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CONFIDENTIAL 99/GS/S 1 1 t Philippines A December 1973 I ar t NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090005-1 Dirfe is I-Nis I NI& ff a NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, 'he defense forces, and the intelligence and security organizations. Although detailed sections on many topics were pa; t of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of all active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as '.heir filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. \tiARNING This document contains information affecting the national defense of United States, within the meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. 1!s transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI- CATION SCHEDULE OF E. J. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 i It 5 WARNING The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. i For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified/ For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret ti (3 1 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 -J -J rJMIVAJ' INITIS] rM- A!!lWN L-4 TMWJ I n U1101!tf.ff!a m rim -Ja J 116 wa IVA IVA ri I I I w I@ n Un I I Cli no -Irmo rrrc rnc. ix Page 4. Work opportunities and conditions 29 a. The people and work 29 b. Labor law and practice 33 c. Labor and management 36 5. Social security and welfare 39 a. Welfare services 39 b. Social insurance 40 E. Religion 41 1. Roman Catholicism 42 2. Protestantism 43 3. Other religions 45 Page F. Education 46 G. Artistic and cultural expression 51 1. Literature and drama 51 2. Music and dance 52 3. Architecture and the fine arts 53 H. Public information 55 I. Selected bibliography 59 Glossary 60 FIGURES r-- P Est* if APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 Page Page Fig. 1 Representative physical types Fig. 15 Modern supermarket photo) 28 (photos) 6 Fig. 16 Littered slum area (photo) 30 Fig. 2 Distribution of native languages Fig. 17 Upper class housing photos) 30 Fig. 3 map) Population density, by province 9 Fig. 18 Middle class housing photos) 31 (map) 15 Fig. 19 Representative types of rural Fig. 4 Growth of cities table) 16 housing (photos) 32 Fig. 5 Movement of population, by Fig. 20 Women rolling cigars photo) 34 province map) 17 Fig. 21 Spanish -style Catholic churches Fig. 6 Age -sex structure (chart) 18 (photos) 43 Fig. 7 Age -sex structure, by urban Fig. 22 Rural mosques (photos) 45 rural residence chart) 18 Fig. 23 Literate population, by sex chart) 47 Fig. 8 Distribution of families, by in- Fig. 24 Employed persons, by highest come group table) 19 year of schooling table) 47 Fig. 9 Index of earnings in nonagri- Fig. 25 Enrollment, elementary and sec cultural activities chart) 20 ondary schools chart) 48 Fig. 10 Consumer price index chart) 20 Fig. 26 Young girl playing the bandurria Fig. 11 Rural health center photo) 25 photo) 54 Fig. 12 Street in the Tondo area of Fig. 27 A dancer of the Banyanihan Manila (photo) 26 troupe (photo) 54 Fig. 13 Fish stall in the city market photo) 27 Fig. 28 Dancers performing the iota photo) 55 Fig. 14 Trends in daily food consump- Fig. 29 Rural youth in a dance contest tion (chart) 28 (photo) 55 r-- P Est* if APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 -Irmo me In c. M A Ff? Ac 4 F` :J the Society A. Introduction (C) 1,argely as a result of American cultural influence infused during rncarly a half century of intensive U.S. tutelage, the Republic of the Philippines is me of the most Westernized nations in Southeast Asia. Political, social, and economic institutions are mociLl"d on those of the United States, industrialization is aclvanciug, the literacy rate is high, and the average Filipino is more politically adept, more familiar with democratic norms, and more technologically receptive than his counterparts in neighboring countries. Neversheless, Philippine society still reflects its origin in small agricultural communities, and grass inequities still exist bets+', en the impoverished masses and the small, wealthy, and powerful elite. Although growing, mainly as a residt of industrialization, the rnidclle class is riot large, and the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. Democratic institutions, moreover, are not firmly rooted cr politically responsive to the needs and desires of th majority. Corruption and malfeasance in office have hccn endemic. Since independence, successive administrations have been frustrated in their efforts to institute needed economic and social reforms by ill(' oligarchs who have hccn unwilling to relinquish even it small part of their wealth and privilege or their power to manipulate ;political and economic life. In September 1972, President Marcos' 3 -year stntggle with the oligarchs culminated in the declaration of martial law and -1 months later in tha ratification by citizens' assemblies of a new constitution providing `or a transitional period during Which the President worticl wield both executive and legislative power. In the spring of 1973 it %%-its still too soon to assess the success or failure of lire President's efforts at reform. The more fundamental "new society" programs were still in the early stages of planning or implcnncnt,ation. Political opposition was intimidated; the oligarchs Nvere apprehensive and more inclined to acconunodation than opposition. Report ^dly, however, the 1'residen: must reach this accommodation quickly, for in the long run the entrenched power of the oligarchs could topple his administration. It wars also unclear whether the President's actions represented merely a power grab or a sincere desire to reorder society. In any event, the "revolution from the center," long espoused by the President, was underway. B. Structure and characteristics of the society (U /OU) Philippine society is the produwt of diverse cultural influences which have blended into it distinctive pattern. Populated by Asian peoples whose ethnic origins are similar to those of neighboring Malaysia and Indonesia, the Ihilippines was subject to