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25B /GS /S Malta July 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 basik wall of *a NO Is Ow Glnerof smay whalda b now palbNdwd in o bmW by dooptea teener se that topics of greeter per� IshobiNy MA W updated an on Indhrlduol bosh. tiaes chophs =tow+lry ropie, The Sodety, and toNtic+� T Nc MNi1sry ieop. ad Seairlfyr pfarlde Naf p :many NIS carerop Some chwot, pmtivAml, Science and rnK and Secwhyr, doe we not perthmnt to ON cow Aft ore produced seledhrehy. f;or snaaN coaanfies requirWW only mMainaol HIS li so! nh the General Swry cowrafe my be bowed into one 1olums s ow Ift book, reedy n publicotlon Chat ttnaioia i y updo n key stn tbtiool dots reword In the Siwrrey. An w b"Ified edfion of dw logbook ombs tom details on the sconompr the defense foss� and the inhl VK* OW som y orVaniendow AhdM dsWW sessio I on many topks were port o the HIS p, pioduclio -1 of dmw vloWy Prodmd wil conwe b s be oroiloble ens log as db the MOW portion of the study is considered Mold. A qmfoly Owing of oN ochre HIS waft b pubibhed in the Inwntarf of Ai o61 IWS Pub*otbnsi, which is also bownd Ink ie concurrent E doomiftd yoethaook. The Marenr+ory No oN HIS wits by oreo Home omh mumbse and I id and dek of bt" It thus fodlitotes the ordo is of NO waft as well as" f1bw cstolooing, and utiNsotiora. WMW dim -Nom. adelldo a copies of NO waits, or sepwaft d optars of tine t3owW k"op can be obk6wd dkecth z; iiarough Nobon chaaneis from dm Csr*4 WmINgeiacs Ag*my. e The Gee ao Survey b f A or thR NIS bar the Csntrol kntellifeince fency and th e Dolo a cy wader th nerol direction of the M Ce m left& f b coo rdinwtd pubNshed, nand dissemi- nsNd by the Controh beeNipaa Aqvsy. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except: by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified 1 material, however, the portions so marked may be made available' for officia'I pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 i 1 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Central' Intelligence Agency. Research was sub- tantially c'mpleted by April 1973. j J 1\ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 f. G COr"fE'TS This ch4ptcr nuprnrder the vw*4,w" nwrtew in the (.cnrrd tian�ry doted 1/4v 1!7A;. A. Introduction l B. Structure and characteristics of the society 3 1. Crneral characteristics 3 2. Religion 8 3. Language 7 C. PopuStion S D. Societal aspects of labor 11 1. Employm�ent 11 2. Organization of labor and manaiprmcnt 12 3. [Ahoy ass agmewnt n4atkm 13 RIM OFFKUL UM CXLT APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 I.VVVIVVI .V. Nair 1 \5.f. V. VVI V.. \VVVI.VVVVVVW%f w t Page Page L. Living eondilkno and social problems 14 I. Public information media 19 1. 1d' "Lq of living 14 1. Press 19 2. Social problems 14 2. Broadcasting 19 F. Health. 15 3. Censorship Q Education 17 H. Artistic and cultural expression 18 J. Selected bibliography 20 FIGURES Page Page Fig. 1 '_Malta achieves independence photo) 1 Fig. 6 Village church in Cozo photo) 7 Fig. 2 Prehistoric ruins at Hagar Qim temple Fig. 7 Pre- Lenten religious festival (photo) 7 (photo) 2 Fig. 8 Population distribution chart) 8 Fig. 3 The Knights of St. John today Fig. 9 Vital rates chart) 9 (photo) 2 Fig. 10 Vital rates, Malta and selected Fig. 4 Mdina, the old capital (photo) 4 countr;ea (chart) Fig. 11 Population changes (table) 9 10 Fig. 5 Farming with primitive implements Fig. 12 Age -sex distribution (chart) 11 photo) 5 Fig. 13 St. John's Co- Cathedral (photo) 18 ii APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 A. Introduction In 1972, it year after tIte election which brought IIiIII to power. Maltese Prints Minister Dominic \littttff successfully concluded negotiations with the British which significantly inervased the amount paid to Malta for the military use of its facilities. Yet. as the )"laltese and the British well kiw the real significance Of the event was not the increased assistance but the new relationship with the West which Mintoff succeeded in establishing. By thcsc agreements Malta gained reccgnition Of its ri hl and intention to order its Own affairs and thus brought to fulfillment the formal independence achieved from the United Kingdom ill 1964 (Figure 1 If in One sense it is correct to speak of N in terms of it new beginning in 1972, however, it is scarcely Sufficient to do so. In the character of its life no less than in the activities of its people, Xlalta reflec!s the influence of the several foreign rulers who controlled its affairs for centuries before independence. Thus, it proper understanding of NIitIIit begins not xyith its independence, but with its long history of rule by Others, and proceeds front an account of the external forces which shaped its development. Malta has Inng been an Object of European interest because Of its strategic location midway between NOTE�The entire content of this ch,:pter iN LACI_vs.. IFIFD but is FOR OFFICI:1!. USf? O\ 1.1'. FIGURE 1. Prime Minister Dr. Giorgio Borg Olivier, 'with Prince Philip, as Malta became independent, 21 September 1964 Gibraltar aril \lexandtia, al OpIxsilr 1 .1 1( 1. of Iltr Meditrrruean. 'I'll(- earlir�l inhabitants a f the i.l:rn(J. :I)Ite�;or It have ctune fntn Sicih, which INssiI)I% as once joined It Malta, ;uud remnants tf varl% Maltese life reflevt %iibstat lial if infineluent eotntnrnr %%ith Ihr con'munities of the eastern \leditrrnnrvu goirrally. Prominent relics of these .;trl% tithes �and of ti NIcditcrr;,ncan influence� �are the Maltese furial tombs, shallow oval pits carved out of the (itnr.tortr surface. In Malta, these tombs \%err put to novel use a. temples (I-igury 2). it development which suggests that life On the islands was in some tneasnre iudependetll cf surrounding influences. Generally, ho\%vvvr. there was nO continuous development Of a single tradition even in this curly period. Rather. the islands suffered it series Of Separate cOlOnirttiunS by various Mediterranean peoples. The location of settlements crt inaccessible and defensible hilltops, it pattern which still exists, suggests an unsettled state of affairs which apparently lasted for centuries. Colonization by the Phoenicians about 800 B.C. marks both the arrival Of the first of Malta's Sennitic colonists and the appearance of the first written historical reference to the islands. It was the fo,!ner Phoenician colony Carthage, however. which brought `-lalt new glory and transformed it front an object of colonization to all utpost of strategic importance. Malta became part of the vast Carthaginian project of consOlidating Sicily and the islands of the Gulf of Syrt to withstand the Greek advance in the western Mediterranean. Carthage ruled Malta as part of the Punic Empire for almost three centuries, until the developing rivalry with Rome in the Mediterranean brought unrest and. ultimately, the conquest of Malta by the Romans at the beginning Of the Second Punic \Var. Under the Romans. Malta was made it part of Sicily, which had shared the archipelagos fate. During this period, about A.D. 60., St. Paul is said to have converted the islands to Christianity, when he was en route to Rona: as it prisoner, and his ship welit clown close to the archipelago. Malta, with Sicily, fell under the dominion of Bvzantium in the afte of the breakup of the empire. But in A.D. 870 the islands were Overrun by APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 r I i X dpow FIGURE 2. Ruins of prehistoric Hagar Oim Temple, interior walls the Mtislints in the course of theire\pan.iem across llte Mediterrane.m. The Abbasid Caliphs eventually became masters of Spain, southern I r:covv. Ital\. and Sicily. 