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February 26, 1987
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Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Directorate of Intelligence MASTER FILE COPY DO NOT REBUT 00 MARX ON Terrorism Review 26 February 1987 (b)(3) Secret DI TR 87-004 26 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Copy 620 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Warning Ncitice Intelligence Sources or Methods Involved (WNINTEL) National Security Unauthorized Disclosure Information Subject to Criminal Sanctions Dissemination Control Abbreviations NOFORN (NF) Not releasable to foreign nationals NOCONTRACT (NC) Not releasable to contractors or contractor/consultants PROPIN (PR) Caution�proprietary information involved ORCON (OC) Dissemination and extraction of information controlled by originator REL... This information has been authorized for release to... WN WNINTEL�Intelligence sources or methods involved (b)(3) All material on this page is Unclassified. Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 (b)(3) (b)(3) Terrorism Reviewp7 26 February 1987 1 Focus: Anti-American Terrorism on the Rise in the Andean Region 7 Highlights Counterterrorist Center (b)(3) (b)(3) 15 Peru: The Terrorist Threat to Americans 19 International Terrorism in Western Europe, 1986 23 Basque Fatherland and Liberty Terrorism in 1986 29 Chronology of Terrorism-1986-87 Reverse Blank This review is published biweekly by the Directorate of Intelligence. Appropriate articles produced by other elements of the CIA as well as by other agencies of the US Intelligence Community will be considered for publication. Comments and queries are welcome and may be directed to the Executive Editor i -Secret Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Focus Terrorism Review 26 February 1987 (b)(3) Anti-American Terrorism on the Rise (b)(3) in the Andean Region The Andean region has become one of the most dangerous areas in the world for businesses and facilities associated with the United States. Although most of the violence in the region continues to be directed against domestic targets, the steady rise in anti-US attacks over the past five years refutes the traditional view of Latin American terrorism as being sporadic and cyclical. A further increase in attacks� particularly if bombings become more lethal and American citizens are victims� could hinder the transaction of US business, both diplomatic and commercial and undercut the trend toward more open government: � In 1986, Latin America�and specifically the Andean countries�replaced Western Europe as the second-most popular location of international terrorist attacks. Only in the Middle East did more such attacks occur. Figure 1 Anti-US Attacks in Andean Region, 1980-86 Number of attacks 100 80 60 40 20 0 1980 81 82 83 84 85 86 1 312029 3-87 --Seeso.t�_ DI TR 87-004 26 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 � Nearly half of all terrorist incidents worldwide that involved US citizens or property occurred in Latin America. US interests were favorite targets in Colombia, Peru, and Chile, where American banks and US-affiliated petroleum companies were the primary targets. � In Peru and Colombia, moreover, attacks against US businesses nearly doubled. � Anti-US violence in the Andean region has increased consistently over the past five years. In 1982, for example, there were only 12 anti-American attacks, compared with about 80 incidents in 1986 (b)(3) We believe that Andean terrorists are increasingly selecting US targets in an effort to attract international media attention to their local causes. Some terrorist groups, however, genuinely want to compel the withdrawal of US official and commercial interests. This stems in part from anti-American sentiment that goes back at least a century in South America and perceives the United States as a heavyhanded external influence in the region. The terrorists also hope that their anti-American attacks will win them favor�and ultimately a--'-*----;e�from such state sponsors of terrorism as Cuba and Libya. (b)(3) Governments in the region find themselves confronting growing threats with ill- prepared security forces. Some of the democratic governments in the Andean Figure 2 Anti-US Attacks, by Country, 1985-86 0 Colombia 1985 86 Peru 85 86 Chile 85 86 10 20 30 40 (b)(3) 2 312030 3-87 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 �Seefot� countries, unlike the military dictatorships that dealt with terrorism in the southern countries in the 1960s and 1970s, are in a tenuous position. The nature of those new governments�open and pluralistic�probably makes them more susceptible to terrorist violence. Many of the security forces are poorly trained, especially in the use of terrorist penetrations and crisis management. The civilian governments, moreover, sometiniPQ A re reluctant to admit that they face a national security problem. (b)(3) Colombia Anti-US terrorist incidents in Colombia increased by nearly 70 percent in 1986� from 21 in 1985 to 35 last year�making it the country with the highest number of anti-US terrorist incidents in the world. Some 90 percent of all anti-US attacks were directed against US business interests, mostly harassment bombings. Terrorists concentrated on the Colombian petroleum industry�in which US companies are heavily involved�and staged numerous bombings of a major oil pipeline. The bombings have been taking place for three years, but they were so severe in 1986 that $50 million in damages resulted. In fact, Occidental Petroleum was unable to fulfill its oil production goal for 1986 because of these attacks. (b)(3) Peru Anti-US terrorism in Peru increased from 12 incidents in 1985 to last year's high of about 30 incidents. Many of these incidents�mostly low-level bombings that caused little damage�were directed against US financial institutions, which symbolize imperialism to the two main terrorist groups�Sendero Luminoso (SL) and the Revolutionary Movement Tupac Amaru (MRTA). Unlike previous years, SL terrorists staged fewer attacks in the rural highlands. Government counterterrorist successes in the rural areas may have forced some of the terrorists into the cities, but we believe these urban attacks are part of a broader strategy to attract more attention to Sendero Luminoso's terrorist campaign. In late December the MRTA attacked seven US affiliated facilities over three days, and we expect such attacks to continue. (b)(3) Chile There was a slight decline in terrorist activity in Chile last year, yet the 1986 figure remains the second highest of the past five years. We believe the discovery of a large arms cache last August and internal disputes within the radical leftist opposition were factors. We expect terrorist attacks to pick up in 1987, especially if progress is made on a democratic transition of power from Pinochet to another president. In that event, the Communist Party probably would launch a terrorist campaign aimed at provoking the regime into more ruthless repression, in an attempt to undercut the transition process. Some attacks may be directed against US businesses to internationalize the struggle and create economic and political uncertainty, but the bulk of terrorist actions will be directed at domestic targets. (b)(3) 3 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Manufacturi mining 8 Outlook We do not expect the pace of anti-US attacks in the Andean region to slacken in the next several years. Most incidents probably will continue to be harassment attacks directed against property�rather than persons�particularly American businesses. This continuous barrage may have the same overall effect as more lethal attacks�a drawdown in both the official US presence and the American business community. Businesses are likely to reduce their presence before the American embassies do, however, because they cannot affol(b)(3)ame degree of protection as the United States Government can We have no information that such outside sponsors as Cuba or Nicaragua have backed anti-US terrorist operations in the Andean region. Many Andean groups, however, receive varying degrees of general support�from propaganda to weapons supply�from state supporters. We believe the type of attacks undertaken by these groups would change little, even if state sponsors stepped up their assistance. In many cases, the Cubans ar(b)(3)c �ant to encourage anti-US violence for fear of American retaliation Andean groups are displaying more brazen and sophisticated techniques such as daylight attacks and simultaneous bombings. This adds to the frustration of the local security forces, which often are unable to protect potential targets. Figure 3 Attacks Against US Businesses, 1980-86 Percent Retail/hotel 9 Other enterprises io Financial institutions 10 Businessmen 15 (b)(3) Offices of international � firms 26 Petroleum facilities 22 4 312031 3-87 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Secret Peruvian President Alan Garcia has informed foreign embassies in Lima, including the US Embassy, that the Peruvian security forces cannot protect them. In Colombia the military would be severely strained if all four major guerrilla groups joined forces in a full-scale insurgency. Despite some successes, the counterterrorist forces in Colombia, Peru, and Chile have been unable