Spanish control for more than 300 \-cars and to U.S. administration in this century, a situation alricln deeply affected Philippine society and created it fusion of Eastern and Western institutions to a degree uncyualc d among Asian pcoplcs. Despite it diversity in language and customs, the majority of the Philippine people display it cultural unity in which Western religion and education are of prink importance. Adherence to Christianity f:a the part of more than nine tenths of the population, it legacy of Spain and its Roman Catholic missionaries, gives the Philippines the unique characteristic of being the only 4 i, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 predominantly Christian nation in the Far East. Formal education was introduced by the Spaniards as early as the 16th century, and broad public education along Western lines was initiated in the 20th century when the U.S. Government established a mass education program as a means of preparing the nation for self- government. 1. Ethnic and cultural groups The population of the Philippines is essentially homogeneous. Although constituting g g a sizable number of ethnic groups, the inhabitants are 96% Malay in origin. The predominant cultural group consists of the largely Christian Filipinos, comprising 91% of the total population. A Muslim Filipino minority, commonly referred to as the Moros,' represents approximately 5% of the total, and tribcspeople another 2.5 The remainder of the population includes a substantial number of Chinese, most of whom have become Philippine citizens; it also includes U.S. nationals, estimated to total more than 40,000, as well as some Europeans mainly Spaniards �and other resident aliens. Anthropologists have surmised that the Philippine Islands were populated through successive waves of migration, initially from mainland Southeast Asia over a period of several thousand year and lacer from the East Indies. The migrations were facilitated by the ease of transportation through the sheltered inland seas between the islands. Some of these islands became populated more rapidly or densely than others because of their hays, protected waters, and riverine areas adaptable for fishing and agriculture. There was it natural tendency for new migrants to settle in the fertile coastal plains of the islands rather than in the mountainous and forested interiors, and this was at least partially responsible for the initial division of the population between the ancestors of present -day Filipinos and the tribal peoples. The latter, having settled (luring the first series of prehistoric migrations, were pushed into the interior regions by the more socially advanced Malays who arrived in a later period. Subsequently, as the case of waterborne communication promoted the diffusion of cultural traits through interisland migrations, linguistic and other cultural similarities developed among the 'The term "Moro." long used to designate those Filipinos who profess Islam, is now officially frowned upon and is seldom ti"'d in the Philippine press. In this chapter, the Moros will he consistently referred to as the Muslims, art(] Christian Filipinos simply as the Filipinas. In those few cases where simply the term "Filipino" is used, the contest will usually make clear whether both the Christian and Muslim elements are included. 2 lowland Filipinos while the people of the interior, isolated behind mountain and forest harriers, tended to retain their primitive social characteristics. Fragmented into small insular groups, the people of the Philippines historicall% have been receptive to foreign penetration through trade and other contacts. Hindu cultural influences emanating from Hindu Malay empires in the East Indies had an impact on the society from the 7th to the 15th centuries, A.D. The Chinese dominated trade with the islands by the 13th century and during the 15th century claimed suzerainty over many of them. At about the same time, Islam reached the region, resulting in the conversion of some southern groups who thereafter were to constitute a small but restive Muslim minority. The term "Moro," meaning "Moor,' was used by the Spaniards a century later to designate these inhabitants of the islands. It is now seldom used because it is considered offensive to many of the Muslims. The Philippines is the oa:ly country of Southeast Asia to have been subjected to Western colonization before developing some degree of centralized government. The Spanish conquest of the islands occurred in the 16th century, spearheaded icy the explorations begun by Ferdinand Magellan. Accompanied by Catholic missionaries who made widespread conversions to Christianity, the Spaniards soon established hegemony over many islands which had known no central rule, and by 1600 they had consolidated control over all of the islands except Mindanao and those of the Sulu .lrchipelago in the south. When the Spaniards came, the basic political and social Unit was the barangay, it small community of from 30 to 100 families which sill survives in the islands as the barrio. At the head of each barangay was a chief known as a dato. The barangays were grouped together in small federations, sometimes headed by a single chief whose power extended over a whole island; more often, such a realm covered much less territory. Beyotad grouping the barangays into d1lages or towns headed by a data, the Spaniards left the old social order virtually intact. While the Filipinos absorbed many elements of hispanic- Catholic culture, the Muslims and the tribespeople, who resisted the imposition of Spanish authority, rero-oined on the periphery of the colonial system and of Filipino society. During the period of Spanish rule, migrations of Chinese into the slands resulted in the growth of a Chinese commercial element. Although there was some intermarriage, most of these immigrants formed an alien community within the colony and did not influence Filipino social institutions. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200090005 -1 H C The entry of the United States into the islands, following the Philippine Revolution of 1896 -97 and the Spanish American War, brought many changes in the society. During the period of U.S. tutelage, from 1898 until the attainment of full independence as the Republic of the Philippines on ,i July 1946, Filipinos experienced the strong impact of U.S. influences, particularly as a result of the mass education progro..m begun in 1901. Although the society remained essentially agrarian, as an increasing proportion of the Population became literate its capacity to absorb U.S. cultural values through the press and other mass raedia steadily grew, and a gradual shift from a largely village- centered subsistence economy to a nationwide money economy stimulated desires for higher levels of living. The Japanese occupation in World War II had the effect of increasing Filipino attraction to American culture rather than the reverse, and since the attainnent of independence the tendency to acquire U.S. cultural values has grown. Muslim cultural characteristics differ considerably from those of the Filipinos, the divergencies stemming drimarily from Islamic precepts and practices, although some pre- Islamic customs and social institutions have also been preserved, including elements of the dato system. The Muslim population is comprised of nine more or less distinctive linguistic groups: the Magindanao, Tausug, Maranao, Samal, Yakan, Badjao, Molbog, Sangil, and Jama- Maptui. More than 95% of all Muslims live either in the Swu Archipelago or in the provinces of Lanao del Norte, Lanao (lei Sur, Cotabato, and Zamboanga del Stir on Mindanao Island. Some are found in other provinces of Mindanao, along the outhern coast of Palawan Island, and scattered elsewhere in the Philippines. Like the Filipinos, most are farmers or fishermen; the coastal groups have always been known as seafarers. Despite considerable factionalism, the general acceptance of one religion has created a degree of unity among the Muslims which has been strengthened by a common hostilit to the Filipinos. After the conquest and conversion (to Catholicism) of the central and northern Filipino peoples, the Spaniards made many unsuccessful attempts to subjugate and convert the Muslims, and for the three centuries of colonial rule the latter carried on successive "holy wars" against the Spaniards and their Filipino soldiers. The U.S, administration (lid not encounter the same degree of animosity from the Muslims as had the Spaniards, primarily because it adopted a policy of strict noninterference in religious matters. Since independence, the government has had little success in iniegrating the Muslims into Philippine society. Lawlessness and banditry, directed mainly against Filipino communities, has persisted over the years, and Muslim resistance to the growing settlement of Filipinos in southern and western Mindanao has resulted in large -scale outbreaks of terrorism in that region, leading to clashes between government forces and Muslim insurgents. The continuing violence in the south was one of the factors inducing President Marcos to impose martial law on the nation in September 1972. The tribespeople comprise a number of groups scattered over the archipelago, inhabiting the interior of Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan, Panay, Negros, and Mindanao islands. The largest concentration is in the mountainous region of northern and central Luzon, encompassing most of Kalinga- Apavac, Benguct, Ifugao, and Mountain provinces. Major groups include the Ibaloi, Kankanai, and Bontoo �known collectively as the Igorot �and the Ifugao, Kalinga, Gaddang, Isinai, and Apayao. Luzon tribes range from nomadic bands to the comparatively sophisti- cated Ifugao, who centuries ago worked out a system of land ownership, water rights, and techniques for rice terracing. Social organization has traditionally centered around the kinship group, economic interests, and the ritual obligations of the indigenous animistic religion. Many of 'the tribespeople in northern Luzon are being Christianized and assimilated into Filipino society. The interior of Mindanao, is inhabited by more than a dozen tribal groups, includin the Subanon, Manobo, Bukidnon, Bila -an, Tiruray, Tagabili, Bagobo, Mandaya, and Tagakaolo. Generally less advanced than the Luzon tribespeople, most live in dense tropical forests where they carry on a shifting, slash- and -horn type -of cultivation. Some have a pattern of social Organization which resembles that of the Muslims; a few profess Islam, but animistic religious beliefs and practices prevail. The Mindanao tribes are dependent on the Muslims or Filipinos for metals, salt, and other commodities, and some have become partially assimilated into lowland Filipino cult-ire as artisans or as agricultural laborers. In 1971, internatit.nal interest was aroused by the discover on Mindanao of a hitherto unknown mountain dwelling tribe, the Tasaday, which was found living under Stone Age conditions isolated from other tribes of the island. Tribal peoples on Mindoro, Palawan, Panay, and Negros islands are regarded as the most primitive in the archipelago. On Mindoro there arc at least nine groups of mountain dwellers who are c(:Ilectively known as the Mangyan. A shy and peacefu people, 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 they include the Irava, Alangan, Batongan, Buhid, and flanunoo tribes. Oniv a few small groups inhabit Palawan, Panay, and Negros. Most of these t tribes eo le p p practice an upland al,riculture, burning forest patches for new fields and supplementing their diet Nynih game and fruit from the jungle. Almost all r:. are animists. S,attered about the islands are the Acta, commonly known as Negritos. These people, generally believed to be the first inhabitants of the Philippines, once dwelt s in the remote upland regions of the larger islands but rt noNw 1 e in the foothills. Originally nomadic, they have become semisedentary, engaging in shifting cultivation, hunting, and fishing. Although the Negritos :ire beginning to lose their cultural identity through interbreeding, they have resisted assimilation into Filipino society in the past and shy away from government controls. Most Chinese in the Philippines are descendants of immigr from the South China coastal provinces of Fukien and Kwangtung. 