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December 1, 1973
Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 iliZgraM2WOUNSMTAI SECRET -114SISGI- J Italy December 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY 4E00E1� �1.361-FeReeN-13/66911� 30 owit, � � ,) Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS Th� bask unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a boundby-chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters�Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunkations, Armed Farces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small tzuntries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic intelligence Fact- book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and dote of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The Genera/ Survey is prepared for the HIS by the Lentral Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING title deposes. sonsoins lotottosoiso offolOte dko oolong ditfooso of do Ibmitod Slow. .1thlo Oo otsoolog of 1010 11. touloos 713 owl 794 Si dr. US tub, es ofooted. lb totosoistioo or rovolotloo Si He obt000ls 'SW notelet 69 go woosolsorbod omen Is ptobibbod bp low. ClAIStf1111 ST 01960. WWI MO *PAM HOLUM. CATION 101113Ult Of t. 0. 11613 tIttaF11001 CAT100111.1 1DIUCOS103teNISM AP N F0094 OF T � � � Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 WARNING The NIS is Notional Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections arid graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification/control designa- tions ores (U/OU) Unclassified/For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (5) Secret Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Research was sub- stantially completed by July IR73.� ' te-An. .� Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 ITALY CONTENTS Thie chimer aunenedee the setentilte earerace in the General Surrey dated October IDA. A. General 1 B. Organizatkm, planning, and financing of researeh 3 C. Scientific education, manpower, and facilities 6 D. Maio, research fields 7 1. Air, ground, and naval weapons 7 2. Biological and chemical warfare 11 3. Nuclear energy 12 t Electronk3 13 & Medical sciences 14 O. Other sciences 15 a. Chemistry and metallurgy 15 b. Physics and mathematics 17 c. Astrogeophysical sciences 19 Mussy ihrionmamp Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 ussuitsimpetimpeeasillsiellinallaiMenEffra. ':." 1 . i ItWill4VtitFr-274.7:k4.::'%f-rf�,-.--zuw-t-1:.:..-7..."-. a-...t,ot...�',.� �-� � . : " j�-�.k�Alr:n � -��� �-'�� .� � � � FIGUR� 5.0. 222 tracuportilifek* Conap.oes. hr. (Aermacchl 1)e.igesed Li. ini�i an Ital- ian Arms requirement for ii light ainlalt. der .�M-3 is suitable for 'awl' missions as formienl air controller. obwrvation. easualts evacuation. tactical support of gnnesed forces, and general duties. SW-Marchetti has developed the SM LUIIIA tel perform similar miksimes. Two 4 'doer renegrams an' emerging that will hate major intpart upon thr inelustrs from the later 1971c. to the eady IHIgfs. Huth programs wiring financed Ileneugh the Milan Cresernenrut and will he miler Arritalia management. Also, bath an. ILI illabonithr tspe programs�onr with iler United Kingdom and West Germans, the ollwi with the United Slates. Under Iler germs of a tripartite agreement. Italian industrs is to reveler :eland I 7; iii the work involved in the development and production 01 a Slulti-itolr- Cornleat-Alneall designated thr litis include contracts for electronic en a 'Intent and airframe sections. 4:orrent planning indicates our of the sh" prototylw aircraft will be built in Halls. Deliveries of the MIll:A-75 are sehedesled UIliIiW1Wi' iii Hu late 19e%. The waned major program is !wham; ihr U.S. Hewing company and Arritnlia. This program provides Ida the joint deed/newest of a STOL tnatopml. %Oh pnethiction to einumenee hy Ike lute 1970.%. The Italian missile rrwan.h and development effort Is r�panding and now unlink* the design and development of naval Iantishipl missiles, us well its field-forte defensive used antitank iisiWies. The Rayal sIstrun include ilw %en Indigo and Spada Mattatr-lcs- Ilw Sea Killer 51k3. and the ()lomat antiship CfUkt MiSsiles. Of thew. Ihe ()lomat program is the nunt noteworthy. aucl it repretents a joint effort between Oto NIelara in la Spetia and Matra of France. The field force ssstents arr the Indigo .tuf ate- I ii and Spanirro antitank missiles_ Production of thr Indigo missile is clurrrtuls limited to about III missiles esrry 3 months. The Italian Arms wpottrills plans to equip ItKi firing batteries with this !Ilea& dieting the ne�t 5�Sear period. Tlw Spaniel.' antitank missilr is e�pected to gn inlet %env prod' whole by 11175. At that thew. it will probalds lie used as a rrplacement the U.S. Tow asititatil uiIs.ik locing bought for ewe by the thelian Arms and now being produced under Meow in Italy and lewd by the lianas' Army. Shuts efforts reportedly air uncle-may on an mum rued I 111111 ill ti4' slit lace- to-14 f ace missile and II Ls adaptations of the Sea Killer \ILI (Nettlimi) and Sea Killer MO (Ville:mot antiship missiles. The N etteeno is a Ira m-fitlin4 solid propellant missile designed for use against destroson and smaller sessels. 'II� Italian% bust iesseqrd bravely in tbe Fii Mr Forte Sllisiir Teel Hauge. Latina. near A loin. and in thr Salto di Quimi Test Range. Sardinia. These ranges havr been 'wed to test NATI) aykit�Ills and F.S110 sounding nickels in addition to Italian and rorlwts. Spate amoriated 'meanie a% all othry tuditmul-Incl research. Is 'aleninistenil Ihniugh the (NH. Folhosiitg ertergartioaibbil in the (:NB Nablishrel Ihr Inter-( :4 ninnillre (i a It Iminn for the i1uiul ill Space Problems (:1S11) to roonlinate thr national Matt iii 1hr sttiul of pare ba�lle trhearei0 tit I Ow Spate Activity Service cSAS) to manage the mote 'smelted miserh elf spare fe%ea devrhipmeill. The SAS itidiition all activities Unlit% ed he Italy's p4uhripation in the European Launcher Orvell "Innen t Orga 'Ora lion I ELM)). the Esetelpran Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 vaiwomampiri- 'prt ��!. '2 : Spam 'tetrarch Orgaiiiraticon tESRt)1. and the EUA loran �inference for Satellite (:nonnitinirations t Italy hcot conducted limited tetrarch and development on ground weapons. 11nuever. the mounded facilities and improved capabilities of Italian industry is enabling numerous mints to he undertaken in the tetearcli. development, 411141 production of annitted vehicles. Tomo %nth vehicles :11r current') in development. booth of which am light %eight and amphiliiims-...1111V. the Fiat 6616 reciiiimilwancv vehicle 'Figure 61 it dmitlitx1 for a ihn.oe-man crew. the other. the Fiat f161.1 armored personnel carrier (Figure K drtigned to tarry 6 too h men plat the driver. A wconol version]. the 11614r. it designed with a longer yy heelloate to aeroommodate 12 combat-equipped men. Italy +vat int lilted uilli Franco and %Vett Cowin:my In I hr determination) of requitementt lot lite 1.eopanl- 1 tank awl later bought NM Leopard. hum Wm! (;ermain and uffl coproduce 600 11110se starting in Pat, hut the ettein of participation, in minal tetrarch and development it unknown eteept dial ettensive FiGt/ItE 6. Fiat 66I6 boilan-deveioped listativelght amphlbiove neternebstetee vettidaitkiekii- r o.. _ HOME 7. net 66141 lIghtouriglot annohibinas (unwed personnol garner being developed by Italy-Me* In letting of la.opani.1 (under hot climatic condition./ w us condoicted in Sardinia by the Italiansl'Aoniderable modification research and redesign also K conducted an U.S. armored vehicles onrd by the Italian Amy. Italians rrsecutioris kite modemlord the U.S. M--17 1Pallootil tank. Firepoourt tout inenrased it replacing the 90-nim glIll stills a 103- nun pm: other Improvements inclonled a new transmission, a modified hull. as new electrical t)Ntelfl. a redesigned fir:4 SySielli and ammunition storage arrangement. and a diesel engine. Also, an improved track link hiss been developed for the t'SA NI-113 armored personnel cattier% ined In Italy. Italian %%la in muir 'A a dare equipment is eteellent. and commercial firms have ettend_ve program% to develop and manufacture Itinit-quality mInes and mine fours low Ilw Italian Amoy. Research and deVehlpt1W1111 ills etplositet and oplosive phenomena our maintained at a Mel to provide fin future defense requirements. Facilities are availahle for esperiments wills loigh-enenty materials. and some mak is &Ile OH the deVellIplitenl of Ile% allti iiiiis,nsrJ esplosit r compositions. Maly has a contidemble cap:Jollity for rewards mid developnient off Inintroul vehicles :mil Rids engines. but little effourt is made with ;espy, to militart hanlware. Fiat it the majoir pnoduceruI nil I i a it vehicles. Reseal tell ptiolects inesent It andentay stress vehiele design for nomontainous anti rough tetrain copes-Atom and amphibiont capabilitv. The Runt significant bdolging and sirrani.enming