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CONFIDENTIAL 95A /GS /CP Guyana June 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070010 -7 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an in6vidual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Palitics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science cnd Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, produc +ion of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quart,arly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists ail NIS units by area name and number and eludes classification and date of is! ie; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utiliz- ;on. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Centrai Intelligence Agency an i the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dis;omi- noted by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the meaning of :itte 16, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by on unaolwf ced person is prohibited by law, CIASSIFIED BY 09641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 58 11 12), 3. DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR,OF CE4TRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070010 -7 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070010 -7 GENERAL SURVEY CHAPTERS COUNTRY PROFILE Integrated perspective of the subject country Chronology Area Brief Summary Map THE SOCIETY Social structure Population Labor Health Living conditions Social problems Religion Education Public infor�. mation Artistic expression GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS Political evo- lution of the State Governmental strength and stability Structure and function Political dy- namics National policies Threats to stability The police Intelligence and security Coun- tersubversion and counterinsurgeney capabilities THE ECONOMY Appraisal of the economy Its structure� agriculture, fisheries, forestry, fuels and power, metals and minerals, manufacturing and construction Domestic trade Economic policy and development International economic rela- tions TRANSPORTATION AND TELECOMMUNICA- TIONS Appraisal of systems Strategic mobilih Railroads Highways Inland waterways Ports Merchant marine Civil air Airfields The telecom system MILITARY GEOGRAPHY Topography and cli- mate Military geographic regions Strategic areas �Approaches: land, sea, air ARMED FORCES The defense establishment joint activities Ground forces Naval force, air force APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070010 -7 r n Cooperative Republic or Two Racial Camps 1 0 %lore People, %gorc Problems Different Worlds of Black and Brown The Politics of Race 'Turning Left and Slowing Down Chronolo Area Brief 14 Summary Map .....................follows 14 This Country Profile was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Research was sub- stantially completed by March 1973. CONFIDENTIA! No FoiiE1GN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070010 -7 li r n Cooperative Republic or Two Racial Camps 1 0 %lore People, %gorc Problems Different Worlds of Black and Brown The Politics of Race 'Turning Left and Slowing Down Chronolo Area Brief 14 Summary Map .....................follows 14 This Country Profile was prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency. Research was sub- stantially completed by March 1973. CONFIDENTIA! No FoiiE1GN DISSEM APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070010 -7 W, Jim 12 We "n Tullm .1 11 T' f I IA 4 1p f Sugarcane, rice, and bauxite form the resource' base from which Guyana derives its livelihood. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200070010-7 Cooperative Republic or Two Racial Carps (c) A sense of new direction and a striving for genuine nationhood are symbolized by the selection of the name "The Cooperative Republic of Guyana" for the country long known as British Guiana. "Guiana" and its capital, Georgetown, evoke memories for y; icrans of World War If of it steamy tropical airport hacked out of the South American hush �a ferrying point on the long hop to Africa and Europe. Although located on the northeastern coast of South America, Guyana is culturally part of the Caribbean. The English speaking Guyanese are isolated from most of their Latin American neighbors by language and historical tradition as well as by uninhabited savannas and tropical rain forest. The airfield, now an inter- national jet port, is still the rain entry point for visitors; the relatively shallow coastal waters limit ship traffic to ore carriers and small freighters, and there are almost no roads that link Guyanese towns with other urban centers in South America. Some change has come to Guyana since the days of those memories. The road from the airport north to Georgetown has been improved, only the presence of bullock carts and heave traffic slow a fast auto trip in to the capital. To the south, it high -speed superhighway cuts through he thinly populated rain forest to the hauxite mine at Linden. The British colonial administration has departed, and the in- dependence that followed has provided hopes but no cures for the persistent problems facing the new state. Physical isolation has not deterred Guyanese par- ticipation in world affairs. Current leadership, in- fluenced by several decades of experimentation with Socialist and Marxist philosophies, has increasingly sought to reduce Guyana's depel Bence on the United Kingdom and the United States nd more recently to broaden relationships with both major centers of the Communist world �the Soviet Union and China �and with its Latin American sub center, Cuba. Guyana has assumed a major leadership role in the movement for Caribbean unity, which is replete with anti -U.S. and black nationalist overtones. Guyana also has attempted to make common cause and identify with the :1fro :1rab bloc in the nonaligned world. Success and prestige in these efforts were enhanced I -v :!te choice of Georgetown as the site for the