'fill- coneluerors brought to the islands cotters and citrus fruits and fixed the predominantly Semitic character of the Maltese l:rnt, 'They ai;: establisha�d many c�ustonts and gave names to it nurnher of significant landnntrks. 'Tile Europe all counterattack mac�hcd the archipelago in 1091 under Count Roger till- Norman. Ilis success restored the authorit of t;ic Boman Catholic Church in Malta and reestablished the re�ligiotis hicrarc�hy. For several hundred years thereafter control passed among it variety of Sicilian rulers, most of mhos ercised authority over `Malta as a part of the Sicilian dornains in the nanc of the Iloly Rotnan Empire. In 1530, however, against the background of the continuing Christian campaign against the 'Muslim Turks, Emperor Charles V ceded authority over Millta to the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalcn (I' igure 3). The Knights were then in retreat from Rhodes, where the force. of Sultan Sulehmin the Magnificent had decimated their numbers. The order did not concern itself initially with governing the resident Sicilian clement; indeed, for some years its only concern was rtnity against the 'Turks. This preoccupation waS clearly justified, for in 1765 Suleiman the Magnificent rallied all the Turkish dominions against the Knights. With the help of the a IF rI ss r Maltese. the Knights aithslood it fencions Beige at Gratid I larboor, %%hich is still celebratud in Malta. For many \ears thereafter, the order dirveted it� re--mirces Ill the cmisiruc�tion (if it series of fort% mitt coastal lookouts for use against possible further depredation- by the'I'urks. These structures %kern later int-wp raled into till- 19th century British defense .yaent and .o survive today. The 'I'urki�h threat never again reached seri(m% proportions. and, as it declinecl, the Knight� turned (o trade. In ihc� process. their increasing %%vallh .j l J 4, :r 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 FIGURE 3. Procession in Valletta of a few of the current members of the once powerful Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem trawflit111ed Malta (r11m it Ixxrr 111ililar% Ir�1e initr it flutlri.hinK Civil .1x14.. 8111.:1 1111-it Icolnloftt illrtr:lNell. Ihr K11igI11% %tea II�.% a ild II�.. 111Ofn:lmi4. :Intl 11140n� awl 1114, 111.1141.4.41 tot IIt�1�t1Ii111h111�. :111c1 diMtdet- pnInptin% (:illlxln'� m11latk 111.11 lbe Kni %hl% uvw prrpanel 141 Ili(- 1111 nlol 14, live in tilt M�r%ive Off CII. 1. Their 1,fMf /liOfn led 141 :111 i11(�rl�a�ililt Ileglerl Ili Ixditfc:il n�.Ix111i11ililil�.:11141 1111in1a14.1h IOf it �me% Off Mallu-se n�vOfll. I14-Kil11linK in 172 The th�t�linl� Off Ihr Ofnlrl a :t. Ila fill leled ill F.11nIx� 11% the dimifi11ltlofi of( the political Ixrttet Off Ihr 1'111x�.:1 t,m/liliOf11 uhi4.h rinived irlle"NI in the .ttalt-gic a41rth off Malta in %ariof11. (Ofn�i%tl 4.h:ux,�114.ri1�.. 'I'hr Frrti4.h Iil'.OfIuU11n tl4.privl�11 Ih4. Kui %hl. 1.1 their prllfilable F11"1111-all I�.htle.. 14111% till- .mint of till-it .In�ns;ih affil Mall:t pn1.Ix�ril, Ivil%in% Ihrnl in fi11:oltt�ia) �trait� amt .1l- v111111�ralfie too allach that it. 1 099 Nalx ll�1111 N:1� :11111� Ill taller (,1111") Off Malt ttilll41ul :a .1r11gt;le. TLr K11i %111% had rolled \I:111 Ilor 233 %var.: :gxrinm'. dOfnlifiiOfll it. 111114.1 :.h11rt4.r and far lowty di.r11ptie. 'rlbr itofnuul ciiri.ti:4,1 itoief. of 1111 1:1111��1� in�pined 11% tit. Iluoll had n�tnailled �tr41u+ 1111der II%La11ti111� :11141 %rtlr roll� inial had lived �ln�fi%thrmel 10% lilt- (fins Ix�ri4od Ill rile 11 the Kfiight�. Nalxrl4e111'. n�p11hli(:Ini�m 11111% collie :t. M 1111etllinit 4,f it .hlx�k. and. uh/�n he Ix�Ita11 tit (11��.Ixil c1111rdle, ilolel invade tile- /�trll�.i:1.liral and .piril11a) jold"li4.tion ill 11% M111141. 114. ill.-Wr.41.1 4 lrter111illed ro.- Wilillr. lalxl�111'� ideal he \I�No'l al (111� hilt. 11"nid/el th4.4,ppxtt11nil (fir t4 �Ix�lii/rl. ;%itIrd h, Ill� threat 4,f .1111411 kale 11, dw BMW). the Ialtl�.4� (firmed .1 prini.iotl.It ..1�rnrn4.111 JIM all .wt.111111% :Ind :144.41 the Ildli�h 14, ,l.�i.l Iht�nl. 2�%rar Mice Off Ihr Fn�nt h Ixnili4,ll 14. till- Mall".. the ilrili�ll..Itltl thl'lr hortolgtlt�M�:11111 V;11"llitall x111�. led Ill 1114� Frl�nch �urn�ndo.r. lit Ihr n� +ulli11g Irwlh irl�h11rll Ihr Iititi�h and lilt. Fre111.11. 41111114961% 40% 4-r dw 0611d. ua. n�.Ifirlel tit lile Kfiight�. The MAIL.. �111111lornd% 1111po ed Ill� n�ill�lituli4nl of derival rule. Mid in IS13 the% It14ok achilntasce 4,1 tilt treeltwl (ightilig 114�1.(ee�11 Ih4. lirili�h ild (h4. F r4�fic�h tit Ix�liliofrl Ihr Brili.h tcl a.�11111e aoilhoorit% finer the i.lato(k The �iti.11 accc pled the fiC r. and the Mallem. Ix�ca1114� 11riti.11 .1111ject.. Thi� arratigo -iiiew aa� ratified 11% tilt. �rrr:it% off Mori� ill Is I. The Briti.h rlll�el MAN 1111til it� iud4.lx�rldleur in 1961 Filrh in the 18111 cr41111r%. Midlu WMA :t. it 1.�1�nter (fir Brili.h trade with c,runtrie% in tilt- \rar F::1t and alOfng dw Adrialic. 'I'hi. pnvided Mm1e .titnuli too agriculture alld too the devl'l4,pml'tlt off dher%ified t�Clrtltrltlic� activit%. vie intrixi114.11 /111 a l:1r 1�r inerchant .hip later ill the te�11111rv. hfine%er. 111aele the c,rni"iercial f tnelifin .tiIx�rfhltltl.. Tilt- gap %I,:1. hri�li;rcl by Briti.h naval rlx�ntIi111r1�.. ulliele made the iisl aild. 11nt,� atj:litl- i ts Ott-% had 1"�4-11 1111(lrr the K lli%h1. 111 1t. )I Ill ll- 111�Ix'lll It'll I 111x111 fln�i %11 Mlllnrs flit their I Ott At lank little \I:111:1 %%il% in effl'cl filled ditet�11% 11% lilt- Iltilkli. 11111 l4.�! till- 19111 1.1�1111111 till- Ilrili.h irltnxluteel it d%'Ifullivill .vm1-111 4,f jili11l alithOfril'" ait:l till- \ItIlteNe that Ix�rnlit.Ie) lilt- (IM limited .1 Ah1fim ittlnitedi.114�1% Ihr Ilaliall and Ell%li.h l'lt.11r11t. in Malta. r4.(11e�1111% AM, the differvel e�. IN�11Ne'll 0111rell :11111 male. split little lull patliv%. hot 111.111% )rah Malta .1:I. (11014e1 Ir.rr. ullirlt traditilnl uIllil 1 Ni'". florin Ito Ihr 41.lil11 ooll.:lm1 pravlity of pllitit life. The Mail�.(� ga%v villit�n�te leigNi4. :���'I %atti.ton �uplxrl tfi lilt- 1'uitlel Kint;dofrn ill Will ullfld Uan Mid ar11 (tor Ihr i�1:110� the (:ICrr%t- Ctim in 11112 feet havillu .4.i %e .111d avr:al Ixml oil rt1111rn1 11% the (:e r111N1. and Italialn. A likene.14 off tlli.:Ittanl :1111x ar.41ll the natifilyd flit%. 11%. virlul' off IIIi% ullo.t. idl'lltilir:ttifin ((ill the Iirilkh in %tarlifile� :Intl Ihr do-11-al lot the Italian. .will their Kochi ideellifi(ali1111. Ihr Italian ptl�M`Ilce ill Mallil 61 its inilurnc,�. :Ofll�i�trfil ailh Ihr f11ttller devt.11opmra 41f /gl�litulirllal go.rmnu Ofl. it tlrN Ixrlilir:l! Ailtfilllvill rtnrtttlel and 111tillel 111xrtl Ihr i�.11r off Jilt" [)I We off til 1:x1114,114. (:ll11ndl in ilill�.1� lilt'. In 111� 1!1:11.. 1,inrideul (ail!, the Ilrili.h det�i.ilon Ito Frtnm4.11 rrlililari1% anl11nd the .(fitly. Malta al"+lli fed hrir(h ml�r 1(h1�thrr I4, Mrk in 111�,� inid whine 1111� rl'�Ixrn�iloilil% 111x..1.4.1% tit recorder an I ,11ler11ry d4.lx�nd4.n1 nlowl llorrilln �11101x111 of Ill inl,lrpxrite %%ill tilt. Ulliled K:nt;d4,nl. The latter vowrle (tit% hrie(h allt.lnpl/el. 11111 till- lues ll�. t,xdd 11411 :time� 11Ixn the 111111. off Mall"- hove M:olla Iht-11 devidetl Ill .rile il� i11tle114-10t.n4.r a� if :nrtnlx�r 1l-( tilt (:111n11x111(tralth :uld 14, prOfnide a� I4�.t it clould f41r Ihr t.t,xl11nlir :011d �4.1(��11((iti4.n4. it had never Ixdfin� lr4�rll able its a4.11iv%e. B. Structure v.nd ch aracteristics of the society 1. General characteristics In light lot their Ili�tiort the Mallem. are 4111itl' :1 11411114,ge ,Y 11� IM11111r. Their IINit kind 11f 11e%( itilrll t1 Iifinlall ( ild their di lanci Call Ill- 4.nelited %bill the pn�M�n�:llifia Irf a M�11M� Off naliton:ll idenlil% thnofl %hOf111 Me 111:111% ffirri %n dfi111i11alifill credit �hared. Off t,II %Jill the trudelevir. off Ihr dfiminalfir%. The h4.nelil% pnobably mill i. P11414�11itian. 