equipment dewlopinent cunently limit-may is the Astra moiltispan lank-lanswIted bridge; although laomeholl bridges have been med. hilt lust heroine the lint 0111111fy ill the West to hate succeuftolly oleselooped a tiiiiltitpari bridge. It consith of a scissors. type treadway %pall +sills the ramp welkin capable of hying converted into al pier too terve :Is intermediate %import. After the first pan it eirploiced. sionouite tpans ran he lannelled by other bridgelaters from the deck sol the emplared span. Itasit ha% as reialii.v4 strong feWilfell aural tlevrinpinent nip:dilav Iii loponniiiiiir minimum& '11w development al the 1- Satin in cooperatioon wills lir lk.fullt Corporation ill dor United States it a ei111611111111% el�leadleraltic mailing'', hiker& '111ii. VI (kik% CahleV1 P lust reeentlt completed oletehop- off an millsoplintogiaphie attachment (sir a sterroplotter. a precition stereottionpatatior. and a nets aerial mapping control to add to its full hue of photfogmnimellie and geodetic einiipment. Re%earch related to quartermatter equipment sisters a varlet% of fields. Considerable work has keen flaw ion coolliquiltle � � , Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 containers. decigned for both storage and transport of hulk Ikpaid POI. products. submersible and foaling oil hisses. und fueling Isuoys for use in marine POI. terminal systems. Italian work lir direct energy conversirin system is limited. although some d'art is underway ma magnelohydtods Made% especiallti closed-est* *stems. The Balkans hate hi the past or are now nanlucting MearCh and development In all aspects of UndenVa ter ordnance. including antisubmarine warfare (ASW) mortars. tarPeghleS. and mines. Italy has long been a pioneer in these areas of development. The only known research and development being concluded hi the field of torpedoes is dirretet1 toward a wire.guided torpedo carrier for the U.S.-supplied Mk 44 hirperks. Italy has had under development for nutny years an ASW mine designated T.A.R. A gun mount program has beers established, and a number eil priva:-� (Inns are participating in the des elopitairt of modest dual. isurpose. mounts. Naval fire csailrol ssstenis alma are under development. 2. Biological and chemical warfare WA- The Italians have A NI111:111 11111hWeill Villd chemical war fare 8W/ CVS'I research and dev 'shipment prugrum clinseted essentially toward defensive aspects. Primary resprinsihility for Millating and isionlinating 11W utd 1:W research and development efforts within the Italian Armed Farms rests with the Inspect's, General of Atomic. Bisslogical. and 1:1wersiral (AIR!) 1)elesise. The (lief. Cheridstry and Physics Tedmical Semler.. suixonlinate to the ABC hopeetorate, directs and iulmiliisters die 11W and LW mosairli. testing. and equipment developmental activities of the Army Technical Center for 1:heenit1ry. Physic.. and Illohsgy (A11.3. Home. Them are hair hang:Males at All:: the chemistry and biology laboratmies, both of which develop deteetion rapicl screening. iral 111/11111 technician; a physics laboratory to support the first and a terhnological lahnraterry hi develop veld item Scientists engaged in IIW. lind (:W-relatesl fields at researeh are crinipelent and benefit iliniugti in eschange of infomuition on 'offensive and defensive advancys Iii BW/t:W through NATO. the Mutual Weipusis Ikvelopment I)ata Esc-haute Agreement with the United Slates. and PINAREI. (Francr. United Kingdom, Italy. the Netherlands. West (:ernialW. Ilelgium. and lamenihouna Known SW (mean+ is eradined Ii. defensive aspects. particularly detection and identifiecition. hut medkal and health iesclusts pnwides knowledge applicable to all aspects of 11W. Work at Art: has Included studying the 'ravel of aensol elands containing fluorescent particles. meleirrological observations in various sections rof the 'sanctify. development of a sampling kit, and investigations of the fluorescent antibody staining teehiligille MN its potential role in IIW agent detectirni. A contract has been awarded for research in methods of mass %lamination by aerosol. Various civilian institutes and labotutories not ecimmtly connected dinectly %sills BW offer facilities that could he applied to 11W pnigrants if funding and titled's-es new puteldell. For maniple, the Iligher Institute of Ilealtli, Rome, has responsibilities for di/atlantk work, and research is conducted on leptospirosis. Q.lever. arboviroses (presently the Mania virus h smiler study), air sampling techniques related to pollution. and on Ilse epiderniolmy and cliagsuois of microbial irafedirms. Haman and animal Inumllosis are studied :it thr lassitude of I lyelene of the linisersity of Florence. Floreewe. arid at the Veterinary Clink of the University sit Pisa. Pka. resperlivel. Scientists id the Seninitherupy arid Vaccinogen Institute. Siena. prepared a detailed report on suellismb rdopletl for the titnithin tif polyvalent snake venom aatisera. Collected datum wens meal to determine the tonicity of each venom Alilt1 the neutralizing dose ha the conespooding autism. Although thr natural poisons research is medically oriented. the data rrsioltisig from such work could trail to awn sophistinited CW lethal and incapacitating agents. Itesearihu;also is tieing concluded on neuromuscular blocking agents: quaternary ammonium salts wen. found to display eliolincolyiir properties similar to the stasulatel U.S. incapacitating agent HZ. No information is availalsk tos indicate that Italy is ellitiAged In t till yi lig new CW agents. Some basic. reward, has been vormitidell. however, on known lethal agents. inchaling the anal Dene Isgemils for defroster putposev. rliis sun ii prolialily continuing. Italy's research mi eiattiral poisons is slevolecl primarily to plant alkaloids and snake venoms. Belatisely little inters'st is shown in laidesial Indus. A haveislek kit has been devised fin iiidnirti (N( Xis) and Isalhilitin medical teams. It contains. aiming other fist aid items. atropine automatic inketem lute %has of 2-toritline rildosime Inethinclide (PAM ter combat iten-r avid Inchon* and aim.1 nitrite ainiandes anti aminciplienol for IsItaxl agerit antidotes. The Italians have developed a refillable antomatie alnipine sell-injedar for sell-aid against ii Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 ve agent poisoning. Tests of this item. however. showed that the plastic spring housing tended to crack after only a few uses. Weak on dectontaminatIon appannus Is limited to the evaluation of NATO equipment with adaptations or irnpnwrinents to these Items. Because emulsions adhere to surfaces. 11w Italians claim that the application of emulsions is effective for deasniamination: for nerve agents. they have considered hydrate of aluminum The Tirrena Incorporated Company. Rome. reportedly has developed a 'elks of backpack flamethrowets. There is no infoormation that any of these models have been standattlizesl. The latest model. T-69. contains three 94iter (14 gal.) steel tanks�two Intend tanks for fuel and a central tank for the compressed propellant gas. The maximum range is listed as 80 meters. with an effective nange between 59 and 70 meters. Also under development is is 73.emn mom round for use in disseminating riot contra' agents. CW tkfensive research mad tlevelopment efforts are directed primarily toward improving detection and protective equipment sind therapeutic agents: a csonsiderahle amount of work is undertaken to improve pmtectIve clothing items by ow of eit het initurgnated or disposalole4ype clothing for enteral issue. The Italians are attempting to obtain French and U.S. material samples to enabk them to cleveksp a local sourer for the fabrication of Inityl�voated materials. 3. Neckar energyiS) ErW several years. the Italian nuclear research program has hems devilled psintadly to the investigation of baste contrpts with touly a minimum effort toward practival applirations. 'Mese priorities probably v.ill he reversed as a etanwpwittv of as law which restructured CAEN Ito late 1971. Under this law, the ueeney remains under the �per:anneal control of the Ministry of Indootty best now Is headed by a plesident wills an ("relative boanl and a maned of ailminisloullosi. all appointed by the Council of Ministers. All major political parties ore immolated ha the (:NKN and. as a ctontetisience. Ihe Italian nuclear Ij prognini K espectet1 to wceive increased attention anal support from die national gsweniment. This new haw has hero Implemented and Ezio (:knienliil. formerly the direettor of (:NEN's Computing Center hi Bologna. tins been wined President saf the (KN. Prinuary alert of this reoreanization upon the Italian nuclear research Kilogram will he the tedirectiion of the major effort. While bask research will cinatinale. the chief effort now will he toward practical oppikatluns, espetially hi the realm of 3.1 12 tractors and reactor fuels. A major research effort will also he espentled in controlled thermonuclear reactions remark Alm of interest is the investigation of uraniUM enrichment. Nuclear electric power is competitive Ira Italy at a higher rant than In Many European conistries 'amuse sof the high cost of conventional fuels and near total exploitation of hydnielectric resourtvs. Large sums of money base hems spent for the development of nuclear power by Loth the government and pulsate Industry. Italy has there passer reactors In operation. a fourth one under construction. untl others tokanned, � 2111.ntegawatt elect deal OM Wel gas-voided reactor some 41) miles south of ROIlle. 