to successfully penetrate terrorist groups and prevent them from stri1(6)-(3) will. As a result, police action is reactive, rather than preventive The threat from Andean terrorist groups, while still controllable, has grown far more rapidly than was predicted in the early 1980s, and the portents for the second half of the decade are even more troubling. Acting alone, Andean terrorist groups do not have the potential to pose a serious threat to the stability of their host governments. Both domestic security and US interests, however, would be severely challenged if a convergence of interests among the terrorists, insurgents, and drug traffickers led them to launch a unified campaign of violence. Such a union could undermine democratic institutions by provoking a return to authoritarian methods. Moreover, a series of escalating international attacks could subvert the economic base of many of these countries by prompting American disinvestment. Should US counterterrorist and counternarcotics assistance to the host governments increase, the existing tacit cooperation among traffickers, insurgents, and terrorists may evolve into a forn-(b)-('3"pce against a perceived common enemy�the United States. (b)(3) Reverse Blank 5 �Secret-- Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 C France Western Europe Belgium Finland Highlights (b)(3) Alert Item Abdallah Conviction May Lead to Anti-US Attacks Georges Abdallah, leader of the Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction (LARF), was convicted on 28 February of complicity in the murders of an American attache and an Israeli diplomat in 1982 and an attempt on the US Consul General in 1984 in Strasbourg, and sentenced to life imprisonment. His conviction and the harsh sentence came as a surprise after the prosecutor had asked for a term of less than 10 years in order to spare France another wave of terrorism like the LARF bombing campaigns of March and September 1986. Paris is braced for new violence: more than 1,000 policemen brought into the capital for the trial have been kept on duty. LARF leaders vowed before the trial swift retaliation for any sentence and may move quickly against French interests and perhaps even US targets, since the United States was a highly visible civil party during the trial. We cannot assess the current capability of LARF or its allies�most notably the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine�Special Command and the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia�to stage indiscriminate bombings like those of last September, but if LARF cannot strike ouickly in Europe, it may target French or US interest in Lebanon. I (b)(3)1 Significant Developments Belgian Plans for Trevi Terrorism Policy Belgium assumed the six-month presidency of Europe's Trevi counterterrorism panel in January, and Justice Minister Jean Gol announced that his government's priorities would include: a permanent administrative structure, better information exchange among European Community countries, and closer coordination of political actions. He said that Trevi had formed an ad hoc group to work on the issues of illegal immigration, abuse of political asylum, and possibly international narcotics trafficking. Gol will be coming to the United States in early March for discussions before the next Trevi meeting on 28 April. (b)(3) Government Rejects More Arab Refugees After high-level discussions, Helsinki decided in January to resist pressure from the United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees to allow more refugees from Iran and the Arab world into its country. President Koivisto and Prime Minister Sorsa agreed with a government assessment that frictions generated by the influx of additional refugees from these areas would create a threat of terrorist activity 7 Secret Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 DI TR 87-004 26 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 the government would have difficulty handling. In 1986, as a result of their perception of an increased threat from international terrorism, the Finnish Parliament increased funding for the security police for 1986 and 1988�omitting 1987. This recent assessment suggests the threat has overtaken the financial initiatives originally proposed to deal with it. Finland's Nordic neighbors also have taken steps to curtail the increasing movement of refugees into the region. Their efforts, however, have sprung principally from a desire to control the economic, social, and administrative problems created by the immigrants, rather than fear of a rising terrorist threat. (b)(3) France Italy Muslim Brotherhood Arms Cache Uncovered On 18 December, agents of the internal security service, DST, raided the home of a Lebanese citizen and recovered a large cache of weapons and explosives belonging to the Muslim Brotherhood. The owner of the house had left the country two weeks earlier, but his Syrian wife, two other Syrians, three Jordanians, a naturalized French citizen, and his Lebanese brother were taken into custody. Seized in the raid were 30 kilograms of a plastic explosive, 51 detonators, four Soviet-type handgrenades, and ammunition and small arms of various kinds. The suspects denied any knowledge of the cache, admitting only that they belonged to an Islamic student association in Toulouse. (b)(3) Ties Among Three European Terrorist Groups? On 24 December, Paris police arrested three Italian terrorists after investigating an arms cache of the Basque separatist group Fatherland and Liberty-Military Wing (ETA-M). Police were following a suspected Action Directe (AD) member when he met with three Italians from the largely inactive Prima Linea group. The arrests were made as the trio prepared to leave France with materials for ETA-M's Madrid Commando. Police recovered an electronic scanner, false (b)(3) passports, and more than $10,000 in six European currencies Spanish authorities believe that the Madrid Commando�hurt by Spanish police sweeps late last year�was attempting to find new sources of money and weapons. Similarly, AD is under great pressure from French police and may have hoped to trade the seized items to ETA-M in exchange for safehaven or a support base in Spain. We do not yet know how Prima Linea is involved. AD has links to West German and Belgian groups, but there is no evidence as yet to suggest that the arrests were part of a larger "Euroterrorist" framework. (b)(3) Early Release of Terrorist Suspects May Slow A new law passed late last year to combat organized crime may have beneficial effects on Italy's war on terrorism as well. The law was enacted in reaction to an earlier statute that allowed dangerous suspects to go free before their trials came up. Over 40 terrorists took advantage of the early release program and disappeared before trial. The new law would allow 18 months of pretrial confinement for certain crimes and another 18 months during a trial. Acquitted suspects could continue to be held for a year during appeals. (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Sweden Kurdish Kurdish Arrests for PaIme Killing Prove To Be False Alarm Swedish officials investigating the assassination in February 1986 of Prime Minister Olof Palme detained over 20 Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) members on 12 December 1986 and 20 January 1987.-This latest in a number of PKK roundups, however, again failed to reveal evidence linking the group to the killing. Three of the Kurds arrested in December are being held for possible complicity in the murder of a PKK defector in November 1985; the rest were released. So far, only circumstantial evidence links the PKK, a violent Kurdish separatist group, to the assassination. Clashes between Stockholm Police Chief Hans Holmer and Government Prosecutor Claes Zeime over the conduct of the investigation have been detrimental to the progress of the case: Holmer has been obsessed with the PKK at the expense of other leads. As a result, he was removed from the case on 4 February when the Swedish Government announced that remonsibility for the investigation would be moved to the national level. (b,)(3) West Germany Kurdish Terrorist Suspect Released Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) member Faruk Bozkurt's release from pretrial confinement on 27 November 1986 is an indication that charges against him probably have been dropped. German officials had information that the PKK was planning to bomb the Turkish Consulate in Hamburg last August and believed Bozkurt was linked to the plot. Freeing Bozkurt may enable West Germany to 9 Seact Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 avoid possible retaliation from the PKK, which has a sizable presence there. The PKK staged demonstrations in Germany, the Netherlands, and France last fall protesting the Kurd's detention.I , (b)(3) Middle East Kuwait (b)(3) (b)(1) Lebanon (b)(3) (b)(1) In late January and early February, Kuwait announced the arrests of 12 suspects and the discovery of several arms caches. Kuwaiti officials claim that some of the weapons�which included Soviet, Israeli, and US weapons, and devices for time bombs�can be traced to Iran. They also say that some of those arrested had traveled frequently to Iran This is the first evidence that Iran was directly involved in the Kuwait bombings. The assistance