'They are concentrated mainly in the cities, particularly Manila. Although the government has promulgated measures aimed at the "Filipinization" of commerce, the Chinese continue to dominate this sphtrre and have therebv incurred animosity among the Filipinos. In many respects they j remain outside the Philippine social structure� retaining their traditional social organization, values, and customs. Many still adhere to the Confucianist, Buddhist, and 'foist precepts of their ancestors. A surprisingly large number, however, have converted to Christianity. The characteristic self containment of the Chinese notwithstanding, there has been considerable intermarriage and assimilation into Filipino society. Despite their anti Chinese iiias, many t ilipino families regard well -to -do Chinese merchants as eligible husbands for their daughters. In such Chinese- Filipino unions the management of family business interests frequently remains in the hands of the Chinese father and his relatives rather than being passed on to the children of the marriage, who tend to identify tl: ^mselves Nvith the Filipinos. Persons of 1, uropean origin residing in the islands r are n iinly of Spanish descent. Most are associated with "old families who have amassed wealth through banking, export and import trading, and other profitable ventures. Many prominent Philippine citiz-ms are mestizos of mixed Spanish and Filipino heritage. 'The American community includes military or other U.S. Government personnel and their families, as well as individuals representing ,private� corporations or international organizations. The majority are in the Philippines on temporary assignment. Sere, however, are wealthy entrepreneurs who reside there more or less permanently. In terms of physical appearance, the native inhabitants of the Philippines resemble the Malay peoples of Indonesia and Malaysia. Most have broad noses and wide mouths; skin color varies from light olive to (lark brown, and hair is generally brown- black. Caucasoid facial features are found among mestizos, and a yellowish skin tone and epicanthic eyefold mark the progeny of Filipino- Chinese unions. Dress, ornamentation, or other cultural criteria are often the only means of distinguishing between the Filipinos, the Muslims, and the triba; peoples, or between one tribesman and another. In some areas, admixtures of Filipino and tribal stock are common. The Negritos provide an exception to the Malay physical type represented by the other Philippine peoples. The typical Negrito of unmixed blood is a dark skinned pygmy, less than 5 feet tall and with Negroid facial characteristics. Representative Philippine islanders are shown in Figure 1. Information derived from the 1960 census indicates that as mail\ as 75 different native languages are spoken in the Philippines. However, more than rour- fifths of the population speak as their mother tongue one of eight IVlaiayu- Polynesian languages traditional- ly associated with the Ch istian Filipinos. These are listed as follows, along ith the proportion of the population identified with each at the time of the census. Cebuano 24.1 Tagalog 21.0 Iloco 11.7 Hiligaynon 10.4 Bikol 7.8 Samar -Leyte 5.5 Painpangan 3.2 Pangasinan 2.5 Other including Muslim and tribal languages) 13.8 Total 100.0 Despite the fact that Cebuuno ranks first as a mother tongue, 'Tagalog is niore important and more widely used, more than half of all persons speaking Tagalog in 1960 had learned it as a second language. Its standing stems from tLe fact that it is the language of the Manila area �the political, economic, and cultural center of PlOippine society. Tagaloi; is hardly distinguishable from "Pilipino," which was pro- claimed the national language in 1939. While Pilipino incorporates elements of other Philippine tongues� it has remained almost synonymous with Tagalog, and as a result the name �'Pilipino" is not often used. Even in government circles, the national lzmguage is APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 z e frequently referred to as "Tagalog. As a legacy of f, almost half a century of U.S. administration and its concomitant cultural and economic influences, rl English is a second official language and it continues to he highly important. It is used as the lnedinm of instruction in all schools above the second grade all(] F"' r as the princip lan guage ge of the government, of the 1 Pc k k k ki rt communications media, and of business. Nevertheless, the use of Tagalog is growing at a faster rate than that of English. By the time of the 1960 census, 44.4 of the population spoke Tagalog either as it first or second language, while 39.5% spoke English. 'Tag s is a re(riired subject in Philippine schools from the first grade through high school, and by 1973 it was estimate that more than half of the population could speak the. langl age. The promotion of English throughout the islands during the U.S. period was in marked contrast to the Spanish regime's indifference toward the populari�ru- lion of Spanish in the long colonial era. As it result, a e knowledge of the language was restricted to a small minority. "Today its use is confined to wealth\. fan:ities j of Spanish or mesti lineage. Concentrations of the various native languages have s' been changing, particularly in recent years as increasing numbers of Filipinos have migrated from their place of origin to other parts of the archipelago. G; Generally, however, the eight principal languages arc associated with specific locations (Figure 2). Iloco, k, ck Pangasinan, cold various tribal languages of northern Luzon make llp \\'flat Ilflglatitti d(`tilglnht(' as t h e s Northern Luzon Croup of interrelated longucS. t:. Tagalog is centered in metropolitan Manila and the surrounding lowland areas of Lu zon, where it is joined by Parnpangan ao..d Bikol. Farther south, Ifiligavnon, Saniar-Leyte, and Cebhlano comprise a mutually t intelligible grouping knw n as the Visayan, after the Visayan Islands where they pred,.minate. Although s' these languages are also found in Mindanao, the a r languages of the Muslims and various tribal tongues comprise the majority of the languages spoken in that region and on Palawan Island as yell. In contrast to many other Philippine peoples, the Muslims are mostly monollllguai. Because of the common Malavo- Polynesian origin q of Philippine languages, it is relatively easy for it person belonging to one linguistic group to learn the t' language of another. Most are grammatically k a interrelated, and there re some words and v.,pressions which are identical in all. 