111hed fiver list- %rar% nilh that off it M�rie% 4,l /cullurn r�. There it". fill 111arko�d elh11ic 41ivi�itn% atnfin% iht- Ix1pu1:sliOfn. 11111 n�%iofna) (welt p are- tplile �milt; (for.olch a .mall c,xnlin. :3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 (it-lll�rillk. 1114� %l allies tYmiprim. w%vrill di -third rotntmtt.itir. whicll t,lrrr.ltstill g4- 4 tofraphivillf% 14 aria. UIf tv I.ltiou. r111t-r. rottk�1�nt fit ied their ,viliviii4-rit. or �tughl to x.1511111 dwir jilturticr. 0III t 0ilet. hill pelidt�ncl-. Aid Model the itnllild 41f "wi -Ill atte ill Ill.. 141 iltdtut fill I1/1% ha� \I:111a ildvallt4.41 .ignific:tntl% ttlward a 011111114111 life. The Itmg Iti.htr% of the '1(all4�.l- a. lrtiitic:ll .nlxrdin:llt�. ill their m%n Maud% ha, inhibited the devehipmeni of iltiliali%r. and Ihr alilit% to org:utir.; atd alm: 11;1� loot n�u :I 0111111MI inlerinti1% tY11ltplt-%. I'rbai df%4-111- Ilaw i4-tldetl to adopt th n1 :,tu11�r.. 4�10111111 and laltguagl- Of the foreign 11111%11 to the %voril of t�4,ttitlr dwrll4-r.. 'hu�m is i t tendrltc% ill %(fill(� vircll- to plwlt- .ix�ci.11 .'lt1phA-4� felt the older :V icitu mad ;%raliv hrril :igv to ofket I ?urolx�an cillill l influe,ntY��. Geographical divW1111. are 11n11.t1:llf% i11illfrtalt ill tilt clan, .tr11ctoite tt1 .1l- simill :ltd are: :1. Malta 'file� %irinall% umlxiled nu�dit-%A aw: I.: flaim�alicl- 4 iln of Mithim 1 Figure -1 I %%as the capital Ix�foty Ihl- K11ight c ;role ill tlly Ifith tr11111r% .uld ,till i� the 1lotlll- of ,ml.t of its older native ;Iri�Iit r./t�% 'fill- :unlit,( ltla.. I. or tilt. �+tffi of linger the \41"11;111 tYnnr%. Ihl- .piril of this Medieval l-11cla%v. The- ari %ifteralic f:lnlilie. of �nidin :l tYm.idl-r Iht-liv.0%rm Italian in heritage. if not it' h4-r�Ilih. Stfna� of the falttilirm .till are great 1:,t1d41%%11t-r% and wtotribntor% to church charilie� 11111 otht-rwi�l- take little part in the life of the ;Tluttr%. Like Mtlilta. \':dlo,lta, the prr.rltt capital. %rt tq 41 111 lit mililar% nrtY� Durin>; the Great Svigl- h. Ili� Tiirkm 111 1565 the area mt� r%4-d a� it Mfrljm ,tringliold. '1'114- Knight� thrr� :dtrr �l-ttlo,d :old fortified tin� ar4-a 141 prf�.rr%e it fr41ltl it'f loss' it IIW FIGURE 4. n4- medieval fortress of MdIna, the capital until 1570, dominates the countryside from its rocky site about 3 miles inland from Malta's southwest coast -1 I ill firl-. I. :114'r w!14.11 till- Briti.11 be,g :ltd to vwr�i.t- e,41tltrti o.e,r 1114' Willod.. 1hl-% rt�I:lin�11 Villl-tta its Jill- Will of I114-ir ad11lini.tralilln. 'rill rl "'O �Ill Ilriti.h conlnnniln. (.1111 j.li11t, nlainh of r'lir4-d British utilitat% lx�r.o11r1r) mill of I :unitlr% ide11'ifird with rrc4-111 t111e. is t�+�rtll-rl-d in Ihr Villll�11.1 ltlt-lr else ita11 ar�:l. it li%e. it fairy %f'pliMicall-d. 1-41-4111111111 t ;std life. '1'10. 4Ymn1111lt'it: li%�m anloni; the +a114-.r 4111 Irtltl� ff fril-lld.11;l; and ro,.pl-0 and viltrtinl14�. (o rnim tYln'.04-rall4 nodal pr�.tigv. nrrmlrr. elf Ihi. tfmununil% .l-ldom t- thl-nl.4-hl-. am !(:dleme, howr%l-r. v%etl I114i.4- %%;w %%rry bot11 ill Malta and lla% .1lt�11t Ihe,ir li%r. there. Like the ari.torraliv t�fstltmunit% ill Militia. Ill-% are 1oond b% .e,tilin14�ltl Mill opinion to if for�ign Iradiiiotl. Lining parallel with Ihi. t�4st1,t11u11ith :still in Mal% o.a%m duplicating its ma irrm :Ind 11%141111" are till- g41%erilliwill offivial.. pnlb'��if,t1Al., wr.11ill% bn.i- ne,..tltrn. and landlord.. who vivmpri.e, Ihl- nppt�r �Isla of the, \falh'�r trfptllatiotr in \'allrtla. Ilfit" +t�it�Ii4�. 111:4tY� i;rval 4 ;1%i� fill p l-tY'dl'IIIY alld prlffYI. ,till looth mono apprftpriali-1% agaiti,t till- backdrop prinidl-d b% till- jmlace,.. fortificatiom. mid 0 rt�hl-. 4rf till- litII tY nt.lrn Knight,: litme-%l-r. tilt� 111: 11j "t� trildilimlall% had little, dailn vollitacl %%ith f ach other. Mfiltil% with flit� Brit i.h. )fit tn..rd b% tilt- 4 aIAi�hl-d Imidit-l- of �l-ndirlg aspiring young \1 alIvmt- If Itrilimh imi%vr.itio,m and fnrthe,r 4�nllamrd den %hawd p :lrtit�ip :llioll ill too, tnno world warm. ham, howl-%rr. IN�rtl fdllit4� appar�tit. ill tile, 19156%. for l-%amplr. %%hvii \lalta c: ,till- to rl-giord its colo11 i �latu a, all a11,lthro11i�nt. its Io,adrrm iltili:dl% Ianorl-d iiivwpxtra- tiotl with the 1'11jll-tl Kiligdffltl o%l-r till- altl-rtlall%r of i11de,lx�101-11m. Go%rrnnll-nt itdi%it% and nlplo%nll-nl Ila%v lout; plae,d :1 maior roll- ill ,Ilea,. 6111 industrial life- is incrl-:lsjng. %jncl- 11141.4 of tilt- ell-%% industrit-, arm tMiltitig ltl-ar Ihl- 1141r1 :oo,a. (fi tilt- wholr. %%orkl-rs, mid Awir f:unilil-� in Valll-tt :4 haul- li%l-tl IN-It(" than those ill othl-r Otis-, oil till- Muditl-rraiwarl. Bonn that British l-nlplo%tnent is declining. Illm title% Ile, Ihr bl-a 4111alifil-d Mallrsr to sl-l-k rniploynu lt1 in Ihr new indltstrirs Ihr go%rrnmrltl is truing to attract. The% have long Ix l-n listd to tll-alitig %%ith and working for forvigtx�r%. ,till 111:111% have r�lali%vs ,ltd frit-ltdk who hav4- l-mtgn114-d or h:t%l- tht-m.t-l%rs %i-med %%ith tilt- British Arm\ Abroad. llitlll.Iriai workvr, Art- Malta's runt inobily. Imist traditionalist group. voinparitivOy willing 14, tnt%t� %%jilt oplxrtunitl. Tlivir (-%po.tlry to) Itpix�r clam. MA Imi life :sold to list- otitmitiv n%orld has tnadt- them lift- 14-ader, in tilt- th�mand for hight-r wagt-.. Ix�Itrr li%ing t�4ntliliow.. and wider oplxr- APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 Iti11ilie. hot Ilf�if rhihln�11 The% .fill. 1141Nr%1�t. Ilan Ilip h +1111 to I". n�%llesoalIr fell lift" idinit r11lllh% low nt. (:1.11er1111k. fill' 11110.111 4110114N�r. 11:1%e 4j11t0plell Ihr 111:1t:1 1IrfHt1e�s oil I loll r fofftn-1 fvllrh. "1111�% elf ilk F11141irh liftoff- 10111-11 1114111 food, Moll Nltett flee�% life ita� their III so Ulltivatr. Il f �it M:IIew it 1a.ih 41ix1i /14eislMl In /tti Il Iw�.e%s %loll.4Hl.uff� :m11 Ilffkfl �Iran� 111 r1IIIItMItn�to. 1111 .11111 inllf%lilm of fllr f1flUll et�sillrnl dilirt as 1Ae11. �bossing 11nHr of the Il;di.ul :Itnl IMU-1 inllefmves 11 hilt 411�%111111% 141111/:111 4:11I141Ii.�: li fe% "Rant Ihr (.tooth .e o11h otw� :lsp1�14 111 tittle li sts. Fmll a n- 4,1101� hill 6-A cfrllrtldrtil on 401W an10Irr 111at1 its the 4v11u1n. 411111 1111- om$lhrt i11ll11rnse is atnrsshal I4,.. lifech 1111ina lll. In erNllfa�I lot sill� ntlultf and rrlali%eh prnlf�ro11x Vallellil flf�tholullitalt ilfr.1_ life ill %ill.tlto .still lots lath" is 111 elan% ssa%. 11f �die�s.,l tit r1 et1 Niblical viwott� an� 4'141111%.1!'1 .rfilvitteii1s 111 loll. fl+ll`nlitefe'el. sI#Vnr Iwlufaw. NINw' %4111rr if Itill I ran a1410� faradr. a n ltlkr11 lull� h% Tsorki.h��hk lath, ISies f.ol�ilog Ihe- 11. 1t n n%. Wheeling �1t4vi. 'Ilea.- �14id ..rt4ro11tie center atollnll it Older "111.1tr: apprfipti.414- domitallell In .t Isan14{oe larldf s"lftin�h 'rlw� stpeaff� it life crlslef of �.+vial life lot f1wic IIf� loolale Ilseir wnirlir�. Nilf��I14g1�. 4111111a1t. Nhilr fin' N1011w�o tti.lkt� sh�gl{/itlit in life tw�iltidwtlf.14is 1114� m.ltfi vr-1.11 4.