also demonstrates Iran's continued willingness to use selected acts of terrorism to support its foreign policy objectives�in this case to undermine the Islamic summit held in Kuwait in January. Iran has other terrorist assets in Kuwait and elsewhere in the Persian Gulf that it could use to further the export of the Islamic revolution or the destabilization of the Sunni Gulf regimes. Kuwait is unlikely to break relations with Iran over the incident, but it could withdraw its representative from Tehran to protest Iran's blatant support for terrorism. The arrests are likely to heighten sectarian tensions in Kuwait, where Shias constitute one-third of the native population (b)(3)_ Hizballah Center Target of Car Bombing A car bomb exploded on 9 February in the Rweis district of West Beirut, killing 15 persons and injuring 80 others. The blast was timed to coincide with students leaving school and employees leaving their offices, when the area was crowded with lunch-hour traffic. An automobile packed with 165 pounds of TNT mixed with hexogen, a highly explosive liquefied gas, detonated near Hizballah's main center in the area. Bodies were charred and mutilated by the explosion, which started fires, damaged shops and apartments in a 500-yard radius, and left a twisted wreckage of 10 cars. The Shia Amal militia has accused PLO leader Yasir Arafat of engineering the bombing. (b)(3) Aide to Gemayel Kidnaped and Released Jean Ubayd, a prominent Lebanese Christian aide to President Gemayel, was kidnaped 12 February in West Beirut by nine armed gunmen. Ubayd's driver was (b)(1) (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 �Seeret� South/East Asia Australia Africa Somalia wounded in the attack. Ubayd, who had ties to Syria at least until recently, apparently considers himself a successor t- �ayel when the Lebanese President's term expires next year. (b)(3) Islamic Jihad, a covername usually used by Hizballah elements in Lebanon, claimed responsibility for the attack and threatened to kill Ubayd. He was released on 16 February, after Syria reportedly intervened against the clan that kidnaped him in an interfamily Lebanese dispute. (b)(3) Melbourne Consulate Bombing: Additional Details Australian officials reportedly doubt the existence of the so-called Greek- Bulgarian-Armenian Front that took credit for a car bomb attack on the Turkish Consulate General in Melbourne, Australia, on 23 November 1986. All the prime suspects in the case reportedly have ties to the Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG), a rightwing Armenian terrorist group; nevertheless, Australian officials still believe the bombing was carried out independently from JCAG's command structure. Authorities have uncovered the following details concerning the attack, which killed the bomber�later identified as an Armenian�and damaged the building housing the consulate: � The suspect being held for the bombing, an Armenian named Levon Demirian, was interrogated in connection with the assassination of the Turkish Consul General in Sydney in 1980, for which JCAG claimed responsibility. � Australian authorities believe that Levon's brother, Hovannes "Jano" Demirian�an explosives expert�could have built the Melbourne bomb, but so far they have not connected him to either the car bomb or to the explosives found in the Demirian family's restaurant in a police raid after the attack. (b)(3) Somali Dissidents To Continue Kidnaping Foreigners? On 7 February Ethiopia handed over to French authorities 10 French aid workers who were kidnaped by Somali rebels. The doctors and nurses, who worked for the French relief organization Medecins Sans Frontieres, were kidnaped in January by members of the Somali National Movement (SNM) at an Ethiopian refugee camp in northwestern Somalia. The SNM took its French hostages across the border into Ethiopia, where it subsequently released them to authorities there. An SNM press release stated that the Somali refugee camps are used as a "recruiting ground" for the Somali military and security agencies. The press release stated further that international assistance given to the refugees in these camps is used to finance terror and oppression against the civilian population. It warned that foreigners remaining in Somalia cannot be guaranteed security. The US Embassy in Mogadishu believes it would not be difficult for the SNM to continue kidnaping foreign workers at refugee camps in Somalia because these workers are often reluctant to take security measures, probably in the belief that the humanitarian nature of their work protects them. (b)(3) 11 Sccrct Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Sccrct Technical Trends Worldwide Detecting Liquid Explosives The January arrest of a Lebanese terrorist in West Germany has highlighted the potential use of liquid explosives by terrorists. Although some liquid explosives must be rendered into a solid state for most effective use, some stable liquids can be used as the main charge of an explosive device. Like other explosives, these liquids can be set off by a detonator and any search which yields a detonator should not overlook any liquids carried by the same person or found at the same site. Some liquid explosives, however, may also detonate spontaneously at high temperatures, under severe shock, or if acid is added. (b)(3) The following guidelines are offered for the inspection of suspicious liquids: � Compare the color, transparency, and viscosity of the fluid to the properties of the liquid normally found in the container. � Check for tampering with the wrapping, cap, or seal of the container. � If possible, X-ray an opaque container. � Chemically test the liquid if a sample can be obtained. This last step may be difficult if the container or it 1 needs to remain intact for operational or evidentiary reasons. (b)(3) Gas Enhanced Explosives Recent testing has reconfirmed earlier findings that the placement of liquefied petroleum (LP) gas bottles with an explosive device does not materially increase or enhance the blast effects. Although the thermal effect of such a blast is increased, tests of explosives augmented by LP bottles and an equal amount of unaugmented material showed that a greater blast effect (and ' damage) results in the latter case, a device using explosives alone. (b)(3) The addition of LP gas to an explosive device may appeal to terrorists who want to make a greater visual impression with the resulting fireball. The blast wave of such an explosion, however, lacks the brisance of high explosives. Generally, the use of LP gas instead of explosives has been an indicator that the nerpetrator may not have had access to conventional high explosives. (b)(3) If a bomb is intended solely to start a fire, however, flammable fluids make better accelerators than LP gas. The gaseous LP released in an explosion is consumed very rapidly (one to two seconds�not long enough to kindle wooden furniture, for instance). In contrast, a fire started by an explosive and a flammable liquid will burn for many minutes, which is ideal for incendiary uses. Among groups known to have used some form of bottled gas with explosive devices are the Belgian Communist Combatant Cells, the Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, the Puerto Rican FALN, and the Iraqi Dawa, which attacked the US and French Embassies in Kuwait in December 1983. (b)(3) Seerct 12 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Secret United Kingdom New X-Ray Machine Procedures A London newspaper has reported that the United Kingdom is developing an airport security system that will give a three-dimensional view of luggage. The binocular stereoscopic system is expected to be in production by midyear. Until that time, operators of existing equipment are being retrained to spot plastic weapons and explosives and more sensitive detectors that use multiimaging against metal and plastic are being introduced. (b)(3) In an effort to curb the abuse of diplomatic pouches by state sponsors of terrorism, Italy and Turkey separately announced plans late last year to X-ray pouches for arms, explosives, and other contraband. Both countries announced broad-based applicability that would avoid the need to single out the pouches of Libya, Syria, and Iran, but in the face of protests by allied countries, they had not implemented their plans as of early 1987 (b)(3) 13 --Seer-et� Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Secrct Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Secret Peru: The Terrorist Threat to Americans (b)(3) Over the last two years Peru, and particularly Lima, has experienced some of the highest rates of terrorism in the world. Most attacks by Peru's two active insurgent groups, the fanatically ethnocentric Sendero Luminoso (SL) and the urban-based Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), have been directed at official Peruvian targets. During 1986, however, there was a fourfold increase in the number of attacks against foreign official and international business facilities. Given these trends, we believe the likelihood of American casualties�even if incurred incidentally�is rising. No Americans have been killed by terrorists in Lima but, because of the large American resident and tourist presence in the capital, we believe they could become victims when government, commercial, or