard group. Includes the three regional associations of Munich, Cologne and Freiburg. Characteristics: More liberal segment of Iron Guard. Garneata and Papanace are reported to have contributed to some extent to the formation of the UARG. 4. Association of Free Rumanians in German (Vereinigung der freien Rumaenen) Headquarters: Munich Directors: Gen. Ion Gheorghe (1955) G. Balotescu Ion Popiceanu Dumitru Parau Capt. Andrei Nicola Stefan Marinescu Anton Ishoda, engineer Ovidiu Baldeanu Membership: Ca. 120 members Characteristics: Member of the League of Free Rumanians, � Rumanian roof organization with head- quarters outside of Germany headed by Gen. Nicolae Radescu and after his death by Mihai Farcasanu. Cooperates also with the Democratic Exile Union (Demokratische Exile Union - DEU), a roof organization for East European exile groups. Publications: Patria, a monthly newspaper. In 1955 Gerhard von Mende, head of the German Office of Homeless Foreigners, was re- ported to be considering subsidizing it. He suggested a subsidy of 500 DM per month if Gen. Gheorghels name were sup- pressed as editor. Ion Popinceanu and Ion Gheorghe, Jr., were suggested as pos- sible editors for the German language section which von Mende thought should be added. 17 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 5. Association of Rumanians of Southern Germany Ly Headquarters: Munich Directors: (1955) Col. Dumitru Alexandrescu, former prisoner of war who went over to the Germans; Legionnaire sympathizer. Victor Apostolescu, doctor;. Legionnaire Virgil Popa, lawyer Laurian Talnariu, lawyer; Legionnaire Gudi, lawyer Characteristics: Member of UARG. Delegates who attended founding meeting of UARG in 1955 were: Victor Apostolescu, Gheorghe Branca, Scarlat Prescornitciu, Dumitru Alexandrescu, Constantin Braga. 6. The Rumanian Club Headquarters: Munich Directors: (1955) Characteristics: Vasile Dumitrescu Ion Jusko Mircea Popa Aurica Petrescu (or Popescu) Dumitru Piturca, aviator Herwath Scheiner Georg Mergl A dissident group which formerly belonged to the Association of Free Rumanians in Germany. It is a discussion group rather than a formal organization. The group belonged to the Rumanian Coordina- tion Center, a roof organization formed in 1954-55 by Dumitrescu, but which shortly thereafter became inactive. 7. Association of Combatants and Veterans of War 161 Organized: November 1954 Headquarters: Ismanigerstrasse 102/II, Munich Directors: Gen Platon Chirnoaga Honorary President (1955) Grigore Scorochirja, Lieutenant in SS, President V. Dumitrescu, candidate reserve officer Herwath Scheiner Lt. Piturca, aviator V. Comanescu 18 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Characteristics: Simaist inspired organization; members include very few former combatants. Some honorary members are chosen from among German aviators. 8. Rumanian Institute of Culture /-1-'_y Headquarters: Hedwigstrasse 2/III, Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Director: President: 1st Vice President: 2nd Vice President: Members: Aims: Grigore Manoilescu* Munich Monsignor Albert Buttner, Chief of the Secretariat of Foreign Relations of the Catholic Church at Bonn Constantin Sassu, Former Director of Government Archives in Brasov, Rumania Prof. Walter Hoffmann, President of the Association of German Refugee Professors of the East Prof. Dr. Ernst Gamillscheg, former Director of the German Institute in Bucharest Prof. Fritz Valjavec, director of the Sudosteuropa Gesellschaft of Munich and Professor of History Dr. Florian Muller, Director of the Rumanian Catholic Mission in Germany Dr. Karl Kurt Klein, former professor of the University of Iasi, the University of Cluj, and at present a professor at the University of Innsbruck Dr. Virgil Velescu, former professor in Rumania a. Scientific study and research on present conditions in Rumania. Infor- mation to be drawn from study of news- papers, periodicals, and books from Rumania and the Soviet Union. b. Preparation of scientific studies of the problems of reorganization which will be necessary at the time of the liberation of Rumania. * Information dated June 1955 states that Manoilescu had emigrated to Spain. Velescu is said to be head of the Institute. 19 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 ) Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET c. Preparation of studies intended to pro- tect the interests of Rumania at the time of liberation. d. Establishment of close relations with leaders of other emigration groups to prepare for joint action at the time of liberation. e. Encouragement of literary and scientific activity among the Rumanian emigration by the publication of reviews and pos- sibly books. Characteristics: Closely connected with Horia Sima group of Iron Guardists. According to information dated June 1955, Institute is inactive, C. Bulgarians 1. Bulgarian National Committee "Free and Independent Bulgaria" Sub-Committee for Germany (BNC) 22.1/ Headquarters: Elisabethstrasse 4/11, Munich 13 Organized: 1948 Officials: Zvetko Peneff (Innsbruck, Austria) (1953) Members: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Georg Kiroff (Munich), President of the Sub-Committee, member of the left wing Bulgarian Social Democratic party. Milorad Mladenoff (Munich), Secretary. Member of the left wing Bulgarian Peasant and Agrarian Party. Representative of the International Peasant Union in Germany. Accused by his political opponents of collaboration with the Communists. Georg Noeff (Munich) Georg Tschardaklieff, Importer Ivan Donoff, gardener Peter Petroff Georg Georgieff, engineer Doitschin Pereff, engineer Georg Schischkoff, scientist Assen Mandikoff Michael Nebolieff, RFE Mirko Saliski, businessman Zvetko Peneff (Socialist) Jordan Raitscheff (Agrarian) Georgi Loeff Deutschin Penew Characteristics: Established as an attempt to bridge the Rightist and Leftist groups among Bul- garian exiles. Consists mainly of left- radical groups. One of the exile organi- zations through which the Free Europe Committee works. Activities in Bavaria are not extensive. 20 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Publication: A paper, Free and Independent Bulgaria, appears irregularly. 2. Bulgarian National Front (BNF) 1122/ Headquarters: Munich-Allach, P. 0. Box 4 Organized: 1949 Organizing Committee: Ilia Zlateroff Dr. Dimiter Waltscheff Dr. Ivan Detscheff, former leader of the organization of Bulgarian National Legions. Executive Board: (1954) Christo Stateff (Rome), president Dr. Detscheff (Toronto), manager Dr. Waltscheff (Rosenheim-Munich), press and propaganda Dr. Stefan Popoff (Madrid), foreign policy' Characteristics: Created by an exile group opposed to BNC. Organization is pro-monarchy. Its char- acter in Germany is largely determined by Dr. Waltscheff, an ambitious, experi- enced politician who has occasionally been critical of US policy. Publication: The paper, Nationales Bulgarian, appears irregularly. 3. Bulgarian Council of European Movement in Germany 22/ Headquarters: Franz-Josefstrasse 32, Munich 13 Organized: 1949 Executive Board: (1953) Members: Control Com- mission: Tosche Damianoff, President (RFE) Michael Balsamoff, Vice President (VOA) Todor Schekoff, Secretary (RFE) Georg Tschardaklieff, Treasurer Dr. Michael Nebelieff Gentsche Genscheff Dr. Matthias Jeikoff Michael Mischaikow Georg Noeff Dr. Dimiter Detscheff Peter Petroff Kiril Evdekimoff Characteristics: Originally established as a section of the Sub-Committee for Germany as an at- tempt to reconcile opposing emigre groups on the broad basis of the European Movement. 21 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 , Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET German Representation of Movement -of Professor Alexander Zankoff .21/ Leader: Rodina e.V. Headquarters: Characteristics: Georg Dideff Isabellastrasse 25, Munich Munich Social and cultural organization D. Yugoslays 1. Croatians a. Croatian National Committee (Hrvatski Narodni Odbor) Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Members: Munich 23../ Ivo Brozovic Dr, Branko Jelic Dr. Stipe Buc Dr. Branko Benzon Dr. Filip Lukas Dr. Vinko Kriskovid Monsignor Saric Stjepan Horvat Dr. Balic Characteristics: Anti-Communist; favors a free and independent Croatia. Members are followers of Ante Pavelic. Publication: Information Bulletin (irregular) b. Croat Catholic Community ..5L-Y Headquarters: Munich Characteristics: Croat political organization, closely identified with the Ustascha. c. Croatian Field Division .2.51 Headquarters: Von-der-Tannstrasse 44, Augsburg Chairman: Franz Deeg Characteristics: Veterans organization 2. Serbs a. Serbian National League in Germany .1�I (Srpska Narodna Obrana) Headquarters: Munich Executive Corn- Momcilo Vukovic-Bircanin mittee: (1954) Velimir Djurdjinovic 22 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Membership: Characteristics: b. Zbor Society 21/ Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (195)1.) Membership: Characteristics: Unknown. Organization claims 16 city committees and 10 local groups in the Federal Republic. Pan-Slavic. Engages in cultural, social welfare and propaganda activities. Munich Jasa Ljotio Branko Begovic Radko Pare zanin Estimated 200 members throughout Federal Republic. Anti-Communist, anti-Titoist, rightist. Advocates a Yugoslav state under Serbian hegemony. Publications: Iskra, monthly periodical. Hrvatska Zora c. YMCA/YWCA for Yugoslavia (Hriscanska Zajednica mlakih Ijudi/zena) Zi Headquarters: Munich (Praesidiul Hanover (Secretary Membership: 600 members and 20 local groups through- out the Federal Republic. Aims: Cultural and educational. d. Association of Veterans of the Royal Yugoslav Army (Draza Mihailovic - bdruzenje Boraza Kraljevske Jugoslovensko Vojske) .51/ Executive Com- mittee: (1954) General Miodrag Damjanovic Brana Civkovic Characteristics: Organization headquarters are in London. However, the fact that General Damjanovic lives in Germany and that � it has probably the largest membership within the Serbian emigration make it important in Germany. Anti-Communist, anti-Titoist. Advocates Yugoslavia as a 3-peoples state with equality of rights for each. Carries out social welfare work among emigres in Germany. Publication: Periodical, Ravnoforski Borac 23 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 . Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET E. Czechoslovaks 1. Czechs a. Association of the Czechoslovakian Political Refugees in Germany (Allfance of Czechoslovakian Refugees) Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1955) (1954) Membership: Characteristics: Publications: Karlstrasse 42/11, Munich Josef Nemecek (Agrarians) Rudolf Ruzicka (Slovakian Democratic Party) Jar. Kusy (Catholic People's Party) Miroslav Mild (Slovakian Social Demo- cratic Party) Orest Cernek (Ruthenian) B. Stolicka (National Socialist) Kunicir (Catholic People's Party) Dr. Miroslav Mestan (National Democrat) Estimated 2,200 according to own state- ments. Supports the policy of the Council of Free Czechoslovakia. Reportedly has received funds occasionally from FEC through Free Europe Citizens Service. It was used in the anti-redefection campaign. Carries on social welfare activities and propaganda among the emigres. Hlas Exilu. Monthly, appearing in 747000 copies. Distributed through- out Germany and Austria. Edited by Josef Nemeck, Karlstrasse 42, Munich, although most of the active editorial work is done by emigres with journalistic experience. Personnel difficulties within the staff reportedly have hampered regular production of the paper. Per- iodical carries emigre news, informa- tion on welfare and resettlement, and some comment on world affairs. b. Movement for Liberty - Prchala Group (Hnuti Za Svobodu) / Seat: Chairman: Representative in Germany: Characteristics: London Lev Prchala Milos Svoboda, Munich Acknowledges the right of Slovakians to an independent Slovakia and of the Sudeten Germans' right of self- determination and their claim on the homeland, 24 SaCRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Publication: Tschechische Exil Presse Dienst (TEPD). Appears 3 times a month; mimeographed. Edited by Milos Svoboda, Barerstrasse 15, Munich, (see above) and follows the Prchala line. It is pro-Czech separatism and friendly toward the Slovak separatists and the various Ger- man expellee groups. Opposed to the existence of a Czechoslovak state, it is hostile to the Council of Free Czecho- slovakia, RYE, and the Free Europe Com- mittee. Serves chiefly as a news ser- vice for the German press, and its re- ports are reprinted frequently in the German expellee press. c. Association of Czech Democratic Federalists (Sdruzeni CeskyCh Demokratickych Federalistu - SCDF) �21 Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Membership: Characteristics: Publication: 2. Slovakians Dachauerstrasse 9, Munich 2 Vladimir Pekelsky, Chairman Prof. Dr. Rudolf Wiener Prof. Dr. Josef Korejs Bohumil Horak, Secretary General 1,236 registered members; greater number of followers. An off-shoot of Prchala's Czech National Committee. Advocates recognition of an independent Slovakia in an All- European Confederation. Acknowledges Sudeten Germans' claim to their home- land. Anti-Communist. Anti-Council of Free Czechoslovakia, RFE, and FEC. Weekly periodical Bohemia. Estimates of circulation range from 2,500 to 5,000 copies. Edited by Frantisek Janik-Horak; owned and published by Vladimir Pekelsky. Supporting funds are thought to come from German sources. a. Slovakian Liberation Committee (Slovensky Oslobodzovaci Vybor - SOV) .U/ Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Munich-Waldperlach Dr. Ferdinand Durcansky, Munich Dr. S. Merciar, Buenos Aires German Repre- sentation: (1954) Dr. Ctibor Pokorny, Chairman Josef Kerak, Vice Chairman Ludovit Pastucka (Postucha), Organi- zation and Personnel 25 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET (1953) Membership: Emil Pachnik, Finance Karol Wildner, Military Frantisek Babic, Information Ludovit Salka, Secretary Stefan Hovancik, Social Kristina Salkova, Cultural About 520 registered members (out of an estimated 1,000 Slovakian emigres in Germany). Characteristics: Led by Dr. Ferdinand Durcansky, former Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Nazi puppet state of Slovakia, organi- zation advocates an independent Slovakia. Four political parties are said to be represented in the organization: the National, Agrarian, Christian Social and Labor parties. Cooperates closely with the anti-Czech Sudeten German expellees. According to report SOV has also made efforts to cooperate with Procalats Czech National Committee and the Slovak National Council Abroad. SOV is also close to ABN. Dr. Ctibor Pokorny, Chairman of SOV in Germany, is Durcansky's representative in this organization. Affiliated with the Social Representation of Slovakians in Germany and the Association of Slovakian Students Abroad. Publication: Slovak. Appears monthly; circulation uAnown. Edited by F. Durcansky, Waldperlach/Munich, Leopoldstrasse 5. Strongly Slovak-separatist, anti-RFE, anti-FEC. Also opposed to more moder- ate separatists represented by Slovak National Council. Reportedly supported by German funds. b. Slovakian National Council in Exile (German Section) Headquarters: Membership: Characteristics: Publications: Munich Unknown; estimated to be about the same as the Slovakian Liberation Committee. Anti-Communist; anti-Czechoslovak; anti- RFE. In favor of Slovakian separatism. Svobodne Slovensko. Appears irregularly, approximately monthly. Circulation estimated at about 500. Paper originally founded by Matus Cernak about 1946. Since Cernak's death has been published by Prof. Dr. Vojtech Bucko, Prof. Dr. Heinrich Bartek and �Kristof Greiner. 26 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Advocates Slovak separatism, although not as violently as Slovak. Slowakische Korrespondez, a German- language newsletter which draws most of its material from Svobodne Slovensko. Appears twice monthly. Edited by Kristof Greiner, Friedrichstrasse 21, Munich. c. Social Representation of Slovakians in Germany e.V. L.5j Headquarters: Munich Chairman: Dr. Ct. Pokorny Characteristics: Social organization. Affiliated with Slovakian Liberation Committee. d. Slovak Social Committee e.V. Headquarters: Munich Characteristics: Social organization. e. Association of Slovakian Students Abroad �1/ Headquarters: Munich Characteristics: Affiliated with the Slovakian Libera- tion Committee. f. Independent Periodicals LEY (1) Ceske Slovo Appears monthly. Claimed circulation approximately 6,000 including 1,000 paid subscriptions. The paper, taking the name of one of the leading news- papers of Czechoslovakia, the organ of the Benes Czechoslovak National Socialist Party, has attempted to carry out the tradition of the Sunday non- political issue of the old Ceske Slovo. It is organized by a group of RFE edi- tors, members of the National Socialist Party. It is pro-Council of Free Czechoslovakia, pro-RFE, and advocates the continuance of a Czechoslovak state after liberation. Chief editor is Josef Pejskar, Munich, Postfach 91. (2) Demokracie v. Exilu. -Appears monthly in approximately 3,000 copies. Published by Jaroslav Kusy, Josefstrasse 32, Munich. Kusy, a news editor for the Czechoslovakian desk of RFE started the paper as the German voice of the Catholic Lidova Strana Party of which he is a member. Claims to support the publication from sub- scriptions and his own private funds, although some financial support is re- ceived occasionally from leaders of the Lidova Strana in the US and possibly from some of its prosperous members in Europe. The paper is pro-Catholic, pro-German, pro-RFE, and FEC. 27 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET F. Hungarians 1. Hungarian National Council Hungarian National Committee L2/ Founded: Headquarters: President: (1954) Chief Munich Branch Office: (1951) Characteristics: 1948 New York Munich (German section) Bela Varga Gusztav Hennyey Founded as an attempt to unify the many dissident elements of the emigration and to obtain the recognition and support of the West. Varga, the president, from 1946 to 1947, was president of the National Assembly in Hungary and last Speaker of the Hungarian Parliament, and the council is therefore regarded by some as the de facto if not de jure government-in-eXTTe. Its leaders represent most of the trends of traditional Hungarian politics excluding Communists and Nazis and are experienced in Hungarian political, diplomatic, cultural or religious life. Protestant elements dominate the Council but Catholic and Jewish groups are also represented. Sup- ported by Free Europe Committee. As of 1953 the Council was divided into a Right and a Left Bloc, the Left headed by Ferenc Nagy, Zoltan Pfeiffer and Karoly Peyer and the Right by Tibor Eckhardt. The Left appeared to predominate. The Council avoided close contact with the rightist military elements of the emigration, with the exception of Tibor Eckhardt who was a member of the MHBK. Currently efforts are in process to unify the various emigre� factions, although without much hope of succes0. The Councills center of activity is in New York; little information concern- ing the activities or personnel of its Munich branch is available. Hennyey is a former career officer in the Hungarian Army. He was arrested by the Germans after the Szalasi coup. He has been very active in welfare work among Hungarian emigres. He has no known political affil- iation. 2. League of Hungarian Veterans Collegial Society of Hun_garian Veterans Friendship Circle of Hungarian Veterans (Magyar garcosok Bajtars Kozossege - MHBK) /2/ Headquarters: Innsbruck Munich (German section) 28 SCRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Membership: Officials: Chief: (1956) Executive Committee: (1951) Aims: An estimated 1,000-4,000 members in West Germany, former members of the Hungarian armed forces. Small full-time working group appears mostly to be composed of young former officers. Gen. Andras Zako Ervin Gevay, adjutant Miklos Korponay, liaison* Bela Benko, personnel Lajos Nadas, registrar Laszlo Hory, propaganda Zahonyi, counter-intelligence Attila Kovacs, intelligence** Gyorgy Ujszaszy, finance Bela Almay, representative (US)* Bela Janik, representative (France) Ferenc Koszorus, representative (US)* Gyula Kovach, representative Germany Bela Lengyel, representative Germany Hugo Sonyi, representative (England)* Istvan Tolgyessy, representative (US) Jossef Vasvary, representative (Germany) Stated aims of MHBK are: the maintenance of an anti-Communist underground, acquisi- tion of intelligence concerning Soviet troops in Hungary and political and econ- omic activities of the Hungarian regime, counter-intelligence against Communists among refugees, compilation and dissemina- tion of information about Soviet violations of human rights. Characteristics: MHBK is an outgrowth of World War II Hun- garian resistance and intelligence organi- zation (Kopjes Mozgalom) formed under German supervision. General Zako, then chief of G-2 of the Hungarian General Staff, was responsible for its creation. Leaders and members of the organization fled west before the advancing Soviet armies and surrendered to US forces in Germany and Austria. From 1945 until 1948 Generals Zako and Kisbarnaki-Farkas were interned by the US Army. During this period Zako contacted other military exiles and in 1949 the first manifesto of the MHBK was issued. * Individual has left the organization or there is o his current membership. ** Deceased. 