Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
October 25, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP01-00707R000200080029-6.pdf2.18 MB
CONFIDENTIAL 48 /GS /TT Morocco March 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters� Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, i are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes clas$ification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separa +e chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. F WARNING This document contains information affecting the na,ional defense of the United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENEkAL DECLASSIFI- T ON 1 DECLASSIFIED Y E XEMPTION ON APPROVAL OF THE CATEG 5B THE F' DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. i- i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 WARNING The NIS is National Inteingence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Defense Intelligence Agency and includes a con- tribution on merchant marine from the Department of the Navy and on airfields from the Defense Mapping Agency, Aerospace Center. Research was substantially completed by November 1972. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 orocco CONTENTS This General Surtsey supersedes the one dated Jan- uary 1969, copies of which should be d ?stroyed. A. Summary 1. Systems Appraisal, distribution and overview of sys- tems; international connections. 2. Strategic mobility Capability of transportation and telecommu- nications systems for military use; military support potential of ports, merchant fleet, and civil air. 1 1 1 B. Railroads 2 Mileage figures and characteristics of govern- ment -owned rail lines; operation and employees; equipment inventory; maintenance; traffic. CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 I C. Highways Characteristics of the network; mileage figures; administration and maintenance; plans for im- provement; vehicle inventory. D. Pipelines One crude oil pipeline; one refined- products pipe- line no longer in use. E Ports Eight major and 11 minor ports; activities, traffic, proposed construction, and administration. F. Merchant marine Composition and tonnage of merchant fleet; ownership; fishing fleet; control and jurisdiction; personnel training. Fig. 1 Railroad repair facilities, Casablanca (photo) Fig. 2 Selected line characteristics of rail- roads (table) Fig.3 Bituminous highway extending through a mountain pass north of Ksar es Souk photo) Page Page 5 G. Civil air 11 Two major airlines; equipment, personnel, main- tenance, and repair; regulation of civil aviation; agreements with foreign airlines. 6 H. Airfields 13 Air facilities, including tabular details on selected airfields; maintenance. 8 I. Telecommunications 13 Facilities and administration of the system; in- teniational connections; ground satellite station; 11 AM_ FM, and TV stations; domestic assembly of equipment based on imported components; development plans. Glossary 15 FIGURES Page Page Fig. 4 Large ford southeast of Ksar es Souk 2 (photo) 6 Fig. 5 Selected highways table) 7 4 Fig. 6 Fort of Casablanca (photo) 8 Fig. 7 Major ports (table) 9 Fig. 8 Selected airfields table) 14 Fig. 9 Terrain and Transportation 5 map) follows 15 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200080029 -6 Transportation and Telecommunications A. Summary (C) 1. Systems The Moroccan transportation and telecommunica- tion (telecom) networks are superior to those of most African countries. Facilities are concentrated in the more heavily populated northern and northwestern coastal areas Figure 9). The most important routes are along the coast or pass through the valleys of the Rif and Atlas mountains and along the plateau itiland. Routes extend inland from the ports to connect the coast with hinterland routes. The mountainous and desert interior areas have few routes and tracks. The major international road and rail connections are with the Algerian systems east of Oujda. 'There are no main routes linking southern Morocco with bordering countries, but tracks connect with Algerian tracks in the southeast and southwest to become part of trans- Saharan routes. A m tilt iconductor cable is the principal telecom link with Algeria and Tunisia. There are good radio -relay and submarine cable connections with Spain. Railroads carry more freight than is moved on the highways, but the importance of railroads is somewhat limited by the sparseness of the network. The efficiently operated railroads are the primary means of transporting phosphates, the principal export commodity, and other minerals front mines in inland areas to the ports. The highways effectively serve the large cities and many la 'ge agricultural and mining areas not served adequately by the railroads. Casablanca, the leading port, handles over 75% of the overseas trade. Seven other major ports, two of which are under Spanish control, are distributed along the coast and serve limited hinterlands. The merchant fleet is modern and efficient but is too small to transport significant amounts of the country's trade. Except for the Sebou River (Owed Sebou), which serves as a means of access to Kenitra, there are no navigable inland waterways. Because of the depletion of petroleum resources in the Sidi Rhalem area, the country's only significant crude -oil pipeline is no longer in regular use. Domestic air transport plays only a mincer role in the transportation system. The telecom system is modern, of high capacity, and st �iic ient for the needs of the countr%. Most transportation and telecom facilities are government owned and are administered by various agencies under the direction of the Ministries of Public Works and Communications and of Posts, 'Telephone, and 'Telegraph. Air France owns it minor interest in the Moroccan national airline, and there are some private French aril Spanish interests in the railroads. Competition between railroad and highway transport has been minimized by strict government control which favors development of the railroads. However, highways are becoming more important undercurrent highway expansion and ,niprovernent programs. Most rail developments are rel..ted to improving the ability to transport phosphates other minerals for export. Casablanca has development plans to increase the size of the port by creating new basins east of the present facilities. A submarine cable to be laid in 1973 linking Casablanca with Penmarc'h, France, will have 630 channels. 2. Strategic mobility The transportation and telecorn systems are capable of supporting military_ operations in the northern and northwestern areas, but there are some significant limitations. Concentration of most major transporta- tion facilities along the principal route from Marrakech through Casablanca and Fes to Oujda, in a corridor between two major mountain chains, makes the system particularly vulnerable to disruption. The preponderance of single -track rail and the lack of alternative rail and highway routes are also important vulnerability factors. The vulnerability of the telecom system is diminished by use of buried and submarine cables and the availability of alternative routes. Military operations in the mountainous and desert interior areas in the south and southeast would be limited by the paucity of routes and facilities, adverse weather conditions, narrow and low capacity bridges, and sharp curves and steep grades on mountain roads. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 All of Morocco's ports could he converted to military use. The merchant fleets nine dry cargo ships represent a considerable military support potential. These units, with an estimated capacih of 35,46 cargo deadweight tors, have a short -haul (18 hours steaming) troop -lift capability which could he used for nearseas operations. Only one cargo ship has a hatch of more than 50 feet in length; none have booms of 30 tons or more lift. Five dry cargo units, %%bich are emp!oyed in international trade, are government owned and would be used for military support if available. Morocco has 23 airfields with permanent runways capable of supporting jet aircraft. The planes of Royal Air Maroc (RAM) and Royal Air Inter (RAI), and those of other government agencies could be mobilized on short notice for military purposes. Since many RAM pilots a e French and all RAI pilots are Pakistani, pobtical and personnel constraints exist which might deny the use of Moroccan commercial aircraft for military purposes. Adectuate Moroccan flight personnel are believed to be available to fly the RAM aircraft in the event of mobilization; however, there are no qualified Moroccan pilots available to fly the F -27 aircraft of RAI, the Moroccan domestic airline. B. Railroads (C) The government -owned National Moroccan Railroads (ONCF) total 1,100 route miles of standard gage line; 493 miles are electrified at 3,000 volts direct current, and 93 miles are double track. The main lift( of the system extends north from Marrakech. serving the capital of Rahat and the major ports of' Casablanca. Mohannedia, and Kenitra. The line then extends eastward and provides the only international rail connection with Algeria. IU miles east of Oujda. Although traffic is minimal. this line affords through traffic to "Tunis, Tunisia. Lines from the major ports of Safi and Tangier connect %%ith this priniary route as does the line front Bou Arfa in southeast( rn Morocco. The railroads serve the major population. agricultural, mining, and commercial centers of the country and are ca; of carrying heavy traffic. The system is superior to those of most African nations although it is limit( by poor area coverage� a lack of alternate routs, the predoninance of single track� and its vulnerability to interdiction. Although a rail line extends into the Atlas hills and mountains, grades do not exceed 1.3S \yhich occurs bctween El Guefaf and Ait Ammar� and carves are moderate. The mountainous areas have necessitated the constr:ction of a number of bridges and tumick. Personnel at the end of 1969 totaled 7,780. "Their level of compctence is high, largely due to good training programs which include it 2 -scar apprentice- ship training center at Meknes. specialized training courses, and an exchange of trainees with Morocco, Algeria. and Tunisia. Two major classification yards and a number of small yards adequately serve the rail system. The two major classification yards are at Casablanca Figure 1 FIGURE 1. Classification and repair facilities, Casablanca (U /OU) 2 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 J and Oujda. The yard at Marrakech is used for the formation of manganese ore trains and the one at Khouribga, for the formation of ,phosphate trains. Facilities at Mohammedia and Kenitra serve major ports. Varied terrain and numerous rivers and dry river beds have necessitated the construction of many bridges, tunnels, and a number of long, high viadiwts. Most of the ?50 bridges, 12 feet and over in length, are of steel construction and all have 22 -short -ton axleload capacities. The longest bridge, a 673 -foot steel and concrete structure of through -truss and deck- girder design, is located at Rabat. Thirty of the 38 tunnels on the network are located on the line between Fes' and Oujda. The longest tunnel is 8,47 feet and located 10 miles %west of Taza. All structures are well maintained. Train movements are controlled by the manual block system and c are by telephone. `gnaling is being upgraded by replacing mechanical signaling with lights, and old levers are being replaced by electromechanical posts. Motive power consists of electric and diesel locomotives in very good condition; approximately 105i of the inventory is undergoing normal repair at any given time. Rolling stock is old and in fair condition but is being upgraded by recent purchases. Normally only 2% is undergoing repair at any given time. All equipment utilizes standard European design couplers and side buffers 41' inches above the top of rail. Air brakes are used on all equipment. The equipment inventory is adequate in quantity, and the quality is being improved with domestically manufactured equipment at Sebaa Aioun or imported equipment assembled in the Casablanca shops. The 1971 inventory_ was as indi- cated below. Major repair facilities for diesel and electric locomotives are located at Casablanca and for diesel locomotives and rolling stock, at Meknes. Main- tenance depots are located at C asablanca, Oujda, Ksar el Kebir, and Safi. The railroads consume approximately 4 million gallons of diesel oil and 75 million kilowatt hours of electricity per year. Morocco refines imported crude oil, most of .which comes from Algeria, the U.S.S.R., and Libya. Diesel -oil storage facilities are located throughout the network. Electricity is furnished at 3,000 volts, direct current from the national net. Maintenance standards are high and mechanized equipment is used on heavily trafficked lines, especially in areas where flooding periodically causes damage. Maintenance sections of 6 to 30 miles are 'For diacritics on place names, see the list of names on the apron of the Transportation map, Figure 9, and the map itself. Locomotives: Electric 58 Diesel, main line 31 Diesel, switchers 39 Total 128 Diesel electric trainsets 4 Passenger -train cars: Passenger cars 27 B aggage, etc 70 Total 343 Freight cars government owned) Box cars 1,562 Gondola 2,132 Flat 1,323 Hopper 1,152 Tank 67 Other 43 Total 6,279 Freight cars privately owned) Tank 377 Other 140 Total 517 each served by gangs of 12 to 60 men. Presently, major upgrading activities include grinding of tracks, renewing drainage facilities, rehabilitating structures, and welding of track. Signal lights are replacing mechanical signals on the Casablanca �Sida Kacem line and electrornec�hanical posts are replacing old levers. Freight traffic has continued to increase steadily since 1965. In 196 the ONCE carried 17 trillion short tons for 1,391 million ton miles and in 1970 carried 19 million tons for 1,615 million ton miles. Passenger traffic during the same period increased from 3.6 to :3.7 million ton -miles with an average journey of 79 miles and in 1970 totaled 292.3 million passenger- miles. Phosphates account for nearly half the rail freight and result in dense traffic between the Khouribga mining area and Casablanca. Other principal commodities include manganese ore, cement, petroleum, fertilizer, and cereals and other food stuffs. Interruptions to tr ain operations occur due to washouts resulting from periodic flooding. For the past few years the ONCE has shown an operating profit, Nvith 1970 expenditures of US$798,600,000 and revenues of $804,500,000 for a $5,900,000 profit. T- section rail weighs 93 pounds per yard on heavily trafficked lines and 73 pounds on others. The heavier rail measures 39 and 59 feet in length and is being welded from station to station on the main lines. Ties are laid 1,880 to 2,770 per mile and are steel, 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 r e-9 FIGURE 2. Selected line characteristics of the Moroccan railroads* (C) TERMINALS; LENGTH Rabat Casablanca; 55 miles. Casablanca -Sidi el Aidi; 35 miles........... Sidi el Aidi Khouribga; 51 miles........... Khouribga -Beni Idir; 7 miles El Guefaf -Ait Ammar; 14 miles....... Khouribga -Oued Zem; 24 miles............ Sidi el Aidi Benguerir; 72 miles............ 1.5 Benguerir- liarrakeeh; 46 miles............ YA�.ING TRACXS Il.? MAXIMUM GRADE MINIMUM 0.8 Sidi Kacem -Fes; 69 miles RADIUS OF MAXIMUM Maximum !Minimum 0.0 Going Coming CURVATURE AXLELOAD interval length REMARKS Percent Feer Short lons .11 ilex Feel 24.2 0.8 0.8 2,624 24.2 15 1,673 Electrified; double tracked on 4 -mile section Ain 1,969 Do. 1. 984 22 0 16 Sebaa Casablanca. 1.0 0.1 1,148 24.2 11 Electrified and double tracked. 1.2 0.0 1,312 22.0 1,706 Diesel traction, Do. no na na 22.0 nn na Electrified; serves phosphate mines at Beni Idir. !.8 1.0 na 22.0 no na Electrified; serves phosphate mines at Ait Ammar. 1.0 1.2 no 22.0 12 2.021 Electrified: double tracked on 3 -mile section Sidi el Aidi Benguerir; 72 miles............ 1.5 Benguerir- liarrakeeh; 46 miles............ Benguerir -Safi; 88 miles Il.? Rabat Kenitra; 24 miles 0.5 Kenitra -Sidi Kacem; 53 miles 0.8 Tangier -Sidi Kacem; 124 miles 1.3 Sidi Kacem -Fes; 69 miles 1.5 Fes -Beni Oukil; 209 miles 1.5 Beni Oukil- Oujda; I 1 miles 0.6 Oujda Algerian border; I1 miles............ 0.0 Beni Oukil Guenfouda; 11 miles............ 1.5 Guenfouda -Hassi Bellal; 28 miles........... 1.5 Guenfoud -Bou Arfa; 168 miles............ na Data Hot available. Not pertinent. *Owned and operated by O 1iCF unless otherwise stated. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 Khouribga --Sidi Rhazouani; serves phosphate mines at Oued Zem. 1.5 1,148 24.2 18 1,969 Electrified. 1.5 1 148 24. 23 1,969 Do. 0.8 I,lilll 22.0 :30 1,X70 Diesel traction. 0.5 2,624 24.2 1:3 1,67:3 Electrified. 0.5 2.624 24 2 16 1,969 Do. 1. 984 22 0 16 1,08:3 Owned by -Fes; diesel traction. 1.2 984 24.2 11 1,673 Owned by Tangier -Fes, electrified. 1.5 1 148 24.2 23 1,706 Diesel traction, 0.8 1,148 24.2 11 1,969 Do. 0.0 1 148 24.2 11 na Operated by Algerian National Railways; diesel tract'on. 0.0 2,140 :22.0 11 l,9(i9 Die.;-i traction. 0. f 984 22.0 no na Diesel traction; serves Morocco's only coal- producing area. 0.8 2,110 22.0 22 1,640 Diesel traction: ser es manganese mine at Bou .%rf:i. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 prestressed concrete, and wooden types; the steel and wooden ties are imported. Domestically available crushed stone, sand, and gravel are used for b�Ilast. Selected line characteristics of Moroccan railroads are listed in Figure 2. C. Highways (C) The highway system of Morocco is well developed for Africa, arid generally well maintained. The network is adequate for the economy of the country and is assuming increasing importance owing to highway development and improvement programs. The density of the network is greatest in the western and northern parts of the country, particularly within 150 miles of the coast where the principal urban centers, seaports, and agricultural and mining areas are located. The sparely populated regions of the south and southeastern parts of the country are served mainly by desert tracks. The basic network consists of a coastal route extending from Tangier to the border of Spanish Sahara. This route links the major cities of r; Tangier, Rabat, Casablanca, Safi, and Agadir. An s east -west route extends along the Mediterranean coast from Ceuta, which is a Spanish possession, to the Algerian border near Oujda. Radial route systems also t" emanate from the principal cities of Marrakech, i. Meknes, and Fes. There are highway and rail junctions in the principal port and urban areas. A few bituminous- treated highways along with several unimproved earth roads provide access to Algeria; only unimproved earth roads connect with Spanish Sahara. The network totals approximately 32,180 miles and consists of 11,200 miles of bituminous treated surfaces, about 3,20 miles of gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized soil, and 17,730 miles of unimproved earth roads and tracks. Road widths on main roads generally range from 15 to 30 feet. Surface widths on other roads range from about 8 to 20 feet. There are earth or crushed stone shoulders generally 3 to 6 feet wide on most main roads. The general condition of the highway system ranges from poor to good. Roads in the vicinity of larger cities are usually wider and have better constructed surfaces. The alignment of roads in the mountainous areas is winding (Figure 3), and there are numerous steep grades. There are few structures on the highways in Morocco. Most of the bridges are on the main roads, and many of these are very narrow. Concrete bridges are the most common; this type is preferred bec ause sand and gravel are available locally. Gross load capacities range generally from 12 to 21 short tons, but 7 FIGURE 3. Eighteen -foot wide bituminous- treated high- way, extending through a mountain pass 45 miles north of Ksar es Souk (C) newer structures will sustain heavier loads. On many roads and tracks, streams are crossed by submersible bridges or fords Figure 4). A number of bridges were damaged by severe flooding in December 1969 and January 1970. The Ministry of Public Works and C min municalions is responsible for the construction and maintenance of roads. Responsibility consists of financing, construct- ing, and maintaining state highways as well as sonic regional roads. Most regional road construction programs are formulated by provincial departments and include responsibility for maintenance. Financial assistance is provided by the Ministry of Public Works. Prefectures and municipalities are responsible for financing, constructing, and maintaining roads within their areas. Rough terrain in the Rif and Atlas mountains greatly complicates the construction of highways. Heavy seasonal snow and rainfall in the mountains and shifting sands in the southern desert regions bring additional problems. Construction materials such as stone, gravel, and sand are available locally, but steel, lumber, and bituminous materials must be imported. Highway improvement is being accomplished within the framework of the Five Year Development Plans. Under the 1968 -72 plan the highway program has been directed mainly to the maintenance and upgrading of roads to sustain heavier traffic volumes, extension of interregional roads, and the construction of roads to connect isolated population centers. Approximately US$12 million has been allocated for work on public primary and secondary roads and about $19 million has been allocated for tourist routes, 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 FIGURE 4. Road that crosses a wadi about 23 miles southeast of Ksor es Souk. It becomes a ford after heavy rain. (C) special projects, and third class roads. Among tli!