tourist sites are bombed or come under strafing attack. The danger to Americans is almost as great in the countryside, where two Americans were killed last year when guerrillas bombed the popular Cusco-to- Machupicchu tourist train. (b)(3) Peru's Terrorist Groups Guerrilla and terrorist violence in Peru has escalated dramatically in recent years and poses increasingly serious security problems for Americans. The largest and most dangerous insurgent group is the SL, whose 4,000 to 5,000 armed guerrillas are waging both an increasingly active urban terrorist campaign in Lima and a low intensity rural insurrection throughout the country. Since it initiated armed struggle in 1980, the SL has developed into the second-largest guerrilla movement in South America�behind the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC)� and is probably the most brutal movement ever to appear in the region. SL's violent tactics aim at the total elimination of the influence of Peru's whites and mestizos, and the reviles foreign influences of any kind in Peru. c b)(3) Peru's other terrorist group, the MRTA, is a small, Lima-based movement of several hundred activists at most. In contrast with SL, the MRTA is a Castroite, 15 pro-Nicaragua Marxist group that more narrowly focuses its attacks against foreign targets, particularly US and Japanese facilities. Unlike the SL, the MRTA has generally used political violence to draw attention to its political program, so far has attacked property far more than people, and has been quick to take credit for its attacks. (b)(3)_ Rising Urban Terrorism The main terrorist threat to US citizens is in Lima. Despite some tougher antiterrorist measures, violent attacks in Lima are increasing in both number and lethality. Our data base indicates that since the beginning of 1985 some 300 serious incidents have occurred in the Lima metropolitan area. Forty persons�all Peruvians�have been killed in Lima during that period, including nine who were innocent bystanders. Police reports indicate that the SL has been overwhelmingly responsible for the deaths. (b)(3 Our review of SL attacks during 1986 indicates that it is still hitting hardest at Peruvian targets. Indeed, 31 of the 40 persons killed in Lima since early 1985 were engaged in counterterrorism or local police duties. The assassinations last year in Lima of two Peruvian Navy admirals, moreover, received international press coverage, heightening the perception at home and abroad of growing political instability and personal insecurity in Peru. (b)(3) Terrorist attacks in Lima during 1986 also show, however, a dramatic four-fold increase over the 1985 levels of strikes against foreign targets. In February 1986 the SL bombed six foreign diplomatic missions, including the US Embassy. SL, being generally antiforeign rather than specifically anti-American, also struck at the Soviet Embassy twice last year and wounded six Soviet sailors in a terrorist attack last August. For its part, the MRTA attacked the US Lae DI TR 87-004 26 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Major Terrorist Attacks in Peru Against Foreign Interests, 1986 21 December The US Information Agency building in Lima was bombed, probably by the MRTA. No injuries were reported. 18 December Six organizations in Lima with links to the United States were bombed, including two binational cultural centers, IBM and AID warehouses, the Summer Institute of Linguistics, and a Goodyear facility. MRTA claimed responsibility for the bombings, in which several persons were injured. 10 November 24 October 18 September 26 August The US Information Agency Binational Center in Trujillo was bombed probably by the MRTA. There were no injuries. The Peruvian manager of the Pepsi-Cola plant in Huanuco, was murdered. No group claimed responsibility, but the SL was the likely perpetrator. The MRTA attacked the Chilean Embassy in Lima with dynamite, causing no injuries. The Bolivian Embassy in Lima is bombed by a splinter group of the MRTA in protest of the US military presence in Bolivia and involvement in operations against drug traffickers. No injuries were reported. 27 July Terrorists, probably SL, set off firebombs at three major business and tourist hotels in Lima. There were no injuries. 22 July Unknown terrorists bombed the Eastern Airlines office in Lima and a Mercedes- Benz car dealership, causing no injuries. 4 July The SL was probably responsible for bombings of the Chinese and Italian Embassies in Lima, as well as the Peruvian-Soviet Cultural Institute. 25 June SL terrorists bombed a tourist train traveling from Cusco to the Machupicchu ruins, killing eight persons including two Americans. A number of other US citizens were wounded. Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Secret 23 June 22 June 27 May 21 April 11 April Tupac Amaru terrorists simultaneously seized the offices of four foreign news agencies, forcing station personnel to transmit antigovernment messages. MRTA terrorists bombed the Honduran Embassy, causing considerable damage but no injuries. Unknown terrorists bombed the North American�Peruvian Cultural Institute in Trujillo. Two Peruvian students were injured. MRTA members exploded a car bomb outside the residence of the US Ambassador, blowing a hole in the concrete wall surrounding the home but causing no injuries. MRTA terrorists bombed five US targets in Lima, including an AID warehouse, a branch office of Citibank, Eastman-Kodak's Peruvian headquarters, the offices of Diner's Club, and the Summer Institute of Linguistics. No injuries resulted. 3 April Synchronized attacks were carried out by MRTA terrorists against foreign facilities, including the US-Peruvian Binational Center, two Citibank offices, an IBM warehouse, Sears-Roebuck, and the Colombian Embassy. 17 March 21 February 22 January (b)(3) Presumed SL terrorists strafed the Argentine Embassy in Lima with machinegun fire. There were no injuries. The SL carried out a series of bombings against the Embassies of the United States, Spain, China, West Germany, Argentina, and India. One guard at the Indian Embassy was killed. Unknown terrorists bombed the Sears-Roebuck store in downtown Lima, as well as several other stores and shopping centers around the city. No injuries were reported. 17 �Ststret�, Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Ambassador's residence in 1986, bombed the Lima headquarters of Citibank and Texaco, and hit other targets that the group associates with "Yanqui imperialism," including several Kentucky Fried Chicken franchises in 1985 and a Sears Roebuck store. In late December 1986 the MRTA went on a bombing rampage over three days, attacking seven US-affiliated facilities, including the United States Information Agency building. The Tupac Amaru also regards Japan as a principal "imperialist" power and we believe it is responsible for a majority of the attacks on Japanese business interests in Lin(bi)(3) The Threat to Americans Despite the increasing number of attacks against US facilities, to our knowledge no US citizen has been the object of a deliberate personal attack by terrorists and, aside from the US Ambassador's home, no other American residence has been targeted. To help combat the growing urban terrorism, the Peruvian Government has maintained a state of emergency and a curfew in the Lima metropolitan area since early February 1986, and police and military personnel armed with shoulder-fired weapons routinely patrol the streets. (b)(3) Nonetheless, Peruvian authorities admit their inability to provide full protection to diplomatic missions, and we believe it is increasingly likely that American citizens in Lima will be either deliberately targeted by terrorists or injured incidentally in an attack. According to the US Embassy, some 9,000 Americans reside in Lima, including approximately 400 US Government personnel and their dependents. Moreover, an estimated 200 to 250 American tourists are likely to be visiting Lima on any day of the year. Both terrorist groups are now actively targeting sites in neighborhoods where Americans live and places where tourists congregate, such as hotels and restaurants. The popular Plaza de Armas, for example, upon which the National Palace and other important governmental and historical buildings face, has been the site of repeated car bombings. (b)(3) In the countryside, the situation is likely to be nearly as dangerous as in Lima because of the widespread SL insurgency. Additional security has been providec(b)(3) for the tourist train to Machupicchu that was (b)(1) bombed earlier this year, but the ontinues to be concerned about safety on the line because of the extreme difficulty of protecting the track. US citizens visiting Peru also would be particularly advised to avoid travel in the areas designated by the Peruvian Government as emergency zones because of insurgent activities and narcotics related violence. SL cadres move 1(b)(3)nd operate at will in these areas. (b)(3) 18 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 International Terrorism Terrorism in Western Europe, 1986 (b)(3) Terrorists were active in Western Europe last year, but for the first time in the 1980s, the number of international terrorist attacks there declined.' There were changes in the venues, victims, and perpetrators of attacks: Spain became a principal