29 SECRET about � (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Activities of the MHBK include welfare, search for prisoners of war, disseminating information to emigres and collecting information pertaining to Hungary and the emigration (including material losses), cooperation with social and cultural organi- zations and unpolitical emigre movements. Zak() has called his organization unpolitical, however its leadership appears to have a pronounced rightist or fascistic orientation. In the fundamental cleavage in the Hungarian emigration between the "moderate" and "rightist" elements, the MHBK is ranged against the Hungarian National Council, the principal organization of the more demo- cratic elements. It is however more moder- ate than the extreme neo-Nazis among the emigration, who would prefer to have Gen. Farkas head of the organization. Internal tension and the need for external financial and political support have been a constant threat to Zako's position. In the maneuvering among exile groups he ap- peared to have allied himself with Arch- duke Otto and Admiral Horthy and to have maintained his leadership of the organiza- tion. During the Hungarian uprising, he was reported to have said that the MHBK was making preparations for infiltrating from Austria into Hungary to fight with the Nationalists. He claimed promises of arms supplies from Italy and Spain. Within the framework of the "Working Com- munity of the German and Hungarian Sol- diers" established between the MHBK and the German Veterans League, a number of former German generals were named as honorary members of the MHBK. They are: Gottfried Hansen, ex-Admiral, Presidium of the Deutscher Soldatenbund, Bavaria; Otto Stapf, ex-General (infantry), Presidium of the Deutscher Soldatenbund, Bavaria; Hans Friesner, ex-Colonel-General; Rudolf Konrad, ex-General (mountain infantry); Hans Kraner, ex-General (armor). Publications: Hadak Titian (The Martial Way), monthly magazine. Edited by Lajos Szilagyi, Ohlmuellerstrasse 15/III Rgb., Munich 9. Tajekortato, a bulletin. 3. The Hunzarian Liberty (Freedom) Movement (Magyar Szabadsag Mozgalom - MSzMr) Headquarters: Munich Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Gen. Ferenc Farkas-Kisbarnak Prof. Dr. W. von Szepesvaraljay-Haendl Dr. Istvan Martonffy 30 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Membership: Characteristics: Publication: Estimated 400 in the Federal Republic. Organized by Gen. Farkas at the same time as MHBK. Originally a joint platform existed between this organization and MHBK, however, increasing rivalry between them led to a complete rupture. Affiliated with the ABN and reportedly has contacts with French military circles, especially those sympathetic with De Gaulle. Its link with ABN has made it unpopular with some Hungarian exiles who dislike ABN1s Slav leadership, its use of terroristic methods, and the fact that it appears to favor a dictatorship for the future. Gen. Farkas, about 67 years old, commanded the Sixth Hungarian Army Corps on the Eastern Front during World War II. Later he was in charge of evacuation operations in which capacity he reached Germany and was interned by the Allies. He appears to be the Hungarian neo-Nazi candidate for leadership of the military elements of the emigration. Abn Hirado - organ of MSzM and ABNis Hun- garian section. 4. Hungarian Supreme Defense Council (Magyar Legfelsoob Honvedelmi Tanacs) Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: Munich - Regensburg Field Marshal Archduke Josef von Hapsburg General Farkas General Zako Captain Ender Apostaghy Characteristics: Established in 1954 as an effort to unite the military elements of the Hungarian emigration under the leadership of Arch- duke Josef in opposition to the Hungarian National Council and the military groups responsive to the leadership of Admiral Horthy. 5. Hungarian Student Headquarters: President: League 11/ Munich Geza Soos* * Probably identical with the Rev. Geza Soos, leader of the Hun- garian Reformed Federation of America and editor of U.J. Magyar Ut (New Hungarian Way), formerly a rightist publication, now published in Washington and apparently supported by the Hungarian Reformed Federation of America. 31 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Characteristics: Non-sectarian youth organization based on Hungarian nationalist principles. Re- portedly a rival of the Hungarian Catholic Student League for student allegiance. Soli Deo Gloria Lk./ Headquarters: President: Characteristics: Munich Geza Soos* Successor to the Calvinist student organiza- tion which had existed in Hungary. Its relations with the Hungarian Catholic Stu- dent League are reported to be strained be- cause Of religious differences. 7. Hungarian Cultural Society :DI Headquarters: Munich 8. Hungarian Welfare Service 1.61 Headquarters: Munich 9. Association of Huuarian Craftsmen, Businessmen, and Industrialists, e.V. Headquarters: Munich Publication: Mitteilungen (Information Bulletin) 10. Other Hungarian Emigre Publications LIE_31 a. Fold Es Nepe (T17 Soil and Its People) b. Harangzo (The Peal of Bells) c. Hun aria (Hungary) d. Ifju Nemzedek (Y37Ing Generation e. Jojjetek (Come) Monthly magazine of the Hungarian Christian Popular Movement, headed by Msgr. Kovi-Horvath. Predominantly conservative, rightist, and nationalist in opinion. Published weekly in Munich by Zoltan Makra. Described as most widely read emigre paper with a circulation of 10,000. Youth magazine, appearing monthly. ) Edited by Gabor Horvath (1951). Published monthly by the Hungarian- Evangelical Reformed Church. Also reported as published in Innsbruck, editor: Andras Harsanyi (1953). * Probably identical with the Rev. Geza Soos, leader of the -Hungarian Reformed Federation of America and editor of III Magyar Ut (New Hungarian Way), formerly a rightist publ-rdation, now published in Washington and apparently supported by the. Hungarian Reformed Federation of America. 32 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Mykhayle Veskebiynyk, Minister of Press and Information Mykola Khrobak, Minister without Portfolio Alexander Yurchenko, Secretary Characteristics: The legislative organ of the exile Ukrainian National Republic, the UN Rada, is regarded by many Ukrainians as the actual government in exile. When the Ukrainian National Republic was reactivated in 1948 in Western Germany it was recognized by practically all political exiles. In 1950 the Council was split by the decision of the organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and Revolutionaries - Bandera group (OUNR) to quit the Council. According to information dated 1955 the Council is made up of Left, Center and Right blocs. The Left bloc consists of four Socialist parties: the Ukrainian Social Democratic Worker's Party (Ukrainska Sotsial Demokratichna Robitnicnya Partia - USDRP); Ukrainian Party of Social Revolu- tionaries (Ukrainska Partia Sotsialistiv Revolyntsioneriv - UPSR); Ukrainian Socialist Radical Party (Ukrainska Sotsial- istichna - Radikalna - Parti - USRP); and the Ukrainian Revolutionary Democratic Party (Ukrainska Revolyntsiino Demokratichan Partia - URDP). After World War II, the first three, which had existed since 1917, united to form the Committee of Ukrainian Socialists (Ukrainski Sotsialistichni Obednannya US0), a single party, also known as the Union of Ukrainian Socialists (SUS). The party follows Kautsky and Bebel rather than Marx. It holds six of the 36 seats in the UN Rada. The fourth party, the URDP, is an exile party founded in Neu Ulm in 1946. It represents the Eastern Ukrainian element of the emi- gration and attempts to preserve some aspects of the Soviet Union political, social, and economic structure and to reconcile them with the objectives of the established emigre parties. Suspicion has been reported that there was Communist influence in establishing the Party. The URDP split in 1947 into Right (Neu Ulm) group and the more socialist Left ("Vpered") or Regensburg group. The Center bloc is composed of two parties: the Ukrainian National State Association (Ukrainski Natsionalno Derzhovni Sovuz - INDS) and the United National Democratic Union (Ukrainska Natsionalno Demokratitschne Obedn4nnya - UNDO). Both parties are small, but, because both contain experienced polit- ical leaders, are influential among the emigration. Leader of the UNDS in 1955 3)4 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET was thought to be Mykolo Livitskiy, son of former UNR President Andrei Livitskiy and in 1954 Vice Chairman and Foreign Minister of the UN Rada. In 1950-52 the leaders of the UNDO were reported to be: Dr. Vasyl Mudry; Dr. Stepan Wytwytski, President of the UNR; Stanlo Kalba; Dr. Lubomyr Makarushka, member of the Presidium. The Right bloc consists of the faction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) headed by Andrei Melnyk (OUNM). Melnykls group is further to the right than that of Bandera with whom he broke in 1940. Its followers stress private prop- erty, private agriculture, artisan manu- facture and trade. OUNM is opposed to Russian emigre parties but participates with other Ukrainian parties in the UN Rada where it holds six seats. In an internal struggle, OUNM at the close of the Third Congress of the Council in 1954 refused to participate in the Executive Committee. The question was finally solved by making Osyp Boydunyk, of the OUNM, chairman of the Presidium of the National Council, a largely honorary figure. In addition there are two peasant parties and a "Group of Constructive Forces," led by Prokupchuk. As of reports dated 1954, their position was not clear but they apparently belonged with the Center group. The largest, the Ukrainian Peas- ant Party, led by Prof. Volodymyr Dolenko, consisting mainly of young emigres from the Eastern Ukraine, appeared to be one of the strongest emigre parties. Principal problem of the Rada is coopera- tion with Russian exile groups as pro- posed by the American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism. This has been favored by some Council members (Livitskiy, Voskoviynyk, Dovgal) and op- posed by others (OUNM and URDP) who fear that Ukrainian interests would be by- passed in favor of Russian claims. As of 1954, the Rada indicated that it was will- ing to participate in radio propaganda and in the Institute for the Study of Culture and History of the USSR provided it would not be bound by the political proposals of the American Liberation Com- mittee. Publications: Ukrainski Visti (Ukrainian News), four- page)h-weT7T7�with estimated circulation of 8,000 copies. Edited by A. Romashko (assistant editor, M. Voskoviynynk); pub- lished at Ludwigstrasse 10, Neu Ulm. Or- gan of the Neu-Ulm group of the Ukrainian Revolutionary Democratic Party. 35 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Vpered (Forward), organ of the Left wing or Regensburg group of the URDP. Issued irregularly, appears approximately once a month. Editor is B. Livitskiy, assistant editor Ivan Maistrenko, Postschleissfach 22, Munich 25. Circulation is reported to be 3,000 copies. 2. Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and Revolutionaries - Bandera (OUNR or OUNB) 22/ Headquarters: Zeppelinstrasse 67, Munich 8 Executive Com- mittee:(1954) Characteristics: Stepan Bandera Jaroslaw Stetzko Stepan Lankawskyj Jaroslaw Bencal Group under the leadership of Stepan Bandera which split from the parent Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) in about 1940. However both groups (OUNR and OUNM, led by Melnyk)advocate permanent revolution against Communist or foreign occupation of the Ukraine. Both are totalitarian in ideology. The OUNR considers itself the sole legitimate party. It desires collabor- ation with other anti-Communist national elements rather than with the Western powers as advocated by OUNM. Bandera and Stetzko founded the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations (ABN) in an attempt to con- tact and influence all Soviet emigres. In 1949 OUNR became a member of the Na- tional Council, but withdrew the follow- ing year. Dissension within the OUNR developed as early as 1943. It involved not only members of OUNR but also members of the foreign representation of the Ukrainian Supreme Council of Liberation (ZP UHVR), a body established in about 1944 to unify and coordinate all Ukrainian liberation forces on a worldwide basis, who dis- approved of Bandera's assumption of absolute power (at the time UHVR was founded, OUNR was announced as its politi- cal arm). The controversy grew until in 1954 a definte schism between Bandera and the ZP UHVR (Rebet-Matla group) divided the emigration. OUNR, at least in Munich, appears to con- trol the Ukrainian Partisan Army (UPA), an organization of military exiles who engaged in partisan activity against the Germans and Russians during World War 36 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 , Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Publications: Dozbroi (To Arms). Appears irregularly, approximately once every two or three months. Founded in 1947 as a military- political journal devoted to military questions and the activities of the UPA in the Ukraine. Edited by Bohdan Krynitskiy, Postfach 4, Munich 38. Surma (Trumpet). Monthly party organ of OUNR, intended for internal distribution only. Publishes mainly political polemics. Shl ak Peremohy (Way to Victory). Edited y Jaroslaw Bencal. Ukrainian Supreme Council of Liberation (UHVR) Headquarters: Karlsplatz 8/III, Munich 2 Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Dr. Hrynioch Volodymyr Stachiv Dr. Rebet Dana Rebet Dr. Lubomyr Ortynskyi Characteristics: Appears to have been founded in 1944 by leaders of UPA and OUN in the Ukraine as the supreme governing body in the Ukraine and Ukrainians in exile. It is in opposi- tion to the Ukrainian National Republic and its National Council for this role. At its foundation, UPA was announced as its military arm and OUNR as the political organ. It has its own representation for foreign affairs (ZP UHVR) which has been engaged in a struggle for power with Bandera. Publication: Suchasna Ukraina (Ukraine Today). A bi- weekly, edited by Volodymyr Stachiv. Paper has a claimed circulation of 1,000 copies, a considerable number of which are said to be distributed in the United States and Canada. Ukrainian Veterans Association (UVA) L3.21 Headquarters: Neu Ulm Characteristics: Appears to be dominated by the older mili- tary exiles. Has a Central Executive Committee in Bavaria, a Central Executive Committee of European Union in Paris and branches throughout the world. Opposed to OUNR. 5. Brotherhood of Former Soldiers of the First Ukrainian Division of the Ukrainian National Army IL/ Leaders: (1951) Chaplain Mikhail Levynez Col. Pobihuschtschiy Capt. Bohdan Pidayniy Capt. Efrem Schypaylo Publication: Visti (News) 37 SECRET I( Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 6. Ukrainian Free Cossacks 8/..j[ Headquarters: Munich Leaders: (1951) General Diomid Gulyai Inspector I, Zapko Characteristics: Theoretically independent, it is influenced somewhat by the exile Socialists. In 1951 became a participating member of the newly organized Ukrainian Liberation Movement. Ukrainian Liberation Movement _eL51 Founded: 1951 Leaders: (1951) General Diomid Gulyai V. Zolotarenko, secretary Characteristics: Anti-Communist pro-Russian organization. Coordinating center for six emigre organi- zations: Republican Cossack Movement, Ukrainian Free Cossacks, Ukrainian Demo- cratic Party of Wuertemberg, Association of Ukrainian Agrarians, Ukrainian People's Movement, Ukrainian Democratic Union, which were probably created in 1951 by Ukrainians who were already members of Russian emigre groups. Member organizations reported favorably inclined to cooperate with American Committee for Liberation. Because of pro-Russian attitude is in opposition to UN Rada and the OUNR. Publications: Byuleten Ukrainskogo Vizvolnogo Rukhu (Bulletin) Published in Munich. Nova Ukrayna (New Ukraine). Published in Munich. Ukrainski Demokrat (Ukrainian Democrat) 8. Free Ukrainian Academy of Sciences .8_6.1 Location: Augsburg Founded: 1945 Characteristics: Founded by emigre intellectuals as cen- ter for Ukrainian scientists and students. 9. Ge qan-Ukrainian Herder Society fr_31/ Headquarters: Munich Founded: Officers: (1955) 1954 ErWin Mittich, President Ivan Mirtshuk, Deputy President Dr. Hans Koch, Honorary President 38 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Characteristics: A cultural organization established to improve German-Ukrainian relations. Re- ported to have probably received support from the Federal Republic government through von Mende. 10. Other Ukrainian Emigre Publications L3'1/ a. Llz Shche Povernemos (We Shall Yet Return) b. Tserkovnyya Vedomosti (Church Gazette), published in Munich-Bogenhausen by the Orthodox Church in Germany. c. Za Svobodnuyu Rodinu (For the Freedom of the Motherland) H. Emigres From USSR, Including the Caucasus and Central Asia 1. Coordination Center for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia (Koordinazionny Tsentr oswoboschedenija narodow Rossii - KTsONR) Bloc of National Federalists; League for the Liberation of the Peoples of the Soviet Union (LVNSS) Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Aims: Josephsplatz 6/III, Munich 13 Prof. Sergej Melgunov, (Paris), Chairman Prof. Ivan Kurganov, (New York), Vice Chairman Coordination of political emigration from the USSR in the anti-Bolshevist struggle. Characteristics: KTsONR evolved from the Coordinating Center of the Anti-Bolshevik Struggle (KTsAB) which originated in Munich in 1952 and which later in 1953 split into two groups, KTsAB and the Paris Bloc (MAKTS). Founded in an effort to construct an instrumentality through which the Ameri- can Committee for the Liberation for Bol- shevism could work with emigre groups, KTsAB split as the result of the dissension over the treatment and future status of the minority groups within the USSR, and in 1953 ACLB terminated its financial sup- port. In September 1954, the Coordinating Center changed its name to KTsONR (Coor- dinating Center for Liberation of the Peoples of Russia) emphasizing the pro- Russian character of the organization. Member Organi- zations of KTsONR: (1955) Azerbaijan National Union Belorussian Democratic Union Kalmyk Committee for the Struggle Against Bolshevism 39 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412, Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Crimean Tatar Anti-Bolshevik Union Committee of United Followers of Vlassov Union of Armenian Fighters for Freedom Union of Ukrainian Federalists and Democrats Russian National Movement North Caucasian Anti-Bolshevik National Union Union of Warriors of the Liberation Movement Tatar-Bashkir Committee Ukrainian Liberation Movement Central Union of Postwar Emigres Subsequently the Azerbaijan National Union and the Armenian Fighters for Freedom with- drew. In September 1955, KTsONR was dis- banded but at the same time its members, except the Union for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia, the United Vlaso- vites and the Kalmyk Committee, met and reorganized as the Bloc of National Federalists. The new organization was reportedly founded by NTS initiative. At approximately the same time the members of the Paris Bloc met in Munich and or- ganized a new alignment, the League for the Liberation of the Peoples of the Soviet Union. The organizing conference was attended by represcntatives of emigres from Azerbaijan, Belorussia, Armenia, Georgia, Idel-Ural, North Caucasia, Turkestan and the Ukraine. A Georgian,_ N. K. Tsintsadze, was chosen as-the " League's program director. 2. National Representation of the Russian Emigration (Nazionalnoje predstawitelstwo rossiiskoi emigrazii - NAZPRE) Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Characteristics: Prinzregentenplatz 14/III, Munich 8 Feodor T. Lebedev, Chairman Founded as opposition group to ZPRE (see below). Emphasis on social and cultural interests and legal aid. In 1950 re- ported to have 7,500 members. Now be- lieved to be greatly reduced in numbers and activity. 4o SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Central Representation of the Russian Emigration (Zentralnoje predstawitelstwo russkoi emigrazii - ZPRE) .22/ Headquarters: Pienzenauerstrasse 30, Munich 27 Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Fabricius von Fabrice, Chairman Arziuk* Jonin* Mossitschkin* Characteristics: Activities mainly social, cultural; issues so-called "national passports." Dominated by radical rightist elements. Reported to have branch offices in Stuttgart and Cologne. 4. Russian National Popular Movement (RONDD) Russian Pan-National People's Movement; All-Russian People's State Movement Headquarters: Pienzenauerstrasse 30, Munich 27 Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Arziuk Jonin Characteristics: Radical-rightist, anti-Semitic, Great Russian. Publication: Nabat (Alarm), monthly periodical. Fighting League for the Liberation of the Peoples of Russia Union of the Struggle for the Freedom of Russia (Sojus borby sa oswoboschdenije narodow Rossii - SBONR) Headquarters: Munich Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Characteristics: 'Publications: Michail Antonov Membership consists of World War II emi- grants. Anti-Marxist. state for future. Advocates federal Gobs Naroda (Voice of the People); ap- pears irregularly. Borby (Struggle) Narodnaya Volya (People's Freedom) 6. Association of Fighters of the Liberation Movement (Sojus woinow oswoboditelnowo dwischenija - SWOD) .21/ Headquarters: New York Munich is center of activities. * Reported also to compose the Executive Committee of the "Patriotic Front," a roof organization of Russian emigre groups, most of which are said to be fictitious. "Patriotic Front" characterized as anti-Semitic, neo-fascist, radical rightist. 