'war Latina. is bawd on British technology and uses natural uranhun furl. SENN. a 160-MWe boiling water martin (11%'R) on the Garigliano river is loused ma General F.ketrie technology and me. 2.1% and 2.6% enriched uraninite Incl. SEINE a f.'57 :%IWe pressurized water reatior (PWR) near Torino on the Po river is lowed On Westinghouse technology and uses 2.7% to 3.9% enriched uniniiiiit fuel. The fourth plant. a 750 NI��'e BWR. similar to the SENN reactor. Is being Intik near (:remmoss and is cynics' to be operating in 1975. Other, both BWR's and PWR's, are being planned for various locsalloin. With its espanding nuclear power prontrain. Italy has shown considerable interest in establishing sin independent nuclear fuel capability. including uranium enrichment, fuel faloticatiosi. and fuel trpowessine. The Italians have two small fuel pnwessing plants. one in southern Italy about 3) miles from Taranto. and ante at Satanist. The saw mar Taranto is specifically desieited for processing thorlimetionisaining fuels, while the one at Saliaggia Is for pnocessine enriched uranium] fuel elements. Their natural uninitsm fuel elements hum the British- plaided tractor use niurvord to the Culled Kineclons for reprocessing. 'Admonitory reseatch intro both gaseino &Ruskin and gets centriliagatiout for uranium emichment is conthotied withlugoverainent facilities with iialoistrial participation' liewarclo Aids air at vety low levels and probaloly are intended only to foster stientific interest in order to prim& (:NEN with assistantr during any consideration of join* in multinatismal group studies 411 group spoitsorThip of produefion facilities. Italian industry should be sable to build and operate fuel Calitiration Intilities adequate for their plenum Ian Italy will remain dependent upon Imports for furl supplies. slow their (morn uranium irserves are insufficient In support their nuclear pins sr 1110gM111. Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 ; For several years the Italian Nan has been invoked In a warm for the development and construction of an 18.000-lon mocker pottered naval support ship to he called the Eerier; Femsl. ft is proposed that this ship be equipped with an h0-megawatt pressurized stater reactor using 5% enriched uranium fuel. France presided the fuel for the land.hased prototype for this reactor. Italian naval officials have insisted that the ship will be operational in the 197243 period. lloneser. it now appears that construction has not even started. Because of the naval association of the vessel. Italy has been unable to get assurances of foci supplies foe ass OW:10MA reactor. 11th could change if Italy does become past of any pancrans %hereby they would have access to enriched uranium. Italy has adequate research facilities. including suberitical and critical assemblies and research reactors. to supped a nuclear research program and to provide training for the associated personnel. Fundamental and applied nuclear irseurch is king carried roin in three types of facilities: 11 three national Inslitsites�Caseseela Center for Nuclear Stud!es. Frascati National Laboratories. and the Noticing! Institute (us Nuclear Physics (INini). all in or neer BMW; 2) University facilities that are nut associated directly with the national institutes: and 3/ snicker- associated centers such as the Center of Infonnution. Study. and Eaperimentation in Milan and the Saltiggiu Nuclear Research Center near TOrillit NIOSt al the financial support for 'NE is provided by the CNEN. INFN actually is an independent orgailiza- then of nuclear research laboratories located at 17 universities. at the Frascati National Labondones, and at the Higher Institute of Health. The Itedinit-contmlled thermonuclear reactions research Is centered at Frascati and is partially supported by Euratom. Although most of rsperintental work has been concerned with mgoltimegagions magnetic fields produced by implosion techniques, this work has now ken cut bark and a much larger effort has been put into laser- induced fission research. In addition, research scientists eat FROA.1111 are investigating plasma focus phenomena and cornbwilent esperinsents a-wraith/I with toroidal geometry devices. Italy is a participant in several International unclear energy programs Random pnivkks some funding for the controlled thermstmidear reaction% research at Frascati. participates to a small estent in the Italian unclear power program, and hilly operates the Center few Nuclear Research at Ispra. The results from lona rewards profects an. shared by all of Euratom, lad Italy naturally will he the prime beneficiary. Italy alas is a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Organization for Nuclear Research rt:ERNi. Electronics Italian electronics research and development efforts lag behind those of the other advanced countries of Western Europe. Basic electric resevreh has been limited primarily by as chronic shortage of funds rather than by any specific technological shortcomings. Nevedheless. impressive results have been obtained through production of systems and components using. where necessary. foreign-designed equipment. This has ken possible through a samples system of mergers and/or licensing agreements with cumpanies in use United States. France. the United Kingdom. and West Germany. Such arrangements have lowered the total slat of decimates research and development and have enabled Italy to use its production espertise to greater advantage. Some eseellent tetrarch is performed by industry and universities. however, and the counIn's needs are king met hy an adequate supply of capable scientists. The Selertia Associated Electronic Ittilincries. Ine. (Seienta Industrie Elritroatehr rtuncktte S. P. A. I. BMW. is one of Italy's largest electronics research. development. and pnaluction organitations and has spearheaded the industry in many NAT() projects essential In the defense. ed. Westeni Faintly. The arras of applied research include space and military comfit admit isms systems. radar, and computeri. 1ligh- quality work has been done in ICICCOM11111111V.111011%. Including development of eill.solid.state luelical radio- relay equipment currier telephone and trivet:nth systems, pulse code umehilation system parametric amplifiers, and communloitions satellite antennas. Especially noteworthy is their mean+ in microwave pollination and components. Ihe Italians um doing basic anal applied research related to radar aml have produced families III tracking awl fire-contrul radars. as well ass 3�1) search and a 2-1/ random frequency agile radar. Military nukes ineuisiumstr ii frill Cn111101CMCnt of electronic counter.ontedrresseamnes features. such as instan- taneous wistontaile gain tasitiol fast tinte clinstaist. sensitivity time ronlnd. staggered pulse repetition frequency and %kir lobe blanking. 11-apples' condiments wave radios have been developed for missile guidance applirations. The Italians are makine rapid progress In the design and production of equipnwed for electronic warfare; they carnally Piave significant capabilities both In eletinatic countenneasums elillipubriit. especially that 13 Mr* Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 CO6675028 .721-5r....