- more important projects are those involving the improve- ment or reconstruction of road links from Rabat to Casablanca; Sidi Ifni to Tiznit; Tan -Tan to Tarfaya; and Agadir to Marrakech. Restrictions to highway transport include inade- quate road surface and bridge widths; a lack of all season roads in mail\ areas; narrow and low capacity bridges, especially in the mountains of the Rii; fords which are often flooded in the rainy season; and steep grades and sharp curves in the mountains. Snow intermittently blocks roads at higher elevations from Noyembei through April. Landslides interrupt traffic in the mountainous regions during rainy weather, and fog limits visibilit,, along the Atlantic coast. Intense heat and severe sandstorms are serious factors in the southern desert regions. Intercity, common carrier -:,ad freight is allocated exclusively among the various privately owned, government licensed truckers by the National Transport Office (ONT), an agency of the government. Merchandise hauled by private firms for their own account is excluded from this control. The principal goods transported include agricultural products (grains), leather goods, clothing, and textiles. Traffic volumes of up to 1,000 vehicles per day are generated on most primary roads, and 200 to 500 vehicles per day on most secondary roads. The annual average increase in traffic volume has been 8% to 10% in recent years. As of 1971, there were 207,470 motor vehicles registered in Morocco, consisting of 150,450 passenger cars and :37,000 trucks and buses. Motor vehicles and transport equipment are imported, mostly from France and Italy. Characteristics of the most important highways are listed in Figure 5. D. Pipelines (C) \Morocco has no significant long distance petroleum pipelines in regular use; there are two pipelines, one for crude and one for refined products, which were formerly of some im xrrtance. Therc are also crude -oil gathering ';fines near the refinery at Sidi Kaceni and several natural -gas pipelines. The crude -oil line was installed from the Sidi Rhalem oilfield cast of Essaouira to rail transport facilities at Safi. The 120- kilometer line is 4 inches in diameter and has a capacity of about 2,000 barrels a day. Since the petroleum resources of the Sidi Rhalem field are nearly depleted, little cil is currently flowing through tl:9s line. The refined- products pipeline was constructed by the U.S. Government to transport fuel from the port of Casablanca to four U.S. Air Force bases that formerly operated in the northwestern part of the country. The line has a total length of nearly 500 kilometers, but it has not been used since the airfields were turned over to the Moroccan Government in the earl\- 1960's. Gathering lines, Lill less than 15 kilometers in length, transport crude to the petroleum refinery at Sidi Kacem from several small oilfields in the vicinity. The only long dis.ance natural -gas pipeline extends approximately kilometers from gas deposits at the Sidi Rhalem oilfield to Essaouira. There are also some minor natural -gas pipelines which serve the Sidi Kacem refinery and several small industrial plants. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 1 FIGURE S. Selected highways of Morocco (C) ORIGIN AND DESTINATION DISTANCE Agadir to Casablanca via Marrakech (347 miles): Mile 0 to Mile 91 Mile 91 to Mile 197 (Marrakech) Mile 197 to Mile 347 Marrakech to Meknes via Azrou (29 miles): Mile 0 to Mile 50 (El Kelaa des Srarhna) Mile 50 to Mile 254 Azrou) Mile 254 to Mile 294 Rabat to Oujda via Guercif (346 miles): Mile 0 to Mile 244 (Guercif) Mile 244 to 14fle 346 Meknes to Tangier via Souk el Arba du Rharb (163 miles): Mile 0 to Mile 68 (Souk el Arba du Rharb) Mile 68 to Mile 163 Oujda to Algeria border near Figuig via Bou Arfa (263 miles): Mile 0 to Mile 193 (Bou Arfa) Mile 193 to Mile 263 SURFAC' TYPE 91 Bituminous treatment.... 106 150 50 204 40 244 102 .do SURFACE WIDTH SHOULDER WIDTH REMARKS Feel Feet 17 0 -3 Undulating alignment. Four cords and three bridges. Road being improved. 12 -17 0 -:3 Mountainous alignment. One mountain pass, one defile, and two bridges. Road being improved. IR 0 �:3 Undulating to hilly alignment. Two bridges. 20 5 -11 Undulating alignment. 15 -20 0 -3 Mountainous alignment. Four bridges. 20 3 Undulating alignment. 20 4 -6 Undulating alignment. Six bridges. 20 0 -3 Undulating alignment. One bridge. 68 20 95 18 -30 193 ....1o 15 -25 70 12 Agadir to Rabat via Tleta Sidi Mbarek Bou Guedra and Casablanca (360 miles): Mile 0 to Mile 160 (Tleta Sidi Nlbarek Bou 160 ,6-20 Guedra). Mile 160 to Mile :360 (Rabat) 200 21- :30 t t i a i s 3 Undulating alignment. 0 -3 Hilly to flat alignment. 0 -3 Undulating alignment. 6 -10 Flat alignment. Man; fords and culverts. One half mile of earth road between Figuig and border. 2 -4 Undulating to mountainous alignment. Nine bridges. 1 6 Flat to undulating alignment. Six bridges. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 E.. Ports C III'r(' ,IR' 1'I-lit lll:lilll :11111 I I 111111(tl Iu111 I lll� I'll Wit' t. Il', ;111(1 1,1111 111 1111' (Itllt I nl,ljllr 1)Ilrt at11r. ,Ili_ \I(III.1111nn'lli.l .11111 kcilill.l- .1 r(� 1) 11 1111' \Il,lllt l l, 11111' 111,1 jI )I I)( l t. I, 111- I I I Irll tllt� ~trail III (:II .Intl tlll� I,- I11,1i 11i;1_ 1\l(I nlajl)r 1)I) rt ('(�lita Intl \1('lilk, :Iw +111 (111' 11'0((1�? I, 111(',111 ;11111 IIIIII(�1 sp ll11 rut. 1 I I('\(�111 1 11 t ll:l 1)(`1 (l i I iI I I t Ir(�I':I Ua' 111 till r('- ul :grit\ t.( tli.' (�n;l (IIII in :1111111.1 ,111 ill f,lII( u.tI\ !:n'ak\\;If('r art� nl I (I('(1 III Ilrl,\ it It- I(II'(111,itI III'ltel I'11( iIII ):)rt.IIw' III tin' I>Ilrl� i� 111\\i11h \itll 1111 i11( rI�a�in- li('\1'1(111111( nl I.f Irallt I'tlh('Iln`r 1111� I)Orf Ila11(II((1 :III114I,I ill nlilli11I1 11111. ul i1111)urt anII 1I 11 '1'11111111111 I :1 t1' :I 111;111 \111111111' III (�O:I. t :11 trallir. ;1 r1' 5 I1,1r IIII .I I /,VIII' 1111111L', InlllllrA .11111 I VIII'. Ir,1 r1 11'IV,111\ (t'111,1 :Irl' 1111111 111,1111 111111 kIIlll' 'lath lll I \11 III IIII' 1 11 Irt` �111' ,II`I' 11.1 \,11 I.I `I' \I r1 "',111 \,I \,II I II,1 \:V 1'llul rl .I IIII ILI \.11 llllt I 1'I I, 111 la('Illl ll' .III' ,It ,I.IIII, I II'.1. ,11111 .1 ti1l.i III III 1 1 ;It.II II l'r,llt I l' I t I'I lt,l I.1 'llitl,l II r!IIII 'll II in11)'Ir1.111t l \,I\ ;lil .11111 III'ili1' la1'ilit\ nI\\ .I nlinlrl n:l\,II 1,1('lllt\ I III' l ti \.1\ nl,linLlill ('1 IIIIIIIIIII II',l t lulls I, I(�IIII .It IIII' IIII \�11 II'+',III \Ir I'ull't' 11,1 t' 2 11101' Ill (11 \I I III 1111 1'11\ \VIII II I ,111 111 111 1' \1 '1'11( (:1�!!1.1 a IIl1 \11'1111,1 ;I II' III,IIIaL'I'tl II\ IIII. \lini to III I Iil' \llrk I I;1 I"t 1)1 t. (:;I`;I 11111:1III �1 1111 1'11 1'1111i1)I \itll n11 1(II'rll. I'I lil'il'11l 11:111111111' LI(�ililil' ;111(1 i� I\ a(II.11u;111' III InI'. t nllnn,ll II rt'llll'llt. IIII \l 1' \rr. I'I lllhrt ll )II N II!IrIIIIII' I',I II'�I' ,1 1)11ll111�111 IIII� rl�III I I i II III I l)I tIt� 111 \l 1 111 rl �('II I rl APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 F;GURE 6. Port of Casablanca, looking east (U /OU) co FIGURE 7. tv.ojor ports (C) NAME; LOCATION; MILITARY PORT CAPACITY Agadir 30Q24'N., 9 �36'1'.; on Atlantic coast about 210 miles SSW. of Casablanca. 5,800 Casablanca 33 �36'N., 7 �37'W.; on NW. coast about 160 statute miles SW. of the Strait of Gibraltar. 25,100 Ceuta 35 �54 5�19'W.; on N. coast 13 miles S. of Gibraltar and 25 miles E. of Tangier. 15.100 Kenitra 34 �16 6 �36 about 110 miles SW. of the Strait of Gibraltar and 70 miles NE. of Casablanca; 9 miles above mouth of Oued Sebou (river). 5,600 Footnote at end of table. ACTIVITIES Development of port has resulted largely because of need of an outlet for agricultural products and minerals of southern Morocco. Principal receipts are POI. products, building materials, food products, fertilizers, insec- ticides, and machine tools. Priucipal shipments are ores, agricultural products, and fish. Small shipyard specializes in repair of fishing craft. Ilandles over 75% of the maritime trade of the country. Principal receipts are POL products, lumber, coal, unrefined sugar, food products, and general cargo. Princi -al shipments are phosphate, iron and manganese ores, grain, fruit, refined sugar, and vegetable fibers. Moroccan Naval Headquarters is located here. One shipyard has graving dock with floor length of 492 ft. and 2 marine railways, the larger having a hauling capacity of 700 tons. Port is entirely Spanish. Best and most active bunkering port in Morocco. Principal receipts are POL products, coal, sugar, wheat, and potatoes. Principal shipments are c�entent, cork�, and minerals. Location of Spanish patrol -craft base. 