41 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Characteristics: Feodor Aromov, Chairman of Munich group Small membership throughout world all of whom also are members of SBONR. Committee of United Vassov Followers (Komitet Obyedinennych Vlassovzew - KOV) 94/ Headquarters: Regerplatz 9, Munich Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Characteristics: Turkul, Baron v. Wolff To some extent a continuation of the tra- dition of the "Whites" in Russian civil war. Membership also includes more recent emigration. Advocates federalist state. Has membership groups in the US. Publication: Dobrowolez (The Volunteer), monthly; re- ported to be distributed abroad also. 8. Central Association of Post-War Emigrants .2./ (Tsentralnoye Obyedineniye Posle-Voyennich Emigratov iz USSR - TSOPE) Headquarters: Founded: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Characteristics: Gaiglstrasse 25, Munich November 1952 Grigorij Klimov Pro-Vlasovism, anti-Marxism. Reported to have good connections with West German government. Organizes demonstrations, propaganda and leaflet actions. Publication: Der Anti-Kommunist, German language maga- zine published in Munich and Berlin. Editor is Theodor Arnold. Editorial staff: Gisela Achminov, Gregory Danilow, Michail Dziuba, Igor Kronsas. Munich address: 25 Gaiglstrasse. Kolokol (The Bell) 9. National Labor Union of Solidarists (NTS) - Munich group 2g National Working Association Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Frankfurt/Main; dissident group in Munich. Poremsky Okolovich Artyemov Baidalakov Characteristics: Great Russian. Aims to overthrow Bolshevism by means of a revolution from the inside. Engages in propaganda activities beyond the Iron Curtain including leaflet and bal- loon actions and radio. Dissident faction led 42 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET by Baidalakov, Evstafy Mamukov, Evegeny Posdeev, Girogy Kiverov, reported in 1955 to have established itself in Munich. Dissident group was estimated to be from 10 to 50 per cent of membership. Publication: Za Rossiyu published by RIA, Information Agency, Munich, Destonsche- strasse 2, for the Munich faction of NTS. Should not be confused with publication of the same name published by parent Poremsky- Romanov.NTS group in Frankfurt. . 10. National Union of Russian Jurists , ,(Natsionalnoye Obyedinenie Russikikh Yuristov) 271 Headquarters: Characteristics: Pienzenauerstrasse 30, Munich Has same address as that of RONDD (see above). Probably exists only on paper. 11. Islam-Moslem Society for Social Welfare Moslem Religious Society Islam (Muselmanlarin Bati Avropad aid "Islam" Camiyeti) 2.8j Headquarters: Founded: Officers: (1955) Chairman: Vice Chair- man: Secretary: Advisory Coun- cil: (1955) Munich 1952 Ibrahim Gashioglu, Caucasian Salich Sabanovic, Albanian Sabiv Ischembet, Turkestani Chromalic Hamid, Balkan Achmet Magoma, Caucasian Garip Sultan, Tartar-Bashkir Aman Berdimurat, Turkestani Muraz Oroys, Caucasian Derwisch Abdulhanin, Krim-Tartar Characteristics: Social welfare activities for Moslem emigres from USSR and the Balkans. 12. National Turkestanian Unity Committee (NTUC) .2.2/ Headquarters: Duesseldorf; branch office in Munich. Executive Com- mittee: (1953-54) Veli Kayum Khan, President Dr. Baymirza Hayit, organization and research H. Teshabay, business 43 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Munich Branch: Characteristics: 13. National Kurban Sonat, President A. Halmatoglu K. Egamkul Rusican Dekambay Sattarali Babazada Nasaroglu Organization of extreme nationalists who advocate dismemberment of Soviet empire and complete independence of Turkestan. Prob- ably consists of 300-400 active members. Strongest support comes from Uzbek and Tadzhik membership. Branches in Middle East and South Asia where Turkestan colonies exist. Kayum Khan chairman of the political department of ABN. Monthly magazine, Millij Turkestan, published in Duesseldorf in English, Turkish and Arabic, although some doubt that it is still appearing. Turkestan Liberation Committee - "Turkeli" 100/ Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Characteristics: Publication: Munich Karis Kanatsay Small organization consisting of possibly several hundred members. Anti-Communist; will cooperate with other anti-Communist groups if principle of self-determination for Turkestan is accepted. Has relations with emigre groups in Pakistan and the United States. Cooperates with American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism and has several members employed at Radio Liberation and the Munich Institute. In 1953 organization split by ideological quarrel over cooperation with the Russians. Those opposed formed secessionist group (also called "Turkeli") led by Aman Berdimurat. Turkeli (Turkish Homeland), monthly maga- zine, published in Munich in Turkish and Russian. 14. Byelorussian National Committee Byelorussian National Center 101/ Headquarters: Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Characteristics: Publication: New York. Branch offices in West Germany. Mikola Abramczyk, Chief forFederal Republic Dr. St. Stankiewicz, Munich Advocates independence for Byelorussia; moderate attitude towards Russians. Oriented toward Catholic Church. Reported to be financed by Americans and the Vatican. Cooperates with Radio Liberation and the Munich Institute. Backauscyna 44 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 15. Byelorussian Central Council 102/ Headquarters: Munich Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Prof. Ostrowsky Polikarp Mankov Characteristics: Advocates independence for Byelorussia. Oriented toward Orthodox Church. Member of ABN. Publication: Belorusskoye Slovo (The Byelorussian.Word) 16. Supreme Cossack Representation 103/ Headquarters: Frauenstrasse 11, Munich Executive Com- mittee: (1954) Vassile Glaskov Membership: Estimated 3,000 members throughout the world; several hundred in Federal Republic. Characteristics: Advocates autonomy and separation from the USSR for the Cossack people. Member of DEU. Publication: Kazakiy Vestnik (Cossack Messenger) 17. Cossack National Liberation Movement 104/ Headquarters: Munich Executive Com- mittee: (1954) N. Moltschanov Characteristics: Right wing group. Member of ABN. Publication: Kazakiya (Cossacks' Land) 18. Georgian Political and Cultural Union 1_1W Headquarters: Munich Organized: 1955 Leaders: (1955) Mikhail Tseretelli Kalistrat Salia Alexander Manvilishvili David Vatchnadze Mikhail Alshibaya Nikolai Nakashidze Grigol Robakidze Vladimir Tshomelidze Characteristics: Advocates Georgian independence. Dedicated to preserving and publicizing Georgian culture and history. Leaders in general are of rightist orientation. 45 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 19. Georgian National Committee 106/ Headquarters: Munich Executive Board: (1951) Mikhail Tseretelli Alexander Kordzaya David Vatchnadze Mosse Immaischvili Alexander Somaja (Tsomaia?) Nikolai Nakashidze Mikhail Alshibaya Characteristics: Post World War II organization of some rightist elements including some which had participated in German sponsored National Committee organization of World War II. Branches were reported to exist in France and the United States but they do not ap- pear to have been important. Advocates union of all Caucasian states in a federa- tion allied with a Turkestani national state; opposes Russian imperialism. 20. Union of Georgians - Demetrashvili group 127./ Georgian Society Headquarters: Munich Leader: (1956) A. Demetrashvili Characteristics: Anti-Marxist. Opposed to Georgian National Committee. Publication: Vera Nadezhda i Lyubov (Faith, Hope and Love) 21. Azerbaijani Committee of National Union Azerbaijan National Committee (Azerbaidzhan-Milli Birlick Meglisi) 108/ Headquarters: Munich Organized: 1948 Characteristics: Founded by group led by Fatalibeyli, Ismail Akber, Muraz Oroys and Mecit Musazade as part of the effort to organize new emigration under the sponsorship of Gerhard von Mende and reportedly certain British interests. Quarrels among leader- ship disrupted group; reported still in existence in 1954 but status unknown. 22. Azerbaijani National Union 109/ Headquarters: Munich Leader: (1956) Col. Mohammed M. Sadyk Characteristics: Splinter group; joined KTsAB, but with- drew in 1955 on grounds KTsAB accepted Marxist elements and groups having pre- determinist and separatist policy. Advocates "federalist" concept. Too pro-Russian to attract many of emigration. 46 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 23. North Caucasian National Committee .110/ Headquarters: Leaders: (1956) Characteristics: Munich Achmed Nabi Magoma Alikhan Kantemir Grew out of German sponsored National Com- mittee of World War II and pre-War federa- tionist movement. Affiliated with North Caucasian National Center in Istanbul. Has representatives with North Caucasian emigre groups throughout the world. Immediately after World War II was a member of ABN, but withdrew in 1953 as a protest against auto- cratic policies of Stetzko. Magoma was leading figure in formation of Caucasian National Committee (Committee for Caucasian Independence),a rightist Caucasian bloc in which North Caucasians played dominant role. Magoma and Kantemir represented the North Caucasians at conference in Munich at which LVNSS was organized. 24. North Caucasian National Union Oevernoye Kavkazskoye Natsional,noye Obedineniye - SKANO) 2.11/ Headquarters: Munich Leader: (1956) Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov-Kunta Characteristics: North Caucasian center bloc of emigres. Member of KTsAB from which it broke in 1953 in dispute over independence of minority nationalities. Joined Paris Bloc. Organization split in 1953. Dis- sident group, led by Sefedin Omar, organ- ized North Caucasian Anti-Bolshevist Na- tional Union which joined KTsAB. Leader of dissident group in 1954 was Kubatiev (see below). Publication: Svobodny Kavkaz (Free Caucasus), published in Munich by North Caucasian Anti-Bolshevik National Union. 25. Caucasian Populist Movement (Kavkazskoye Narodnoye Dvizheniye - KND) 112/ Headquarters: Munich Executive Com- mittee: (1951) Lazar Bicherakov, Chairman Sizhazkev, Vice Chairman Kubatiev, Secretary General A. Gaidar I. Shakhi M. Khuako M. Kopov M. Tozat O. Makoyev Korbut SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Characteristics: Publications: No recent information on this organization. It appears probable that it has dissolved. Kavakszski Narodnik (Caucasian Populace), issued irregularly in Munich. 26. Other Emigre Publications 113/ a. Literaturniy Sovremennik, published in Munich by the Fund for Intellectual Freedom. b. Russakay Ideya (Russian Idea) C. Svoboda (Freedom), published in Munich by the Post-War Defectors from the Soviet Union. d. Volya (Freedom), published in Munich by the Union of Former Political Prisoners from the USSR. e. Milli Balrak (National Flag), published in Munich by the Turkestan Council of National Unity Idel-Ural. f. Milli Hurriyet (National Freedom), printed in Munich in Turkish by the Free Caucasus press. Appears irregularly. Purpose to combat the Soviet re-defection campaign. Describes itself as non-party, representing emigres from the Caucasus, Turkestan, and Tartary. 