-� for elect:tank reconnaissance. and in electrorcle counter-countermeasures techniques'. Intercept equipment has been developed for we against ground. mobile communications splems. Shiphome and airborne electnanic intelligence and direction-finding systems include some of the Latest features in automation and design sophistimallon. The Italians have experimented with data link systems between direction-finding stations. and integral intereept/lam- ming systems have been deteloped for rapid jamming response. as well as loam hnough capability. The EL70 jammer. a joint German-Italian profed. was produced by f:Irdrordczo of Italy as a deceptimereixoter ktiftmet al* to recognize and mounter qweific aircraft and missile threats. Oilier interesting electronic warfare developments are a brute-force jammer to render fire�contml radar ineffective heyoml a very limited range and a coommunicatiton link which allows a inland statism Inset bequests*. aultenatically (and oiler operating mmditiams) of other mai keis within the net when a special signal appears. Infrared activities have Included work on communications and deteditan techniques and in 1970 included infrared signatone studies of ships and disposable decoys. The Galileo Works. Florence. hots developed an infrared locum-rider missile voidance system and a passive tracker. The shipboanl electronics system for the Israeli Gabriel ilaissile system Is of Italian design. Other efforts in the military elect no-optical liII area combined low-level-level iir radar tracker and later nmgefintler systems for fire control. In the late 19.110s and early 1961)s. the major Italian elect tonics compan F. ()II vet t I. developed anal produced several of its own models of erneral purpose dielial computen. Prior to the sale of its momputer interest to a U.S. mompany. Olivetti also pooduced tither models ming licensed U.S. designs. Sint, the mid-1060\ the only &mystically tkvelimed Italian computer model has hems the 1.aben-70. made by the 1.abaraterf Elettranhi e Nuclear! in Milan. Special Impose ditital and analog computers also have been developed indigenously. An UM ing�iype computer. the model (iGIL was built in lira and was intruded to be part of the fire control system Installed in West German army tanks. Selcnia has developed the C01)- 3452. a third-generation computer incorponaing medium scale integration. (or military and air truffle control applIcalken. Production of ilth sssteno is impeded to he undenvay in the near future. Selenia reportedly is also consinadliag a general purptne digital computer for the non series F.SR() satellites. 14 & Medical seitaseesi% tack of funds and equipment has limited advances in lokanedical research in Italy. although individual scientists are esceedingly capable. Training for research Is good and noteworthe work is being done. particularly In biophysics. genetics, and pimp macolney. Resean.4a is promoted primarily by the CNR. which has a National Consultative Committee for Hinton and Nletlicine. the Ministries of Health and Agriculture, the unisvnities. and the private sector. Italy relies in pad on support from international soarers. especially the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the M'orld Ilealth Organization. Major research renters include doe Higher Institute of Health of the Ministry of health. the Mario Nred Phartnasological Research Institute. the National Institute of Nutrition of the hlinistry of Agriculture. mud the Fiormitalia unit of the Montemotini industrial complex. The level of pharmacAoeimal research is high. Fine work is being clone on the interaction of drugs, the mechanism associated wills the development of arteriosclerosis, the phartnamodynatnie action of boarloittonales. the synihesis and transport tor lipids. species differences in tosicolney. and the phut- mactogenetic aspeds of !random and memory. An intenlisciplinary, molecula r-Ithalogical approach is being male in clinical phamuaetology. In the development of phannaceutinals. good work is onelenvay me mardkwaseular agents, the mechanics of antitumor ;sedum. screcribig of new cancer chemotherapeutic agents. die mechanism of iletion of psychternpie drugs. and the modifiration of sy tithes's of ergot alkaloids. Interesting studies are toting contrilliated to steroid biosynthesis and to the chemistry of ani [tensor and antiviral antibiotics. The Mario Negri institute is carrying on rewards in canter cliematlocrapley. neuropsychopharniamilliey. the phannamilogy of lipid metabolism. and the ttosimalogy of industrially important chemicals Reston+ in lolochemistry is espedally uetive anal prlichictioro reflects havestigative areas of worlduitle interest. Italian bkochemists have esploiled a is kit' range of sophisticatml instrumentation. including Ilse electron inierownpe and gas chromatiograpli. (:iirrent studies have included work on the mechanism of hormone release. doe role of pnntaeltunaliess and use intemdion of neural and homoonal control, functional differentiation of tissue peptides, the action of inommenglobillins. and the diagnosis 01 brain tumors. The hliiiistry of Health is supporting the sturdy of clinical laboratory asslinualinn. Allhotegli Italy has ii � . � . Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 ..."111OMMEMENIMilliMMINNOMMISIONMOOMINION110110, SoPliraftessoommme.....;1114.����.��������11.0.11110& limited number of members working hi biophysics and genetics. they ate quite capable. Qualitutively pull moans hove been made on the effects of chemical, and ultraviolet radiation on cell mutation. the physical chemistry of bone matrons sells. radioldahlogind methods of study of cell populatiom. and the effect of radiation on cellulao clonstituents. The CNR is 'impartible fundamental tesearch on the graduar and function of biological macromolecules. the esti-action and analysis of ribosome preeunois. the study of poncho fractions of grain. and the cytotosic effects of selected drug agents. PInsioltarists are doing fundamental orsca icli itli the physiology of diving: the Italians are interested in aspects of research related to underwater physiology. Meal of production include cardiovascular physiol- ogy. neurophysiology. endocrine activity. cellular physiology. and the physiology of respindion. The Higher Institute of Health and the CNR are arapending in as study of health-related aspects of the Italian environment. Routine studies of the envinmment and atmosphete pollution arc underway at a Euratom facility for nuclear mean* at Ispra. Careful research he nunition is devoted to study of food additives and the micrisisialogy and chemical compusiton of food. water land air, the nutritive value of foodstuffs. anal biological research on the motritional pnorss. Italy parlicitules in research work promotes! 1w the Fond and Agricuhure Organization (FAO) and ble the WoeId Health Onranizalkin. Italy has developed modern facilities foe meats+ on vaccines. The higher Insiluuutcof Ileahlt is deco-hiring Its competence ha toollutiarn research. micraltiological synthesis. parusitology, and (nod microbiology. Italian research Is being strengthened in wpiskrniology. especially or ailmovinnes. A fundamental carnpaign hi undenvay to eliminate intestinal pannites in school children. The military medical services of Italy conduct active medind research programs in well-staffed research institutes with modern equipment. Subway- ily research conducted at the Mr Vance Center of Study and Research on Aviation and Spare Medicine. Rome. has drawn international attention. The f:enter for Malloy Applications of Nuclear Energy. a toiservice organiration. is playing on eveo-incrrasing role in radiation pathology and binlinty. The financing and coordination of medieul oesearch of interest to national &from Is carded out by the 1)eferne Scientific-Technical Council. subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. On problems of nudist)l Inkiest. military medical research institutes coonlimate with the Natkmal Research (:ouneil. the National Committee for Nuclear Enemy. the 11irdstry of timid,, other eravernment ministries and gawks. universities. and pdvale industry. Military onedical research pcssonnel participate In intentatiarnal scientific and medical meetings anal in 541111e Instances. share their 'tooling% with padivipating countries. I. Other itieneestro- & Chensistry rod arlithstigy Chemistry occupies to strong position in the Indian universities and in isschntry. Most ol the basic research is carried out at the university institutes. Chemical reseauelh is stronger in industrial laboratories than in gossenament iintitutes. The total cheanival mean+ elfaut if only sli�hily less than that in France hut substantially less than that in West f;enirans in the United Kingdom There is considemble strength in several aspects of organic chemistry in Italy. Including synthesis. organic reactions. and pram' of structure. The Unit ersitsof 1111m is strong in the organic chemistry of it-quite% alkaloids. unkind and plant pigments. and other 'alimony gleellfring products. The University of ('.C11104 also works on terpenes. and the University of Naples dues reward' on iggments of tontine orossisms. The University of Pisa is involved in studies on ',monometallic campanulas and optirally active europium's. Many other universities are active in synthetic tomtit- chemistry. Italian mean+ on bight polymers. including both their preparation and the study of Ilwit propenies. Is recognired internationally. The outstanding figure is 1)r. Giulio Natio. who was awarded the Noltel Prize in 1:Itemistry he 19113 fair his signifieunt work on sten-inpetific polymerization which led to the development of commercial polypropylene. 