'I'wu small shipyards specializing in repair of .small craft. Largest marine railway has hauling capacity of :350 tons. Small river port whose activities have declined in recent years. Principal receipts are POL products and general cargo. Principal ship- ments are grain, lead ore, wine in bulk, cork, finished paper and cardboard, and agricultural products. Site of U.S.- operated naval cnnl- munications system. One small repair facility with a ntud slipway for hauling out vessels up to 50 tons. HARBOR Artificial inner harbor and a roadstead. Inner harbor has water area of about 120 acres and depths of 15 to 33 ft. Berths rather than fairways leading to them re.trict the size of the vessels accom- modated. Artificial well protected coastal harbor consisting of an outer harbor and all inner harbor with 3 basins, a water area of about 2 sq. miles and depths ranging from 7 to 55 ft. Limitations on size of vessels that can be berthed in the port are imposed by the dimensions of the berths rather than b the controlling dimensions of the fairways. Artificial, well protected, semicircular har- bor with water area of about 400 acres and depths of 9 to 50 ft. Depths leading to berths exceed depths in berths. Consists of a stretch of the Sebou River about 10 miles long from the river mouth upstream and 350 to 1,500 ft. wide between the chart datum lines: gen; ral depths are 8 to 2.1 ft. Maximum length of ressel that can he accommodated is :377 ft. and draft Ili ft. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 BERTHS Alongside For 2 standard and 5 small ocean type cargo vessels, 5 small coaster -tope cargo vessels, 10 lighters, and I small ocean type tanker. Anchorage Large number of standard berths of all rhisses S. of harbor entrance in depth- of 20 to 50 ft, over good holding ground of sand; good protection except from occasional W. winds which make 5erths untenable. Alongside For 16 large, 1:3 standard, and :3 small ocean -type cargo vessels, 2 .standard and 3 small coaster -type cargo vessels, 18 lighters, and 2llrge ocean -type tankers and I standard coaster -type tanker. Anchorage 2 ocean -type cargo vessels, light cruiser, 5 coaster -type cargo vessels, small naval vessels. In outer harbor In depths of 20 to 52 ft. over poor holding ground of sand and rocks, exposed from N. to E. Mooring -1 large passenger ship, aircraft carrier, and 1 coaster -type cargo vessel; small naval vessel. Single -buoy berths in outer harbor, depths 21 to :30 ft., exposed from N. to E. Alongside For 4 large, 7 standard, and :3 small ocean -type cargo vessels, 2 standard and 8 small coaster -t cargo vessels, 20 lighters, 1 large, 1 standard and 1 small ocean -type tankers, and 1 standard coaster- type tanker. Anchorage- -For large numbers of standard herths of all classes N. of harbor entran -e in d. of 36 to 120 ft. over poor holding ground of sand, gravel, and rock; un- protected except trout S. Alongside--For 9 .small coaster -type cargo vessels, 28 lighters; 1 standard coaster- t��p tanker, and 2 representative sound -and- river -type tank barges. Anchorage For large numbers of standard berths of all classes in open roadstead off ricer entrance in depths of 20 to 100 ft. over good holding ground of ntud, but completely exposed to winds and Swells. i 0 FIGURE 7. Major ports (C) (Continued) NAME; LOCATION; MII ITARY PORT CAPACITY ACTIVITIES Melilla 35 �19 2 �57'x'1'.; on N. coast about 150 miles E. of the Strait of Gibraltar. 8,000 111ohammedia 33 �42'N., 7 �25'W.; about 150 miles SW. of the Strait of Gibraltar and about 14 miles NE. of Casablanca. 1,200 Safi............... 32 �19 9 �14'W.; on Atlantic coast about 110 miles SW. of Casablanca. 5,700 An ancient port belonging to Spain; primary activity ore shipping. Principal receipts are POL products, coal, and food products. Principal shipments are iron ore. One small shipyard specializes in repair of small native craft. Prin.ary importance is as an oil- discharge port and fishing ct..ter. Principal receipts are POL products and principal shipments are fish and fish products. One small shipyard specializes in repair of small fishing craft. An important phosphate- shipping and fishing port. Its location has been an important factor in its growth and development. Principal receipts are POL, building materials, and general a .go. Principal shipments are phosphate and fish. One small shipyard makes floating repairs to ocean- goinf; vessels and specializes in repairs to small craft; 1 marine railway, hauling capacity 60 to -is. Tangier 35 5 on NW. coast on Strait of Gibraltar opposite Spanish mainland. 5 Primary activities center around the "free zone� operation which was created in January 1962. Principal receipts are food, POL products, manufactured goods, and steel products. Principal shipments are cement, cork, and vegetable fiber. One smail shipyard specializes in repair of small fishing craft. HARBOR Artificial harbor consists of an open bight protected by 2 breakwaters with water area of about 225 acres and depths of 7 to 45 ft. Depths leading to berths exceed depths in berths. Improved natural harbor formed by a peninsula and 2 converging breakwaters with water area of about 27 acres and depths of 6 to 19 ft. harbor entrance between the heads of breakwaters is about 600 ft. wide and has controlling depth of 17 ft., over width of 260 ft. An open roadstead and an artificial inner harbor with water area of about 70 !toes and depths of 7 to 29 ft. Depths leading to berths exceed depths in berths. Artificial harbor protected by a breakwater on the N. side and mole on the S. side with a water area of about 100 acres and depths of 6 to 33 ft. Depths leading to berths exceed depths in berths. BERTHS Alongside For 5 large, 3 standard, and 1 small ocean -type cargo vessels, 2 standard and 1 small coaster -type cargo vessels, and 3 lighters. Also for 5 small ocean -type tankers as alternative berths. Anchorage �For large numbers of standard berths of all classes in roadstead in depths of 48 to 90 ft., over good holding ground of mud and sand. Area unprotected. Alongside For 1 si tall ocean -type cargo vessel, 5 lighters, 1 ,urge ocean -type and I standard coaster -type tankers. Anchorage- For large numbers of standard berths of all classes 1 12 mile N. of port in de -ths of 40 to 90 ft., over poor holding round of sand and rock, unprotected and exposed to winds and heavy swells. Alongside--For 7 standard and 2 small ocean -type cargo vesse:i, I standard and 2 small coaster -type cargo vessels, and 3 lighters; also for 1 small ocean -type tanker as an alternative berth. Anchorage -For large numbers of standard berths of all classes in roadstead in depths of 20 to 90 ft. over good holding ground of mud and sand open to W. and untenable during strong AN'. winds. Alongside- -For 4 standard and 2 small ocean -type cargo vessels, 3 standard and 2 small coaster -type cargo vessels, 17 lighters, and 1 standard ;,eean -t.ype tanker. Anchorage �For large numbers of standard berths of all classes northeast of port in Tangier Bal in depths of 40 to 100 ft. over good holding ground of sand, open from N. to E. *The estimated military port capacity is the maximum amount of general cargo expressed in long tons- that can be unloaded