%4,111 of 1114.114la%. %l111. of life %ill.ut4.0 fill 111 vessel 1.11141. 11111 .1 �11114.1110.11 n11111114�t al I .6rttf�r% list- aluff tnm Ih4- �ill.udr. 'i'lw% a Is.fnl li%in 1111111 "oil ssllirh 1- 111i11 :steel power list .I19 rMt1I1fill /dl/�o 0�1%ific nlfaf ptitnilisr im140.11f�n1. lot 1.61111 11.1111.41 I.ufl 0 l iclur .r Whets file hnitthls of ost John tubed L411a. Ihr% .11'crp11.1i 1.0tln.4tl^% off t11�N seed from %i�ilisit 11HIItiN�n 1.61 sill {ss .4. 11.ItINSt 41111'..Ilwl Illen� ix dill .1 Lou reil eitlutt .In% 14ihirt I.. 41rli%rr di�{da41d %40il Its life cont t Its voliftiM I the rulalic" mo11ilit% of his urban I,0u111"rlratl. Ihr rural Madh�se is inlrust,lc local to his Iitfhplaul.. Fell it he t11t1%4,s to if ti4,a village. by 111ay 11es110' 111.1,01114 if trill part of it. 11111 orlinaril\ continues to 1/.ltlieip.ih� ill Ihr religious societies and otltl�r aclisiliv% of his 11ali%r %illage. Tlly lwople of the xmall"t isl:ueels of Cote and K4,nsnnona are (�then more i 11ssard leroking. The Cotilam art regarded oti fit( Witold 14011ee1%hat :4,s III(- Scofs are in Lotidon- 16111%. doref. harllllradrd folk. %cho. %%11t,u the% reach ihr ells. fn�(ln4-ntl uork Iht,ir %%:e% into 1114- best jobs. '1 Mallf -w. ".ln�ciall% ill rural areas, are b% 111.4r1sil% haul %%orkititr .utd frugal. Whill. intensel% lelt:ll to their 4 .%steno of f:unil% r�lationsbips. fill.% gullf -rdl% .in� stion� ollt�rr to str:oigers and forriun4,r. 111411 art most otln�r Wallet people On the alfIra 14,414,1%. livaltln. r%iro%eried peoplt,. Ihv% share the \1 I'll i WIN 11"a 11 loco of metaphor and of I.11't:linitllt FI :,rr 11saisfained with inlensitc front fill" tl urr.liotl to :usolher. 4-,1,1 eiall in cillat4-s. but ssilifrlt Ihr pM�ieal %iol4-nc4- rharac�trriai(� of soon(. other \111dill1f:llll�:111 1 Rfifh rslfi61 and ortati %%ork-e are fit,rc�t,lc 1alit.lti.rn '4,%t,rthelt,.�. 1�tlucation. occup :pion, and %%rallll 4,4114,% Mine� 4-11.1114-111� of social pr�sligv. and x101.r�ial it11lfttlaner is atlacht,d (o offices of the carious rrlittilots xe14�il�1i(� or of IIle %illaet, band clubs. Fd lvali.ols is tevet;ni /ell b%_ the ltiore.l dullest, Is the k4,% t/ .111% alle"1114-nt.:uut male% seek to rise from the 1141�� 111nough file- t4-ac�hiug profession or 11111011,;11 4.letulw�liti.4- t�%ammalism for the c�icil ser%icu. lint fit- lei 1f1otti4- and fat11ih :u1d Ifi the village chweb Aft r�s1r1.41ille1% �Iroutt .slid act its if r4-slraining 11111111� 141� 1t110as .lnlhition� that might o111cm ise lead tiller" I.rhe�.r III 1".1.4, the %illage'. F.14�I fi{1e�f.16119 ill \1.61141 IlKl:l% tend 1�. onoderate �114.0.61 &%joaritit-x .still foriher I..ak do%%o the tlifferum s 114-1ar4,n unbars and rur it life. 'I'll(- first �Irin Nrrt- 1ak4-1e 4-arl% in this e�entur% \%ith the 11i�pfacl�su4�ul 01 liali.ur alld 1111� sullsfilution of 1.1111�4� as 40114� of the h%o official langliat;es. The 4101tgHrturnl to this %%as III(- rme0urat;entrtil gict,n to Ihr r11h.ufcl�ttw�td of Malta's Peuvic. or soli- Emopcan. Am hrrilay.:md fo the 61t,%rlopsne�111 .f indt,lx�tdent 111I1414s of artistic and culltir:el r%prv%%iot:. Moreover. 41rs{tile the differences in 1114, incidrner and degrve of dillrrac.s I14�Issrcle Io N11 .still c1tlnlr%. the- introduction fit c1f11p111min rclucatio11 itf 14)1(1 hi v. %harpl% reduced thew CA11% .11141 lees 4,%lltlw�/l vallfe�.t- %outll to it 41Imnusio loomh of ttfalrrial al140ul Ih4,usxehrs and their Itiv.l "terl/l Wif II cvnlrilinh�el 1111,talitialh fo the hrr- Achoun o1 social di�mic�tioos :ufl the gr%cth of a ai if APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 FICAN S. fonith whh pflldMlre plow. Faflfll dtwdl k In 1111 bodWowld. f k a A I sense of common purpose. The bombing of the islands both united the Maltese and motivated it dispersal of the urban poptlation into the countryside and into contact with people there. 'l'he foreign community around Valletta has bought land in and has spread out to other parts of the island, which may in time lead to their assimilation into Maltese life. Since 1 Vorld War II younger sons of the aristocratic Mdina families have begun to participate in the business and professional life of Valletta before inheriting the family homes. This is gradually producing it more cosmopolitan attitude in N itself. In addition, after the war Malta initiated it policy of encouraging industrial development to relieve its almost exclusive dependence upon local agriculture and foreign imports. The ncrease in urban employment opportunities that has accompanied this process, the increase in areas of governmenlcI responsibility, and the deliberate improvemcmt of public transportation have encouraged large: numbers of villagers to commute (fail\ to the cities. The effect of this has been to facilitate tle flow of opinion and custom bezween town and country and to foster the growth of it new industrial working class which reflects the impact of both influences. The rural residents of Cozo have participated in this growing intercourse with the cities as well. Coro is only it one half hour ferry ride frorn Malta, and many Go %italls spend the week in Malta and return home to their families on the weekend. 2. Religion The Roman Catholic Church continues to dominate Maltese society to it degree possibly no longer found in any other country save the Vatican itself, despite the growing influence of t! secular and cosmopolitan in Maltese life. The central place of the church is sanctioned by the Maltese Constitution, which recognizes the Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion as the official religion of the islands and guarutees its right to "freely express its proper spiritual and ecclesiastical functions and duties and to manage its own affairs." The Archbishop of Malta and the Bishop of Cozo are exempt from criminal law, and canon law is still the law of the land in such matters as marriage, divorce, and burial. The influence of the church in the educational system remains strong. Religious instruction is mandatory even in the public schools, and much of the overall instruction comes from teachers trained in Catholic colleges. Freedom of worship is protected by the Constitution. The Churches of England (Anglican) and of Scotland 6 (Presbyterian) and the Creek Orthodox Church arc mprerscuted ill Malta, but they serve the foreign comnuuity almost exclusively, being forbidden by law to proselytize. The prominent place given to the Catholic Church under the Maltese Constitution is not an attempt to establish its influences but is it recognition of its real authority. St. Paul brought Christianity to Malta, and the line of bishops that he founded, though interrupted during the Arab invasions, began anew with the Norman Couyuest ill 1091. The present position of the church was fixed during the long period of role by the Order of the Knights of St. John. It has renained strong because of its curly identification with the respected Italian aristocracy, long the dominant clement itt 'lie islands, and because later the British chose to coni rtrtte their activities in the cities, leaving the church and the clergy preeminent outside them. Despite some effort by the Maltese Government to extend and expand its influcuce, social life in the vAlages still revolves around the parish church. The village, in fact, has almost no life apart from the church. As a secular community it has neither leader nor coninion property. and its inhabitants are ra rely called upon to work for it common end. Only as it congregation within the traditional parish fratnework does the village manifest these characteris- tics, and its most cherished property is commonly tile. richly decorated church (Figuie 6). fleligious feasts Mid holidays and the succession of daily masses order the lives of the residents and mirk the divisions of tit(. year U igure 7). 