48 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET APPENDIX A List of Expellee Organizations and Institutions in Munich 11 A. Home Associations (Landsmannschaften) 1. Home Association (Landsmannschaft Wartheland) Speaker: (Former Speakers: Administrative Officer: Publication: Weichsel-Warthe Federal Union der Deutschen aus dem Weichsel - und Prof. Dr. Hans Koch, Munich Georg Kowala, Dr. Johannes Scholz) Horst Boltz Stimmen aus dem Osten, information bulle- tin, AaniFiTT77, Harvestehuderweg 26c 2. Sudeten German Home Association (Sudetendeutsche landsmannschaft) Headquarters: Chairman: Speaker: Administrative Officer: Publication: Munich 2, Karlsplatz 11/II Frank Seiboth Dr. Rudolf Lodgman von Auen (office of the speaker: Bonn, Poppelsdorfer Allee 15) Dr. Paul Illing Sudetqndeutsche Zeitung Home Association of Banat Swabians from Rumania in Germany (LandsmannsChaft der Banater Schwabien aus Rumanien in Deutschland) Headquarters: President: Speaker: Administrative Chairman: Administrative Officer: Publication: Munich 15, Schmellerstrasse 16 (Gasthof "Alpenrose") Anton Valentin Peter Ludwig, Augsburg 2, Burgermeister- Fischer Strasse 5 Hans Diplich, Munich 15, Schubertstrasse 2 Fritz A. Hack Suedost-Echo, Munich 22, Reitmorstrasse 31 also the publication of the Bucovinian and Transylvanian Saxon Germans) A-1 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 - Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Home Association of German Resettlers from Bucovina (Landsmannschaft der deutschen Umsiedler aus der Bukowina or Landsmannschaft der Buchenlanddeutschen) Headquarters: Founded: Chairman: Speaker: Administrative Officer: Publication: Home Association (Landsmannschaft Headquarters: Chairman: Speaker: Administrative Officer: Publication: Munich 22, Himmelreichstrasse 3 October 1949 in Munich. A similar organi- zation exists in Graz, Austria. Dipl. Ing. Jacob Jelinek (Dr. Hans Watzlawik) Dr. Rudolf Wagner Dr. (fnu) Pawlick Suedost-Echo, Munich 22, Reitmorstrasse 31 (also the publication of the Transylvanian Saxon and Banat Swabian Germans) of Transylvanian Saxons in Germany der Siebenbuerger Sachsen in Deutschland, e.V.) Munich 22, Himmelreichstrasse 3 Dr. Heinrich Zillich, Starnberg a. See/066., Fischhaberstrasse 15/11 Erwin Tittes, Munich 22, Reitmorstrasse 31/11 Karl Schoenauer Suedost-Echo, Munich 22, Reitmorstrasse 31 (also the publication of the Bucovinian and Banat Swabian Germans) 6. Home Association of Germans from Hungary (Landsmannschaft der Deutschen aus Ungarn) Headquarters: Chairman: (Former Chairman: Speaker: Administrative Officer: Publication: Munich 22, Himmelreichstrasse Dr. Georg Bleyer Dr. Ludwig Leber) Heinrich Reitinger Franz Hergenroeder 3 Suedost-Stimmen; Unsere Post, Stuttgart-S, Neckarstrasse 222. The Hungarian Lands- mannschaft also has a section in Suedost- Echo. B. Home Associations State Branches (Landsmannschaften) 1. Sudeten German Home Association (Sudetendeutsche Lands- mannschaft) Landesverband (BAVARIA) Ex-Chairman: Dr. Rudolf Lodgman von Auen (also Speaker of Landsmannschaft) A-2 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET Chairman: Ex-Col. Rudolf Gertler (Deputy Chairman of Landsmannschaft; successor to Lodgman as Chairman of Landesverband) Membership: More than 180,000; largest of the Landes:- verbaende. 2. Silesian Home Association (Landsmannschaft Schlesien) Landesverband (BAVARIA) Chairman: Dr. Herbert Hupka C. Scientific-Cultural. Societies and Institutions of Expellees/Refugees 1. Central Committee of Refugees and Expellees (Hauptausschuss der Fluechtlinge und Ausgewiesene) Headquarters: Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 109 2. Adalbert Stifter Society (Adalbert-Stifter Verein) Headquarters: Munich 22, Ludwigstrasse 14 Chairman: Count (fnu) Kinsky Administrative Officer: Dr. (fnu) von Herzogenberg (female) 3. Southeast German Cultural Center (Sddostdeutsches Kulturwerk) Headquarters: Munich 22, Ludwigstrasse 14 Chairman: Franz Hamm (Church President) k. Cultural Association of liome-Expellees on Confessional Basis (Kulturelle Verbaende der Heimatvertriebenen auf konfes- sioneller Basis) Headquarters: Munich 23, Beichstrasse I Chairman: Hans Schuetz, member of Bundestag Administrative Officer: (fnu) Kunzmann 5. Friends of the Eichendorf Guild (Freunde der Eichendorfgilde) Headquarters: Munich 23, Beichstrasse I Chairman: (fnu) Possel, Minister or Priest Administrative Officer: Dr. (fnu) Jakiel, editor 6. Southeast German Catholic Study Group (Arbeitskreis Sudostdeutscher Katholiken or Katholische Arbeitsstelle/Sued/fur Heimatsvertriebene) Headquarters: Munich 23, BeichstrasseI Chairman: Dr. Ludwig Leber, Stuttgart-N, Neckar- strasse 222 A-3 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 I Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412' SECRET D. Youth, Religious and Welfare Organizations 1. Center for Home-Expellee German Catholic Youth (Aktion heimatvertriebener deutschen katholischer Jugend) Headquarters: Munich 23, Beichstrasse I Chairman of Munich Branch: (fnu) Hackenberg, Frankfurt/Main, Unterweg 10 2. Catholic Center (South) for Home-Expellees (Katholische Arloeitsstelle (Sud) fuer Heimatvertriebene) Headquarters: Munich 15, Schubertstrasse 2 Director: Dr. Peter Sladek Convent of Dispersed East Evangelical Churches (Konvent der zerstreuten evang. Ostkirchen) Headquarters: Hannover, Andreasestrasse 2A Chairman: Franz Hamm, lay church president, Lengsdorf bei Bonn, Im Ellig 3 Auxiliary Committees: a. for the Resettlers from Bucovina (fuer die Umsiedler aus der Bukowina) Headquarters: Munich, Himmelreichstrasse 3 Chairman: Edgar Mueller b. of the Transylvanian Saxons and Banat Swabians (der Siebenbuerger Sachsen und Banater Schwaben) Headquarters: Munich 22, Himmelreichstrasse 3 Chairman: Prof. Dr. Erich Roth Administrative Officer: Dr. (fnu) Alberti c. of the Evangelical Germans from Hungary (des deutschen Evangelischen aus Ungarn) Headquarters: Munich 22, Himmelreichstrasse 3 Chairman: P. Friedrich Spiegel-Schmidt, pastor Administrative Officer: Heinrich Reitinger 4. Church-Sponsored Missing Persons Center - Central Office for the Local Records Section (Kirchlicher Suchdienst-Zentralstelle der Heimatortskarteien) Headquarters: Munich 15, Lessingstrasse I Director: Dr. (fnu) Mueller A-4 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 5. Evangelical Welfare Board for Locating Internees and Prisoners of War (Evangelisches Hilfswerk fuer Internierte und Kriegsge- fangene Erlangen) Headquarters: Munich 22, Nymphenburgerstrasse 52 Director: Bishop D. Heckel E. German Research Institutions Concerned With Refugee Questions 1. East Europe Institute at the University of Munich (Osteuropa-Institut an der Universitaet Muenchen) Director: Prof. Hans Koch 2. Southeast Institute (Institute for Cultural Research) (Suedost-Institut (Institut fuer Kulturforschung)) Headquarters: Munich, Kaiser-Ludwig-Platz 1/II 1st Chairman: Min. Dir. (fnu) Meinzoll Director: Prof. (fnu) Valjavec 3. European Research Group for Refugee Questions (Europaische Forschungsgruppe fuer Fluechtlingsfragen) Headquarters: Munich, Prinzregentenstrasse 5 General Secretary: Dr. M. Kornrumpf Southeast German Culture and Research Center (Southeast Qerman Cultural Work) (Verein Sudeostdeutsche Kultur - und Forschungsstelle e.V.)(Suedostdeutsches Kulturwerk) Headquarters: Munich 15, Kaiser-Ludwig-Platz 1/II Chairman: Franz Hamm Director: Prof. Dr. (fnu) Valjavec A-5 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET APPENDIX B Biographic Information on Selected Expellee Leaders in West Germany 1. BECHER, Dr. Walter Dr. Walter Becher, a prominent member of the Sudeten-German group of refugees in the Federal Republic of Germany, was born on 1 October 1912, at Karlsbad, Czechoslovakia (then Austria-Hungary). Becher studied law and political science at the University of Vienna, and was an assistant at that University until 1935. He then became a journalist, editing .a newspaper called Die Zeit in Drahowitz, a town near Karlsbad. A member of Konrad Henleints pro-Nazi Sudeten- deutsche Partei, Becher was also a member of the Kameradschaftsbund, a quasi-Nazi organization of Sudeten-Germans who, however, disagreed with the principles of National-Socialism on technical grounds. During World War II Becher was a foreign correspondent in the Eastern sector of the German Occupied Territories. He served in the German Armed Forces during the latter part of the war. According to the Berlin Document Center, Becher joined the Nazi Party of Germany on 12 December 1931, while in Vienna. He was ex- pelled from the Party on 7 October 1932 because of "unknown where- abouts." Becher reapplied on 1 January 1939 and was given member- ship in the Party dating retroactively to 1 November 1938. On 20 March 1940 he was again expelled from the Party, this time for unknown reasons. His membership in the Kameradschaftsbund is be- lieved to have been the cause for his second expulsion from the Party. The Berlin Document Center also lists Becher as a member of the Storm Troops (SA) and of the National-Socialist Association of Students. Becher has denied the above, notably in an article in the Neueste Nachrichten of 25 August 1957. He claims never to have belonged to the Nazi Party, and to have been imprisoned for six months by the Gestapo in 1940. He stated that he was imprisoned without cause at the request of the Gauleitung of the Sudeten German provinces. The Berlin Document Center has Becherls question- naire of January 1939, requesting membership in the Party, on file. Becher was released from internment as a prisoner of war in 1945. He chose to remain in Munich, where he was released, and he soon became active in the various organizations of Sudeten- Germans active in that city. Between 1945 and 1949 he was manager of the Wirtschaftshilfe GmbH (economic aid) in Munich. In 1949 he joined the right-radical Deutsche Gemeinschaft (DG - German Community), a political party under the leadership of August Haussleiter. He was soon admitted to the executive committee of the DG, and in December 1950 became vice chairman of that party. Elected to the Bavarian Landta (Diet) in the 1950 elections, he became Landtag leader of the DG element of the combined DG/ Refugee Party (BHE) faction. In May 1954 Becher joined a number of other DG representatives in bolting the DG and joining the BHE. Late in the same year he became chairman of the BHE faction in the Landta. Becher has played a leading role in the Sudeten- German organizations not associated with Lodgman von Auen. Formerly secretary general of the "Working Group for the Protec- tion of Sudeten-German Interests," he received the same position In the Sudeten German Council when the latter body was founded in September 1955. B-1 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET The American Consul General at Munich believes that Becher has given up much of his earlier right-radical activity, and that his switch from the DG to the BITE was a result of a gradual change to- ward more moderate political views. The following are excerpts from the Consul General's comments on Becher: The present political officers of the Consulate General are not familiar with Becher's activities prior to 1953, but there is every reason to believe that his record was quite anti-American, at least in the