onto the wharves and cleared from the wharf aprons during a period of one 24 -hour day (20 effective cargo working hours). The estimate is based on the static cargo transfer facilities of the port existing at the time the estimate is prepared and is designed for comparison rather than for operational purposes; it cannot be projected beyond a single day by straight multiplication. c i i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 also adequate to meet normal requirements. Casablanca has plans to increase the size o, the port by creating new quays and basins evstward of the present facilities. The new facilities will be used for handling containers, roll -on /roll -of` traffic, grain, and general ca rgo. Figure 7 provides details on all major ports F. Merchant marine (C) Morocco's merchant fleet carries only a small portion o country's total volume of international seaborne trade. Most of the seaborne exports and imports are transported by foreign shipping, mainly foreign -flab; ships tinder Moroccan charter. The merchant fleet consists of 13 ships of 1,000 gross register tons (g.r.t.) and over, totaling 36,889 g.r.t. or 48,404 deadweight tons (d.w.t.) as follows: TYPE No. C.R.T. D.W.T. Dry cargo 9 31,414 42,224 Refrigerator 2 3,050 3,980 Wine tanker 2 2,425 2,200 Of the fleet deadweight tonnage 851, (two ships) is less than 5 rears old, 64 1 /r (`our ships) is between I 1 and 15 gars old, and 285 (seven ships) is more than 1:5 years. Eleven ships (seven dry cargo, two refrigerator, and two wine tanker) are between 700 and 3,000 d.w.t.; the two remaining ships are dry cargo units of 12,545 d.w.t. and 14,260 d.w.t. All ships are diesel powered and have operating speeds of 12 to 16 knots. Merchant tonnage is controlled by four domestic and two foreign beneficial owners (entities which take the profit or loss from operations). The largest owner is the Moroccan Navigation Company (Conpagnic I'vlarocaine de Navigation), Casablanca, which operates five dry cargo ships and one wine tanker totaling 35,694 d.w.t., comprising 741/(' of the total fleet deadweight tonnage. The \7oroc�can Govern- ment controls about 80'1 of the capital shards of this compan% the remaining shares are owned by private interests. The privately owned domestic shipping companies, all located in Casablanca, which control 7,340 d.w.t., are the Moroccan Naval Company (La Navale Cherifienne, S.A.), with one 700- d.w.t. wine tanker; the Moroccan Fruit Shipping Company (Societe Marocaine de Navigation Fruitiere), with one 2,900- d.w.t. dry cargo ship; and the Moroccan Sea Navigation Company (Societe Marocaine de Navigation Maritime, S.A.) with two 1,990- d.w.l. refrigerator ships. Two French -owned shipping companies, with headquarters in Paris, control a total of 5,130 d.w.t. as follows: the General 'Transatlantic Cornpar. (Compagnic Generale Trunsatlantique, S.A.) �two 1,367- d.%%.t. dry cargo ships; and the Shipping Management Corporation (Societe Anonyi e de Gerance et (I'Arrnement, or SAGA �one 2,396- d.w.t. dry cargo ship. The fleet is employed in both liner (scheduled) and tramp (unscheduled) service in the general areas of the cast and west coasts of Africa, Mediterranean, Western Europe, Baltic, east coast of Canada, east coast of South America, south and oast coasts of Asia, and Australia. Morocco's fishing fleet of more than 26,000 vessels, consisting mainly of small, wooden fancily -owned inclndcs five oceangoing ships ranging between 0)0 and 499 g.r.t. (Merchant marine functions are administered hv_ toe Ministry of Industry and "Trade thtougl: the Directorate of the Merchant Marine and Sea Fisl�ing. Included in Moroccan laws and regulations is a provision that Moroccan -flag ships or )0oroccan chartered vessels will carry where practicable 4Wi of the import and 30 of the export of certain seaborne commodities. In addition, the government stipulates that all goods exported or imported by government establishments, semipublic establishments, companies holding government concessions, or companies receiving subsidies, must be carried by Moroccan -flag ships or Moroccan chartered vessels. Charters are authorized onfv for Moroccan shipping companies, freight companies, and registered agents in Morocco. Morocco is a member of the Inter Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) and a party to the following IMCO conventions: Safety of Life at Sea, .948 and 1960; Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1960; Oil Pollution, 1954 and 1962; and Load Lines, 1966. The Moroccan Government provides neither direct nor indirect subsidies for ship operations or shipbuilding. The govcnunent provides training for seafaring personnel at the Merchant Marine Officers Training School at Casablanca and the Maritime Apprentice- ship Schools at Agadir and Safi. In addition, the government grants scholarships for out -of- country training for selected officer personnel. G. Civil air (C) Royal Air Maroc (RAM), Morocco's principal scheduled airline, was formed in 1953 by the merger of two Moroccan carriers, Air Maroc and the Air Atlas Companv (Societe Air Atlas). Ownership is shared by the Moroccan Government (67 Air France (171/ and minor shareholders. RAM flies 23,900 undupli- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 sated route miles to 22 cities in Europe a+ J northwest Africa and to four domesti_� points. Flights to France arid to some domestic points are flown in pool with Air France, which also provides technical assistance to the airline. RAM leads neighboring countries' airlines in technical capacity, nationalization of key positions, and e�irnings. Roval Air Inter (RAI) was established early in 1970 to operate services within Morocco. Principal shares are held by RAM (85%) and the remainder Imy minor shareholders. Scheduled passenger services are operated between Agadir, Al Hoceima, Casablanca, Fes, Ksar es Souk, Marrakech, Meknes, Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat, Tangier, and 'Tetuan. R.d flight personnel are primarily foreign nationals. All required ground service is handled by RAM. RAI showed a deficit in its first year of operation. Civil air activities other than air carrier operations encompass agricultural flying particularly for locust control aerial photography, and charter flights. These operations are carried out both by government agencies and commercial companies. The principal airwork company, Agro -Air Maghreb (Societe Agricolair Maghreb), provides crop dusting, surveying, air taxi. and charter services, as well as maintenance and repair of light aircraft and engines. The Moroccan Governmev', �i plies some support to general aviation by rr.ictaining airfields and subsidizing aeroclubs. Approximately 145 civil aircraft are registered in Morocco. Of these, 10 have a gross weight of 20,000 pounds or more. RAM owns six of the major transport aircraft consisting of four Aerospatiale Caravelle Ills, and two Boeing 727- 200's. RAI owns two Fokker F -27- 600's; and the King of Morocco owns two Dassault Falcon 20's. Agro -Air Maghreb operates a fleet of 18 light aircraft. The remaining aircraft are owned and operated by various governmental agencies; acroclu! nonscheduled, airwork, arid nonaviation enterprises; and private individuals. Approximately 6,500 personnel are e;mgaged in civil aviation activities in Morocco, including 2,500 employed by the Civil Air Directorate, 1,600 by RANI, and ab ut 100 by RAI. In addition, about 2,200 persons have been issued student or private pilot permits. RAM employs about 40 transport pilots (including six Moroccan