'I'll(- annual festival of the patron saint is a notable symbol of the religious grounding of life. for the festival honors the saint as patron of both the village and the parish. The appointed leader of the parish �and thus of the village generally �is the priest. To the villagers he is also an adviser, and the government has routinely recognized him as the de facto head of the village. Thus, ill addition to his religious duties, it is customary for him to be called upon to divide inheritances, argue claims against the government, and to intervene with employers. The importance of his secular rove was for many years enhanced by the fact that he was commonly the only literate person in the village and the traditional dispenser of charity_ The institution of compulsory education, however, and the increased government role in providing for social needs since the war have reduced the need to depend solely upon the priest and the church for these services. The church permeates the social life of the villagers as well. As an institution, it still runs welfare APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 o 4 FIGURE 6. TaTinu church near Gharb, northwestern Gozo orb ;IIIiiations slaflcd \\ith doctors, soli :II \\(Irkcr,, :Intl tc�:cc�Ilrr,. ;and it 1no\ ill(,, ,o4. sal IIIItIf't, ,II1OIIi"II a profct,iom ol,tric�II!, raIIkccl rc�ligiccu, so4.i(,tic's. '11'11(� c ;II Iv( I ,c�c�IIL�u lul)s-- 11rinl ;Irik tlit- en iullrc,rluut illagv h;mrcls :I11(1 flit fool hall (lull,- havc chaplains ;Intl liulinl:lin (-I( )Sc link, \\it11 ill( pri(�,t,. Bel i1;ious fcsti\al, pro \ill(- the main (-nlcrtainnml'mt Ior IIlc� illm crs. and Ihl' intvii c hu1 non\ iolvitt fcucls bcl\\evii local adlivrenl, parlili l of ri\al :lint a (I III(�ir fcsIi\al, ;II1,url1 Ilit- ;I(�Ii\itics. c�n(�ri;ic�,. alld l�IIII III I, r(,wr\ed in other socictics for Ioc;Il lmlitics. \'Ili lc Ihc church rvimii Its strot�k. conlenlllorar\ trciids are slo\\ I\ reduciIig its inf1u(,ncc. 'I'll( incrcasilig lit(�I.I(�\ r;lt(� :11110 III(� IIIIIIifwr (1f 1)t�OpI(� Ill II(I\% \\ork in and InI,:�I Iwt\\vetl Ilivir iIlaizes an(I lllc ciIics 11 ;I\l' acccicmWd the spr(%id of Ili );I attitude, to rtim1 lift. not all of t Ill 'It I mil ),Itihl(- \\it11 1Ilc continlied maintcnance of religions faith. \\'flat is II if rt lhc,c factor lia\v ht-1pe l In (-;I ken IIlc ant It( ril\ Id \illai;c customs and tmdiIiom ;md tItii, Ill( ittachnu�nt if the religions c(Itntnntlit\ out (II hick ill(-\ orii;in ;ltcd. Finall\. dic gO\crimiew g(,ncnlll\ prm ides nlan\ of the wr\ ic�cs mile( a\ailahle ()ill\ lhrorleil Ihc c lm ell. ;md there arc local sec�ctlar;IltcrilAi\(,s If) ill(. (lull, .out ,(Wial functions concluctcd m ider chim -ll mvpicc,. :3. Language \laltc,c ;md I�:ii0kh :Iry t11c official lams ijiwvs. Maltese is an IIrii;iII ;II combination of colllriI)IIIiIIII Front (\\o IItIIr\\is(, distinct Ii IIL:IIi,Iiu fanlilics. \\iII till' addition of latter -da\. IfaiI\%Imis udOptecl froth F,ngli,h. Its b ;I,ic ,truc�tIIrc is Semitic. hill, Iik(, I:mglisII. it iII Irllonll(,, soul(, Il'almres of the IiIIIIIclnc4. langnai;cs. 11111 oil\ ScIIIiIic tougII offici ;III\ \\riticn in I.ItiII. it 11l'ar, a c�lo,( r( Ilion to tII \\e,ll'riI .1nd clialcrl,. I' I gen( -,is II \tall(,,(, i, soml,�timu�, 4.f It(,d Iromt th4. cmi(Im.,t of the ;,land about ;llt! B.C. h\ till' (:arlhaginiims. III spA it Sc inilic longu(, akin to Phnctlic�ian and Ilehrew. 'I'hi, dal( i, c ii Itru\cr,i if I. IimI,,er. shut( the \rah,. \\ho con(lu(,rc( I XIit a in \.I)..ti; tl in the comIsc of their (�(inquest oI Spain and Sic�il ,o aIf(,(�lccl the nati\v loni4m� that the\ oblih�nItecl irtrtall. Al trace of the naIi\e I;utguagc. Thus. the rah, it rl' t;vncrall\ gi\rm credit for ha\ins; cskiblislicd the Semitic ham. of Ihc I;ulgrtas;l'. With 1114. \ormmn touchiest of Malta and miller th(, ;till horit\ oil' ,rtbscquenl d\nasties and the Knights of St. Jo11n. it Ito\\ (d orris horro\\ed front Sicilian and Italian beg;ul. The mo rllholog: Of the Homance 1Ommorcls has been ;ulaplcd to ,slit the ImItern of the imm- basic APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 FIGURE 7. Carnival parade along the Kingsway in Valletta opens the 4 -day pre- Lenten festival ll-nlilit� rlrinl-ut. 1'114. dt.INh111iut1 l it 1111 %41� :lhulan If�lartu life lull 41tiv%lys Nl� 111 liar litni11a atnl eharaelet 11f fill- p e rilxl N 11t-11 1114. .1N�akr of life". 11111 I:I11%114Itr. 111�.111111 fill- 14:11141�. 11111.. %L1114a� 111"411(ll'.111:IIIN11nl. fnIn ll:lliall. 1lriliall.:lllll. lit 1 4011M rlle11f. Fuali.11, 111 (1rnlIr 1414.1. 11.41 11hj1.1.1. abich Iwluntt 111 Ihr ltna Aralie t�itili1,:di1111 got file Wasiak The Wxah11lan 4f n�1ig i11ta. 41�aan Inot11 11111 :ul. 1�:111 1�falliple. I:1111 IIN�.II:Ilhe tirillllle %tll"k (41111.114111� 1111j4 4111111(14%1'4 Ih :l9 Ix�IIlltt 111 lilt- lfl�ti"d 1x�11111.1101. N t,1114pN�.1. "All "ot1N� ruvi1ilow. lilt- 14 111ilir tt11n1. toot -olla file %11t�:1h111an whirl ndt-r� Is lilt 1111% %i:d ulid j :11111 il. 4�IeuN�III�. elite ow 111 %l:lill�.1.'till 11111 Altilt� 1�I1t llifafril ill Jill' 1.1:11111�. 11HIM-11. it. 1111�.4.111 4ffirial �11111� eau ix� atlrihlllell tit IFIe 11111ilivill �Irnggle allirh 11trutayl eatle 111 Ihi. 41.111111 1x�114.4.11 Ihr 1lri li�ll 11141 ll:fli :fl r14.1n4�111� in Ihr :m�bilN�latt11. N. it Sim im 111 ml41rti'mir Iht- anotlatrr hilliall lamili4nl :lull lot r.11l4 11a1i1111.161 "�nlilneill agaitl.l 1111� Ihdi.lm. ihr Ilrili.h 111.It-n Jill- t3 .4. 111 Maltme. 'f ale in�1i1111ie i1 411 1.111� a� m Ilfit�ial latlgnalte ill 1!M. 11i.111arinit I AMM .11 1411 111 ill iI'llmnetiN�11f 1 Illil 111.11 Mile. N1.1111w4� 11 .111 lx-lit largrh it 01114xinial I:ulO otalt4. 11 -4 �41 utll% 10% Iflr t,ntiNotl 11t10pie. (bit- t.nI N ,11N�ntr 141 1hi� llipU :4di11!! 1a� the dinrlivimi�tll 111 if %lamlanl 11rt114 Ihrrrh% ent 1111racillt liar 1 W I4411.11 dr 111 .1 lalll�"� lift-tar, nNnrttlrlll. 1hir11 bxl.l 114.n1� a uNx14�.l nurnlx�r s /f di�1i110ni�ht,l 11.1111��. 1% 6 off Flicli�h �fill i% if pn�r1�1110 i1r fact .41dill 10I nnlf91 .i4/11.11 a41t.11ill'lIN'llf. .gl Fllltli�h 1� 11lttlp111min its .1; Ihr w h141I�. blltlr F iveh.11 I% uudl�r.hxxl h llx/ni ;11'. 141 Ihr 111pul./1i41n..11NI IIN- ix�'t�r i� hi,tht-t 111 IIt11.111 .IM.1� 11.111.111 .fill i� l itlrh �1Nkrn. Viii alti1l m 111111.41 .111 tlifit�ial 611rt 11:iKr, kINNIr4 4.I it 1. 4t011�idersr1 In 1 ".111% .111 ari.l4t�ralir .1111ihulr. II i. 1,n111ndNIn ill wnN� 111 Ill� e1111r1�h w�hinI. 11.11nllain91 In 111� nlhls�r 4.t vw C. Population %l a ll.l i, total- 111 Ihr 11 /rlek IINni tlellw�I 111111111.11#41 tv1111IIrim ytlNld 11111% 111 1i111;a1MIe .IIt11/114 liar 111rrnlx�r� 111 liar I'11ilrtl ali4a1. Will"limt 111 an nffid'al Mallew (i41N1 r�lil$Ll till I j.uul.ln 111;2 there arm n�+N1r111% rnNtival tnll11 I l k 1.1.11141. 111 (d.n. %lalla. allfl hI�f11t114 ---.1 cls" 11x1.ill� il rea III filth i_i N111.Irr Illih�� 711 a%misr lNixl6li4xl tlr1141%. Ih4t.. 1 :1. :.WO l rmotl. llrr w11tan� 111dr. mrilluml vilh a tlr11�il% ill ri/hnWnl.tlrl% Ms its 11A and all �Vvrnoll ficlorr 111 2. 111r nll llrna F11n1114� Itr11rralh.. 7114. ltnale�t Iuu11lx�r 441 w4dru1. -its We 111;11 an mlinalrtl :3170111 m n01MC1 112 -li%r Iota h fill- iaand 11f Malta. 