sense of strong opposi- tion on his part to the "crimes of Yalta and Potsdam" and to the Czech policy of Radio Free Europe; and also as pro- Nazi as was possible during the period, since the DG was, and still is, as extreme in its nationalism as any party in Germany, with the possible exception of the banned SRP. However, since 1953, the drafting officer has known Becher fairly well and talked to him on numerous occasions. When he went over to the BHE, it can be said that he apparently left any really violent pro-Nazi or anti-American attitudes, which he may previously have held, behind him. There is no doubt that he is still a right-winger with very strong na- tional and even nationalistic leanings: As a Sudeten German, he still publicly scores the "brutal" agreements of Yalta and Potsdam, especially at BITE party meetings; he is one of the leaders of the attack against alleged "leftist" in- fluence in the so-called "Lizenzpresse" (i.e., press licensed by US Military Government), including the Bavarian Radio; he is a leading member of the right-wing Sudeten expellees group within the BITE known as the "Witiko Bund"; and he continues, on occasion, to attack the Czech policy of Radio Free Europe. At the same time, however, local employees of the Con- sulate who have worked with the US Government since shortly after the war say that Becher has always been friendly to- ward American representatives; and the reporting officer can add, from personal experience during the years since 1953, that Becher has, on the whole, been extremely friendly toward all officers of the Consulate General and has, in many interviews, expressed his support for the general policy of the US in Germany and for the foreign policy and defense policy of the Adenauer government. In fact, he is among those leaders of the Bavarian BITE who have most stubbornly resisted the attempts of other BHE leaders to make common cause with the SPD against the Chancellor. His attacks against the Czech policy of RFE have continued, but on a greatly reduced scale, mostly restricted to speeches at party conventions, which have not been given great publicity. During the last four years, he has never taken the lead in attacking RFE in the Bavarian Landtag--and he, at least privately, sup- ported the role played by RFE during the Hungarian crisis last fall. Representatives of RFE have informed us that their relations with Becher have constantly improved during the last few years and Ernst Langendorf, RFE Press Chief, recently told us that he thought an exchange trip to the US for Becher might be a desirable move toward softening his opposition to RFE still further. In all fairness, it must be stated that Becher's opposition to RFE is no greater than that of many other Sudeten leaders--. B-2 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET As is the case with most Sudetens, the principal motivation of all Becher's political actions is his desire to see the German expellees return to their Eastern homelands. This leads him to support such policies as converting the BHE into an "all-German Party, building up a strong German army, giving top priority to the reunification of Germany (including the areas lost after the war), opposition to the proposed Saar Statute, and opposition to "co-existence" with the Soviets or their satellites. Becher makes an at- tempt to appear reasonable and moderate in discussing his views on East European policy, but his nationalism clearly shows through: For example, he sees no reason for Germany to sacrifice any territory it held in 1937 and clearly con- siders the Munich agreement of 1938 to be a valid inter- national treaty giving Germany legal claim to the Sudetenland, although he avoids arguing this point or taking a public stand on the question. --Although his colleagues (and especially SPD leaders in and out of the Sudeten German movement) consider him to be a right-winger, only the most radical left-wing Social Democrats accuse him of being nationalistic to the point of opposing a democratic form of government. In seeking to propagate Sudeten German interests, Becher has gone out of his way to invite Americans to Sudeten German meetings and conferences (notably a meeting at Herrenchiemsee in May 1956, which representatives of the Consulate General and Radio Free Europe attended) and to solicit support from Americans in the United States, especially Congressmen and Senators. Since he seems to feel he has had the most success in interesting right-wing American leaders, such as the late Senator McCarthy and Senator Jenner, in his cause, Becher is inclined to re- gard such leaders as friends and kindred spirits. .1/ Becher married the former Elisabeth Haas in 1950. He holds the Iron Cross and is a member Of the Munich Kant Society. Becher has published a volume entitled Die koenigliche Erziehungskunst (The Royal Art of Education). B-3 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 2. HUPKA, Dr. Herbert Dr. Hupka, an expellee from Silesia, was born about 1915. In 1946, he was listed as editor of a youth periodical entitled Wir und Heute, published at Tegernsee, Bavaria. In 1949 he was chief of the Main Department for Education and Culture of Radio Bavaria. During the same year he was a member of a delegation of German radio officials who visited the United States for the purpose of studying American radio techniques. At that time Dr. Hupka warned reporters from the New York Staatszeitung und Herold of the danger of renascent German nationalism. In August 1950 Hupka, who had apparently been demoted, was listed as Supervisor of Literary Programs for Radio Bavaria. In January 1952 he was listed as chairman of the Lessing Society for the Furtherance of Tolerance. In March 1952 he was elected 2nd chairman of the Bavarian Assembly of Silesian Refugees. He was reelected to that position in July 1954. In August 1955 Hupka reemerged as chief of the Cultural Sec- tion of Radio Bavaria. He was then elected 1st chairman of the Bavarian Assembly of Silesian Refugees. He was subsequently elected 2nd chairman of the Landsmannschaft of Silesian Refugees in Germany, probably the largest organization of German expellees from the former German provinces in Eastern Europe. A newspaper report (Bonner Rundschau) of 28 March 1957 reports that Hupka will take over the position of Program Director of Radio Bremen. Hupka is believed to be sympathetic toward the aims of the Social-Democratic Party of Germany.(SPD). B-4 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 3. KOCH, Dr. Hans Dr. Koch is generally considered to be one of the foremost German academic specialists on Eastern European problems. He is at present director of the Eastern European Institute (Ost-Europa Institut) at the University of Munich. Dr. Koch takesan active part in expellee activities. He is the Speaker of the Weichsel- Warthe Landsmannschaft and a leading policy advisor to the Verband der Landsmannschaft (VdL). In May 1955 he was chosen as the honorary president of the German-Ukrainian Society (Deutsche Ukrainische Herder Gesellschaft - DUHG) an organization formed in 1954 with headquarters in Munich whose purpose is the promotion of closer German-Ukrainian cultural relations. Established with some degree of governmental support, the society appears to be one of several such groups intended by the Federal government to assist in the revival of its role in Eastern policy. During the post-war period Dr. Koch has also served as a member of the exe- cutive board of the Organization to Aid German War Veterans of Soviet Origin, and on the board of directors of the German Asso- ciation for Eastern European Information (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Osteuropakunde). Dr. Koch acts as an unofficial consultant to the Federal government on Eastern matters and was selected to accompany Chancellor Adenauer to Moscow in 1955 as a member of the West German delegation. His position was that of Eastern affairs ad- visor and high level interpreter. In 1956 he was chosen Deputy Rector of the Academy for Political Sciences in Munich. Born 7 July 1894 in Lemberg, Dr. Koch began his academic career after World War I, specializing in church history, par- ticularly Eastern European church history. From 1929-1935 he held the position of Instructor in the Protestant Theological Faculty at the University of Vienna. From 1935-1939 he was professor and director of the Eastern European Institute at the University of Breslau. During World War II Dr. Koch served in the army with the rank of captain. A member of the NSDAP in Austria and Germany, he had carried out assignments for the Reich propaganda office in Breslau and acted as an instructor in Eastern European affairs for the German Foreign Office in Berlin. A militant anti-Communist, Dr. Koch has asserted that he supports the foreign policy of Adenauer and has made efforts to restrain the more aggressive elements in the Landsmannschaft. He believes that German influence is increasing in the Eastern European sphere and should be encouraged by German stress on the European idea and the self-determination of peoples. Some observers feel that his views are an indication of the hopes of some of the nationalist Eastern experts and their plans for gaining influence over Eastern Europe. Dr. Koch has been a contributor to the following journals:. Osteuropa, Jahrbuch der Geschichte Osteuropas, and Kyrios. His publications include: Die Russische Orthodoxie im Petrinische Zeitalter (1929), Staat und Kirche in der Sowjet-Union (1930), Kiev, B zanz und Ochrid 967-1037 (f707-and Geschichte der Slaven(Berlin, Propylaen Weltgeschichte) (1929). � B-5 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 4. REITZNER, Richard Richard Reitzner, a Social-Democratic Bundestag deputy from Bavaria, is a Sudeten-German who has played a prominent role in Sudeten-German affairs since his official expulsion from Czecho- slovakia after World War II. Reitzner had actually left Czecho- slovakia in 1938 and it is not known whether he returned to his homeland after the war. Reitzner was born on 19 August 1893, at Einsiedel arienbad. After study at the teachers' college at Hollabruenn, Reitzner served in the Imperial Austrian Army during World War I and was taken prisoner in Russia. Having been active in the Social-Democratic youth movement in Austria-Hungary, Reitzner sympathized with the Bolshevik Revolution and served in Trotsky's Red Army. He returned to Czechoslovakia a Communist, but in 1923 joined the Sudeten- German branch of the German Social-Democratic Party (SPD). By pro- fession a teacher, Reitzner was active in the Sudeten-German Socialist movement until 1938. Participating in the Workers' Internationale, and occupying various positions in the community and district administrations, Reitzner was a member of the execu- tive committee of the Sudeten-German Social-Democratic Party when Hitler seized the Sudeten-German territories in 1938. He fled to England where he remained until 1946, participating