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February 12, 1987
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Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Directorate of fq,117:474'. � I:1r giy 't Intelligence rm flu a Lbli5 -NOT GIVE OUT pr mr?,q � ����.....116.�������......... � � Terrorism Review (b)(3) DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 Copy 625 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 .) Warning Notice Intelligence Sources or Methods Involved (WNINTEL) National Security Unauthorized Disclosure Information Subject to Criminal Sanctions Dissemination Control Abbreviations NOFORN (NF) Not releasable to foreign nationals NOCONTRACT (NC) Not releasable to contractors or contractor/consultants PROPIN (PR) Caution�proprietary information involved ORCON (OC) Dissemination and extraction of information controlled by originator REL... This information has been authorized for release to... WN WNINTEL�Intelligence sources or methods involved I%11 material on tills page is Unclassified. Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 (b)(3) Terrorism Review 12 February 1987 (b)(3) 1 Focus: Lebanon�The New Hostages (b)(3) 7 Highlights (b)(3) 11 Alfaro Vive, Carajo!: A Current Assessment (b)(3) 15 Overview of Asian Terrorism in 1986 (b)(3) 19 Emerging Terrorist Threat to Scandinavia (b)(3) 23 Fatah Official Implicated in TWA Flight 840 Attack (b)(3) 25 The Terrorism Diary for March (b)(3) 29 Chronology of Terrorism-1986/1987 (b)(3) This review is published biweekly by the Directorate of Intelligence. Appropriate articles produced by other elements of the CIA as well as by other agencies of the US Intelligence Community will be considered for publication. Comments and aueries are welcome and may be directed to the Executive Editor 111 (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Scent Terrorism Review 12 February 1987 (b)(3) Focus Lebanon�The New Hostages (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(3) The arrest of a terrorist important to the radical Shia group Hizballah has launched a new round of kidnapings in Lebanon. The terrorist, Muhammad Hammadi�also one of the hijackers of TWA Flight 847�was arrested at Frankfurt airport on 13 January, as he attempted to smuggle liquid explosives into West Germany. Since then, gunmen have seized at least 12 foreigners in West Beirut. We believe that most of the new hostages were taken by elements of the Iranian-backed Hizballah, of which Hammadi is a member. A brother in Lebanon, Abd al-Hadi Hammadi, probably instigated the kidnaping of two West Germans, while other elements probably related to Hizballah have claimed responsibility for the abduction of several other foreigners, including three Americans. The new group of hostages also includes Terry Waite, the Anglican Church envoy who has been trying to nPg"tiate the release of foreign hostages in Lebanon since the fall of 1985 (b)(3) Who is Responsible? Within four days of Hammadi's arrest, terrorists had seized their first hostage, a West German businessman named Rudolf Cordes. A second German, Alfred Schmidt, was taken three days later. Schmidt, a technician, had been installing equipment at Beirut University Hospital. On 24 January, Shia extremists kidnaped four professors�among them three American citizens�from Beirut University College. This brings to nine the number of American nationals now held hostage in Lebanon. The fourth professor, an Indian national, has resident alien status and carries a US passport. The terrorists apparently number him among the Americans. (b)(3) We believe that the recent kidnapings were carried out by elements of Hizballah. two of the Hammadi brothers masterminded the recent operations in Lebanon with the help of several close associates. These men are longtime associates of Imad Mughniyah, leader of the Hizballah cell that controls US and other hostages in Lebanon. At least one of the Hammadis�Abd al-Hadi�is a security chief for Hizballah and oversaw the retaliatory kidnapings of the two Germans. Muhammad Hammadi was one of the hijackers of the TWA flight in June 1985 and is responsible for the death of an American serviceman and the detention of several dozen Americans. A third brother, Ali Abbas, was arrested in West Germany on 26 January. He apparently confessed to successfully smuggling linnid explosives into West Germany on the same flight as Muhammad. (b)(3) 1 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 C. Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Table 1 Western Hostages Currently Held in Lebanon a Name/Occupation Date/Place Claimant Group Status US Hostages William Buckley Diplomat 16 March 1984 Islamic Jihad Presumed dead since June 1985 Terry Anderson Journalist 16 March 1985 Islamic Jihad Held by Hizballah Thomas Sutherland Dean, American University of Beirut 10 June 1985 Islamic Jihad Held by Hizballah Frank Reed Adviser to Lebanese International School 9 September 1986 Claimed by Islamic Jihad, later denied; Organization of Revolutionary Justice Probably held by Hizballah Joseph Cicippio Deputy Comptroller, American University of Beirut 12 September 1986 Organization of Revolutionary Justice Probably held by Hizballah Edward Tracy Itinerant writer 21 October 1986 Organization of Revolutionary Justice Alan Steen Professor, Beirut University College 24 January 1987 Organization of the Oppressed on Earth Probably held by Hizballah Robert Polhill Professor, Beirut University College 24 January 1987 Same Same John (Jesse) Turner Professor, Beirut University College 24 January 1987 Same Same Mithileshwar Singh Chairman Business Studies, Beirut University College; Indian national who has resident alien status 24 January 1987 Same Same French Hostages Marcel Carton 22 March 1985 Diplomat West Beirut Islamic Jihad, Khaybar Brigades Probably held by Hizballah Marcel Fontaine 22 March 1985 Diplomat West Beirut Islamic Jihad, Khaybar Brigades Probably held by Hizballah Jean Paul Kaufmann 22 May 1985 Journalist West Beirut Islamic Jihad Probably held by Hizballah Michel Seurat 22 May 1985 Researcher West Beirut Islamic Jihad Reportedly killed 6 March 1986 Jean-Louis Normandin 8 March 1986 Organization of Revolutionary Probably held by Hizballah Television Technician Justice Roger Auque Journalist 13 January 1987 No claimant Hizballah suspected We believe "Islamic Jihad" is a covername used by a cell of Hizballah, led by Imad Mughniyah, to claim credit for terrorist operations and to threaten attacks. Its claims are usually accompa- nied by a photograph of a hostage for authentication. Other pro- Iranian factions outside Lebanon also use the term, which means cCt Islamic Holy War in Arabic. Other factions within Hizballah are involved in terrorism and use covernames�such as Revolutionary Justice Organization or Organization of the Oppressed on Earth� to mask their true identities and to provide plausible deniability to Hizballah leaders and Iran 2 (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Table 1 (Continued) Name/Occupation Date/Place Claimant Group Status German Hostages Rudolf Cordes 17 January 1987 No claimant Held by Hizballah Businessmen Alfred Schmidt 20 January 1987 No claimant Held by Hizballah Engineer British Hostages Alec Collett Journalist 25 March 1985 Execution announced April 1986 by Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims (Abu Nidal); body never found. John McCarthy 17 April 1986 Journalist No claimant Unknown Terry Waite 20 January 1987 No claimant Disappeared from Beirut during his Anglican Church envoy effort to mediate hostage crisis Other Hostages Brian Keenan Irish teacher 11 April 1985 No claimant Unknown Alberto Molinari 11 September 1985 No claimant Unknown Italian businessman West Beirut Chae Do-sung 31 January 1986 Fighting Revolutionary Cells Unknown South Korean diplomat Bakr Damanhuri 12 January 1987 No claimant Unknown Saudi diplomat/businessman Khalid Dib Saudi businessman 26 January 1987 Partisans of Islamic Jihad Probable reason for abduction was to dissuade Saudis from attending Islamic Conference summit in Kuwait Two English-speakers, possibly 26 January 1987 Romanian No claimant Taken from store Two Lebanese Armenians 23 January 1987 (b)(3) No claimant Probably mistaken for West Germans 3 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Two groups have claimed responsibility for the kidnapings at Beirut University College. Shortly after the abductions, a caller claiming to speak for the Organization for the Oppressed on Earth said it had the hostages, and threatened to kill one if Hammadi is not released, and the US continues to support Iraq in its war with Iran. We believe this is another covername for elements of Hizballah; the name has been used since late 1985, mostly in connection with the kidnaping and murder of several Lebanese Jews. As recently as last month, the group claimed it executed more of these Jewish hostages. (b)(3) A second group�the "Islamic Jihad for the Liberation of Palestine" (ULP)� claimed in late January that it had kidnaped the Americans. Just as with the more familiar Islamic Jihad cc -^rname, communiques have been accompanied by photographs of the host F ;s for authentication. The IJLP said it would murder all four hostages within a week if 400 Palestinian prisoners�many of them Shia Muslims�held in Israeli jails were not released and Muhammad Hammadi was not freed. It also threatened to kill the hostages if the United States tried to intervene militarily in Lebanon. Little is known about the group, which claims to be composed of Muslim Palestinian youths, but a group using a similar name�the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Palestine�claimed responsibilty for the grenade attack at the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem last October (b)(3) We believe that these organizations are covernames for Mughniyah's apparatus or other closely related elements of