1111. l a11tr.i 11f life III-1. i.laull. ;11111 dw I. tilt tN�14-ml :Intl 11111ili4�:d 4.4�1111.r IVitrotn� !i4.. In 191;11 0,140 11:111 ahotll 150111 iN�hutic alld lim k,�111n111na had I.S. Ldl 1. a uuifat .1:114. 11111111111 f will 11�It.Ilk 4 tahli.111.11 a1111iilli.lf:11111. Illlil. 1�u,�1f fur a 1.i%il' 4+11011101 tilt 011 .11111 k 1 1111111111.. 'I'he11.f11t1.. In4I.1 1 ,1111u1.11rd id :IVIN- .1114111�.. 111N11�. -Bil -4111 11111 him. (A"m is per Tmom "a of Oerfenf 11 nnk) k EW _'MI 22.S p IlJ�� oil MirM4r N .l S.? Se.lh 111 1 4 1t a 1.8 wow" M 1 1.1 Iwl its 1.4 No/tdern 08 m t+s 0.8 Gene C rd A R.MWAM 311 0.9 C*"A. it N&ANOW F Mpwd M trrltl o ova of e4wn wm 4 41111 new t~ flowns 1MKpM daww" N DrterAw, 41020 4.r j1r141 MMUNA v .7 1 1XI GIw 34 twu 11w tl>A FIGURE Pop111 Mm distribution APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 however, the sire of lire populuce is certain to renrain it critical problem for the goyernnwnt for some tittle to cnnc. '1'Ite p -it tters of emigration has had some nn fortunate consequences for Maltese society, tilt long terns effects of which may prove even more troublesome than the growth emigration has been intended to control. Not only have the emigrants been young 87% of those in 1969 were under 35 years cif age �but there has been it disproportionate nonnber of males; nearly two- thirds of the 1969 emigrants in the I ritical 15 to 34 wars of age bracket were nudes. I ?migration, therefore, has resulted not only in it larger proportion of elderly people in the population, but also in it surplus of females (figure 12). The population, though still relatively young in 1957, hits aged steadily since then, largely because of the falling birth rate and pattern of emigration. At the tine: of the 1957 census the proportion of the population under age 15 was 37.4 0. The 1967 census recorded 29.75 tinder age 13, and the i\4alta Central Office of Statistics has projected it further drop to 25.4% by the end of 1973. During the same period the proportion 60 years of age and over rose from 10.851, in 1957 to 12.85i in 1967 and is projected to reach 14.4% by the end of 1973. The 1967 census showed a sex ratio of 92.2 males for every 100 fcrnalcs, it small increase from the ratio at the time of the 1957 census (91.9 nudes p; r 100 females), reflecting a slight increase in the proportion of fenudes emigrating; in the curly 1960's. The deficit of males reflects in part their lower survival rates in 1969 life expectancy at birth was about 68.5 for nudes and 72.2 for females �but the pattern of emigration Age 75 and over 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 f5-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 described above has played by far the greater role. 14'o r example, in 1969 each of the first four 5 Fear age brackets (covering the years 0 through 19) show an excess of males, the determining factor being the universal excess of male over female births. In the overall 0 to 19 age bracket there were 10.1 males per 100 females. 'I'll( 20 to 29 age bracket, however, shows a sharp reversal, with only 85 males per 100 females, reflecting the disproportionate number of Young males in the emigration population. D. Societal aspects of labor 1. Employment Malta, largely because of its position in the Mediterranean, became invoiveci at an early stage in entrepol trade and extensive port activity. including the� bunkering of ships. 'file. arrival of the British in 1800, the Napoleonic wars, the industrial revolution ill northern Europe, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 all helped \9alta to achieve some degree of economic well being. The lie with the United Kingdom paid continuous dividends, and imly in recent years have the extent and dangers of ccononric dependence urn London become apparent. Although the British helped the IMaltese achieve it higher standard of living than nary of their Mediterrtincan neighbors, prmperily was precarious because of this dependency. Port facilities were designed to reet the needs of the British fleet and proved to be inadequate to handle larger civil vessels. Eutrepot trade declined, as I?urope turned to the New orld for many of its raw nuatcrials, and it was given a near -death No by the closing of the Suez Canal in 1967. The British have reduced their presence considerabi, with it consequent rise in unemploy- ment, and other countries have not taken tip the slack. The Maltese labor force, numbering roughly S tates 1 11',000 derives most of its income from manufactur- 77' ing� primarily ship repairs, textiles, and food FEMALES 6 4 2 0 0 2 Percent FIGURE 12. Age -sex distribution, Malta and the United States, 1970 processing �and government services. About one -third of the labor force is employed in the service sector, with trade the largest employer. Unlike most of the less developed countries, where agriculture is at traditional occupation, fewer than 6% of the working population aanr it living from the land. L_ Malta suffers 14om it lack of skilled workers, largely because of the British failure to encourage technical training and because past emigration policies facilitated the exodus of large numbers of workers. Despite the oversupply of general labor, site shortage of skilled workers has been serious enough to APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 discourage sonic foreign firms from establishing l.ranches.on the islands. Women make up only about one -fifth of the total labor force. Dc,spite government efforts to improve agricultural production, the soil, climate, and small size of most farms militate against agriculture as a lucrative means of employment. Thus, agriculture, traditionally a haven during hard times, provides full -time work for fewer persons each while part -time farmers are increasing slightly in number. Young men clearly sec the folly of going into farming, with the result that the number choosing agriculture as an occupation declines each More than half the full -time farmers are over the age of 50. The government is by far the largest employer, with more than 22,000 employees in 1972, representing a considerable increase in recent as the government has undertaken a wide range of new responsibilities. In particular, officials have coneen- trated on reducing unemployment brought on by the reduction in British activities and by the lack of industrial development. The government has hired so many per that it is unable to employ them rationally: many are underemployed. Charges have been made that highly educated people are assigned to clerical duties, and that skilled workers are doing menial labor. 