1)r. Natio has been responsible. as head of the leonine. ad Industrial 4:Itemistry at the Polyteehotic Institute of Milan. for directing a large amount of important reseawit tin pulynteriration catalysts. siereospecific palyincri,a. non. iunactic polymers. %traction- ash polymers, and kinetics of polyaiwrization. Ills institute has been well Immolated In Nlatidectalini-Eallson S.p.A.. Stilian. Polymer reseaoch Is coneentrateil also at the CNI1 Institute for Mueramadeettlar Chemistry. Milan. which aloes work on sterrosiwrific parlymerirations, behavior of fused polymers us related to asiathelk,, filter pnicluetion. anal the structute of 'samples polynters by means ui X-noy diffraction. electron dilfruction. nuclear mimetic fe%1111/111M. and infmred techniques, 13 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Industrial torganic and inorganic chemistry is stmng In Italy. Montecatini-Edison is the largest employer of chemists in the country. In 1966 this company had about 3.100 chemisb doing research on polymers. plastics. synthetic fibers. petrochemicals. dyes. agriendhinal chemicals, oreanic intennediates. and other industrial chemicals, involving an esposditure of about $U million. The pharmaceu'ical industry and sewed universities synthesize times. The Italian chemical industry has been deteriorating napidly in recent years anti suffeted a loss of nearly $199 million In 1971 and probably nearly as much in 1972. As u result. n : ss heel, difficult for the industry to carry out a develops. cut plan. Muck of the research in physical chemist* is directed toward physical organic mean& Francesco Menisci at the Milan Polytechnic Institute is known for his ersearch on reactions of her radicals and on **hems involvine free radical martian,. Physics'l atonic research at the University of Milan involves reactirm kinetics. Malys's. and stereochemistry. There is research � on reactions of aryl radieuls and on confonmaional analysis at the University of Bologna and on reartion kinetics and mechanisms at the UniVellity of Padova. Several institutions are hooked in elecanichemIcal ;march, The work of Roberhs Piontelli on electrode behavior. ovenohage effects. and metallic dispeohms he mo'.ien salts at the Milan Polytechnic Institute is noteworthy. The University of Rome does research on electrochemical reductions of organic compounds and on amazing of sibrininum. There is emend physical chemistry research at many of 11w universities. Research in inorganic chemistry is widespread. Pmfessor I.uigl %MIMI of the University of Florence is noted for his mean+ ha coonlination chemistry. particularly on nickel. cobalt, copper. and other metal completes. Important work on metal carbonyl completes involving nickel. cobalt. rhodium, and thenium is dime at the University of Milan. Several of the Italian smivenitks rue strong in biochemistry. Particularly significant is the mimice work by Allessandm Rossi-Fanelli and Eruldo Antonini of the Univenity of Rome on hemoglobin and myoglobiu chemistry. This university also does research on pmteins and decityrilemucleie acid (DNA Also strung in biochemistry is the University of Padova. which does research on hemocyanin (a aspiratory pigment of atihmpads and nonlholut pnaeins. DNA. and mimes enzymatic fractions. such as mitoehoordrial oxidations and phosphorylations. The University of Milan does research on protein synthesis and on development of methods for wady,* 16 of plasma and urine for holinOOLIS and other vonstitirents. Although Italy has a lame metals production Industry that is of considerable cetsnomic importance. Ii has not developed a strong capability in metallurgical research and development. The research efforts have been directed principally toward improved methods in extractive metallurgy and in solving steel production problems. The ersearet program hocks the depth and scope of that in most industrial European countries. The program is weak in the areas of fundamental physical inetalleirgy and metal physics. basic feronn physical metallurgy. fatigue. creep and rupture, mid damage criteria. In overall metallurgical research and development capabilities. Italy is considerably behind West Germany. France. and (:zechosiovakia, is about on a par with Switrerland. and is well ahead of Spain and Greece. The most signifiesmt metallurgical research carried out in Italy is that done in the laboratories of Fiat, the industrial giant involved in automothr. aircraft, marine. diesel engine. and pouer plant construction. Significant research on ferrous metallurgy is also carried out in the laboratories of Italsider, the government-conlmiled steel company. altil in the Comic Steel Company in Aosta. Noteworthe work is done at tlw Institute of light Metals and Alloys in NoVista on nonferrous metallurgy and at (:NR's (killer for the Studies of the Preparation of Minerals in Rome on extractive metallurgy. Fundamental studies of physical metallurgy rind metal physics. which air normally undenaken at universities. are notably lacking. Most efforts along these lines in Italy an directed toward the study of defect structures in ionic compounds (metal halides) and senikondociors. Some exevIlent research on the electrochemical aspects of moss cormion cracking of roustenitic stainless steels has emanated from the Ustiveraty of Milan. In the government-supported. norsarademie laboratories, fundamental resean41 is rolooductrul at the Center for InfOrniatiOn. Studies, and Esperinirulatkni in Milan on point defects, diffusion. and rudiutiou damage in metals and particularly ho dilute copper. silver, and gold allan. Euratom in Ispris has studied naliation-pnaluced point defects in metals. Internal rddion phenomena hi hydrneen-contantiointed body- mulcted-cubic metals. and the potential of improving the ductility of aluminum-aluminum saIdc sintenil products. called SAP. for potential use us nuclear chuckling material. In the field of attractive metalluryty. the (:NII (*.enter for Studies of the Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Prcpandion of Minerals in Rome has studied the roasting of nonferrous ores. the &tailors of zinc iatt% eltdrochemicul 'Ailing. and similar sublets. Steel refining and prucludion prublems have ken reseaeched at the plant laboratories of :talsider. Work has included iron on' concentration, blast funkier studies. oxygen refining. continuous rusting. and steel fuhricution. These studies have all ken direded 'man' improvemenb in steel pnaluction. Howevei. link effort on lemon physical metallurgy has been observed in publications emanating from Ito'shirr "utilities. In contrast. the labontiodes of the (:ogsse Steel Company have eowentrated their efforts on ferrous physical metallurgy and the development of impnived steels and insprnved heal treatment procedures. ilspalca end nestheinntica Italian physics resssuch is concentrated in a few fields, with most of the effosi being devoted to the nuclear sciences and tedishologies (33%) and the physics of solid states (30%). The remaining physics Chid is neady equally divided among the areas of relativity and gruvitation, molecular and alonde physic% aralt$1110. fluid mechanics. magnetohydrody- mimics. plasma. quantum electmnics. and optics. A majan portion of the funthunental research is conducted at the university institutes and labotatodes. whereas research of an applied nature is being lankier' at the ernynsment-soppurted agentirs and hi the laliorcandes of industry. I lih.cnrsgs research into 11w physics of elementary panicles appears to hold the 11111111f intrust In the nuclear sciences. The largest portion of such research oreurs at the Vitivenities of Rome and Trieste. At the Univenity of Rome. 'Mart+ in ekmenituey pad kin is fairly swan-date and comparable with that being dune in other advanced countries. Because they have access to the Mow storage ring. the Italians can minim the gamma-gamenis interaction pnwesses needed to observe chanted plane collkicin pnaduction peaks. Others at the univessity an- investigating multihadronie cross section. ham, on &Times annihilation. They are making theoretical es :siltation,. of results obtained in experimental research in the United States on prfasne-antirmaon annihilation cross sections. Campled wills their udvantval theoretical research. Italian physkists cii the University 14 Horne engage in well hahhneed programs of extkrirnental research. This is possible heroine they have items to the high-energy elesinm-synclmanue at Enneuti where research dealing with neutral-piton photo. productions on protons from delitedllin Is 11111111 done. Iligh�energy research at the University of Trieste is whimsy(' and of high quality in both themy and experimentul work, and studies in photo- and elednr- production. pion dirldbutIons in high-multiplicity interactions and resonances, and thr photo-production of positive plum me underwal. Mint of the high energy irseards done at the other universities is theoretical. excepting that being done at the University of Bad where resonance productions in pion interactions are being conducted in the labstratory. Basic research In low-energy physics is limited to theoretical studies dealing with the stnrchor of nuclei and elastic scattering cnns-sections. Approaches ate also being studied which the