Hizballah. The sophistication of the recent abductions suggests that the terrorists are organized and have good intelligence on the movements of foreigners into and around Beirut, as well as on international flights. The professors abducted from Beirut University College believed that the terrorists were a security force sent to protect them. Rudolf Cordes, the first German taken captive, was picked up just after arriving at Beirut airport. The second German hostage, Alfred Schmidt, was seized at his hotel. (b)(3) Where is Terry Waite? We believe Terry Waite is now being detained by the Hizballah elements holding the US hostages. The Anglican envoy has not been seen since 20 January, when he left his hotel and Druze militia protection. Rumors circulated in Beirut that he had gone to the Bekaa Valley or to southern Beirut to negotiate with elements of Hizballah for the release of Terry Anderson and Thomas Sutherland. Claiming it had reassurances from the Druze and other sources in Lebanon, the Anglican Church continued through the end of January to hold out hope for Waite's mission. In early February a senior Druze official told the US Embassy in Beirut that Waite had joined other hostages being held by Mughniyah (b)(3) 4 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 -s-getrat, We believe Terry Waite has become a victim of his own initiatives. He evidently believed his peaceful mission and role as a mediator would protect him, but these Hizballah leaders were undeterred by Islamic hospitality. Those who decided to detain him probably believe they can pressure the British Government to press their demands, particularly Hizballah's unwavering goal of the release of 17 Dawa Party terrorists held in Kuwait, who were convicted in the bombings of the US and French Embassies and Kuwaiti installations in 1983. (b)(3) Other Hostages It is unlikely that all the recent hostage takings are related to the arrest of Muhammad Hammadi. Two Saudis abducted in mid-January, for instance, probably were seized as part of Iran's attempt to dissuade the Saudis from attending the Islamic Conference summit in Kuwait. A French journalist, Roger Auque, also was seized in January as he covered Terry Waite's mission, but no claims have been made yet on his behalf. At least two and possibly four blond English- or German-speaking males were kidnaped while they were shopping in West Beirut in late January. Various press accounts describe them as Armenians, East Europeans, or Scandinavians. They probably were mistaken for German or American nationals, but they have not been released, and no organization has taken credit for their abductions. (b)(3) Outlook In our judgment, prospects for the early release of these hostages�including Terry Waite�are not good. We are almost certain that the captors represent Shia extremist elements. Some of the recent operations could have been financially motivated, done by freelance terrorists whn hnned to ransom Westerners to the highest bidders. (b)(3) Regardless of who initially seized them, we believe decisions on the fate of the hostages will be made by Hizballah's leaders, probably with some reference to Iran. Tehran apparently was not involved in the recent abductions, but probably has been in contact with Hizballah leaders and could play an intermediary role. Despite Iran's considerable support to Hizballah and shared ideological objectives, however, Tehran does not control the hostage holders (b)(3) Syrian or Lebanese pressure to release them is unlikely to sway Hizballah. Damascus currently has only marginal influence with Hizballah, and President Assad has been unwilling to confront Hizballah directly. In our view, the growth of the organization and the number of hostages it is hiding in crowded West Beirut have outstripped Assad's ability to intervene forcibly. Walid Junblatt's Druze militia was responsible for Waite's safety, and Junblatt probably feels his offer to trade places with Waite and to fight Hizballah will help salvage his credibility. Nevertheless, Druze threats are even less likely to force Hizballah to release the Anglican envoy (b)(3) 5 ThZtreL Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Hizballah probably will make further demands before agreeing to release Waite or the others, but we believe the basic objective remains the release of the Dawa Party prisoners in Kuwait. One of the terrorists under death sentence there is the brother-in-law of Imad Mugniyah. The release of the Hammadi brothers�at minimum preventing the extradition of Muhammad Hammadi to the United States�also is an important objective, because the Hammadis are so closely tied to Hizballah. Other statements may press for guarantees that the United States, the United Kingdom, France, or Israel will refrain from military retaliation in (b)(3) Lebanon, and perhaps even demand compensation in weapons and money (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 "Sze Western Europe Italy Portugal Highlights (b)(3) Significant Developments Suspected Hizballah Terrorist Arrested in Milan Italian customs police arrested a Lebanese national, Bashir Khudr, on 12 January at Milan airport after they discovered explosives and detonators concealed in his luggage. Nearly 11 kilograms (kg) of explosives were hidden in two bas-relief paintings and various sizes of tinfoil-wrapped chocolate Easter eggs. The detonators were hidden inside batteries placed in a portable radio. Airport security guards had stopped Khudr as part of standing instruction:(b)(3)en closely all (b)(1) arrivals with passports from Arab countries. (b)(3) Khudr is believed to be a member of Hizballah, and Italian authorities suspect that the explosives were to be used against Israeli targets in Rome. Initially, questions were raised about Khudr's possible association with Fatah's Colonel Hawari. Moroccan authorities arrested four Hawari operatives last August after they discovered that two of them were carrying pottery objects composed of explosive materials. Subsequent technical evidence indicates there is little similarity between the(b)(3)3 Khudr carried and those carried by Hawari operatives. There is no evidence at this time to link Khudr to Mohammad Hammadi, the suspected Hizballah member arrested on 13 January in Frankfurt while he was attempting to smuggle weapons into West Germany. Khudr has been linked, however, to the "Ladispoli Seven,"�seven Lebanese Shia arrested in Italy in November 1984. believed to be planning an attack against the US Embassy in Rome (b)(3) Members of Anti-ETA Vigilante Group Arrested Four Portuguese members of the Antiterrorist Liberation Group (GAL)�the first time that Portuguese nationals have been known to be involved with this group� were arrested in Lisbon on 4 January. GAL terrorizes members of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty separatist group (ETA). Portuguese authorities also arrested Jean-Philippe Labade, the suspected leader of GAL, who�along with the four Portuguese�is believed to have attacked and wounded six ETA supporters in two separate actions in the French Basque region in February 1986. French authorities reportedly arrested Labade in 1984 for killing ETA leader Tomas Perez Revilla, but he was released on a technicality. (b)(3) 7 Thltret,. DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 There are almost certainly other Portuguese members of the group, and Portuguese authorities will continue trying to identify them. Portugese involvement is more likely to be financially, rather than politically, motivated: we believe GAL members are sometimes paid for their attacks on ETA. According to rumors widely circulated in the Spanish press, GAL members may be paid indirectly by the Spanish Government. (b)(3) Spain (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) Middle East Israel Nine Members of ETA Unit Arrested The violent "Madrid Commando" unit of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty separatist group (ETA) suffered a major setback when Spanish police, acting in cooperation with French security services, arrested nine members on 16 and 17 January. According to the press, those arrested are linked to nine major attacks in the past 18 months that resulted in 26 deaths, including those of 17 civil guards and two military officials. At the time of arrest, the group reportedly was planning a major attack on a French-built shopping center. The arrests led to the discovery in El Escorial, north of Madrid, of (b)(3)afehouses containing weapons and plans for future operations. the commando unit is divided into three groups: gunmen residing in southern France who cross the border to stage attacks; information units that select and plan attacks and escapes; and infrastructure units permanently located in Madrid that set up the resources needed. the damage to the infrastructure and manpower of the group will impair its operational capabilities for at least the near future, but that the group could b- ''"'4" to resume activities within several weeks of the arrests. (b)(3) Although the roundup is hailed by Spanish police and the press as a major counterterrorist success, we believe that those captured are rank-and-file members, not leaders. The group has long been known to rebound from setbacks, and five members were able to escape arrest. Retaliatory attacks are likely to be made after the unit regroups. A major car bomb attack on 30 January�killing two persons and injuring 37 others, including 22 Army officers�probably was an attempt to show strength in another region. (b)(3) Tourism and Terrorism Major terrorist attacks in Europe and the Middle East in the last year and a half have left searing marks on Israel's tourism industry. The hijacking of a TWA airliner in June 1985, the seizing of the Italian cruise ship Achille Lauro in October 1985, the attacks on airports in Rome and Vienna in December 1985, the attack on an Istanbul synagogue in September 