Nonaligned Foreign Ministers Conference in August 1972. The excitement generated by G !ylma's initiatives in the internationa field only temporarily obscured the need to deal with domestic discontent and to cope with the country's most intractable problem: the in- ability of the government to develop its resource base rapidly enough to keep pace with the needs of its grow- ing population. The government successfully sup- pressed a domestic revolt in the interior in 1969, abor- ting what was widely perceived as an opportunity for Venezuela to advance its claim to a large parcel of Guyanese territory. In order to meet the economic needs of the population, the government has ent- harked upon a radical socialization program to make Guyana it truly cooperative republic The goals of the new economic police are to be achieved through nationalization or majority control of foreign owned enter7xises involved in the exploita- tion of natural resources, the adoption of the cooperative as the preferred form of domestic economic organizat!wi, the expansion of agricultural exports, and the development of ne\w industries with the aid of both domestic and foreign capital. Plans also call for it drastic reduction of imports through mobilization of all available manufacturing capabilities and through self -help projects, and the in- tensification of efforts to develop the economic poten- tial of the interior of the country. The achievement of, these ambitious goals is threatened, however, by deeprooted racial hostility and political infighting between the two dominant groups in the population: the Guyanese of African extraction and those referred APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200070010 -7 i to as 1 ?ast Indians, til desc�endcnts of indentured sugarcane field +vorkee:; from India. Bac�e serves its a crmvcnicnt svnhol for the +vide cultural cleavage that impedes the national integration of Fast Indians and Africans, but the root of their differences is extreme counpetiti+�cness in the� economic sphere. In general. Fast 111(lians visualize Africans as lazy, dishonest, fm- More People, More Problems 'V I� t+ident, profligate, and physicalk aggressive. The Al (.'(W:Ancu�, on tit(. uthcr hand, sec themselves as the natural successors to British dominance and the Fast Indians as clannish, prudish, tightfisted, ac�- ctuisitivc and �not least of all �picmc to capitalize on light skin pignu ntation to facilitate c�c�onomic� no hilih The struggle for economic and political dominance between the :lfricaan .(:u\cuucsc and the Filst Indians has hccr heightened by the high rate ()f population in crease and the persistent cuncmploy t;cnt problem. The rapid c�onyucsl of Guyana's tropical diseases since the turn of tltc c�cnturv, particularly the eradication of malaria from low-1 ing rice and canefields during the 1930's and 1()40 *s. was characterized by if dramatic rise in the average annual rate of population growth. The rate increased from 0.5`; during the 1921 31 period to 2.9"1 during 1S) 1(i (i(1, and then (lipped slightly, to 2.5`1' during. 1961 -70. Nonetheless, tilt current age� structure remains highly conducive to rapid population grnr+vth and. concomitaoil, to the a,ldition of progressivcly larger annual inc�renu�nts to the labor force. niuc�h higher rate of natural growth anumg East fndians than aniong African Guyanese has resulted in if progmssive rise in the Elast Indian proportion of the total popula- tion. By January 1)fi) thc\ had iu�hieved :ut absolute majority of 51 compi. ;ed with an approximate 43 for the combined African and mulatto c�onummities. Africans fear that the ever widening Fast Indian lead in pc,pculation size +:ill result in the loss of their politic�acl (lomincutc�e and, in tuns. Icad to the weaken- ing of their position in the joh market. With 20"0 of t he tabor force unemplo\vd and sizable numbers ur- dercnuployed. the job market is highly competitive. :1llhough dcvcl yment programs have benefited from generous inputs of foreign aid. the ec�onomv has clispla\ only nuculest growth rates. During the period APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200070010 -7 from 196 to 1971, the economy grey at an estimated annual average of -1'/ in real terms, or nearly twice thv rate recorded in the previous decade when produc- tion suffered as it result of periodic civil disturbances and strikes. Despite this increase, per capita gross domestic product amounts to only US$385. The economy does not support can affluent class or yield high profits to foreign investors. Given the modest labor absorption capacity of Guyana's major growth sectors, coupled with the expected high rate of labor force growth, there is little ground for optimism that unemployment can be quickly and substantially reduced. In developing their natural resources, the Guyanese turned first to wresting from the sea and numerous river estuaries the fertile, low -lying silt and clay coastlands which represent their most productive agricultural land. The soils in the interior, associated with the tropical rain forests, savannas and forested uplands, tend to be logy in natural fertiiity and have limited potential for agriculture without heavy capital investments. The application of water- control techni- ques by the early Dutch settlers, perfected in reclainn- ing their twn limneland from the North Sea, and the use uf' the mass lalmr of imported African slaves laic) the basis for forging a society N%bich to the present clay has been cc,ncentrated ou a nuro%y strip of ennpoldered coastland comprising only about I of the country's 83,000 square miles of' terrain. I Jere an annual regime of two wet and dry seasons promoted the cultivation of two harvests of sugarcane and rice. "These traditional export crops constitute the mainstay of the econonny, supporting about half the population and zuccounting for 70"1 of the agricultural output and 39 of export earnings. The country is not self- sufficient in food crop production and obt