'I'll(` Roman alphabet, introduced by the Spaniards and pronloted during the period of U.S, tutelage, is used in writing il', of the major Philippine languages. 2. Social organization a. Class structure Philir society is still characterized by what is basically it two -class system comprising a small elite and a vast !oxyer class, although it middle sector has been gradually emerging in the larger urban areas since independence. I', inily prestige and wealth through land ownership remain the primary determinants of high status, but education and the subsequent entry into government service�, commerce, or industry are providing increasing opportunity for upward social mobility in the urban centers. In contrast to the growing scope for economic advancement among the urban population, a static situation prevails in rural areas, where there is little chance for inlpover.shed farmers or farm laborers to better their condition. Itl the. contest of the national society, cultural idcntil is in added criterion of status; Muslims and tribespcople are regarded as socially inferior by Filipinos of all classes, an(i unassimilated Chinese are generally looked upon as outsiders. The upper class is estimated to represent no more then 5 of the total population, comprised in part of persons ,yho trice their lineage to clatos who were abic it) perpetuate their privileged position by becoming landowners during lire Spanish colonial period. This landed gentry �the cacigr becanie the dominant class in the provinces and in the developing towns. Within the cacfquc class, mr`sli%os, the progeny of Spanish Filipino marriages, possessed a higher social status than Filipinos and had access to positions not usually open to the latter in the colonial governnent and in conunerce. Under the U.S. administration, mesti families continued to enjoy high socioeconom- ic status, and since independence they have largely replaced it so- called Euro- American elite consisting of wealthy U.S. ::nd Spanish business untrepreneurs. Considerable prestige has also accrued to weidthy families of Filipino- Chinese descent who have become- assimilated to the dominant culture. The Filipino sector of the upper class �as distinguished from the mesti�ro and Filipino 'Chinese groups �first assumed importance under the U.S. administration. This element consisting priniarily of wealthy landowning families residing ;n Manila and the provincial cities, subsequently became highly influential, producing nhany of the political figures who have governed the Philippines since independence. They have also come to donlinate such professions as law, medicine, and engineering. Intermarriage among members of the Filipino elite and the consequent interlocking of 5 .......a _.ueV..- en-�'+rvairw ++.fir R. .,F A.� L. aYi :i`T,'L.......'15.i. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200090005 -1 family ties has strengthened social c�ohc�sion and C. expanded famih financial resources. Increasingly, members of this group are becoming involved in commercial and financial enterprises traditionally dominated b} Euro -A erican, mestizo, and Chinese entrepreneurs. Despite the fact that land ov.-nership is the basis of their power and social position, upper class families do not spend much time on their holdings. Most live in the cities, preeminently Manila, leaving the administration of their estates it, the hands of farm managers or lessees who supervise the tenant farmers working the land. Although not of sufficient size or cohesion to bridge t1w widening gap between the upper and lower classes, the urban middle class is nevertheless proportionately larger in the Philippines than in outer Southeast Asian countries, The upper middle sector, generally well educated and often possessing upper class values, is composed of civil servants, teachers, businessmen, and p,.tfessional people. Mane of the intellectuals in this group are critical of the elite for its monopoly of wealth and political pow-r and tend to identify themselves with the aspirations of the impoverished masses, particularly the rural villagers. The lower middle class, which might be described as an upper stratum of the urban lower class, includes clerks, small shopkeepers. artisans, and skilled mechanics. Also part of this group are the Factory workers, who have i benefited from the social mobility caused by industrial expansion. The lower class, comprising the bul! of the Philippine population, divide.-; into urban and rural components. While most of its urban members fall into such recognizable groups as street peddlers, unskilled laborers, and those in menial service occupations, increasing urbaniz,tion is producing a subgroup consisting of impoverished migrants from rural areas who are chronically unemployed. The rural lower class, encompassing; well over half of the total population, consists of subsistence cultivators, tenant fanners, and migratory agricultural workers who provide labor for the large plantations. In 1870, one out of every two persons in the islands depended on agriculture or allied occupations for his livelihood. Most of these people live in conditions of great poverty. The average farm in the Philippines is too small to provide the bare essentials of life, and fanners are frequently forced to burrow at exorbitant interest rates in order to subsist. Subsequently they become so deeply mired in debt that they