1986, and the grenade attack in mid-October 1986 near the Western (Wailing) Wall in Jerusalem�an especially popular area for tourists�each generated a flurry of telexes from US travel agencies to Israeli hotels and tour offices canceling scheduled visits (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 See During and immediately following major terrorist incidents, Israeli tour operators typically estimate a cancellation rate as high as 70 percent. Hotel industry officials expected the overall decline in visitors to reach 30 percent by the end of 1986, mainly because of reduced US tourist arrivals. The number of American tourists visiting Israel dropped by 47 percent in the first eight months of 1986�t1ie la test available figures�compared with the same period in 1985. (b)(3) Cruise ship tourism appears to have been particularly hard hit by the Achille Lauro hijacking. During the first eight months of 1986, total cruise ship arrivals were down over 48 percent from the same period in 1985. The most severe drop�a 64-percent decline in the first quarter of 1986 as compared with the same period in 1985�wa-(b5(315, number of American tourists coming to Israel via cruise ships. Kuwait (b)(3) Shia Terrorists Arrested for Oil Installations Bombings Kuwaiti authorities arrested 11 suspects on 19 January for the bombings of oil installations in June 1986 and January 1987. the suspects were in possession of arms and explosives. The arms caches included Israeli, US, and Soviet arms, silencers, handgrenades, dynamite sticks, machineguns, ammunition, and timing devices for bombs. Five more suspects are still being sought. Virtually all the suspects are Kuwaiti Shia, some from the country's most prominent families and with ethnic ties to Iran. (b)(1) (b)(3) Kuwaiti officials have long suspected that local terrorists, backed by Iran, were responsible for the five explosions that seriously damaged oil facilities in June 1986 and for the series of smaller blasts timed to disrupt the Islamic Summit conference held in Kuwait in late January. According to the Embassy, Kuwaiti authorities broke the terrorist ring shortly before the summit started but withheld news of the arrests and the arms caches until the foreign delegations and journalists had left the country. The Embassy also says there are unconfirmed reports that several police were wounded in a shootout with the terrorists. 9 (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Libya Latin America El Salvador Colombia New Antidissident Terrorist Campaign? Libya may be preparing to launch another of its periodic antidissident campaigns. Two gunmen murdered a 37-year-old Libyan businessman carrying a false Kuwaiti passport as he dined in an Athens restaurant on 7 January. A friend of the victim escaped unharmed. The killing was the first murder of a Libyan opponent of the Qadhafi regime since a Libyan industrialist was murdered in France last June. (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) Guerrillas Kidnap Three Mayors Leftist guerrillas of the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) kidnaped three mayors in various parts of El Salvador in early January. The abductions were part of the guerrillas' announced subversive campaign known as "Heroic January: Farabundo Marti Lives." These kidnapings may have been an attempt to intimidate local mayors, and the group may try more such kidnapings. The FMLN abducted 27 smalltown officials in a similar campaign in 1985 (b)(3) New Terrorist Organization An armed clandestine wing of "Causa Caribe"�a nonviolent legal organization� reportedly has come to light. The group is said to have conducted kidnapings, robberies, and other terrorist and criminal acts in the northern coast cities of Sar(b)(1) Marta and Barranquilla. (b)1(3) It is possible this group may have conducted a bus bombing in Barranquilla on 13 January that killed 13 persons. The M-19�the obvious suspects�claim not to have been involved. We believe the majority of Causa Caribe members have come from the Camilo Torres organization, a small, leftist youth group that is active in many parts of Colombia. It previously has not been associated with terrorist attacks. (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Alfaro Vive, Carajo!: A Current Assessment (b)(3)� The Ecuadorean Government has scored impressive gains against the Alfaro Vive, Carajo! (AVC) terrorist group over the course of 1986. Making use of foreign counterterrorist training and apparently applying good police tactics, the security forces have been able to penetrate and undermine the terrorist organization. Sensing that the AVC may be in disarray following the losses of several key leaders, we believe President Febres-Cordero--particularly in the wake of the recent coup attempt�will drive ahead with his counterterrorist program. Febres-Cordero will press the advantage to prevent the terrorists from recouping their losses and resurfacing as a major challenge during his remaining two years in office. Nevertheless, if the government falters in its commitment, the AVC could gain the necessary respite to reorganize and stage operations, although probably only at a low level (b)(3) Origins of the Group Information concerning the origins of the AVC is sketchy and at times conflicting. The group may have been formed as early as 1980, although it first surfaced publicly in 1983 when it stole the sword of Eloy Alfaro, a turn-of-the-century revolutionary leader, from a Quito museum. the group's first activities in the early 1980s were their efforts in the Oriente region of Ecuador to propagandize farmers and eSt"liQh peasant organizations. (b)(3) The group was created when dissension in the early 1980s broke the radical leftist political organization known as the Ecuadorean Revolutionary Leftist Movement (MIR) into three factions. Two of the splinters remained within the mainline MIR framework; the third broke away entirely. The Political-Military Organization (OPM) was formed from this group, and consolidated under the direct influence of the late Colombian M-19 leader Jaime Bateman. (b)(1) (b)(3) 11 Figure 1. M-I9 leader Carlos Pizarro Leon Gomez (bearded, on right) with AVC members. (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(3) The "independents" group, under Jarrin, adopted the name or Alfaro and went underground as AVC. (b)(3) Links to the M-19 Colombia's 19th of April Movement (M-19) has played a significant role in the life of the AVC, although the M-19's view that AVC is a branch of the M-19 is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the two groups share a nationalist ideology, and have continued, since the AVC's creation, a formal relationship that extends to operational support and military training. (b)(1) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 M-19 members also have backed AVC terrorists in important operations. For example, eight M-19 members and two AVC terrorists apparently worked together to kidnap a prominent Guayaquil banker in August 1985 The operation was aborted, however, when security forces stormed the hideout, killing the banke-(6-6-fveral terrorists. In return for such assistance, the AVC sent some 30 members to fight alongside the M-19 in the "America Battalion"�a multinational rural guerrilla organization operating in southern Colombia. This demonstration of solidarity, however, ultimately led to strains, because the AVC wishes to recall its members to beef UD its depleted ranks (b)(1) (b)(3) Other Foreign Ties individual AVC members also have received guerrilla training in El Salvador, Libya, and Nicaragua. The AVC reportedly sent several members to El Salvador for training because of a guarantee that they would participate in live-fire situations. In Nicaragua, small groups of AVC members reportedly have patrolled with Sandinista Army units searching for -03)(3)guan insurgents Libya also has trained AVC members. Between October 1983 and January 1984, approximately 20 AVC members accompanied an M-19 group to Libya and received guerrilla training at camp(b)( )Tripoli (b)(3) The AVC reportedly has a specialized unit that establishes and maintains contacts with international terrorist groups and foreign governments. As of May 1986, Rosa Mireya Cardenas, an AVC member living in Managua, was in charge of this external front (see inset). She reportedly had contacted and received Rosa Mireya CARDENAS Hernandez Member of the AVC Central Command Rosa Cardenas Hernandez, 27, is one of the founding members of the Alfaro Vive, Carajo! (AVC) group. She was arrested in Costa Rica in August 1984 while trying to return to Ecuador from Nicaragua and Panama. She is currently residing in Managua and directs the AVC's external front organization from there. She is known to have participated in bank robberies and is suspected of having acted behind the scenes in other AVC operations. Following the deaths of several leaders, Cardenas is a possible contender for AVC chief. Certainly she will have considerable influence on the sel-^b"^- )(3) '[a new AVC chief ( promises of assistance from the Vietnamese, Syrian, and Cuban Embassies, as well as PLO representatives in Managua: � Cuba has pledged intelligence and security training, as well as assistance in building guerrilla hospitals in rural areas. � Vietnam will provide training in jungle warfare and mountain camouflage. � Syria reportedly will give the AVC an unspecified amount of money and arms. � The PLO allegedly offered arms and training in exchange for the "detection of Jews living in America," and propaganda support of the PLO. 12 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 "Srefet, ( b)( 1 ) (b)(3) .7.77C-R t FIJOHUIS PM az fag CIE NMI m -pet tit RUM VS NCO -111E MICH nits - rint FENISI _ fa rEP rrrrimmi f101111 _ - Holg I CA N% 1.ilye trm lawn% ting %V% 1:1 ftC3 tit MO r-s12 r ts lam �� tSVI\ tv ItNirrAv trrtirr,�\ tiAgtA tit MG\ VagA \ Vt 0405A tit El � il2iI -- . rtarlisgi