captains and 15 Moroccan first officers), 18 other flight personnel (mostly Moroccan), and 275 maintenance personnel. RAM's foreign employees are primarily French nationals. RAI employs Moroccan, Belgian, West German, Austral- ian, and Pakistani pilots; the remaining RAI employees are on loan from RAM. Efforts are being 12 trade to train indigenous personnel to fill all airline positions. It is expected that all flight engineer positions will be held by Moroccans by the end of 1972. Much of the aviation training activity in Morocco is conducted by the Air Directorate at the Training Center for Civil Aviation and Meteorology. The school is located at Casablanca /Anfa airfield and provides training in the fields of electronic maintenance, meteorology, navigation, air traffic control, and communications. The RAM training center, also located at the Casablanca /Anfa airfield, conducts courses for pilots (including flight instruction), flight engineers, radio operators, arid aircraft maintenance technicians. Foreign students are accepted at both schools on it quota basis. Basic flight instruction in light aircraft is given by the acroclubs. Advanced pilot training for RAM personnel is provided in France by Air France. Boeing 727 transitional training for RAM flight personnel has been received in the United States. Moroccan aviation students also receive training at the schoo! sponsored by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in Tunis, Tunisia. Major maintenance and repair of RAM arid RAI aircraft are performed at Casablanca /Anfa airfield. Limited maintenance facilities are located at Casablanca Nouasseur and Rabat -Sale airfields. Major maintenance and overhaul are accomplished by Air France in Paris. RAM is also a major customer of the Middle East Airlines engineering department in Beirut. Agro -Air Maghreb has the principal light aircraft repair station in Morocco and services aircraft for most of the private owners and the aeroclubs. Its facilities at Casablanca /Anfa are equipped to service all types of light American aircraft. Maroc Aviation of Casablanca, it subsidiary of the French firm, Aerospatiale, maintains a repair shop for aircraft instruments. Control and regulation of civil aviation in Morocco are the responsibilities of the Air Directorate of the Ministry of Public Works and Communications. The Air Directorate functions primarily through three subordinate organizations which handle civil aeronautics, airports, and meteorology, respectively. Legislation dealing with basic civil aviation law was codified by government decree in July 1962 and amended in 1970. Morocco is a member nation of ICAO, adhering to the Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation in November 1956. The Moroccan Government has civil aviation agreements or provisional arrangements with 26 nations including APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, and the U.S.S.R. Morocco is served by 20 foreign airlines including Communist carriers from Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, and the U.S.S.R. These airlines conduct flights between Morocco and 39 countries in North and South America, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Air France has cabotage rights between five points in Morocco. Air Maghreb, a proposed joint international consortium involving the pooling of equipment and services of Roval Air Maroc, Air Algerie, and Tunis Air, was abandoned because of political difficulties, and the proposal has not been renewed. H. Airfields' (C) The air facilities system of Morocco consists of 87 airfields and four seaplane stations. Three airfields are joint military /civil, 21 are military, and 63 are civil. In addition there are 56 unusable sites. Most of the major installations are near the large urban centers in the northwest coastal area. The remaining airfields, both major and minor, are evenly distributed throughout the country. Three of the four airfields constructed by the U.S. Air Force are closed: Ben Slimane, Benguerir, and Sidi Slimane. Casablanca /Nouasseur, a former U.S. Air Force base and Morocco's largest and best international airfield, has excellent facilities; Casablanca /Anfa, also one of Morocco's main civil airfields, has support facilities which are adequate. Tangier /Boukhalf, Fes /Sails, and Al Hoceima -Cote du Rif are civil airfields, capable of handling jet traffic. Rabat -Sale and Sidi Ifni are joint airfields which can support jet fighter aircraft a:: well as medium bombers. Two of the former J.S. airbases could support heavy bombers. A total of 23 have hard- surfaced runways and are capable of handling jet aircraft; the remaining airfields are usable by C -47 type aircraft. The four seaplane stations are available only for emergency use. Most primary airfields are well maintained and have support facilities. The secondary airfields have occasional maintenance. Figure 8 lists characteristics of selected Moroccan airfields. I. Telecommunications (C) The telecommunications (telecom) system of Morocco consists of well- integrated, high capacity, open -wire, cable and radio -relay networks which serve 'For detailed information on individual airfields in Morocco see Volume 17, Airfields and Seaplane Stan ass of the World, published by the Defense Mapping Agency, Aero .ce Center for the Defense Intelligence Agency. practically all populated areas. Nearly all telecom facilities are owned and operated by the government. The Ministry of Posts, Telephone, and Telegraph controls public telephone and telegr. +ph facilities; radio and TV broadcasting is controlled by the Ministry of Information and administered by Radiodiffusion Television Marocaine (RTM), a subordinate agency. Domestic telecom systems have been considerably expanded and modernized in recent years. Long distance and local networks generally provide sufficient channels or circuits to handle most requirements. Open -wire lines, many of which are carrier equipped, serve practically the entire country and form an extensive intercity network. The principal trunk lines between the major cities, however, are provided by the coaxial cable network, which extends along the Atlantic coastal region from Agadir in the south to Tangier in the north, with extensions inland to Marrakech, Fes, and Tetouan. The Moroccan portion of the underground, multiconductor North African cable extends from Casablanca westward across the country to Oujda and on into Algeria and Tunisia. Several separate radio -relay networks supplement the open -wire and cable networks. A special radio -relay net is used exclusively to relay TV programs. Domestic submarine cables serve the area along the Mediterranean coast. Domestic radiocom- munication facilities are of little importance except in the former Spanish enclave of Sidi Ifni. The HF circuit between Sidi Ifni and Rabat offers the only connection this area has to the public telecom system. Telephone and telegraph service is available nationwide and telex service is available in most government and commer,:ial centers. The country ranks fourth in Africa and fourth among all Arab countries in total number of telephones. App.oximate-- ly 45% of the almost 170,000 telephones are in the principal telecom centers, Casablanca and Rabat. The more important secondary centers are Marrakech, Tangier, Tetouan, and Fes. Over 80% of the nation's telephones are connected to automatic exchanges: most of the remaining manual exchanges are in small settlements southeast of the Atlas Mountains. InMrnational service is provided by HF radiocom- munication, landline (both open -wire and multicon- duetor cable), radio relay, submarine cable, and communications satellite facilities. International radiocommunication stations are located at Casa- blanca and Rabat. The Casablanca stat ;on provides a direct link with France; the Rabat station, with transmitters near Rabat and Tangier, has direct circuits with France, Mali, Senegal, and Tunisia. The North African cable, which originates at Casablanca, 13 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 FIGURE 8. Selected airfields (C) aircraft in terms of the single -wheel equivalent continues eastward through Algeria to Tunis, Tunisia; there are also extensions of the open -wire network into Algeria. The radio -relay station at Cap Spartel, near Tangier, provides telephone and telegraph links to Gilbraltar c,nd to Seville, Spain; an additional link, used exclusively for TV, extends to Lujar, Spain. There is also a radio -relay link het %een the Spanish enclave of Ceuta and Algeciras, Spain. In addition to the government PTT facilities, a major international I-IF radio -relay station at Tangier is operated by RCA Global Communications, Inc., a private international corporation. Although not directly serving Moroccan users, the RCA facility facilitates the handling of worldwide traffic. Eleven submarine cables intercon- nect Morocco arid the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla with foreign countries; six extend to Spain, two to France, and one each to Algeria, Gibraltar, and Senegal. A communication ground satellite 14 station at Ain el Aouda, 30 kilometers south of Rabat, is operated by the Moroccan Satellite Conununic�a- tions Company (SOMATELSAT) and is affiliated with the International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT). The station is used primarily for transatlantic communications. Special- purpose systems are operated by a number of government agencies, including the police, military, aeronautical, maritime, and railroad authorities. Coastal radio stations at Agadir, Casablanca, Safi, and Tangier provide telephone service to ships at sea. Morocco has extensive radiobroadcast and TV facilities. AM radiobroadcast stations provide almost nationwide coverage. The most powerful station, located at Azilal, south of Beni Mellal, has a 400 kilowatt transmitter. This station, and the 100- to 140 kw. stations at Agadir, Oujda, ar.d Sebaa Aioun, provide coverage to almost all of the country. They are APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 LONGEST RUNWAY: LARGEST SURFACE; DIMENSIONS; AIRCRAFT ELEVATION ABOVE NORMALLY NAME AND LOCATION SEA LEVEL ESWL SUPPORTED REMARKS Feet Pounds Al hoceima -Cote du Rif...... Asphalt............ 36,000 Viscount...... :'ivil. Primary purpose for construction 35 �11'N., 3 �50'W. 7,087 x 148 was to develop tourist potential of this 89 section of the Mrditrrranean. Airfield has both jet fuel and aviation gas. CasablancalAnfa Asphalt. 36,006 Civil. International airfield for both 33 �34'N., 7 �40'\1'.; SW. of 6,004 x 148 internat:onal and domestic airlines. Casablanca. 203 Aviation gas and jet fuel uvailuble. Casablanca INouasseur........ Asphalt 105,590 Boeing 747 Do. 33 22'N., 7 �35'\1'.; S. of 12,205 x 300 Casablanca. 655 Fes /Saiss Asphalt............. 36,000 Viscount...... Civil. Civilian airlines use airfield utilizing 33 �56'N., 4 �58'W. 6,556 x 148 Caravelle, DC 6, and C -47 equipment. 1,900 No services available. Kenitra Concrete............ 50,000 C-124 Military. The U.S. Navy maintains a 34 6 �36'\i'. 8,000 x 200 vast communications system on this 16 Moroccan base. Both aviation and jet fuels are available. Marrakech Asphalt............. 23,680 F- 27.......... Joint. RMAc u� :c base for pilot training. 31 8 �02'W. 7,644 x 148 Civil airlines Ise base. .let fuel and 1,539 aviation gas available. Meknes Asphalt....... 36,000 C 130......... Military. headquarters for RM:1F fighter 33 5 8,268 x '.64 squadron. Aviation gas and jet fuel 1.890 available. Rabat Sale Asphalt............. :36,000 do........ Joint. Civil airlines and 11MAF'. first 34 03'N., 6 8,2f8 x 148 Transport Squadron use airfield. Jet 276 fuel and aviaN -n gas available. Tangier /Bouk half Asphalt............. 66,560 Boeing 727.... Civil. Domestic airlines used only on this 35�44'N., 5 �ri :i'\1'.; S of 1,483 x 148 airfield, purchased by the government Tangier. 56 rronl Air 1 *Equivalent Single -Wheel Loariirg: Capacity of an airfield runway to sustain the weight of any multiple -wheel landing -gear aircraft in terms of the single -wheel equivalent continues eastward through Algeria to Tunis, Tunisia; there are also extensions of the open -wire network into Algeria. The radio -relay station at Cap Spartel, near Tangier, provides telephone and telegraph links to Gilbraltar c,nd to Seville, Spain; an additional link, used exclusively for TV, extends to Lujar, Spain. There is also a radio -relay link het %een the Spanish enclave of Ceuta and Algeciras, Spain. In addition to the government PTT facilities, a major international I-IF radio -relay station at Tangier is operated by RCA Global Communications, Inc., a private international corporation. Although not directly serving Moroccan users, the RCA facility facilitates the handling of worldwide traffic. Eleven submarine cables intercon- nect Morocco arid the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla with foreign countries; six extend to Spain, two to France, and one each to Algeria, Gibraltar, and Senegal. A communication ground satellite 14 station at Ain el Aouda, 30 kilometers south of Rabat, is operated by the Moroccan Satellite Conununic�a- tions Company (SOMATELSAT) and is affiliated with the International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (INTELSAT). The station is used primarily for transatlantic communications. Special- purpose systems are operated by a number of government agencies, including the police, military, aeronautical, maritime, and railroad authorities. Coastal radio stations at Agadir, Casablanca, Safi, and Tangier provide telephone service to ships at sea. Morocco has extensive radiobroadcast and TV facilities. AM radiobroadcast stations provide almost nationwide coverage. The most powerful station, located at Azilal, south of Beni Mellal, has a 400 kilowatt transmitter. This station, and the 100- to 140 kw. stations at Agadir, Oujda, ar.d Sebaa Aioun, provide coverage to almost all of the country. They are APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080029 -6 CONFIDENTIAL supplemented by 50- kilowatt transmitter% at Tetouan and by low -power transmitters at Casablanca, Marrakech, Rabat, Safi, and Tangier, and the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla. International programs are broadcast in several language from transmitters at Sebaa Aioun and Tangier. There is a large Voice of America station also at "Tangier. FM transmitting facilities are located only at Rabat, Casablanca, and Sebaa .Aioun. Radiobroadcast receivers number about one million. TV programs ont ins ,ed at stations in Casablanca and Rabat and are rebroadcast by 13 relav stations. Distribution of the stations k sufficient to provide satisfactory reception throughout most of the region northwest of the Atlas Mountains. The most powerful transmitting facilities are at Casablanca, Rabat, and hi elevations in various parts of the country selected to provide coverage: over extensive areas. Additional relay stations, located in urban areas, have low power outlets and were established to serve local areas. Telecasts are exchanged with Europe through the Eurovisi