11mighly 80% of government employees are male. Females are employed in such traditional occupations as teaching and health services. Until recently both the construction and tourist industries employed an increasing nc niber of workers each year. No both industries are in it state of decline, largely because of the departure of the British, and there is little chance of a recovery to previous lcv, is in the near future. Employment in. the conytnletion industry, which had spurted from about 5,800 in 1966 to 1 `1,800 in 1969, began to decline in 1971; by the end of that year, employment was down 17% over the previous year. Employment oppclr- tunitieF in this field are poor, with most construcU:cin companies working well under capacity, and mail\ small contractors totally idle. Earl\ in 1972 tourism`' began to slump, with sonic hotels filled to only about 25% of capacity. The industry is not expected to recover until 1973, if then. The key question is whether the British, who made up the great bulk of tourists, will return to their old haunts. Employment in the industrial sector increased 17% in 1971 over the year before. job opportunities in this sector depend on the ability of the present Maltese Government to attract new investment. The impressive rise noted in 1971 stemmed in large part from investment generated under the investment 12 incentive program of lie previous Nationalist Party governnie:lt. There has been little or no n(,-\% investment promised since Prirne Minister Mintoff took office in slid -1971. Mintoff, however, caul look to sonic countries of the North Atlantic Trealy Organization and possibly the European C:onl- nitlllities as well as to the Chinese to provide some light industry, thereby creating new opportunities. \Volnen generally turn to the textile and wearing apparel industries and increasingly to electronics for employment. As in other countries, in general wages tend to be lower for women than for rnen. \Vages paid to inexperienced or unskilled workers are about the same for men and women, but once longevity and skill are factors, women's wages tend to be considerably lower. The government -owned Malta Drydocks Corpora- tion, which is managed jointly by the government and the General Workers Union, employs about 5% of the la bor force. When the British controlled the dockyards, underemployment was the general rule �a situation the present operators are unwilling or unable to change. Reduction of the work force to rational levels would only contribute to the sizable unemployment problem. 'I'll(- government is studying ways to make the dockyards it paying proposition, hilt progress has been slow. Unemployment reached a peak of more than 8.000 in early 1972 or about 7% of the labor force; it rose to 8.5% in early 197, the highest rate since slid -1966. The farther reduction in the British presence is expected to create even more unenlploynlent, unless the government intervenes. Layoffs among supervisory personnel and skilled construction workers were largely responsible for thc high rate, with the decline in the tourist industry contributing to the rise. In earlier years emigration was the typical solution to unemployment, with the government providing assistance to those willing to leave. The result wits that man persons left Malta annually (Figure Il). Realizing- that most of the emigrants were nun between the ages of 20 and 40 �the cream o the labor force �Prime Minister Mintoff has attempted to discourage current emigration by establishing the Emergency Labor Corps and subsequently the Pioneer Corps, and he is seeking n(!\\ investment to create job opportunities. 2 Organization of labor and management The 'Trade Disputes Ordinance of 19 -15, supplement- ed by the "Trade Union Regulations of 1956, provides for the ow- :dzation and operation of trade unions of APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 Rate per 1,000 persons 35 30 25 20 Is '1 etude� fiflh raft� r1e�c6111 -d shatlll% during the 1950'S and I!N O% t.Jill all-time lo%t in 111(0). Ov(-r III(- .arse lx�fiod. Ills� ctntl(- death rill(- charnged little (Figurl. S)1. The dl. :alll fall. is alluul dw affil� a. for the United stall.. III II is h1 %%I�r than frost of Ih(- NIedile fraIIvi111 areal. I ,*(-(-all.(- Malta lack. III(- r 5011rcl.s to .upI14ft ex4.1n its pm.(-nt popnl;alio1. III(- dec;:!Ie in 1114� birth wit. is u0cnn(-d. on(-th(-I(-�.. Otis decline is curious. giv(-n III(- Among fort to Ilw contr�Ir. For (-xatnpl(-. th� t:atholic hierarck entetlrag(-s large fatlnilies. and Own� is no birth clontrol prograin other than instrllt�tion ill th(- f6thran method provided for inarried cuplr. h% 1114� (-lurch ;Iffiliat(-d 10 aatM 5 MALTA arete France Italy Tu"slaeta United lutes Spain Israel Rapt 9.4 0 1950 SS 60 65 10 FIGURE 9. Vital rates precise bo(indaries. The go%ern m�nt ntiliies Ill. boundaries of ecclesiastical parishes in defining localities f(:r censt., purlx)ses. hilt since parishes usually encompass ho: h urban and rural .Yeas and often more ;han one Populated plat�(�� the population of even the principal villages or towns can lov only roughly approximated front statistics. For the IS)(i; census the islands were divided into fit localities grouped into the 6 regions shown in FigltreS. All hilt four of these localities were cot(-rminus uith IWIesiastical parishes; (�uc�h of the four. all highl wban, embraced two or more parishes. Recently, as the government has expanded. and the economy has he(mi ne more diversified. the population has tended to shit fronn farm to town. Approxinnalr�le 200,000 people, 62j of the total population. are concentrated in the metropolitan area surrounding Valetta -an area of aloout Is s(Inarc� miles comprising the Inner Harbour and Outer Ilarbour (-emus region. Other population centers are small �only five or six outside the harbor metrolmli;an area have populations in excess of 0N)--and III(-%- are widely separated b% farms and open space. Because no locality on the main island is more than an hour's Ions ride from Valetta. many workers commnte front their villages or farms to jobs in the harbor area. Urbanization. therefore, is I(-s,% apparent than in most countries. Rate per 1.000 persons rrrrrrrrrr rrrrrr 16.3 rrrrrrrrrr rrrrrr 163 rrrnrrr1 83 r rrrrrrr 16.7 Ilrnllrrl l 10 6 rrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrr t6S rrrrrr rrrrrrrrrr rrrrrtrl r. 9.0 l rrrrrrr rrrrrrrt 182 f rrnrrrrl 9.4 trttrr rrrrrr 196 rnnr!ri f15 rrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrr 1111111 268 Innrr 70 Infant mortal,t (omits per I.00 Ire births) 1 27.9 Io rrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrr rrrrrrrrrr rrrrf 3,, mnnnr rnn 1S0 rrr nr FIGURE 10. Vital rotes, Molts and selected countries, 1970 i 29.2 I SS 2 I 14.e 77.9 229 Owes 100 $l APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 5-J n t Ceuta nutvetrtent. F urtIieriIiorc, divorce is not permitted. The infant mortality rate, which dropped from 88.5 per 1,000 live birth:, in 1950 to a low of 23.7 per 1,000 in 1969, is comparable to the rate of the West European countries bordering the Mediterranean but is substtutially lower than that of Malta's North African neighbors. Since 1969 the crude birth rate has shown a small annual increase, while the crude death rate has remained constant despite an increase in the infant mortality rate registered in 1970. As u consequence, the rate of nattral increase h as gone up slightly. Figure 10 compares vital races in Malta, some other Mediterranean countries, and the United States. me substantial decline in the birth rate is largely explained by the high rate: of emigration, mostly Deopl(' in the reproductive ages, which Malta has cxpen .;ced since World War 11. In particular, the lack of employment opportunities for skilled workers after the war led to heavy emigration. Although this has tradit'on illy provided an outlet for population in excess of what the country's meager' resourc could maintain, the need to provide jobs for workers released .IS .t consequence of British force cutbacks placed FIGURE 11. Population changes, 1950 -71 special strains on the econoniv. Since 1963 the number leaving to establi. h permanent residence ill other countries has actually exceeded the natural increase of the population. I lowever, the number of inimigratrt's establishing permanent resilience in Malta, the number of short tern migrant and the number of tourists still in the country al lei(' end of the year have had it generally counlerv:dling e "feet since 1965, with