r rim � tEsis mots . J. Figure 2. AVC propaganda material. (b)(3) 3-17-1 Nevertheless, the group seems interested in broadening its foreign contacts, The AVC and the Left During its early period, when the group was registering successes, the AVC developed an ambitious revolutionary program that included leading a united left against President Febres- Cordero, while carrying out even more daring terrorist operations. The AVC reportedly believed that the conservative government in Ecuador made c^- 4eal conditions in which to forge such a front. (b)(3) The legal Ecuadorean left has consistently rejected the AVC's call to form a united front, thus isolating the terrorist group, and thwarting its more grandiose ambitions. Most of the leftist parties fear that association with the group's illegal terrorist activity will lead to government reprisals and alienate such electoral backing as they have received. (b)(3) 13 ( b)( 1 ) (b)(3) Government Successes Government security forces have combined penetrations with good use of intelligence to exploit AVC weaknesses and deal the terrorist group decisive blows. Over the past year, Ecuador's security forces have raided numerous safehouses and captured or killed dozens of terrorists�including several of the group's top leaders. Quito also has begun to work with Bogota to crack down on the M-19. (b)(3) President Febres-Cordero has reorganized the security forces�initially inexperienced and lacking in resources�and consolidated counterterrorism responsibility under the direction of Government Minister Robles. He secured training and assistance Secre Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 ''SrefeL Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Figure 3. AVC weapons taken from safehouse in Quito. for the security forces from the United States and other governments and encouraged them to focus on good police practices. Most important, Febres- Cordero fully supports his counterterrorist forces and has shown the political will to baa them against attacks from opposition political parties. His aggressive approach has occasionally resulted in abuses, but it has also improved the confid7L71-,-id overall effectiveness of the security service(.�1 )k�3 Outlook We believe the AVC will find it difficult to recover from its current state of disarray. The government has demonstrated the political will to press its advantage and to prevent the group from surfacing as a major threat in the near future. The killings of several key AVC leaders over the past year have not only demoralized the group but have also provoked a leadership crisis. These blows have destroyed the AVC as a national organization, and reduced it to groups of isolated cells working haphazardly. In fact, some members of the group have called for a national dialogue with the government to be mediated by the church. We believe that, like its forerunners, the (b)(3) group will divide over the issue of continued militancy versus a more clearly defined political agenda. Some elements of the AVC then might attempt to integrate into one or more of the established radical leftist parties, leaving the remaining AVC militants perl(b)(3) more violent than before Despite the group's overall decline, some members are still active and, according to press accounts, staged brief takeovers of a radio station in December. Incidents of this kind signal that the group can still mount limited operations, and may be able to stage a limited comeback if the government fails to press its hard-won gains. .(b)(3) 14 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Overview of '1n Terrorism in 1986 (b)(3) International terrorism�generally not a major problem in Asia�heated up in 1986 as the number of international incidents jumped 50 percent over 1985. We recorded some 66 incidents in the region last year as compared with 41 in 1985�still far below the hundreds of incidents that occurred in the Middle East and Latin America. Much of the terrorism in Asia is domestic rather than internationa (b)(3) Pakistan accounted for most of the increase in international terrorism last year: there were twice as many incidents last year as there were in 1985. We believe Afghan and Soviet agents terrorizing civilian targets in the North-West Frontier Province accounts for the bulk of the increase in Pakistan. Palestinian terrorists stormed a Pan Am airliner in Karachi last September, killing 22 persons and injuring as many as 100 others. Most Asian countries did not reflect any real increase in international attacks during the year, and Sikh extremists overseas�who downed an Air India 747 jet and killed over 300 p 1985� were relatively quiet during 1986. Pakistan: Karachi Heats Up Terrorist attacks sponsored by the Soviet Union and Afghanistan in the Pakistani-Afghan border area accounted for the marked increase in Pakistani terrorism during 1986. These agents�usually KHAD, the Afghan secret police�conducted a terrorist bombing campaign in the North-West Frontier Province and Baluchistan to erode Pakistani support for Afghan insurgents, and to sow dissension between Afghan refugees and Pakistani civilians in the area. These attacks were usually bombings and generally targeted bridges, railways, power transmission lines, shops, restaurants, and hospitals. We expect such bombings to continue in 1987 The most daring and brutal terrorist attack in Asia last year occurred in September, when four armed Palestinian gunmen stormed a Pan Am aircraft in Karachi. The attack eventually left 22 persons dead and nearly 100 others wounded. After initially killing 15 one American, the hijackers threatened to kill a passenger every 10 minutes unless they were provided a flightcrew and were flown to Cyprus. The deadlines passed without incident, but when the aircraft lighting failed, the terrorists opened fire on the passengers. The four gunmen, along with a fifth conspirator arrested later in Islamabad, were taken into Pakistani custody. They have given varying accounts of their origins and goals. Several groups claimed responsibility for the hijacking, although we believe the Abu Nidal Group was responsible ,and Libya probably knew of and provided logistic (b)(3)t to the operation. Another incident that involved Libya occurred when a bomb exploded at the Pakistan-Libyan Holding Company in Karachi last March. The company was founded as a joint venture, allegedly to invest in small- and medium-sized companies. An unidentified man reportedly planted a briefcase that exploded in the company's reception area. One person was killed and several others injured in the ensuing fire, which destroyed most of the first and second floors of the building. When Pakistani authorities detained a Libyan executive of the company, he admitted to being a Libyan intelligence agent and said he bombed the company to prevent its financial records from falling into the hands of the local authorities. The Pakistani Government suspected that the Libyan was involved in a plot to undermine 1-03).(a)lt Zia and expelled him Also in Karachi, a series of four bombs exploded in a 15-minute period during last July at four separate locations, killing a local security guard and wounding two other persons. The targets included the cargo office of Pan American Airlines and three offices of Saudia Airlines. Although no group has claimed credit for the blasts, the police suspect Iranian "Thteret..., Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 involvement. Iranians previously had been involved in antigovernment and anti-US terrorist attacks in Pakistan. In the summer of 1985, Iranian officials were believed to have been responsible for an attack on the American Center in Lahore, the placement of a bomb outside the Pan Am office in Karachi, and antigovernment Shia demonstrations in Quetta, Baluchistan, that lefib-3(13-ist 60 persons dead. The Pakistani terrorist group Al-Zulfikar, which raised concerns in 1983 and 1984 because it targeted Americans and other Westerners, was inactive for a second year. It apparently never recovered from its attempt in July 1984 to seize foreign hostages in Vienna�during which nine operatives were taken into Austrian custody�and the death a year later of one of its top leaders in France. Islamabad is still concerned about the ability of Al-Zulfikar to threaten the lives of Pakistani political leaders, but apparently sidewalks, and a building near the Canadian Embassy. Even though there were no casualties or damage, the incident was embarrassing to the Nakasone government, which had laid on unprecedented security for the conference. We believe Chukaku-ha realized that the attack would be unsuccessful but went ahead to embarrass the Nakasone government. The i (b)(3) received worldwide attention. In addition to attempts to disrupt the summit, radical leftist groups continued their campaign against Narita airport, the railway system, and Japanese Government buildings throughout the year. Attacks caused disl(b)(3), minor damage, and few injuries. does not currently regard it as a serious tl(b)(3) Domestic Terrorism in Japan Radical leftist groups in Japan, particularly the Chukaku-ha, caused most of the terrorism that occurred in 1986. They mounted several operations in opposition to the Tokyo Economic Summit, held last May�three in March before the summit and one during the May summit. All of the attacks were designed to obtain maximum publicity and embarrass the government. On 25 March, Senki Ara-ha (Battle Flag ARA Faction) fired homemade incendiary rockets from a parked car onto the grounds of the US Embassy in Tokyo and the Japanese Imperial Palace. Three days later the Chukaku-ha (Nucleus Faction) fired three incendiary rockets from a van at an Osaka police headquarters. On 31 March the radical Hazama-ha faction launched three rockets from a parked truck onto the grounds of the State Guest House, where summit meetings were to be held. Resurgence of the