investigators hope will evolve into new theatrics concerning unstable states. In experimental srm%irch at the University of Bart, memmements of forward scattering angles related to curium isotopes are undenvay for the purpose of gaining information concerning angular correation. Efforts an. bring din-tied by physicists at the University of Pisa tannin, studying Inward neutrino- Induced reactions on the double-shell nuclei. The law. energy nuclear researchen al the CNEN laborators in Rome are studying nractions and levd structures and decay schemes through the ow of tan isotope of lutetium. During the past 3 ean. (NEN ha. expanded its own wench Milleri in nuclear phssies and engineering. nidkaion biology. and atomic- fuel treatment. and has the ersponsibility of establishing anomie powerplants in Italy. These Involve the 200. megawatt Sinus, plant with lb gas cooled eraclor of British design at 141111w. the 160-megawatt Senn plant with a Central Electric boiling water unman on tie Garigliano river. and thr 235-megawatt Sdni plant with 11 WI44111011111Se piessurized water reactor at %'crvdhi. cuRENE, the lint halloos power reactor (33 megawatts) was developed by sk USE In Mihm and is ow of the earliest series of experimental power macaws of advanced design finarnycl by CN EN. Solid Mae 1)4$1C% tillearch which lags suds research in other ladvausced countries by 3 ran. is coneentruted in tk vadoto large universities. CNEN laboratories. and industry-supported iesearch institutes. Industrial concerns am intercom' primarily In solid-state research from the standpnint of senslcombitior device development. metallurgy, magnetic. materials and. In some eases, the photographic properties of various silver halides. Reseurch also includes snakes of local antifenurnag- netie ordering commonly observed in ferromagnetic alloys. At the University of Genoa. mean+ drals with magnetic moments of samarium in the various metals Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 .111101MNIMMINSINft. stiti Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 7 3'. � �, � being investigated. Abc. some good tesearch it underway in connection with superconductivity characteristics of -Ronde metals legartling critical fields and temperatures. Such work has oblectives related to anliferromagnetie intetactiorts uncl localized spin Phpicists at the University of 'hokum conconttate heavily in semiconductor material and ilevicv development and pmprdy studies. Their aciivities include the prototype development of bipolar transistors and diodes. Impurity property in silicon crystak doping of semiconductor layers lunneline studies, and ttattsmissioon energy loss of light being chunnekel through silicon. The research is aimed primarily at improving Rohm elecinonics. which is needed to promote expansions in their computer and communications industries. Some of the must advanced solid�state research is being done at the 1;nivetsity of Modena where properties of cadmium tellurides are being investigated in cootnecliion with ddh mobility of holes. Faitly advanced hut limited research is being done In optics. interferometry. specirostopy. holography. and quantum electmnics. At CNEN. optics specialisb are investigating optical signal pmcessing using acoustic light modulators for tooting images. Performance characteristics ale brine !toothed far optical systems illuminated by coherent light in a linear motion pattern to analsve the far-field diffraction. Al the CNR-suppoded Optics Institute In Naples. teseatrh is being concluded on mieroholoo graphic interferumeky. Diffused laser light is king employed in obtain bright field interferognims. Optical spedmscopy research is being conducted at the University of Rome where approaches being used employ grating synthesis. A new technique. which appears to hold promise for producing high-resolution spectroscopy. is being emplussixed; it Is based on she antistokes intensity caused by photon interactions. The Italians are devoting efforts to classic introfemmetry experimenh dealing with light beams In otthoganal stales of elliptical polarixatioin. The laboratories have been following WM, prognono to produce low-noise and high-effkleney produdion of holograms by developing a process for treating photographic plates too obtain an optimum ratio belisven noise and efficiency. There is u strong trend toward increased research in magnekohydrodynamies and plasma physics involving studies on classic plane magnelohydrodynantic and laminar militias and plasm� stabilities in specific media. Fluid mechanics research related to hydonlynamics and teactor engineering is concerned Ill Z*. 1P3P ." � ":. with the general theorem for nonlinear problems and boundary conditions cionespimding to the motion of viscous &ids in tubes with a permeable wall. Italy has a few scientists who purmoti reseatrit into gnavitalion and relativity. Physicists well known throughout 11w workl in this area are P. D. Vincensini and M. Mierumi. A limited amount of research In atomic and molecular physics is carded Ian at the Universities of Samna Hotd Naples. Studies deal wills the specific compounds of monochloramine and dideutertacetylene and involve analysis of fit nda men- lel and "hot band,'. that are useful in haterprrta lion of their near infrared spectrum through use of microwave $pectnseopy. Studies whited to inorganic molecules comprise investigations of the vibration spectra of cobalt and rhodium carbonyls. Much of the reward' In acoustics and ultrasonics is related to octoolognipli& and the propagation of sound in water. Notable work Ii done hi ultrasonic cavitation lend the Willi:ikon of shockwaves for sloodyine the stmeture of solid materials and for nondestructive testing. Mathematics has a highly respected phor in the scientific community. and Itallais muthennotics have long been capable and poodonlisv. For clownish% mention shisuW be ltig4k. of the work of minim- maticiun Ricci (19th centoory) for his work an tenon cakulto. which underlies much differential geonsetp and relativity theory. Also, during the present molars-. encithematidan physicist Enrico Fermi contributed greatly too the development of atomic. encro. SIrang research areas for Italian mathematicians now include anal&sis. especially onliturty and partial differential equations and oilcans' theory; geometry. both differential and algebraic; matheonalleal physics. especially quantum mechanics; and numerical catalysis. The country's total mean+ output is aiming the hest in Western Europe. anti 1k wink is tvpIcallv of good quality. An indication of wick acceptance of the work is that much is published abroad. largely in the United Slates best caw In many other countries. The Italians also publish several good mathematieul Journals; Nuevo antenna is a mon/ wail I n terrial lima vehicle for mallivmatical ph&sies. The reputation of Italian mathematicians may be less thole II was two or three genet:Moto ago. but it is still quite good. In the World Directory of Mathematicians. &n- ary 863 Italians listed: their numben follinv those of the United States and the U.S.S.R. While the Italians do pendoce many research papers (about 2ti of the world output reviewed in the most comprehrusise abstract journo1). their output scents a link low for their long list of prominent mathematicians. This may he related to a tilt kism that has been stated regarding � Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 the Italian academie system. namely. that prolessots are "kings." and. although a man must work dilieently to become a profe.sor. he has little requiretnent to do much research after he attains the rank. There we. of course. some professors who are doing research. but the await mean+ productivity per man appears law. At the lower kvels of Italian univenity education. mathematics is apparently emphasized. laying the foundation for broad we of mathematics in many fiekh. Iloweset, advanced. education in mathematics beams less Mani/rd. Thus. for cans:vie. in 1971 only three Italian universities Mid, Pisa, and Torino) had established work in computer science. Several research institotes have since been established to help bride Ube gap. One of these is the Institute for Informution Processing. formerly the Center of Studies of Electronic (:+emputers in Pisa. This institute collaborated with the Olivetti Corporation in developing early Italian computers: it now does research In numerical analysis and %%WOOS brunches of applied mathematics, and it collaborates hi instruction with the University of Pha. Other research institutes include the Institute of Applied Mechanics for Aerial DIssatnie and Cas Dynamic Engines. counected with the Torino Polytechnic ballistic. and the Numerical AimIssis Institute. connected with a wave/sit!? in Rome. The lantituteis contain or have acvess to substantial computing facilities. Including in Pisa an IBM 761) plan other machines. in Timings an IBM :169/14. and in Ronne a UNIVAC 