location of international attacks, with France and Germany in second and third place. French interests were most often targeted, followed by US and, more distantly, Spanish interests. Western Europe remained the most dangerous place for Americans abroad, although most US casualties occurred as a result of attacks, not by European but rather by Middle Eastern groups. Most West European groups continued to concentrate their attacks against domestic government facilities, the police and security forces, and businesses. Surprisingly, the group that committed the most international attacks in 1986 was the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA-M), responsible for 36 attacks, mostly harassment bombings of French businesses and privately owned automobiles. By contrast, the West German Red Army Faction (RAF)�the second most active group after ETA- M�conducted only four international attacks last year, but it "" "-y active against West German targets.' ( u)k�) West Germany: The RAF Euroterrorism, the much-touted phenomenon of the mid-1980s, appears to have dwindled in 1986 to little more than rhetorical pronouncements. The RAF�the key proponent of a united terrorist front�was inactive until midyear, and none of its attacks bore ' Much of this decline (140 incidents in 1986 compared with over 200 in 1985) probably is attributable to a falloff in attacks by Middle Eastern terrorists that have spilled over into Western Europe. Attacks of this type will be treated separately in a later issue. 'Although events and trends in domestic terrorism (such as attacks by French groups on French targets in France) form a large part of this annual review, our statistical conclusions refer only to international incidents. Our data base on indigenous terrorism is generally less complete.r(b)(3)1 19 the marks of any foreign involvement. The RAF issued some documents in the name of the "anti- imperialist front"�and the French group Action Directe (AD) echoed some of this rhetoric�but there was no evidence the groups coordinated any of their operations. (b)(3)] There were innovations in RAF attacks last year, and a new element within the RAF gained prominence for its bombing activities. The innovations included the use of a remote-control ambush bomb, the selection of a target because of his connections to the nuclear issue and the US Strategic Defense Initiative, and the pointblank assassination of a Foreign Ministry official. The recently invigorated RAF "illegal militant" level bombed at least 10 targets following the general theme of assassinations conducted by the "hardcore" members. The bombings were directed against government and associated facilities, including security and police installations, and businesses associated with weapons production and nuclear power. (b)(3) At a conference of terrorist support groups last winter, the RAF acknowledged it erred in attacking Rhein-Main Airbase in 1985 and killing an American serviceman. The RAF modified its tactics during the year to avoid unintended casualties when it attacked symbolic targets. The illegal militants, for example, carried out their bombings at night and provided warnings. The RAF also concentrated its efforts on attacking West German interect. largely ignored US and NATO targets. (b)(3) West German police scored two noteworthy successes against the RAF last year, but the pace of attacks throughout the fall indicated these arrests had no immediate impact on the group's effectiveness. The RAF probably will continue to be among Western Europe's most active and lethal homegrown terrorist groups. (b)(3) �Sespet� DI TR 87-004 26 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 ",'ccret Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 The RZ West Germany's other major terrorist organization, the Revolutionary Cells (RZ), carried out eight attacks in 1986 in its campaign against Bonn's new restrictions on applicants for political asylum. The group attacked Harald Hollenberg, chief of the West Berlin Foreigners Registry Office, in October. This marked only the second attack against a government official the group has undertaken. The RZ normally attempts to avoid personal injury in its attacks� mostly bombings�and we do not believe that the Hollenberg attack signals a change in stratel(b)(3) France: Action Directe The French group Action Directe (AD)�the other component of the Euroterrorist front�continued to operate as two subgroups that had split earlier, in part over the issue of cooperating with the RAF. The "internationalist" wing attempted to assassinate an industrialist in April and killed the chairman of Renault in November, the latter attack reminiscent of a recent RAF murder. This wing advocates closer coordination with other European groups�sharing weapons, explosives, and possibly lodgings�but is less lik)n the RAF to attack US and NATO targets. (b)(3 The other subgroup�the "domesticalist" wing� operates independently, bombs unoccupied buildings, and attacks only French targets, especially those it refers to as the "organs of repression." The domestic wing became more lethal after its leader was arrested last March. We believe it was responsible for the bombing of a police station where a senior officer was killed, as well as for the attempted murder of the rightist mayor of Provins and another attempted murder in early 1987. The domestic wing also carried out bombings of firms doing business with South Africa, and may be linked to the "Black War" group that bombed similar targets. AD took responsibility for similar bo'f7j;s'T of other South African businesses. k u kn AD activity also took its toll on the French legal system. An AD terrorist on trial in December forced a postponement when he threatened the judge and jury. The government revised a recent counterterrorism law, allowing such cases to be heard by a panel of judges after Over half the jurors sought release from the jury. (b)(3) Indigenous French Groups Terrorism by other French groups declined from previous years. Attacks by separatists of the National Front for the Liberation of Corsica (FLNC) were down for the fifth year in a row. French rightists attacked North African immigrant targets four times, but a leader and three members of one such group were killed in Toulon later in the year while transporting a bomb. The anti-Basque Antiterrorist Liberation Group (GAL) was much less active last year than in 1985. This rightwing vigilante group conducted only three attacks, in February 1986, after which the French Government began to deport suspected Basque terrorists, halting the group's activities. (b)(3) Quiet in Spain Outside the Pyrenees Apart from the Basque region, there was little terrorism in Spain in 1986. The Basque separatist group Fatherland and Liberty�Military Wing (ETA- M) remained active. Last year, ETA-M even expanded its attacks to French targets in retaliation for closer French-Spanish police cooperation.' Iraultza, the small anti-NATO terrorist group composed of radical elements of the extremist Spanish Basque Communist movement, conducted eight bombings in 1986, up from four the year before. The group primarily targets American companies in the Basque region near Bilbao, setting off bombs late at night that cause only property damage. The Maoist urban guerrillas First of October Antifascist Resistance Group (GRAPO) remained virtually inactive for the second consecutive year after massive arrests in January 1985. (b)(3) Lull in Portugal Just across the border, the Portuguese terrorist group Popular Forces of 25 April (FP-25) staged only two 'See the article "Basque Fatherland and Liberty Terrorism in 1986" on page 23. 20 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 international attacks, compared with 10 the previous year. FP-25 detonated a car bomb at the US Embassy on 18 February�the only attack on US diplomatic facilities in Western Europe last year. On 17 May the group fired a mortar round at the Iberian Atlantic Command facilif�, 1�ther incident caused any casualties. (b)(3)] FP-25 was more active on the domestic front, attacking Portugal's tourist industry during the summer and fall by setting off bombs in the Algarve resort area. The trials of FP-25's leader, who has become a national folk hero, and 56 of its members continued throughout 1986. Late in the year, the group reportedly spawned an offshoot called the Armed Revolutionary Organization (ORA) that has yet to carry out any attacks because it is less v-b-") (3) organized and less capable than FP-25. ( (b)(1) (b)(3) Greece Radical leftist terrorists expressed their growing disapproval of the Papandreou government's domestic and foreign policies with more attacks on government targets in 1986. A bombing campaign against government buildings in October was claimed by both the Revolutionary People's Struggle (ELA) and the Revolutionary Organization 17 November. The 17 November group typically commits assassinations� including that of a Greek businessman last April� making these bombings a new tactic for the group. Greek terrorists attacked US citizens less often in 1986, perhaps in part because the Greek Government 21 made US military personnel less visible by issuing them ordinary license plates. The only two arson attacks against US-owned vehicles last year occurred when the distinctive official license plates were