JRA? An incident in Jakarta after the Tokyo Economic Summit led to speculation that the Japanese Red Army (JRA) might be active again. Two homemade projectiles were fired at the US and Japanese Embassies in Jakarta but both failed to explode. An hour later, a car bomb exploded in the parking lot of the Canadian Embassy and destroyed at least six cars. The previously unknown "Anti-Imperialist International Brigade" claimed responsiblity for the attacks in retaliation for the antiterrorism declaration of the Tokyo Economic Summit. (b)(1) (b)(3) As with most such attacks, there were no casualties and little damage in any of these incidents. The only attack that took place during the Tokyo summit occurred on 4 May when Chukaku-ha fired five homemade rockets at the State Guest House where heads of foreign governments were arriving. All of the rockets missed their target and struck the street, The JRA made no claim concerning the incident, although it had previously claimed credit for the attacks it carried out in the 1970s. Japanese authorities believe that Shirosaki may have acted independently, or that he may be part of a faction that broke away from the JRA in February. If the JRA was involved in this incident, it would be the group's first act of terrorism since September 1977, when the group hijacked a Japan Airlines jetliner in Bombay and landed in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In that incident the hijackers demanded the release of six persons 16 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 --Streret, incarcerated in Japanese prisons in exchange for the passengers. ShirosaI63)(3))ne of the six released. Antigovernment Activity in the Philippines Insurgents in the Philippines continued to engage in terrorism to embarrass the Aquino government and win support for their causes. Communist rebels expanded their control over the countryside during the year. The New People's Army (NPA) of the Communist Party of the Philippines regularly attacked government targets, conducted assassinations and kidnapings, and extorted funds during 1986. The NPA generally avoided attacks against US and other foreign facilities, but in March NPA guerrillas in Kalinga-Apayo Province held nine US servicemen for more than 24 hours. The Americans, who accidentally entered NPA territory, were interrogated and then released unharmed. In the coming year the ability to contain the threat from the left will depend on President Aquino's development of a coherent counterinsurgency program and her '-' to deal with the senior military command (b)(3) The Muslim insurgency heated up slightly in 1986; most attacks were conducted against traditional police, army, and local political targets. In June and July the Moro National Liberation Front�the largest faction in the insurgency�kidnaped an American missionary, a Filipino-American child, 10 Filipino nuns, and a Swiss businessman and his local female companion. Ransom was paid ---,ral cases and all were released unharmed. (b)(3) The Tamils in Sri Lanka Two spectacular attacks during 1986 represented a new level of violence for Sri Lanka. In early May a bomb blew the tail off an Air Lanka passenger jet preparing to take off from Colombo for the Maldives, killing 16 persons and injuring 41 others. In our judgment the bomb exploded prematurely. It probably was intended to go off shortly after takeoff, while the plane was over Sri Lankan territory, in order to cause maximum casualties. If the plane had been airborne when the bomb went off -,,any as 150 persons could have been killed. (b)(3) 17 A few days later a bomb exploded in the Central Telegraph Office in downtown Colombo, killing at least 11 persons and wounding some 100 others. Police sources believe the bomb consisted of 10 pounds of gelignite, which exploded near a crowded public area inside the building, causing parts of two floors to collapse into the employees' canteen in the basement. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)�the most powerful and hardline insurgent group�most likely were resp) for both terrorist attacks. These bombings occurred just after an Indian Government delegation had arrived in Colombo to explore ways of restarting stalled talks on Tamil grievances. We believe the attacks were intended to embarrass the government, provoke violence in the capital, and torpedo the Indian-brokered peace talks between the Sri Lankan Government and the Tamil insurgents. Major Tamil groups in the future probably will continue their attacks against Sinhalese civilians, economic installations, and may target foreign installations or individuals to foment instability and force gov(b)(3)-it concessions on Tamil autonomy. India's Sikh Cauldron Still Boiling Sikh militants proved throughout the year that they intend to pursue terrorism to press their case for an independent state. Militants continued to target Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, other Sikh moderates, Hindus, and government security forces. When approximately 600 Sikh extremists occupied the Golden Temple in Amritsar early in the year, the Punjab state government successfully assaulted the Temple and drove them out. Extremists staged a machinegun attack in a crowded market in May as well as two vicious bus hijackings in July and November that ended with the murders of all the Hindu passengers. In October a Sikh gunman tried to assassinate Prime Minister Gandhi during his visit to the grave of Mahatma Gandhi. Six persons, including two members of the Prime Minister's party were slightly wounded, but Gandhi was unscathed. (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 The extensive overseas Sikh network was responsible for several spectacular terrorist attacks or plots in 1985�the downing of an Air India airliner off the Irish coast, the bomb explosion at Narita airport, and the arrest of American Sikhs for conspiring to kill Rajiv Gandhi. During 1986 there were no significant terrorist attacks inside India by Sikh expatriates. We believe Sikh militants will continue to rely on violence, and may turn to increasingly spectacular acts such as mass killings of Hindus, assassinations of senior Indian officials. and attacks on Indian civil aviation. (b)(3) In Australia a rare terrorist incident occurred in December. A car bomb exploded under the Turkish Consulate building in Melbourne, killing one person and injuring another. The entire floor housing the Consulate was completely destroyed. A previously unknown group, the "Greek-Bulgarian-Armenian Front," claimed responsibility for the attack. The suspects may be connected with a rightwing Armenian terrorist group. This group assassinated the Turkish Consul General in Sydney in 1980, but has been inactive since 1985. (b)(3) Terrorism Elsewhere in Asia and the Pacific Isolated acts of international terrorism worthy of mention occurred in other areas of Asia and the Pacific last year. Two terrorist attacks occurred in Thailand in April, an attack at South Korea's Kimpo Airport left five persons dead last September, and a car bomb exploded at the Turkish Consulate in (b)(3) Melbourne, Australia, in December. In Thailand, a time bomb filled with nails exploded near the entrance of the Erawan Hotel in Bangkok shortly before Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger was to attend a banquet. One Thai was killed and two others wounded. There was no claim of responsibility. A few weeks later a bomb exploded inside the compound of the US Consulate in Songkhla. The bomb was thrown from a passing car and caused minor property damage and no casualties. Thai authorities believe the attack was carried out by members of the Pattani United Liberation Organization (PULO), a group long-funded by Libya, but only sporadically (b3)in the last 10 years. In Korea, on the eve of the Asian Games, a bomb exploded in a trash can near a crowded arrival terminal at Kimpo Airport, killing five persons and injuring 29. An anomyous caller told police that radical South Korean students were responsible for the incident. Seoul has claimed the explosion was a North Korean�engineered attempt to disrupt the Asian Games, but South Korean investigators have been unable to turn up evidence that North Korea was behind the bombing (b)(3) 18 (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Thsetret�. Emerging Terrorist Threat to Scandinavia (b)(3) The Scandinavian countries�Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark�have been relatively free of terrorist activity, compared with Central Europe, and likely will remain so for the near future. However, recent trends in terrorist operations suggest that, in the longer term, Scandinavia could well face a significantly increased threat from terrorists. We expect the threat will vary among the countries, with Sweden and Denmark the most likely to experience terrorism. Moreover, we expect that any increase in terrorism probably would be related to causes external to Scandinavia�principally the spillover of Middle Eastern issues�rather than terrorism b(b)(3yected against local Scandinavian targets. Terrorists from outside the region have struck in Scandinavia on several occasions in recent years. For example, a US airline office and a Jewish synagogue in Copenhagen, Denmark, were bombed in July 1985. In 1986 two embassies were attacked: the Soviet Embassy was bombed in December, and radicals seized the Peruvian Embassy for several hours last April. Also last April, a small bomb exploded outside a US airline office in Stockholm, and the African National Congress office there was bombed last September. The most dramatic example of the region's vulnerability to terrorism was the murder of Swedish Prime Minister Olaf Palme on 28 February 1986; the perpetrator- ' 'heir nationality are still unknown. (b)(3) Terrorist-related activities have recently prompted more action from authorities. A Swedish national of Middle East origin was one of six