110S. Substantial computing facilities appear in he widely available. Italian industry was slow to me mathematicians, although SCVCrill leading mathematicians have content ruled their efforts Olt fields such as shell theory. numerical analysis, and reessgoiii kin of characters. The me of computers was stimulated he lute 196$4 wish Inauguration of the VNIVAI: Advanced System' Computer Cenier in Rome. There has been substantial cooperation in mathematics between Italy and the U.S.S.R. CAillaboratisin in use of mailed% of calculation has keen conducted under the Misted Commission for Scientific-Technical Creopendion. In 19741 the General Electric Information Srole118% contracted to supply two large rhythmic computers. type 6E423. to a maw vehicle pluct in Moscow. Ily 1971 the Olivetti Corponstion appeared In he is wodd !miler he raw of computers for machine design. In doing this they seemed to have made clever use of U.S. scientific findings. In June 1972 it was 'matted that the Olivetti Oarporatien had, since trrid-1970. sold .:quesimolaaliar lame quantities of automatic machine tooling to the U.S.S.R.. ineludisia computer pi ramming and electronic numerical control equipment known as "Inductosyns." a kind manufactured In the United States. The U.S.S.R. was also reported attempting to acquire the technology for its own poriduction of the Olivetti machine tool systems, In 1970 the CGE FIAR Defense and Commercial Electronia Department at Milan had licensing agreements with the General Ekcide Company arid AEC TrIefunken and specific agreements with several U.S. companies in the computer field. The F1AR was pursuing projects hi several military applications. The Italian mathe- matical effort is faddy strong and quite competent. It Includes a substantial trend towanl applications, ohich is patticuludy noteworthy now in work on numerical analysis and computing. but whirls Italian Industry seems to have been somewhat 510W to UMW. c. distrogeopersind sciences Iii general. Italy is not outstanding in astronomy. However. beller-than-avemee work is done in solar astronomy. which is emphasized. While there are more than 13 astronomical observatories in Italy, 'minding small private installations, most equipment is mediocre. For stellar work. however. Italy has Iwo of the largest telescopes in Western Europe. One is a ii). Inch tellector at Morale% an observing station of the Gress' Astmesomical Observatory. Milan: the other is a 411-inch refiedcw at the Astrophysical Observatory. Asiago. of the University 'if Padova. Al the Astrophs4cal (Roservatury of Catania. Sicily. stellar research emphasizes the study of skin that eshilat activity bylined to be similar to that (4 the sun. such us flare, spotted. and magnetic stars. The Catetia observatory is also a solar patted station. tither optical air radio solar research facilities are located at Bologna. Florearcr. Rome, and Trieste. All of these observatories participated actively in the International Active Sun Years !IASI') programs (1969-71). An International Astnnunnical Liailtsele Station at Curtailine has participated le studies of variations in the posilkm of the pole. while the Astranossaml Observatory of Torino has been the site of the Central Bureau of the Latitude Service and is supported by the International Adtontsmical Union and the 11.1(X:. The Vatican has an observatory which specializes In studying the aware of the Milky Way gaiety it Castelgondolfts. Italy has a relatively modest but on-going space rewards program, it Italian aernspace industry was responsible for the design. development. and construction of all the lest satellites and some 'Irelands space-home and ground equirmsent fur the 19 .0�1�111013.Pr.r.'T`r7r.'":.7777"-777.7": Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 t�� �V�.. �!:...���; ELDO Europa-1 launch vehicle progosm. which concluded In June 1970. It continues to be involved to a lesser deter . In some aspects of the Europa-2 peorttam. The Industry has contributed to the 'design and development of electronic and other componetth for the major satellite projects of ES110: Italy has also cooperated in ESRO migrants hy designing satellite and sounding rockets onboard scientific experiments and has also made available to ESRO its Salto di Quitra rocket launching range on the southeast mast of Saedinia. lbe country has coopemted estensively with the U.S. NASA since 1960. Initially. rocket-ktunditd sodium vapor high-altitude %dud studies were made From the Salto di Quina range. The Sun Mateo project wars cooperatively begun in 1962. under which Italy established the Sall MEMO launch range near the equator off the Kenya coast of Africa. The gauge consists of two plathents a fen miles out III FintillIng Buy. One. the San Maim. is the launch plutfonn: the other. the Santa Rita, is the base for launch control and tracking facilities. Italy has designed. built, and launched Shire scientific satellites under Ilw Sim Marco program: the San Marco I. launched In 1961 from Wallops Wand. Virginia. the San Marco 2. !munched from the San Marco range in 1967 (the lint scientific satellite to he placed by any nation Into an equatorial orbit): and in April 1971. the San Maircoli. the last of the series, was also launched from the San Mann n.nge into on equatorial whit. In March 1970. the CNR and NASA established an agreement by which the latter will pnivide reimbunable launchings be Italian scientific spacecraft. The first expected to he launched tinder this agieement is the Italian 511110 satellite. This is a communica thins and scientific satellite In he placed into earth synchronous orbit bum Cape Kennedy. In Mardi 1972 a stew series of !odium waren high altitude wind studies Was begun with the launching of a Nike-Apache (ticket from the Sun Marco range. The Italians have andi developed and oared MelriOnliald� cad MAVIS fer sounding the atmosphere at somewhat lower km's. In 1970 an inexpensive two-stage rocket was unckr development. the tint stage of which is recoverable and is prism-11rd ha chemically generated steam. The U.S. Mr Force was partially supportine the development of the second stage. which is propelled by the combustion of metals in water. Italy is a member ul the Intematimuil Tekeumunu- nkalkss Coromtium (INTELSAT). Its /maw ground terminal is Waited at Como del Fiscino, about 60 miles east of Rom. A second terminal at a new site about 90 miles from Rome Is planned. This will 20 supplement that at Fueino and will work with die SIRIO sutellite. ItalIan meteorological research is limited and not particularly significant. The country has several government agencies concerned with the area. hut the Air Form Meteorological Service, which is /notched to the Impetiontle for Telecommunications and Flight Assistance sir the Ministry of Defense. is tesponsible for senine�hoth eivil and military interests by operating the country's major synoptic observing and forecasting stations. The director. Maj. Ceti. Peof� De. Glontio Eva. represents Italy in the World Meteorological Organization k WMO) as in member of that iirganizatinn's F-xecutive Committee. Besides its As administrative division% the service headquarter supervises three main meteurulogical offices through the Analysis. Forecast. and Metermilogical Informa- tion Centre and supports four seinianitionmoin seaseli institutes. the most impirtata heir e the Insti- tute of Atnwspherie Slosh% in Rome. The Institute of Atmospheric- Physics i5 411IV of the main research bodies of the CNR and was {mimicd to promote. intensify. and coordinate 11w research activity in meteorology and atmospheric plissies in Italy. The activities of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics name from them-livid studies and experiments in specialized education and wining. These multifold activities. developed in dine collaboration with the Italian Meteorolirgical Serviee for Aviation. are curried nut through the use of scientific and technical services. issalkshops. a vast Maury. and dose relationship with relevant national and intemationat bodies. The Institute of Ainseapherir Physics has been directed toy the CNR to develop two distinct pram:tins. The first has the doulde purpose In update tlw National Metermilogical Organization and its equipment and to realize a mow efficient weather hartualtig system able to powide feminine warnings of hazardous weather for the protection of life and property. This pmgrum will span 5 yean and cost about $25 approximately half of which will be spent k the Al. Force Metemulugical Service to establish a radar wanting net of at least 10 weather nidar stations to augment the present network of sly stations. Equipment utilized by this project will he ptoviiled the Industrial Society of Automatic Eletiointic Products (SIAM of Bologna. This company oho develops and produces mummer systems and various other rhythmic equipment far IOC Iii meteorolisgical op Atkin% The second project being developed