still in use. (b)(3) Turkey The most serious new development in anti-Turkish terrorism last year was the escalating violence of the separatist Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) after Ankara launched an airstrike against the group's camps in Iraq in August. By October the PKK had expanded its list of targets to include NATO when it attacked a radar site in the southeast with rockets and automatic weapons. The group also carried its campaign to other West European countries, where it targeted Turkish officials: � A young PKK member was arrested in West Germany in August as he opened a train station locker containing explosives, weapons, and ammunition. He apparently planned to attack the Turkish Consulate General in Hamburg. � Dutch officials apprehended in late August a PKK activist who planned to attack a Turkish consulate in the Netherlands. He was carrying weapons and explosives at the time of his arrest. We believe PKK violence will continue this year in Turkey and abroad as the group continues its struggle for an independent Kurdish state. Turkish authorities also continued to arrest members of other indigenous groups, which probably accounted for their low level of activity (b)(3) Italy By all accounts, 1986 was the quietest year for terrorism in Italy since 1969. The best-known group, the Red Brigades (BR), in decline since 1982, conducted only two attacks last year. The BR murdered a former mayor of Florence but bungled an attempt on the life of a government adviser. Last year, courts convicted hundreds of old-line BR members� including leaders like Barbara Balzarani and Seeret Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Armenian Terrorism in 1986 There were few Armenian terrorist attacks last year. Most Armenian violence during 1986, moreover, was internecine and probably stemmed from the longstanding rivalry between the conservative Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnag Party) and the leftwing terrorist Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia (ASALA). Several Dashnag members were killed or kidnaped in Beirut in 1986 by a group calling itself the "Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Revolutionary Movement," probably a covernatne for ASALA. (b)(3) Armenians were active elsewhere. ASALA may have cooperated with the Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Faction in two major bombing campaigns in Paris. Farther afield, a car bomb that exploded at the Turkish Consulate in Melbourne, Australia, in December seriously damaged the building. The suicide bomber and an accomplice arrested later had ties to the Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide (JCAG), a rightwing terrorist group linked to the Dashnag Party. The Melbourne car bombing may indicate that Armenian terrorists will renew their terrorist rnninaign to gain an Armenian homeland. -(0)(3) Several trials of Armenian terrorists for attacks earlier in the decade concluded in 1986. US courts in Philadelphia and Los Angeles sentenced six JCAG members for anti-Turkish bombings and one murder. In November, Monte Melkonian, the leader of the ASALA�Revolutionary Movement (ASALA-RM), received a six-year sentence in Paris after being convicted of forgery and possession of weapons and explosives. (b)(3) Surd Giovanni Senzani�for crimes committed earlier in the decade. There are now fewer professional terrorists on the outside, and jailed leaders are no longer able to order attacks from prison, leaving the Red Brigades in a weakened position but still capable of launching sporadic attacks. (b)(3) The Benelux Nations Terrorist activity in Belgium dropped off in 1986. Arrests of virtually the entire infrastructure of the Communist Combatant Cells (CCC) in December 1985, followed by raids on safehouses the next month, set the tone for 1986 and halted the CCC's 15-month reign of terror. There have been no further attacks by the group, and the upcoming trials of the CCC members probably will serve to keep a lid on terrorism in Belgium for the rest of this year. (b)(3) There is no cohesive leftwing terrorist movement in the Netherlands, but there were seven international terrorist attacks there last year. Most of these were committed by Middle Eastern groups or new groups _ppposed to business ties to South Africa. (b)(3) Scandinavia There has been no indigenous terrorism in Scandinavia, but Olaf Palme's murder heightened the sense of vulnerability in the region to such attacks. The assassination in February 1986 of the Swedish Prime Minister has not been linked firmly to a terrorist group, but Stockholm police have aggressively pursued the possible involvement of the Kurdish Workers' Party. Otherwise, the region experienced only a few instances of Middle Eastern�sponsored terrorism. (b)(3) 22 (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Sccrct Basque Fatherland Pim 1berty Terrorism in 1986 (b)(3) The Military Wing of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty separatist group (ETA-M) remains adaptable, dedicated, and resourceful in waging its 18-year campaign to establish an independent Basque state. The capture of a major ETA arsenal and hideout in southern France, coupled with the arrests of several "Madrid Commando" terrorists, however, was an unexpected blow to the group's morale and operational capabilities. Nevertheless, we think these setbacks are temporary, and fully expect the group to resume its campaign of terrorist violence against Madrid and Paris, Spain's new ally in the struggle against Basque terrorism. (b)(3) Overview In 1986, ETA-M was the most active terrorist group in Western Europe, with 36 international attacks. Adding attacks against Spanish domestic targets brings the group's total to 56 incidents last year. ETA-M has always targeted the Spanish Government, especially the military and police forces, but in 1986 it also began to attack French interests in Spain. This accounted for the unusually high number of international incidents attributed to the group and gave ETA the lion's share of all international terrorist acts committed in Spain last year. ETA-M's tactics changed little in 1986: bombings comprised over two- thirds of its attacks, and the group also conducted armed attacks and committed arson. ETA continued to use kidnaping, theft, and extorti71ll its coffers and intimidate the local populace k u)k�) ETA-M extended its operational reach beyond the Basque provinces, Madrid, and Mediterranean resort areas to include other cities: � On 13 September 1986, ETA-M detonated a car bomb near a civil guard patrol in Barcelona, injuring three guards and a passerby. The attack occurred shortly before Barcelona was selected as host city for the 1992 Olympics. 23 � On 2 February 1987, ETA-M staged a successful car-bomb attack against a military bus in Zaragoza, killing two persons and wounding 40 others in its first attack in that city. The broadening of operations, however, does not appear to have diluted its efforts elsewhere. ETA-M's activity was especially deadly in Madrid, where 22 persons died. The majority of ETA-M's international attacks, however, still occurred on the group's home turf in the Basque region. (b)(3) Setbacks for ETA-M ETA-M was hurt by the active and successful campaign waged by Spanish and French police, who cooperated more closely last year than ever before. Moreover, the group's more violent tactics may be tarnishing its image among the Basque people. A Spanish amnesty program has been highly successful: nearly 200 ETA members have taken advantage of the program, which pardons terrorists who have not been involved in blood crimes and who renounce violence. ETA-M's leaders attempted to forestall further defections by assassinating a former leader, a young mother of two, who joined the amnesty program. The brutal murder�gunmen shot her in front of her children at a festival�may have lost ETA-M popular support and, at least temporarily. affected its ability to recruit new members (b)(3) Better Spanish-French counterterrorist cooperation dealt the group major blows last year. ETA-M previously used France as a sanctuary from which the group conducted operations across the border into Spain. French security services last year cracked down on the group's activities in southern France, turning over 30 terrorists to Spain for prosecution and expelling others of the 200 members who had been active there (b)(3) --Serrer-- DI TR 87-004 26 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 International Terrorist Incidents by ETA-M in 1986 lirCantabria Bay of Biscay Algarta Las Arenas Bilbao � Basque Area MADRID it* Spain Sevilla , \- Stroll of Gibraltar (U.K.) Gibraltar�, ceut. vsp Melilla (Sp.) Morocco (b)(3) San Sebastian bran Re eria . tam ) Guiptizcoa France Vaqueire- Beret Andorra Barcelona Algeria O 300 Kilometers I O 300 MileS 24 Flo Labourd wagon Soule - International boundary Spanish autonomous region boundary --- Spanish province boundary Former French internal administrative boundary Road - Rail Site of terrorist attack 40 Kilometers :10 Miles 709681 03003481 3-87 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 ETA-M bombing of Civil Guard bus in Madrid, 14 July 1986(u) United Press @ Joint cooperation, moreover, led to the discovery of a major ETA-M arms cache in southern France, last November, and the arrests of