persons arrested in October 1986 in London for plotting to kill the Israeli Ambassador to Great Britain. The Swede reportedly was a courier for the Abu Nidal organization. London deported him to Sweden without prosecuting him. Stockholm ordered the expulsion of the deputy chief of the PLO Information Office last December because Swedish security officials believed she had widespread contacts with terr,-;-* �oups, possibly including Abu Nidal. (b)(1) (b)(3) Other groups have ties to Scandinavia as well. Norwegian radical leftist groups may have links to the Irish Republican Army. Members of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA) reside in Denmark, and the Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) is active in Sweden and Denmark. Dissension within the PKK apparently sparked three attacks on Kurds in Sweden and Denmark last year that left two persons dead and one wounded. PKK activity has been especially unsettling to Stockholm since there is some evidence the group may have been involved in Olaf Palme's assassination. The Stockholm police have pursued the possible connection aggressively but have failed to develop compelling evidence. Several Kurds were arrested in January 1987 but (b)(3) subsequently were released. Since 1984 the Scandinavian countries have experienced an influx of immigrants from the Middle East who could be tapped for support of terrorist operations. (b)(1) In Norway the arrival of as many as 100,000 immigrants from the Middle East, Africa, and Asia has hindered the performance of background checks by authorities. Denmark has accepted approximately 6,000 Middle Eastern immigrants since 1985. Although no figures are available, Sweden, and possibly Finland, may have experienced a similar influx. (b)(3) Improved counterterrorist efforts elsewhere in Western Europe may force terrorist groups to look for fresh ground for their activities. Terrorists may find Scandinavia an inviting option because it has less 19 DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 stringent security than in most of the rest of Europe, and it houses the same range of targets as elsewhere: synagogues, airline offices, mass transportation terminals, embassies, and tourist attractions. Other West European countries have stepped up security at government facilities and airports, and American diplomatic and military installations also (b)(3) upgraded their security In the face of these efforts, some terrorist groups may have begun to seek out more hospitable loc(b)( )for planning their terrorist operations. Hawari terrorist organization, which is tied to Palestinian Liberation Organization chief Yasir Arafat, reportedly has begun to look at Asia and Africa because Europe had been too difficult for recruitment and obtaining logistic support. There are as yet no indications that such terrorists are turning to Scandinavia as fertile ground, but, in time, the region could become as attractive as other areas outside central Europe. (b)(3) If terrorist groups significantly expand their activities in the Nordic region, we expect they will move in several stages. Initially, Scandinavia could be used as an entry point to the rest of Western Europe. The recent arrests of several terrorists arriving in Europe from the Middle East, such as Mohammad Hammadi, one of the TWA Flight 847 hijackers, may signal Middle Eastern terrorist groups that central Europe is becoming more dangerous as a transit point and make Scandinavia more attractive. Eastern Europe has been used in this fashion by Middle Eastern terrorists, but some of the countries have taken steps to monitor more closely, and in some cases curb, the flow. several Iranians allegedly traveled through Denmark and Sweden to carry out attacks against Arab airlines operating in Western Europe. Scandinavian security authorities have expressed concern that they cannot adequately monitor the movement of persons they suspect may be rnnnected with terrorist activities (b)(3) Terrorist groups also could find Scandinavia convenient as a logistic base for their operations. Weapons and explosives stolen from an unguarded military ammunition storage bunker in Sweden last November have been sold to Middle Eastern terrorists operating in France. (b)(1) (b)(3) Terrorists probably would select American, Israeli, or Jewish interests in Scandinavia as primary targets. Nordic governments generally have been sympathetic to Arab concerns, and attacks on Scandinavians could jeopardize that good will. There are no US military installations in Scandinavia, although there are NATO-associated facilities in Norway and Denmark. Numerous US businesses are represented in the region, which is also popular with American tourists, providing a variety of potential targets. Police foiled an attempt last September against a passenger ferry running between Stockholm and Helsinki after a phone caller reported the ferry would be sunk to P-') ) the many Americans who were aboard (b)(3) an Arab terrorist team was in Stockholm to attack the American or Israeli Embassies or other US civili;(b)(3 targets there, but no attacks occurred. (b)(1) internatiin,\ fo terrorist groups have as yet focused on ScandinaW.). Nevertheless, government officials throughout the region have indicated an increasing awareness of the potential threat, forcefully brought home to them by Olaf Palme's assassination. The greatest threat in Scandinavia appears to be in Sweden and Denmark where terrorists have carried or "-- majority of attacks (b)(3) Scandinavian officials have voiced fears that lax physical security at airports, government facilities, and around their political leaders, combined with their limited ability to track individuals traveling in the region, could make Scandinavia an inviting area to terrorists. Sweden's expulsion of a PLO official reportedly signaled Stockholm's resolve not to allow terrorists to use Sweden as a staging area, and the 20 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 government is planning additional steps to reinforce that perception. The other countries in the region have taken such steps as increasing funds earmarked for counterterrorist efforts and providing additional training for security forces, but these efforts are relatively modest and may not be adequate for even the limited threat currently facing the region. (b)(3) Reverse Blank 21 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 -"Sztret... (b)(1) (b)(1) (b)(1) (b)(3) (b)(1) (b)(3) Fatah Official Implicated in TWA Flight 840 Attack m(`-') (b)(1) a Palestinian group that is a part of Fatah was responsible for the TWA Flight 840 attack on 2 April 1986. The explosion occurred shortly before the aircraft was to land in Athens and killed four Americans. a Lebanese Christian, May Mansour, as the perpetrator. that she was working on behalf of Fatah's Colonel Hawari. Hawari, a close confidant of PLO chief Yasir Arafat, heads a special Fatah security unit. May Mansour�who also had ties to a Syrian-backed group�reportedly was recruited by a Hawari operative to serve as a courier. Mansour reportedly received the explosives to place aboard the aircraft from Hawari operatives in Cairo. The explosion ripped a hole in the fuselage and killed the four� including a 9-month-old baby�when they sucked out of the aircraft (b)(3) Moroccan authorities arrested four Hawari operatives�two Palestinians and two Tunisians�last August who were carrying explosive devices and false passports one of the Palestinians revealed Mansour's involvement in the attack and also identified her as one of 14 Hawari operatives responsible for bomb attacks. The technology of the bombing device used on TWA 840 resembled that used by the radical Palestinian 15 May Organization, whose former operatives ha" hi working with the Hawari group. (b)(3) The arrest of the four Hawari operatives in Morocco fueled intense debate within Fatah over Hawari's operations and raised questions concerning Arafat's knowledge of these operations, The arrests also caused friction between the PLO and Tunisia after it was discovered that Hawari maintained a covert office in Tunis. Tunisia reportedly expelled Hawari and his apparat from Tunisia shortly after the arrests in Morocco. The PLO also apparently was forced to reduce its presence in Tunisia (b)(3) Reverse Blank 23 After Hawari's expulsion from Tunisia, he reportedly returned to Baghdad, Iraq, where he also maintains a home and an office. His activities were reportedly temporarily suspended, probably because of pressure from angered Fatah and PLO officials. In late December, however, Hawari reportedly returned to work in his Baghdad office and resumed the positie- as head of his organization. (b)3) In early January, PLO Chairman Yasir Arafat reportedly ordered Colonel Hawari to suspend foreign terrorist operations. The group's resources were to be used instead against Amal and Syrian forces in Lebanon. Arafat reportedly is willing, however, to allow Hawari's group to help the radical Shi(b)(1 ) Hizballah conduct foreign terrorist operation(b)(3) Arafat's order probably does not mean that Hawari has been taken out of the terrorism business but more likely reflects the importance the PLO places on the war of the camps in Lebanon and Arafat's strong commitment to reestablishing a PLO presence in Lebanon. Syria and Israel may become the short-term focus of Hawari's operations�probably in an effort to further the PLO's goals in Lebanon. The group's willingness to assist Hizballah in foreign terrorist operations, however means operations could fc--- -- Western targets (b)(3) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 DI TR 87-003 11 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 (b)(3) I March 1878 2 March 1956 2 March 1972 2 March 1977 3 March 1961 4 March 1982 6 March 1957 The Terrorism Diary for March Below is a compendium of March dates of known or conceivable significance to terrorists around the world. Our inclusion of a date or event should not by itself be construed to suggest that we exnect or anticipate a commemorative terrorist event. (b)(3) Bulgaria. Independence Day. Morocco. Independence Day. Termination of Treaty of Fez. El Salvador. Founding of People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). Libya. Establishment of Jamahiriyah (masses' state). Morocco. Accession of King Hassan to throne. Colombia and United States. Effective date of extradition treaty aimed at narcotics traffickers. Ghana. Independence Day. 6 March 1975 Kurdish regions. Algerian accord between Iran and Iraq, abandoning support of the Kurds. 