with Wenzel Jaksch in the Sudeten-German Democratic Committee, founded in London during the war. Reitzner chose Bavaria as his postwar home and soon became a leader in the Bavarian SPD, as well as in the organization of Sudeten-German refugees known as the Sudetendeutsche Landsmann- schaft. In 1947 he was elected a deputy chairman of the Bavarian SPD, at that time highly dependent on refugee votes. During the same year Reitzner served as one of two state secretaries in the Bavarian Ministry for Refugees. Elected vice chairman of the Bavarian SPD a year later, Rritzner became one of the SPD's dele- gates to the first Bundestag in 1949. There he served on the Procedure and Immunity, Reconstruction and Housing, Cultural Policy, and Youth Welfare Committees, in addition to his posi- tion as vice chairman of the Expellees Committee. Reitzner was reelected to the Bundestag in 1953, and also in the October 1957 elections. Reitzner was a member of the Sudetendeutsche Landsmannschaft executive until 1949 when he was dropped from the executive for allegedly having tried to win over the Landsmannschaft to an SPD point of view. In 1950 he reappeared as one of three presidents of the Association for the Safeguarding of Sudeten-German Interests, and served on the joint Sudeten-German/Czech Committee which reached an understanding on the future of the Sudeten- Germans in a non-Communist Czechoslovakia. In June 1954 he was once again elected to the executive committee of the Sudeten- deutsche Landsmannschaft. In 1955 he appeared as a member of the presidium of the Sudeten-German Council (Sudetendeutscher Rat) which replaced the former Association for the Safeguarding of Sudeten-German Interests. Reitzner is also co-chairman of the Seliger Gemeinde, an association of former Sudeten-German Social- Democrats under the leadership of Wenzel Jaksch. Reitzner is married to the former Friederike Langmair, his second wife. He has three children from his first marriage. A Catholic, he is the author of a book entitled Vom Ostwind verweht (Scattered by the East Wind). Reitzner is reported to be fond of sports, particularly soccer and skiing. B-6 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 5. STROSCHE, Johannes Johannes Strosche was born on 29 January 1912 at Teplitz-Schoenau in the Sudetenland. He attended high school in Leitmeritz in the Sudetenland, graduating in 1930. Strosche went on to study Ger- manic and Slavic philology at the Charles University in Prague, where in 1937 he received a doctor of philosophy degree and a li- cense to teach in high schools. For three years he taught in Eger, Leitmeritz, and Aussig. Strosche joined the Nazi Party and the National-Socialist Teachers Association in 1940. In view of the fact that Germany had annexed the Sudetenland as early as the fall of 1938, Strosche seems not to have been in any hurry to join the party, and became a member of the Nazi-sponsored teachersi guild probably when such membership had be- come essential to his career. In 1940 Strosche was inducted into the German Army and served until 1945 as an interpreter in the intel- ligence division, with the rank of corporal. In 1945 Strosche was released from an American prisoner-of-war camp. After he and his family had been expelled from their home- land by the Czechs, he settled at Tirschenreuth in Bavaria. Unable to find a position in the Bavarian school system, he eked out a meager living by private tutoring. He soon became active in public life, serving as chairman of the Tirschenreuth Culture Association and as a member of the Sudeten-German Landsmannschaft in Bavaria. Strosche helped found the BHE party in Tirschenreuth County and in the Oberpfalz (Upper Palatinate) District in 1950. In Novem- ber 1950 he was elected to the Bavarian Landtag (state parliament) on the BHE-DG (Deutsche Gemeinschaft - German Community) slate. He became faction leader of the BHE in the Landtag and deputy Land chairman of the BHE in Bavaria in 1952. In 1953 Strosche became a member of the Bundestat, succeeding to the seat vacated by Dr. Guthsmuthst resignation. He became executive secretary of the BHE Eundestag faction and a member of the National BHE Executive Committee. Strosche was not reelected to the Bundestag in 1957, since the BHE was unable to achieve representation on the federal level. Strosche appeared as a member of the Working Association for the Protection of Sudeten-German Interests in 1955 and, later that year, as a presidium member of the Sudeten-German Council which had replaced the Working Association. Strosche has been described as a very able speaker who draws large crowds. He has made both moderate and extremely nationalistic remarks in his speeches, so that it is difficult to say exactly where he stands. Strosche has cooperated well with the SPD in Bavaria; this would indicate a moderate stand. A Catholic, Strosche is married to Elfriede nee Sussman, a Sudeten-Geman from Leitmeritz. He is of average height and weight, balding, with brownish-gray hair and blue eyes. 2/ B-7 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET APPENDIX C Sources 1. Julius Isaac and C. A. Macartney, Expellees in the US Zone of Occupation, Jun 48, Unclassified. 2. (b)(1) (b)(3) 3. ECA Technical Assistance Commission, The Integration of Refugees into German Life, 21 Mar 51, UnclassiTrgd. 4. 5. ECA Technical Assistance Commission, 22. cit. 6. btate aespatcla 208, Bonn, 20 Apr 56, Official Use Only. 7. State despatch 212, Munich, 20 Nov 52, Unclassified. 8. Ibid. 9. State despatch 76, Munich, 29 Oct 57, Official Use Only. 10. State, OIR Intelligence Report No. 6882, 18 Jul 55, Confidential. State despatch 27, Munich, 9 Aug 57, Unclassified. 11. (b)(1) (b)(3) 12. Ibid. State despatch 27, 22. cit. (b)(1) (b)(3) EGFA-13612, 27 Nov 56, S/C Attachment, Secret. (b)(1) (b)(3) State despatch 416, Munich, 1 Jun 54, Confidential. State despatch 397, Munich, 1 Jun 54, Confidential 17. Ibid. 18. OIR Intelligence Report 6882, sla. cit. State despatch 416, Ea. cit. 19. State despatch 68, Munich, 15 Oct 57, Official Use Only. State despatch 416, 2a. cit. 20. OLC Hesse, Unnumbered despatch, 17 Aug 51, Restricted. 21. State despatch 416, Ea. cit. OIR Intelligence Report 6882, 22. cit. 22. State despatch 416, 22. cit. 23. Ibid. 24. Boris CelovskY, "The Transferred Sudeten-Germans and Their Political Activity," Journal of Central European Affairs, Vol. XVII, Jul 57, Unclassified. C-1 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 25. Ibid. State despatch 27, 2k. cit. 26. State despatch 177, Munich, 25 Feb 57, Confidential. 27. State despatch 171, Munich, 16 Jan 56, Confidential. State despatch 106, Munich, 9 Nov 56, Official Use Only. 28. Ibid. 29. State despatch 177, 22. cit. 30. State despatch 247, Munich, 21 Jan 55, Secret. 31. State despatch 47, Munich, 9 Aug 55, Official Use Only. State despatch 177, 22. cit. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. State despatch 271, Munich, Apr 55, Official Use Only. OIR Intelligence Report No. 6882, a. cit. Ibid. State despatch 271, Ea. cit. State report, The Emigration From The East, 1 Dec 54, Confidential. 39. Ibid. State CIA, 4o. despatch 269, Munich, 1 Apr 55, Confidential. Secret, US Officials Only. The Emigration CIA, CIA, From The East, op. cit. Secret/Noforn/continued Control. Secret. 41. The Emigration From 42. Ibid. CIA, The East, 2E. cit. 7ffEcret. Secret/US Officials Only. 43. CIA,- Secret. The Eml,a_.tionFroriTheEa.St, 22. cit. . CIA, Secret/Noforn/Continued Control. 44. CIA, CIA, 45. CIA, CIA, 46. CIA, Deutscher 47. CIA, CIA, CIA, 22. 2E. cit. cit. cit. cit. 22. cit. Soldaten Kalendar, 1956. 22� cit. op. CIT. Secret. C-2 SECRET (b)(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 48. State despatch 284, Munich, 16 Jan 53, Confidential. Memorandum, Exile Organizations Research, from 10/1 to RQM/OIS, 27 Jun 56, Secret. The Emigration From The East, za. cit. 49. State despatch 284, Ea. cit. The Emigration From The fa7t, 2a. cit. 50. State despatch 284, 22. cit. 51. Ibid. 52. State despatch 79, Munich, 8 Oct 56, Unclassified. 53. The Emigration From The East, cit. CIA, [Secret/Control/US Officials Orlq.Y. 54. State despatch 334, Munich, 9 Jun 55, Official Use Only. 55. Deutscher Soldaten Kalendar, 1956. 56. State despatch 334, o. cit. The Emigration From Tae East, 22. cit. 57. Ibid. 58. Ibid. 59. Ibid. 60. Ibid. 61. The Emigration From The East, 2E. cit. Memorandum, Czech and S1777 Emigre Publications in Germany and Austria, RFET-7 Mar 56, Confidential. 62. Ibid. 63. Ibid. 64. Ibid. 65. State despatch 79, o . cit. The Emigration From he East, 22. cit. 66. Ibid. 67. Ibid. 68. Czech and Slovak Emigre Publications in Germany and Austria, 22. cit. 69. State, OIR Report No. 5522, 13 Aug 51, Confidential. 70. Ibid. CIA, (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) Secret/Noforn/Continued Control. (b)(3) 71. OIR Report No. 5522, p. cit. The Emigration From Th ETEE, op. cit. C-3 SECRET (b)(1) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 72. OIR Report No. 5522, 22. cit. State despatch 30, Munich779 Jul 54, Confidential. 73. OIR Report No. 5522, 22. cit. 74. Ibid. 75. State despatch 79, 22. cit. 76. Ibid. 77. The Emigration From The East, 2E. cit. 78. OIR Report No. 5522, _c_112. cit. Memorandum, Emigre PuETications, FDD, 11 Oct 57, 79. State desnatph 14n Milniph 7 An *1. n-PPinial Trat nn177 80. The Emigration From The East, Ea. cit. 81. Ibid. 82. Ibid. 83. Ibid. 84. Ibid. 85. Ibid. Memorandum, Emi5re Publications, 22. cit. 86. State despatch 335, Munich, 10 Jun 55, Unclassified. State despatch 2532, Bonn, 27 May 55, Confidential. 87. Memorandum, Emigre Publications, 2E. cit. 88. The Emigration From The East. op. cit. 89. The Emigration From The East, 2E. cit. 90. Ibid. 91. Ibid. 92. Ibid. Memorandum, Emigre Publications, 22. cit. 93. The Emigration From The East, 22. cit. 94. Ibid. 95. Ibid. Memorandum, Emigre Publications, 22. cit. 96. The Emigration From The East, 22. cit. TETte despatch 353, Munich, 23 Jun 55, Official Use Only. State despatch 233, Munich, 20 Mar 55, Official Use Only. 97. State despatch 218, Munich, 8 Mar 55, Limited Official Use. c-4 SECRET Unclassified. (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412 SECRET 98. State despatch 355, Munich, 27 Jun 55, Unclassified. 99. 100. Ibid. 101. State despatch 79, 22. cit. 102. The Emigration From The East, Ea. cit. 103. Ibid. 104. Ibid. Memorandum, Emigre Publications, 22. cit. 105. 106. Ibid. 107. Ibid. 108. Ibid. 109. Ibid. 110. Ibid. 111. Ibid. 112. Ibid. 113. Memorandum, Emigre Publications, op. cit. (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) (W(1) (b) (3) Appendix A: List of Expellee Organizations and Institutions in Munich 1. Appendix B: (b)(1) (b)(3) Biographic Information on Selected Expellee Leaders in West Germany 1. State despatch 262, Munich, 21 Jun 57, Confidential. State despatch 56, Munich, 4 Sep 56, Confidential. 2. HICOG Bonn Biographic Data Report, 13 May 52, Confidential. C-5 SECRET Approved for Release: 2018/08/08 CO2007412