several ETA-M leaders. Police confiscated large amounts of cash, weapons, explosives, and documents detailing the group's finances, structure, and operational plans. Spanish officials hailed the raid as the single most important (b)(3)against ETA in the group's 18-year history. The Madrid Commando The Spanish national police scored an important victory when they arrested nine of the estimated 12 members of the violent Madrid Commando unit on 16 January 1987. The Commando, active since the early 1980s, was responsible for some of the most spectacular terrorist operations of ETA-M last year. The police acted on information gained from the November raid and on careful Spanish and French intelligence work during the past months: � Spanish officials believe the Commando carried out a rocket attack on the Spanish Defense Ministry building last summer. � Police believe the unit was also responsible for two attacks on Civil Guard vehicles that killed 18 guards and for murdering three military officers in 1986. � The Madrid Commando staged an abortive attempt on the life of the Spanish Judiciary Council President Hernandez-Gil (b)(3) 25 The police raid apparently foiled ETA plans to attack a French-built shopping center in Spain. The police reportedly uncovered information on ETA-M's operational plans, targets, safehouses, weapons, and explosives. It is too early to tell if the Madrid Commando is in total disarray. We believe rank-and- file members�rather than key leaders�were arrested in the roundup, leaving the possibility that the Madrid group may still be able to stage attacks. (b)(3) ETA Strikes Back In retaliation for the French crackdown last year, ETA began a wave of terrorist attacks against French property in Spain. French trucks were machine- gunned during the winter and spring, and French- registered vehicles were burned almost daily during the summer and early fall. French car showrooms were also hit. After the November raid, ETA-M began to attack larger businesses, causing numerous injuries and one death. ETA-M also focused the attacks on French beach resorts, and late last year planted bombs at sk'(b)(35 hotels that are partially French owned Prospects ETA-M must struggle if it is to regain the momentum it had in 1983. That year ETA-M was responsible for 165 attacks�international and domestic�almost triple the 1986 level. The group has demonstrated enormous staying power over the years, however, and almost certainly will remain a challenge to Spanish and French police. French-Spanish cooperation against ETA-M is likely to continue, moreover, and could spur more indiscriminate and lethal attacks against both French and Spanish interests. (b)(3) (b)(3) �1Sectiet�_ Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Selected Chronology of ETA-M International Terrorist Incidents in 1986 -(b)(3) 20 April Police defuse a bomb at US-owned building in Bilbao. Building housed Spanish- American Cultural Association. 15 May Bomb explodes at Renault car dealership in Eibar, near Bilbao, destroying two cars. 17 May Basque separatists machine-gun French truck near San Sebastian. 19 June Bomb explodes in Sevilla hotel, injuring one person. Two other hotels were evacuated after receiving bomb threats. This was the ninth bomb in ETA-M's campaign to disrupt the tourist season. 20 July Three cars with French license plates and an Army jeep burned in San Sebastian. No injuries reported. 22 July French-registered vehicle burned in San Sebastian. 16 August French car burned in San Sebastian. 18 August Showroom of French firm Peugeot-Talbot firebombed in Navarre area. 30 August ETA-M firebombs French-registered vehicle in Bilbao. 31 August ETA-M burns three French-registered vehicles in San Sebastian. The attack followed the burning of two vehicles belonging to ETA-M sympathizers in nearby Renteria the previous night. 3 October 9 October 18 October 19 October 20 October Bomb attack outside French car showroom in San Sebastian causes some property damage but no injuries. ETA suspected. French car showroom bombed in San Sebastian, shattering windows but causing no injuries. Bombs explode in five French-owned car showrooms in Bilbao, slightly injuring four persons including a policeman. Explosions caused extensive property damage. Bomb explodes at French-owned sporting goods firm in Manresa, near Barcelona, causing slight damage but no injuries. Two bombs explode simultaneously at French-owned electronics firm in Barcelona, causing some damage but no injuries. ETA-M is suspected. 26 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 �5'esQL 23 October 5 November Two bombs explode at French-owned brewery warehouse in San Sebastian, causing extensive damage but no injuries. ETA-M is suspected. French police raid ETA-M hideout in southern France, arresting two key members, and seizing extensive records of group's activities, membership, and extortionist fundraising. 10 November French car showroom bombed in Zarauz, causing damage but no injuries. 25 November Bomb explodes at Peugeot-Talbot car showroom in Bilbao, causing widespread damage but no injuries. 29 November French car showroom in San Sebastian bombed on eve of Basque elections. The explosion damaged the Peugeot showroom but no one was injured. 11 December Explosive device damages Citroen car showroom in Barcelona, injuring four people. 12 December Bomb explodes at Renault car showroom in Zarauz, seriously injuring one woman. 16 December Two bombs explode outside French businesses in Barcelona, injuring 28 people and causing considerable damage. 19 December Incendiary bomb explodes at French factory in Bilbao, completely destroying the facility. 24 December Spanish civil guard killed while disarming an explosive planted in a French-owned supermarket near San Sebastian. 25 December ETA-M plants GOMA-2 bomb that explodes at French-owned hotel in Madrid. The explosion caused substantial property damage but no injuries. 28 December ETA-M claims responsibility for bomb explosion at French car dealership in Basque region that seriously injures one woman and causes property damage. This was the only holiday attack not preceded by a warning phone call. 29 December Reverse Blank ETA-M bomb explodes at ski resort in the Pyrenees while King Juan Carlos and his family are vacationing at nearby private lodge. French skiers frequent the resort. (b)(3) 27 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 --S-Etret, December 4 and 5 December 31 December Early January 2 January 3 January Chronology of Terrorism-1986/1987 (b)(3) Below are described noteworthy foreign and international events involving terrorists, or the use of terrorist tactics, which have come to light since our last issue. In some cases, the perpetrators and their motivations may not be known. Events and developments that hav-1---dy been described elsewhere in this publication are not included. (b)(3) Portugal: Prime Minister signs decree streamlining counterterrorism effort. Greater cooperation among the various agencies in the fight against terrorism is anticipated. The armed forces were not given a direct role although they will share intelligenceP)(3) Italy: Disgruntled Communist Revolutionary Committee (CCR) member arrested in Ventimiglia. Emanuele Greco was arrested as he attempted to enter the country with false identification. He then led police to a weapons cache. The CCR is one of several Red Brigades splinter groups. (b)(3) West Germany: Arson attack on police vehicle and police station in Bielefeld causes about $250,000 in damages. There were no injuries. A previously unknown group called "Wooli" claimed responsibility for the incident. (b)(3) Denmark: Police arrest two Danish nationals for the bombing of the Soviet Embassy in Copenhagen last December. The youths, aged 16 and 18, confessed to the bombing and are implicated in other incidents in which explosive devices were left in playgrounds. The 18-year-old male, an activist in the conservative party (bp) youth wing, wanted to call attention to the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan. West Germany: Bomb detonates outside British military airport in West Berlin, causing some damage but no injuries. Environmentalists have focused on the airport since tree cutting to clear the runway approaches began last summer. No one, however, claimed responsibility for the bombing. (b)(3) West Germany: Arsonists attack Free Democratic Party (FDB) offices in Wiesbaden. The fire caused about $100,000 in damages but no injuries. Two unidentified yout,1: \-70-7, seen running from the scene. There has been no claim of responsibility. kij)k`)) 29 --Steret�-- DI TR 87-004 26 February 1987 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 (b)(3) 9 January 13 January 16 January 17 January 18 January Iraq: Islamic Action Organization claims it destroyed munitions convoy in (b)(3) Baghdad. A large number of Iraqi military were reportedly killed in the explosion. South Africa: Two limpet mines explode almost simultaneously at a central Johannesburg department store. The explosion caused extensive damage but no casualties. Management at the store had been involved in a bitter wage dispute with black workers. The African National Congress claimed responsibility (b)(3) Portugal: Nine grenades found at University of Lisbon. The university is located approximtPli, 1 kilometer from