10 March 1979 Kurdish regions. Death of Kurdish leader Mulla Mustafa Barzani. 11 March 1966 Indonesia. President Sukarno turns over power to Soeharto. 12 March Gabon. National Day. 12 March 1880 Turkey. Birthday of Kemal Ataturk. 12 March 1968 Mauritius. Independence Day. 13 March 1979 Grenada. National Day. Commemorates coup d'etat by Maurice Bishop. 14 March 1975 Japan. Chukaku-ha (Nucleus Faction) Secretary General Honda assassinated by rival radical group. 15 March 1962 Angola. Founding of National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA). 16 March 1921 Armenians. Signing of Soviet-Turkish border treaty that ended Armenian hopes of establishing a separate, independent state. 17 March Ireland. St. Patrick's Day. Ireland's National Day. 25 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 20 March 1981 Colombia. Death of M-19 terrorist Carmenza Londono ("La Chiqui"). 21 March Kurdish regions. Kurdish New Year. 21 March Palestinians. "International Day of Solidarity With the Struggle of the Arab People of Palestine Against Israeli Aggressors." 21 March 1960 South Africa. Sharpeville Massacre of black demonstrators by security forces. 22 March 1945 Middle East. Founding of Arab League. Original members: Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Syria. 23 March 1956 Pakistan. Pakistan Day. Founding of Islamic republic. 24 March 1972 Northern Ireland. Beginning of direct rule by British Government. 24 March 1976 Argentina. President Isabel Peron ousted by Gen. Jorge Rafael Videla. 24 March 1980 El Salvador. Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero assassinated by rightists. 24 March 1986 Libya and United States. US naval forces cross "line of death" in Gulf of Sidra and engage Libyan forces. Four Libyan patrol boats sunk or damaged and an SA-5 radar site crippled. 25 March 1821 25 March 1975 25 March 1980 26 March 1971 26 March 1978 28 March 28 March 1970 28 March 1980 Greece. Greek Revolution Memorial Day. Commemorates independence from Turkey. Saudi Arabia. Assassination of King Faisal and accession of King Khalid. El Salvador. US Embassy attacked by Popular Liberation Forces (FPL) in response to assassination of Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo Romero the previous day; since then, FPL attacks have been relatively more frequent between 25 March and 6 April than during rest of year. Bangladesh. Independence Day. Egypt and Israel. Peace agreement ratified. Palestinians. National Day. Libya. UK Evacuation Day. Day British forces turned over bases and departed. El Salvador. Government expropriates plantations; Salvation Movement of 28 March (MS-28) takes its name from this event. 28 March 1980 Italy. Four members of Red Brigades die in shootout with Carabinieri in Genoa. Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 29 March 1969 Philippines. Founding of New People's Army, military arm of Communist Party of the Philippines. 30 March 1976 Palestinians. Day of the Homeland. 30 March 1986 France. Andre Olivier, cofounder of Action Directe, arrested in Lyon. 31 March Malta. National Day. (b)(3) Reverse Blank 27 ----ge-Zte�L.._ Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 (b)(3) Chronology of Terrorism-1986/1987 Below are described noteworthy foreign and international events involving terrorists, or the use of terrorist tactics, which have occurred or come to light since our last issue. In some cases, the perpetrators and their motivations may not be known. Events and developments tha(b )(3)already been described elsewhere in this publication are not included 17 September 18 September 19 September Spain: Spanish Interior and Justice Ministers testify about their defiance in 1984 of court orders in a Bilbao police brutality trial. A criminal judge had ordered 90 civil guards to appear for possible identification by a Basque Fatherland and Liberty Organization-Military Wing (ETA-M) member, who alleged he had been tortured. The Ministers argued that the appearance of(b)-(3--jards in open court could expose them to retaliation by ETA-M Spain: In Vitoria a bomb explodes at bank, causing minor damage and no injuries; another bomb is safely defused. No group claimed responsibility, but authorities attribute the be�'-- *- Iraultza, because of factors consistent with the group's activities. Spain: Police Police arrest two suspected Basque Fatherland and Liberty Organization members in San Sebastian; seize small weapons cache. Both men were detained under an antiterrorist law allowing suspects to be held incommunicado for up to 10 days. (b)(3) 22 September Portugal: American International School in Lisbon rnPn;ves bomb threat. A (b)(3) December 7 and 15 December 12 December 13 December search was conducted with negative results. Iraq: Military factory blows up. The Iraqi Mujahedin claimed responsibility. (b)(3) Italy: Two Red Brigades members recaptured in Milan and Forli Province. Calagero Diana and Giuseppe di Cecco had escaped from a Novara hospital on 22 September. Both had been transferred(b)(3) maximum security prison to the hospital during a hunger strike. France: Paris court sentences founder of the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia-Revolutionary Movement (ASALA-RM) to six years imprisonment. Monte Melkonian was convicted on 28 November 1986. In its justification the court placed 7-'4�tar emphasis on Melkonian's leading role in ASALA-RM. (b)(3) Netherlands: Police arrest three members of the Red Revolutionary Front (RRF). The extreme leftist action group, believed to be composed of four to six members in The Hague area, has claimed responsibility for four bombing incidents this year. Police believe these arrests have effectively neutralized the RRF. 29 Secret DI TR 87-003 12 February 1987 (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 17 December 18 December 21 December 27 December January Early January France: Hendaye border police hand over suspected Basque Fatherland and Liberty member to Spanish authorities. Jose-Maria Olabarrieta-Olabarrieta, alias "Toxema," was the 26th Spanish Basque expelled by France since July 1986. Guadeloupe: French police arrest suspected terrorist member in Point-a-Pitre. Jean-Charles Laporal is believed to be a member of Affiche Rouge, a branch of the better known Action Directe terrorist group. He is believed to have committed armed rnhherieS at various branches of the Bank of Lyon in France in 1981 and 1982. (b)(3) Corsica: Fifteen bombs explode in Bastia, damaging houses, apartments, and automobiles but causing no injuries. Another eight bombs were defused or failed to explode. The NFront for the Liberation of Corsica claimed responsibility for the blasts. Corsica: Nine bomb explosions damage various French-owned targets but cause no injuries. No one claimed responsibility hut police suspect the National Front for the Liberation of Corsica (b)(3) Iran: Blast destroys weapons depot. Over 500 Iranian Revolutionary(E)(3)1s were reported killed. No group has claimed responsibility Jordan: Authorities arrest 11 members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). Among them was the most senior PFLP member operating in Jordan. Some of the group were charged with "security offenses." (b)(13) Kuwait: Police arrest 11 suspected in oilfield fires of 19 January. The suspects were in posse(b)(3)f arms and explosives. Five Kuwaiti citizens are still being sought. Guadeloupe: Radical independence group member receives five-year prison sentence for 1983 police station bombing in Basse-Terre. Leila Cassubie turned herself in to French authorities in October. She is the first fugitive to take (b)(3) advantage of an amnesty program for Guadeloupean terrorists. Turkey: Police arrest five suspected members of a separatist group in Malatya. Officials believe the five were engaged in r-(6)73'--)iting an illegal organization. They were writing to potential members. 1 January Israel: Small bomb explodes at bus stop in Kefar Sava. There were no injuries. 2 January (b)(3) (b)(3) West Bank: Explos13)(i)lrge discovered in Nablus. Police detonated the bomb without incident k Spain: Two bombs explode at Navacerrada ski resort hotel, causing extensive damage but no injuries. Shortly before the blasts, a caller warned of the bombs, claiming responsibility in the name of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty organization (b)(3) 30 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 4 January Spain: Suspected Basque Fatherland and Liberty organization guerrillas burn French Peugeot car showroom in Mondragon. Police reported the blaze may have been caused by a bomb. There was no claim for the attack (b)(3) France: Smoke grenade detonates under US Embassy vehicle near residential compound at Boulonge,(6)(3) were no injuries or damage. No group claimed responsibility 5 January West Bank: Molotov cocktail smashes wi,-(b)d of an Israeli bus near Ramallah. No one was hurt. 6 January Israel: Katyusha rockets ca.b,r,, r)(3)ught damage in Galilee. The rockets were fired ( 7 January 8 January 10 January 10 January 10-11 January 11 January 12 January from Lebanon West Bank: Molotov cocktail thrown at man guarding parking 63)(3)sraeli bus company. The firebomb ignited but caused no damage Spain: Small bomb explodes at French car dealership in Bilbao, causing minor damage to cars in showroom. There was no claim for the attack, but police beliPvP the Basque Fatherland and Liberty organization was responsible. (b)(3) West Bank: Molotov cocktail thrown at Ivrapi; bus in Nablus. No injuries or damages were reported (b)(3) Israel: Bomb desti(b)(3)ar in Kiryat Malachi, south of Tel Aviv. There were no casualties. 