is claimant with the establishment id ain International Center for studies and research on meteorology dm1 dynamic dinuitology of the Nleiliterratwan with ______________ � A'�:, Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 International collaboration at the Institute of Atmraphetic Physics and an Internmional School of Mediterranean Meteorology under the sponsorship of WMO. Italian unisersity kvel instruction in meteorology b extremely inadequate with only the High Institute of Napks and the Naval Hydrographic Institute supporting Chain of Meteorology. Satisfactory resulb. on a limited scale. have been achieved through university and postgoaduute level courses at IFA. Despite official recognition of a need foe restructuring and expanding technical. scientific. and training programs. it is considered that multiplkity of responsibility and inadequate funding sill restrict early realizations of these goals. A number of key Italian sdentists in the field are known internationally and have published considerably on meteorology. The Italian research effort In geodesy and ginavimetry compares well with ilw general average of other European countries. and scientific and technical capabilities are rising slowly and are being used to augment the military and the economic potential. The Military Geographic Institute in Florence. under the Army General Staff. is the official government agency responsible for most Italian geodetic, accomplish- ments. It Is one of the best equipped facilities of its kind in Europe for research and experimental studies In geodesy and is staffed by highly competent and qualified personnel. Horizontal control surveys have resulted in the complete revision of the national first�order triangulation network. Recent activity also has Included primary and secondary idaneulation arch along the Ionian. Calabrian. and NortloSicilian coastal band and measurements across the strait to connect Sicily with the mainland. Within the framework of the International f;riav Imelda Commission. � the Observatory for Experimental Geophysics in Trieste is collecting and preparing the observational data related to the. pendular and gravimetric measures for a new gravimetrie standard and for the world gravimetrie network Final adjustment of these proenims will he retried Out with US. and Canadian groups. Hydrolnaic and hydraulic research. programs compue favorably with those of the mote progiressive countries in Western Europe. Research is performed at approximately a dozen modern laboratories, the majority of which are in the northern part of the country. Most are connected with universities and are financed by the government and by private contracb.. all have computer facilities, and many of the labonalories have such facilities on the site. The research is mostly of an applied nature and is directed toward the production of decide power. the maximum exploitation of water resources, and the insprovernent of irrigation systems and navigable Inland waterways. In hydrologic tesearch. emphasis is on ground water flow. Irrigation works. sediment transportation. sea and brackish water desalinization. and water pollution control. Significant hydrologic research is carried out at several laboratories with the principal one at the Institute of Hydraulics anti Hydraulic Engineering of the Polytechnic University of Milan. Hydraulic research is performed on is wide variety of subjects. but the work is concerned primarily with density currents, general fluid mechanics. scour, cavitation. dynamic behavior of h)draulie machinery. and the best design and location for surge tanks. stilling basins. locks. weirs. sluicv gates. spillways. valves. culverts, and siphons. Italian hydrologists and hydraulic engineers air active in national and International scientific ornanirations and conferences. particularly the technical committees. Terrestrial geophysical research in Italy is conducted ptimarily by the universities. The Univenity of Genoa has a geornags,rtic station in northern Italy at which continuous obsemations are made of geomagnetic field parameters. mictopisl- %aliens. and whistlers. These data are utilized Mandy the chanictedstics of the magnetosphere. Other magnetic stations are located on the islands of Capri and Pon= and at the Vesusian Observatory. Thb observatory also engages in volcano research, as does the Institute of Volcanology of the University of Cialanks. An Esperimentul Geophysics Observatory. Trieste, has included a seismological station equipped to conduct marine seismic surve)s. The Observatory has engaged also in privately financed geophysical explonition atiivity. Oceanography hr Italy has for several yeats suffered from inadequate funding,. Although armuul appro. ;Motions far science have increased significantly each war, such programs as oceanography can only he financed adequately at the expense of tunic research. which receives most of the research and clesehrprnent funds. To rectify this Mutation. 'the c.ommbsion for Oceanography of the CNR has prepared a report on the present status of oceanographic felearCh and on plans and requirements for the period 197246. In additkm in the list of program goals. the report mentions the scarcity of well trained scientists and technicians and estimates that 300 new people will need to he added to this field during the buildup period. To support the proposed pi:grams adequately. funds must hr increased fmm $4.5 million in 1972 to 21 Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 � Approved for Release: 2017/03/31 C06675028 � nearly 119.0 million In 1970, with an additional 92.0 million for building Ragman. The acquisition of the 1.400 ion oceanic research � ship Baleack. a el from the United States, and the 830-ton. 190-forn research ship 1.. F. Margit � equipped with two modern laboratories and purchawd by the CNR in 1970. has increased Italian capability for oceanographic data collection and in the training ci ocesnogniphees. The 854on mem* ship U. Mimosa, operated by the Marine ilialogkal Institute in Venice. is used for bioloeical research in coastal ergions. Italy has purchased a second two-man � general purpose research submarine, which is scheduled for delivery in 1972. Italy also has made significant advances in the use of free diving techniques for marine research. Research conducted at the Antisubmarine Warfare Research Center in La Spezia, established by NATO In 1939 has helped the Italian oceanographic effort. Studies in physical oceanography and other oceanographic inpects of concern lo antisubmarine warfare are carried clot by the center. The Laboratory for the Study of Radioactive Contamination of the Sea. also at La Speria. Is developing new sampling techniques. An Institute of Marine Biolosy near Trkste and operated by the University of Trieste has been completed. It aill concentrate on the study of marine fauna and flora of the Achialic Sea. Other Italian &Milks conductine marine biological and oceanographic research are the Institute of Experimental Thalzvaography and the C.eophysical Observatory In Trieste. Italian Center for Thalasso- graphic Studies In Venice. the Zonlogical Station and the Navy Ilydrographic Institute in Naples, and the Laboratury for Marine Geology In Bologna. 22 Italy's interest in international oceanographic activities has Increased during the last several years. The country is a member of the more prominent International oceanographic urganizatkins such as the International Commission for the Scientific Ex- ploration of the Nlediterninean Sea (ICSEMS). International Council for the Esplonation of the Sea (ICES). and the Intergovernmental. Oceanographic Commission (10C1. Italy participated in a Is nation survey of the eastern hlediteminean Sea during August-September 1967. During the survey, they collected hathythermograrns. marine organisms. bottom samples and cures, as well as data on internal waves. physical properties. and meteorology. ltaiy is participating in a cooperative oceanographic program In the Icelandic legion along with the other NATO countries. The various phases of the program involve sea ice observation, environmental training. ocean thermal structure. geophysical surveys, and hydro- gniphic surveys. Italy lasted a United Nations 1:410 Conierence and Seminar on Marine Pollution that was held in Rome during December MX Coastal research Is concerned primarily with sea level changes in the Tyrrhenian. Ligurian. and Adriatic Seas anal on methods of arresting beach erosion by artificial accretion. Other research projects are concerned with coastal improvement and prntecikin torth�KIN sea woes. sedimentation. sticks, seismic refractions. and cunents. A lame part of the research Is performed at ELC-electroconsult. a research company in Milan. the Institute of Hydraulics and lisdraulic Engineering. Torino. and the Hydraulic and Hydraulic Simian% Institute. 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