the US Embassy. No one took credit for the devicesf(b)(3) West Germany: Suspected rightwing militant killed while testing bomb in Gottingen apartment. Police found large quantities of weapons, explo:63)(3) incendiaries, and rightwing and Nazi literature in the apartment. Philippines: Suspected New Peoples Army (NPA) guerrillas attack radio station. NPA guerrillas deternated a grenade and opened fire inside a popular radio station in the southern Philippines, injuring three persons. (b)(3)] Pakistan: A bomb explodes in a bus carrying Afghan refugees to the University of Peshawar, wounding 11 persons. Police said a 2-kilogram bomb had been placed in a lunchbox among the passengers' luggage and exploded just after the vehicle left the city's bt,..th +ion. Authorities suspect that the Afghan secret police was responsible. b)(3) Sri Lanka: A parcel bomb explodes on a crowded public bus near the town of Badulla, killing seven persons and wounding at least 50 others. Although no group has claimed responsibility, this attack is similar to a number of incidents perpetrated by the Tamil separatist group called the "Eelam Revolutionary Organization of Students." (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Italy: Twenty persons go on trial for 1980 Bologna railway station bombing. The defendants, members of rightwing terrorist groups, are charged with subversive activity, conspiracy to commit mass murder, and membership of an armed gang. T1-1 b bombing killed more than 80 persons in Italy's most lethal terrorist incident. ()(3) Japan: Three projectiles are fired from a parked car at a Tokyo police station. The building sustained minor damage, and there were no injuries. Based on the co-1�^fion of the projectiles, police strongly suspect the leftist radical Chukaku- ha(b)(3)� 21 January January 24 January 27 January 27 January Argentina: Bomb damages Intransigent Party Headquarters in the Flores District in Buenos Aires, causing extensive There were no reported injuries and no group has claimed responsibility. (b)(3) Italy: Small bombs explode outside two politicians' homes in Bolzano, causing slight damage but no injuries. Two suspected memb-- he South Tyrol separatist movement "Heimatbund" were arrested.�(b)(3)1 Spain: Several thousand people rally in Bilbao, demanding amnesty for suspected terrorists living in France. The marchers also were protesting recent French expulsions of Spanish Basque refugees. The National Committee of the radical bnalist party, Herri Batasuna, was one of the organizers of the peaceful march. ( (b)(3) France: Bomb explodes in offices of magazine Irn_ `-/)Trg., Afrique in Paris. There were no injuries and no claim of responsibility. u) Italy: Supreme Appellate Court issues final ruling on the 1969 Milan bank bombing known as the Piazza Fontana massacre. The court upheld the acquittals of three neofacists and an anarclq)-(3-iised of planting a bomb, which killed 16 persons and injured 88 others. French Guiana: Bomb explodes in Cayenne at the French Government's Forestry Administration building, causing structural damage but no injuries. No group has claimed responsibility, although radical separatists may be behind the bombing. (b)(3) 29 January West Bank: Jewish extremists vandalize Arab cars in East Jerusalem. The tires of 25 cars were slashed (b)(3) 31 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 30 January 1 February Italy: Leaders of Sardinian Armed Movement (MAS) arrested after shootout in Mamoiada. Annino Mele was carrying a gun and five handr,s at the time of his arrest. MAS has been linked to the Red Brigades. (b)(3) (b)(3) Spain: Car bomb attack on military bus in Zaragoza kills two persons, injures 41 others. The Basque group Fatherland and Liberty Military Wing claimed reQnnnsibility for the incident as part of its operation to harass the Spanish Army. (b)(3) France: Car explodes in front of school in Marseille, killing its two occupants. The cause of the explosion is unknown. A similar explosion last summer in Nice killed four members of a rightvrigl 1b-)-(-1-3--)on their way to bomb a target connected to North African immigrants. France: Another suspected Basque Fatherland and Liberty organization member is expelled. French police handed Ignacio Irastroza Mn "f;" over to Spanish authorities at the border in Hendaye, France. (b)(3) (b)(3) Italy: Two Jordanians arrested in June 1986 released from Genoa prison because of lack of evidence. Awni Hindawi was accused of belonging to an armed band after his cousin, Nezar Hindawi, was arrested for trying to blow up an El Al airliner in London last year. Also released was arms dealer Adnan Rousan, who probably fled the country shortly +ter. He failed to keep a probationary appointment on 13 February. (b)(3) Afghanistan: A car bomb explodes near an office of the Ministry of State Security in Kabul, killing at least four persons and injuring some 20 others. Windows within 500 meters of the explosion were blown out. Included in the area affected by the blast were the Consular Office of the Indian Embassy, a major Soviet military hospital, the Ministry of Interior, the Indonesian Charge's residence and the residence of the US Charge. (b)(3) 32 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 3 February 4 February 5 February 6 February 7 February Spain: Bomb explodes at Swiss pharmaceutical corporation in Bilbao. The blast caused material damage but no injuries. The same day, police defuse a bomb at a Renault office in Baracaldo. Th no-que Fatherland and Liberty Military wing probably was responsible. (b)(3) Four Basque Fatherland and Liberty suspects moved from Pau prison to jails in the Paris region. The four are awaiting extradition to Spain. (b)(3) Belgium: Authorities in Mons arrest two women who are suspected members of an Italian leftist terrorist group. They are believed to be members of the Combatant Communist Unit that committed terrorist acts in the early 1980s. (b)(3) Spain: Galician separatists detonate bombs in seven northwestern towns, causing little damage to regional banks and no injuries. The Galician Free People's Army claimed responsibility protesting the detention of three members of the group. (b)(3) South Africa: A bomb explodes in a bus shelter near an estate frequented by South African President P. W. Botha and senior members of his Cabinet. Police suspect that a limpet mine planted by `11-bVicican National Congress was responsible. One woman was slightly injured Austria: Arab and Palestinian students occupy Arab League Mission in Vienna to protest attlisi\-1-3)-1 refugee camps in Lebanon. The takeover was accomplished peacefully West Germany: Bomb explodes at Asylum Seekers' registration office in West Berlin. There were no injuries mt^,^,ty slight damage. The Revolutionary Cells (RZ) claimed responsibility. El Salvador: Armed terrorists hijack San Salvador bus. The hijackers left subversive literature and fled following a brief firefight. No injuries were reported. (b)(3) Belgium: Molotov cocktails thrown at Syrian Embassy. An anonymous caller claimed the firebombs were thrown in revengiSOfsieged Palestinian camps in Lebanon, and to protest the Assad regime. Italy: Two Italians, kidnaped by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Army in December, returned home. The Italians said they were treated well by their captors. Several Ethiopians captured with them were also freed. [(b)(3) 33 ThL Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 "3"erret., Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 (b)(1) (b)(3) 9 February 10 February West Bank: Riots at Balatah Refugee Camp result in injuries to seven Arab 1--b--\-1- two Israelis. Nine youths were ordered detained for three to six monthsl Colombia: Leftist guerrillas bomb three pipelines in Colombia. The bombings interrupted the flow of oil from the country's largest oil field. The attacks, largely directed against foreign firms, have caused $50 million in damage since 1984. (b)(3) Italy: Parliament approves bill for reducing jail sentences for reformed terrorists. The new law, aimed at guerrillas who have renounced violence and severed ties with terrorist groups, cuts life sentences to 30 years and other sentences by 25 percent. The not apply to those convicted for attacks that have killed several personsik u)k")) 11 February West Bank: Fivo luolotov cocktails damage Israeli bus in Galandiyah. There were no injuries (b)(3) 13 February West Bank: Israeli authorities charge Arab truck drivers with smuggling weapons b )(3 --td explosives from Jordan. Bridges were closed for two days to tighten security. () 15 February Israel: Car bomb explodes pre(b)(3)Iy in Kefar Sava injuring two Arabs. The PLO claimed responsibility. 16 February Colombia: Police kill a commander of the leftist Popular Liberation Army (EPL), Jairo de Jesus Calvo, during a gunbattle. The EPL has bombed Colombian Government and military facilities, including several in Bogota during January 198'(b)(3) 17 February Iran: Mujahedin-e Khalq assassinates Education Ministry official. The victim was the personal representative of Ayatollah Khomeini in the city of Kerman Iran: Bombing in Mashhad wounds President Khamenei's brother. The Mujahedin-e Khalq claimed responsibility�(b)(3)� (b)(3) Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884 o Approved for Release: 2017/09/13 C05922884