1 Gaza Strip: Molotov 00)1 thrown at Israeli car. The car was destroyed but no one was hurt. West Bank: Arab mayor of Bethle,ib- ofthes threats. He was warned against continuing ties to Jordan. � Netherlands: Arson attack against Amsterdam supermarket causes extensive damage but no injuries. The previously unknown "Revolutionar(b)(3)Racist Action Group" (RARA) claimed responsibility Lebanon: Two Nepalese UNIFIL soldiers are shot and wounded in southern Lebanon. The incident occurred when several Shiltes tried to force their way through a UNIFIL position. (b)(3) Gaza Strip: Molotov cocktails thi(b)(3)' Israeli cars in Gaza and Rafah. The firebombs failed to ignite. Lebanon: Bomb explosion in West Beirut government building damages Ministry of Tourism offices and Beirut Radio. There has been no claim of responsibility (b)(3) 31 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 13 January 14 January Mid-January casualties. Lebanon: Israeli aircraft attack Palestinian targets in southern Lebanon. The proximity of the facilities to Syrian-controlled ar(b)(3);gests that Israel may have been warning Damascus as well Lebanon: Three bombs explode at gate of Ghazzah Hospital in West Beirut, killing four Amal members and injuring three others. The "Forces of the Free Men of Beirut," a previously unknown group, has claimed responsibility. West Bank: Firebombs A/7,...,1e an Israeli bus near refugee camp. There were no (b)(3) Turkey: Adana military court sentences rightist militants. Two members of the Ulkucu Youth Association (UGD) were sentenced to death for killing 22 persons in Adana in September 1980. The court also sentenced two other members of the group to life impl(b)(3)mt, while 11 others received prison terms ranging from two to 36 years, Turkey: Three Dev Vol (Revolutionary Way) members sentenced to death by Adana military court. The court upheld its earlier dec(3)/hich had been reversed by the military high appeals court. Turkey: Eight persons arrested for the sabotage of an ammunition factory last summer. The Turkis(b)(3)munist Party Union (TKP-B) took credit for the incident 15 January West Bank: Men tht(b)-(3)stones attack Israeli vehicles and an IDF post. There were no injuries. 16 January Turkey: Separatists attack a village in Mardin, wounding (b)(3y0n5. The militants clashed with village guards and then fled. (b)(3) West Germany: Former pilot for Iranian Majlis Speaker Rafsanjani assassinated. The victim had defected to Iraq in the summer of 1986. His assailants escaped, but they are almost certainly Iranian Government agents. (b)(3) Lebanon: Boobytrapped car explodes in Al-Hadath, injuring a child. The car had been rigged with an explosive charg- --'^hing 500 kilograms. No group has claimed responsibility (b)(3) 17 January Gaza Strip: Molotov cocktail thrown at Isi(b)(3)r. The firebomb exploded on the road and caused no damage. Israel: Israeli brothers stabbed in Jerusalem. One youth wa(b)(aysly wounded. The PLO and Abu Nidal both claimed responsibility. Israel: Youths attack Arab boy in Jewish neighborhood of Jerusalem. The boy required medical treatment. This attack was probably retaliation for stabbing of Jewish youths on the same day. (b)(3) 32 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Thztret, 19 January 20 January 21 January 21 and 24 January 22 January Lebanon: Hizballah car bomb, intended for use against Iraqi Embassy or American Ambassador, detonates prematurely while being rigged in garage. The explosion, which occurred in the town of Brital in the Bekaa Valley, destroyed the car and the garage and injured four Hizballah members Turkey: Diyarbakir martial law court sentences four Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) members to life imprisonment. Seven of the remaining defendants were sentenced to jail terms ranging from 10 to 20 years, while seven others were acquitted (b)(3) Gaza Strip: Molotov cocktails thrown at Israeli car. The (1-6)----(1-3) missed the target. Several suspects were detained for questioning Chile: Authorities announce that a doctor and a nurse have been arrested in connection with an attempt on the life of President Augusto Pinochet last September. The two arc(b)(3):ted members of the Manuel Rodriguez Patriotic Front (b)(3) Belgium: Suspected terrorist released after year in custody on charges of criminal conspiracy. Luc van Acker was arrested in January 1986 during a police raid on a Communist Combatant Cells safehouse in Brussels. At the time of his arrest, 1-u(b)(3) was linked to another group, the Revolutionary Front for Proletarian Action. Kuwait: Missiles launched at Kuwaiti island. Authorities reportedly believe they were Iranian-directed and intended disrupt the Islamic Conference summit meetings in Kuwait. (b)(3) Italy: Three suspected Red Brigades members captured after Rome shootout. Two of the terrorists were injured and a fourth suspect escaped. A passerby was also wounded. Paolo Cassetta, the best kr---- -4' the three, had been sought by the police for over a year. (b)(3) Turkey: Eight villagers killed by guerri,(b)(3. )Uludere attack The Kurdish Workers Party is suspected. Iraq: Unconfirmed rumors report Saddam Husayn injured in assassinati(b--)(3) attempt. Some circumstantial evidence supports the report. Colombia: Norwegian police said that Colombia's Ambassador to Norway, Nazly Lozano Eljure, has been placed under heavy police guard at her request, after the shooting of Colombia's Ambassador in Budapest in early January. In the past, Lozano has strongly supported a strong stance against drug traffickers and was posted at the Oslo Embassy in September 1986 to ensure her safety (b)(3) 33 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 23 January 24 January 25 January 26 January 27 January France: In Bastia, Corsica, a bomb explodes outside the apartment of the French Interior Minister's niece, hours after he dissolved the Corsican Movement for Self-Defense (MCA) at a Cabinet meeting. No one was injured in the blast. The French Interior Minister, also a Corsican, has renewed a crackdown on the group, which is considered a front for the outlawed Corsican National Liberation Front. (b)(3) West Bank: Explosive charge discovered at Chl",`"4 Hatikva settlement. The bomb was safely dismantled. (b)(3) Turkey: Suspected Kurdish Workers Party separatists attack two houses near Midyat with firearms and handgrenades, killing 10 villagers and injuring six others. All were members of two families. Six of the dead were children. � (b)(3) Kuwait: Bomb explodes near hotel in Salhia District. The bomb, which was placed under a car, caused no casualties. The "Revolutionary $)(3zation Forces of the Prophet Mohammad" claimed responsibility France: Three bombs found in Basque country police stations. One device exploded in Espelette, causing no damage or injuries. The other two unexploded devices were found nearby, in Ustaritz and Bayonne. No group cla;--4 -f...sponsibility for the bombs, although Iparretarak is suspected. (b)(3) Peru: Fifteen bombs explode in town of Huancayo, east of Lima, causing blackouts and serious damage. The targets included stores, banks, and homes of local goverr(b)(3yfficials. Sendero Luminoso terrorists probably are responsible. Lebanon: Bomb explodes at Channel 7 television station in West Beirut, causing a number of casualties and material damage. The Lebanese Liberation (b)(3)anizati01 has claimed responsibility for the explosion of the 6-kilogram bomb. Peru: Sendero Luminoso terrorists attack Indian Embassy in Lima, killing three police officers. The eight-man group approached the Embassy in daylight, both by vehicle and disguised as street vendors. The attack probably was intended to protest President Garcia's recent official trip to India (b)(3) Peru: Sendero Luminoso terrorists simultaneously take over the Cuban Prensa Latina and Britain's Reuter news agency offices in Lima. The terrorists issued statements denouncing President Garcia's trip to India and his efrnrt to assume third world leadership. No injuries were reported. (b)(3) Spain: Parcel bomb explodes in Pamplona store, killing the owner and injuring seven others. The blast destroyed the store and damaged adjacent apartments and nearby cars. No one claimed responsibility. (b)(3) 34 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Th Colombia: Terrorists bomb offices of National Tax Administration in Bogota, causing one injury but little damage. The terrorists probably are taking advantage of popular dissatisfaction with the country's recent tax reform law, believed by many to discriminate in favor of the upper classes. (b)(3) 28 January 30 January Late January West Bank: Package bomb dismantled; intended for Mayor Fr, 9%; ilethlehem. Two Sunni Muslim suspects have been arrested. (b)(3) Gaza: Israeli border police fire on young Gazan demonstrators. Three youths were injured, one 14-year-old died from his wounds. (b)(3) Turkey: Diyarbakir court tries 28 Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) members for attacks in Uludere. The military prosecutor has demanded the death penalty for one of the accused. The suspect may have been involved in the PKK attack that provoked a Turkish air raid on PKK camps in Iraq last August. The prosecutor requested four years' imprisonment for each of the remaining 27 defendants. (b)() 1 February Israel: Bomb explodes on Israeli bus traveling from Haifa to Jerusalem. Nine persons were injured, one seriously Reverse Blank 35 (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883 ,0 _ Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922883