constantly risk foreclosure and a future of virtual peonage as sharecroppers. In 1972, almost half of all farmers in the "rice basket region of central Luzon were tenant 6 Filipino Muslim (C) Partners. Although the abuses of the land tenure systems have lung generated unrest and even violence among sectors of the rural population, little progress has been inade in solving the problem, primarily because of the governments unwillingness to accept the political consequences of implementing the land reform program. After the imposition of martial law late in 1972, President \larcos issued a land redistrihution decree affecting the ri(x and coin- growing areas. The decree theoretic�a!!y lictits I..ndo to holdings of 17 1 acres of land and allots 12 1 /z acr. s to each tenant fanner. Information is not yet available on the extent to which this sweeping legislation is being implemented. Generally speaking, the Muslims continue to maintain their own social structure, based in I,.,rt on an ancient system which involved three classes: 1) a APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 FIGURE 1. Representative physical types Filipino men (U OU) o1a..Z:v Filipino peasant woman (UIOU) Filipino of mixed Chinese- Filipino ancestry 001.1) (the late Presidc nt S rgio Osmena) AC 4,1, Negrito tribesman W (Uiou) W IN. Bontoc tribesman (U OU) if Z Z APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200090005-1 hereditary nobility headed by a dato, 2) commoners, and 3) slaves. Historically, the strongest datos were able to assume a feudal authority over their weaker counterparts, and after the adoption of Islam these became known as sultans. There is till a dato class, and the traditional system whereby commoners tilled the land of the datos continues to be practiced in many Muslim areas. Today the Muslims customarily elect their own provincial and local leaders from among the datos, and the latter are able to control local police services and public works funds in many instances, thereby acquiring opportunities for patronage. Personality conflicts and family feuds are common among them, however, and the resulting factionalism has prevented the datos from becoming an effective force, either regionally or at the national level. Although most Muslims engage in fishing, farming, or interisland trading for a living, the spread of education and it gradual shift to a money economy have produced a small Muslim middle class which has been especially evident in the Sulu Archipelago. A few Muslim leaders have served in Congress and in the Cabinet. No class system as such exists among the unassimilated tribespeople, and little precise information is available concerning prestige factors in the various tribes. Many of those on Mindanao reportedly retain a social organization akin to that of the Muslims, with hereditary datos as chieftains. Among the tribes of Luzon there is no formal office of chieftain; leadership and influence have usually been vested in those who own the most riceland. Negritos assign authority to the oldest made in the community, and other groups are ruled by councils of elders or village headmen. Although most of the Chinese might be said to exercise a commercial middle class role, there is a small elite group of wea -thy merchants and businessmen and a similarly son ill lower class element involved in menial occupatio�rs. As in the case of the national society, the principal criteria of high status are family prestige and wealth. b. Family and kinship groups Family relationships dominate: political, social, and economic life in the Philippines. Family ties have been important to the people of the islands since pre Spanish days, and the Roman Catholic emphasis on the sacredness of the family unit and the indissolubility of marriage has strongly reinforced these ties among the Christian population. Islam has had a similar effect among its adherents. The Filipino family is bilateral, tracing descent through both 8 paternal and maternal ancestors, and although the family and society as a whole are male oriented, women share equal status with men in the [ionic and have ;lie traditional and legal right to participate in economic and professional spheres outside the home. By contrast, the Muslir family is patrilineal, and it tends to be more patriarchal than the Filipino family. Moreover, the Muslim tradition permits polygyny. Patterns of familial relations vary among tribal groups, depending upon their proximity to Christian or Muslim influence, but the concept of kinship appears to he important to al' of the tribal peoples. Among the Filipinos the family may he nuclear, consisting of a husband and wife and their unmarried children, or it may he extended, encompassing other relatives. The extended family is the prevalent type in rural areas. Families are linked together not only by blood relationships but also by the Spanish institution of compadrazgo, or ritual coparenthood, which extends the concept of kinship beyond the family. In accordance with the requirements of the church, Catholic parents select godparents to sponsor the baptism of their children, and a permanent bond of ritual kinship is establistred between godparents and parents and between godparents and the children they sponsor. Filipino society has expanded this practice to include sponsorship of confirmation and marriage also. Families with many children acquire a large number of compadrazgo kin, often selected on the basis of wealth or higher social status. Wealthy landlords, businessmen, and politicians sometimes have dozens of godchildren among the children of their tenants, employees, and followers. In instances of marked class differences between the sponsors and their godchildren, the compadrazgo relationship is not an intimate one. Mutual assistance and collective responsibility are considered to be primary obligations of the kinship group. Although kinship bonds arc strongest at the upper levels of society, cooperation between relatives is common to all classes.: upport for parents in their old age and for less fortunate siblings is regarded