the cud -of -year population age iin increasing -to 322,000 in 1969 -71 (Iigttre I I 'I'll(- most popular countries for endgranls have been Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, in that order. The 2,798 persons who emigrated in 1971 represent a dramatic decline from the numb leaving in the nid- 1960's. The decline is due largely to increased employment opportunities made available by the development of new industries and the eximnsion of government services, but partly also to the sharp reduction in natural increase of the, population, both factors acting to reduce the pressures for emigration. Because Malta continues to lack the resources to provide for the needs of its present population, 10 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 COMPONENTS OF Nt:r CHANGE Ocher �rOT,u. population Po PGr.:CrroN NF:r Natural Long; term nurvcnunt,* Y EA It (31 DECEMBER) CHANGE increase. emigmt.ion (net) 195 :312,447 rill 7,057 8,50:3 rill 1951 3 12 6 199 6, 035 7, 692 1 8511 1052 316,764 4,118 5,8(il 5,:345 3,602 195:3 :320,01:3 3, 8.19 6, 129 -1,532 2,252 195.1 315,952 4 (3(i 1 5 920 11,147 866 19-)5 313,955 -1,997 :5,877 9,(1(17 1,1:3:3 1956 316,2:31) 2 28.1 5,500 4,492 1,276 1957 319,957 3,718 5,840 3,'285 1,1(1:3 1958 :3'2:3,(1(17 :3,710 -5,871 :3,152 901 1959.. :327,218 3,:)51 5,663 :3,265 1,153 1960 328,Y38 1,720 5,746 3,811 185 1961 320,763 825 �1, 7:37 3,581) -332 1962.. :321),326 -137 �1,67:3 :3,6.11 1,4(i9 1963.. 320, 1:30 -:3, 196 :3,(191 (3,579 -:308 196.1 32(1,(120 -5,510 :3,(338 5,987 -161 1965.. 316,1.111 -.1,180 '2, 627 8,090 1,28:3 1966.. 318,109 1,669 2,475 1,340 :3,531 1967.. 317,026 1,083 2 324 3,971 56.1 1968.. :315,158 1,132 2,262 2,992 1.56'1 1969.. 322.:353 1,195 2,072 2,645 4,771 1970.. :321,187 166 2,244 2,696 256 1971 :322,053 134 2,455 2,795 209 r7a Data not available. *Includes, long term immigration, short term migration, and end -of -year balance of tourist, still in the country. 10 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 ti 4 employees and cnployem Unions must file with the Registrar of Trade Unions and meet certain standards o f fiscal integrity set by the 1945 ordinance. The ordinance also provides the guarantees concerning trade union activity common ill most Western countries: the right to conduct peaceful picketing, freedom from intimidation or persecution of trade union actions (including freedom from prosecution for conspiracy and immunity from actions of tort for interfeing with another's business iu furtherance of it union dispute. In 1971 there were 57, registered trade unions: 32 made up of employees, 1; of employers, and eight mixed associations. The theoretical aim of the employers' associations is to present it united front to orga!aized labor and to speak with one voice to the goy ,rnment concerning legislation affecting the commercial interests of the association. In fact, these organizations are little more than discussion groups. The largest is the General Retailers and "Traders Union, with a membership of 1,40:3. The eight mixed associations consist of employers and employees %vho share it common trade interest. In practice self ernployed persons and their one or two employees usually close relatives comprise the bulk of this group. Tile\ are not an important factor in economic or political life The 39,696 members of employee anions represent less than half of the wage- earning workers, and 70% of them belong to the powerful General Worker Union (GWU;. The union is administered by its generl council of 36 nenbers; Joe Borg is president and George Agius is general secretary. Sections of the union and membership are as follows: Metal Workers 5,754 Civil Government 5,226 United Kingdom Government 3,653 Textiles 2,737 Petroleum and Chemicals 2,701 Hotel and Food 2,537 Port and Transport 1,596 Construction and Woodworking 1,232 National Association of Clerical and Supervisor Staffs 3,008 Each section has full executive power in its sector, including recruitment of memb er,. organization, and negotiations. "!'he GWU is affiliated with the International Confederation of Free 'Trade Unions and has close relations with the Italian Union of Labor and the Italian Confederation of Labor Unions. The GWU publishes four newspapers. The 31 affiliates of the Confederation of Malta Trade Unions (CMTU), with more than 11,000 total menliership, cater largely to clerical and professional civil servants. The largest union in the confederation and Malta's second largest union, the Malta Union of Teachers, has 3.379 inernhers. The CMTU is not particularly active, nor is it a power ill labor affairs. It is a member of the International' Federation of Christian Trade Unions. As a counterpoise to the sec unions, the church is represented by two unions sponsored by the Roman Cathcilie Social Action Movement: the Workers and Family Union and the Wonun Employees Union, with 1970 memberships of 2,:324 and 667 respectively. Tile membership distribution in the GWU and CMTU gives further evidence of continung dependence on the British and Maltese Governments for employment. Approximately it third of the G\VU members are in its United Kingdom Government Section and the Maltese Civil Government Section. In the CMTU over half the membership belongs to the various association:, of government workers. The GWU created 'she Malta Labor Party in the 1920'x, ancs the party still receives the bulk of its support from union members. While the G\VU theoretically is an independent trade union, the party has exercised almost complete control over it since 1967, when it group of Mintoff supporters took over its general council. The Metal Workers Section is the most influential unit of the GWU because of its control of labor activity at the drydocks. 3. Labor management relations Labor- management relations are on the whole good, although they vary, depending on existing personal relationships between the heads of the various sections of the C:WU and the management concerned. The drydocks have posed the most critical ;problem in recent wears; periodic strikes have been costly in terms of wage raises and missed deadlines on repairs. The Mintoff government took office in the midst of one of these disputes. The workers were operating under an overtime ban I,ci;un in late 1970. A management proposal was rejected in February of the follo\ wing year, and not until June, just alter Prime Minister Mintoff took office, did the drydocks open for business again. Since then the government and the G\VU have maintained an uneasy peace, with the workers voting in mid -1972 to suspend all wag:: ci.:;ms. The Arbitration Tribunal judges disputes between workers and employers and may _also decide on jurisdictional disputes between unions or between individual workers and it union. Presided over by one of the eight justices, the tribunal is part of the legal i3 .I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200080035 -9 s system. Arbitration of a labor dispute becomes compulsory on the 'request of either party, and decisions are binding. lit add;tion to 0,ce presid;ng justice, the Arbitration "Tribunal cunsists of an equal number of members who are nominated by the two parties to the dispute question. E. Living conditions and social problems 1. Levels of living Although crowded together on a rocky group of islands lacking rivers, lakes, woods, and raw materials, the congenial Maltese live relatively well. Signs of well -being abound: television sets, cars, new hotels, modern furniture, powerboats. The mechanical and industrial age has c