as essential. Well -to -do Filipinos in the urban centers feel obligated to help relatives obtain employment and, if possible, preferment. As a consequence, both government and private industry are riddled with nepotism. Family loyalty is emphasized to the extent that an offense against a single member is regarded as a threat to the entire kinship group; similarly, the transgression of onc member is seen as dishonoring all. Ali individuals social standing is identified with that of his family, and his occupation and political affiliation are deemed to he inseparable from familial connections. s 3 ,C APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 VA :7Z1M17a-A=11 =aI!Z 11111 I IL!aAn_Fr N MFaw-A III s-JOU w n I WA I RA rA n nN WA 11011 -III n I r 1' 1111till=S 1 �!Q S 0 U T CHINA SEA 12C I:'q 1 0 Bascop BATAN ISLAND 0 Tagalog V D Cebuano O BABUYAN Q Hiligaynon 0 ISLANDS o p Samar-Leyte ]loco H Laualt Bikol Pampangan m Bara� Pangasinan h Magindanao and other o languages of the Muslims B Cl Other, including tribal` i 'The area in which I';hgaynon is the principal vernacular has been extended to include closely related languages, enumerated .i':; separately in the 1960 census, spoken in LUZON Masbate, Romblon, and northlces!ern Panay. T. A i 0 50 190 1 Po Mlles i ON 0 50 100 150 Kilometers e CAIANOOANES ISLAND Mae 30 Cai an P H ILIPPINE es MINDORO o ROMBLON 1. 9 CALAWAY Q \r Ma G S E A cnouP MASBATE SAMAR oa 0 PANAY Q LEYTE O C b� CEBU NEGROS is �J BOHOL jJ i NMI m Sl `i N D A N A 0 I e I I I t BASILAN B ISLAND K- lY S S LAYSIA n 'Qa`Qy oe C 1. 1. E I? P" SF.A a 5 r I PULAU KARAKELONG o 1 6. 114111010'411911A 111 q (IND A 50206811.73 11 ONESIA] 1 The importance of the family is given formal legal recognition in the 19:3 Civil Code, which states that "the family is it basic social institution which public Policy cherishes and protects." Legal protection for the sanctity of the family is explicitly defined as follows: In case of doubt, all presumptions favor the soli_. clarity of the family. Thus, every intendment of law or fact leans toward the validity of marriage, the indissolubility of the marriage bonds, the legiti- macy of children, the community of property during the marriage, the authority of parents over their children, and the validity of defense for any member of the family in case of unlawful aggression. Marriage among Filipinos is considered to be an alliwgce in which the inclinations and aspirations of the briti- and groom are subordinated to those of the two families involved. Although there has been a trend toward freedom in the choice of a marriage partner, the selection is sd1l strongly influenced by parents, and parental disapproval usually terminates it courtship. Filipinos marry at an early age �tho average age for women is 18, and for men, 20. While devout Catholics among the Filipinos consider it essential to have the wedding ceremony performed by it priest, the Severe shortage of clergy in the islands makes this d0ficult, particularly in rural areas. Many Catholics reportedly are married by civil officials, and consensual unions, involving no ceremony of any kind, are believed to he common. Filipino family life centers on the children. The early period of it child's life is one +if permissiveness and indulgence, but as he matures he is firmly disciplined and taught respect for his elders. Among the rural population he is also expected to hecome a cohesive part of the family at an early age, helping With its labor and sharing its responsibilities. Tendencies toward individuality are suppressed, and deviaJonal behavior is condemned. In return for such conformity, parents will risk total indebtedness to provide for their children, and any accumulated property, possessions, or savings are looked upon as the future inheritance of the children rather than the personal estate of the parents. Females inherit equally with their male siblings. in the borne the position of Filipino women is complementary, rather than subordinate, to that of men. At all class levels the Filipino wife commonly manages the household, including its financial affairs, and is concerned with rearing the children. in rural areas she is also expected to help in the fields During pre Spanish times, the women of the isla uls were accorded a status of equality Nvith men, bu.i ,n the Spanish colonial period they were relegated t. .,n inferior jural and social position. Under the U.S. administration and since independence, they have regained their traditional social equality and have gradually been granted the same legal rights as men. Additionally, they have gained equal opportunity for education, and growing numbers of educated Nvomen have been entering pi 4essional ar.d managerial ranks in various spheres of activity, including government and industry. Today women predominate in several professional categories, including dentistry, ph-trmacv, and teaching. Divorce was virtually nonexistent under the Spaniards and was granted only on grounds of adultery during the period of U.S. tutelage. Current Philippine law prohibits divorce, except for Muslims. Legal separation is permissible, however, in cases of adultery oil the part of the wife, concubinage on the part of the husband, or attempted murder of a spouse by either. In file 1960 census, only 0.4o of the adult Population were reported as separated or divorced. Although the family is still of prime importance in the rural barrio, increasing urbaniz- ion and the modernizing Western influences which accompany it u are affecting traditional family mores. As yon Filipinos acquire soilre schooling and leave the barrios to seek work or further education in the towns, their bonds with home and kin group necessarily weaken as new associations are formed. For rural families that settle in urban areas, the problems of urban living are detrimental to family life. In many cases both parents must find jobs in order to eke out i living, and their children grow up in a milieu that is quite different from the economic and social framework in which the rural family functions. The usual result is in erosion of parental authority and a gradual decline in family solidarity. Adherence to Islam makes family and kinship at least as important to the Muslims as they are to the Filipinos. The Muslim family is typicall extended and patriarchal, \vith a strong emphasis on male authority. Polygyny is sanctioned by the Koran, each male being entitled to as many as four wives. In practice, however, only a small minority of Muslims are sufficiently wealt iv to afford more than one wife. Islam also permits it husband to divorce his wife by simple renunciation, but no information is available concerning the extent to which this has been practiced in the Philippines. in Muslim tarnilies the position of females is considerably inferior to that of their Filipino counterparts. For example, sons always receive preference over daughi: rs in education. Among some r:. t APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 ern In� INS? &ff FF -7- �17 "07'. serves to maintain mutually beneficial relationships between persons of different social levels. A high value is placed on gratitude for services rendered or favors received. Gregarious by nature, the Fi'pino seeks pleasure in group activity whenever possible. Important in this connection is the fiesta, a legacy of the Spanish colonial era. Usually held in commemoration of the feast day of a patron saint, the fiesta, with its attendant carnival atmosphere, is the high point of the year for many Filipinos in rural barrios. Extravagance is also enjoyed whenever possible, although in widely varying degrees. Ostentatious entertainment and pre tentious luxuries are common among the wealthy, .while poor barrio families have been known to bankrupt themselves for the fiesta. Filipinos arc further identified with indolence, a trait often attributed to other Southeast Asian peoples as well. Members of the lower class seek socioeconomic advancement not only for the monetary rewards and increased prestige, but also for freedom from manual work. Observers agree moreover, that tipper class Filipinos have frequently lacked the ambition and drive. to compete effectively in business enterprises with Chinese and Westerners. Filipinos have long been noted for their stoicism and resignation in the face of physical disaster or other serious adversity. char acteristic`s which derive frnm 0� D�iaRamesfabr.SVM,....nm+r urn.' soon+.. v.........-.-.....,...�.'... w.-....-..- ...i....- -rte, 1 i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 Muslim grou first marriages are carefully arranged experienced. The Muslims share the Filipinos' sense of traced hack to pre Spanish times when the universe by the families concerned, and the groom's family is personal worth. Injury to a Muslims ntaratabat, or expected to pay a bride price. The intensit of family loyalties honor, often brings revenge in the form of death. cultural influences and mass education have modified throcghout the Muslim area creates kinship Throughout the Philippines, hypersensitivity to any ties so strong that disputes between families often flare into feuds that smolder for generations. As in the case action deemed to be an affront to dignity or honor is among the Filipinos. of the Filipinos, the Muslim family is being affcct.d reflected in a high incidence of crime and violence. by urbanization and modernization, but to a much This is especially true in the transitional society outside world, he needed a secure place in an l esser extent. existin g in urban areas w here many of the traditional Many tribespeople of the Philippines have adopted, restraints are no longer a deterrent to aberrant society. His concern with his place in the social system in differing degrees, into Filipino or Muslim social beh avior. patterns. Those tribal groups that remain outside these Throughout Philippine history a secure social about a national tendency toward euphemism, spheres of influence vary in patterns of marriage and position has been concomitant with strong family ties. familial relations, although similarities also exist. The The Filipino believes that these can best be reinforced which has been reinforced by the Spanish emphasis on use of intermediaries for arranging marriages is by the sharing of good fortune, and a system of frequent, and the groom's family customarily provides reciprocal obligations called utang na loob has grown honor. This value has traditionally governed a bride price. Among the Negritos, marriages are out of this belief. One member of a kinship group generally contracted between parents of the couple, shares his good fortune or bestows a gift of gratitude encounters and a deference to elders nd those in and in some instances the contract is made even before upon another member, often in the form of a service or the children are born. In certain groups prem arital sex favor, and the acceptam -e of that gift signifies the is encouraged. Marriage is easily dissolved, and the acknowledgment of membership in the group. changing of mates is fairly common. Equal or nearly Repayment usually is in greater value, making the equal status for women has prevailed in most tribes. donor the debtor in a never ending circle of obligations, each repayment strengthening the 3. Basic values and attitudes cohesiveness of the unit. This highly developed system serves to maintain mutually beneficial relationships between persons of different social levels. A high value is placed on gratitude for services rendered or favors received. Gregarious by nature, the Fi'pino seeks pleasure in group activity whenever possible. Important in this connection is the fiesta, a legacy of the Spanish colonial era. Usually held in commemoration of the feast day of a patron saint, the fiesta, with its attendant carnival atmosphere, is the high point of the year for many Filipinos in rural barrios. Extravagance is also enjoyed whenever possible, although in widely varying degrees. Ostentatious entertainment and pre tentious luxuries are common among the wealthy, .while poor barrio families have been known to bankrupt themselves for the fiesta. Filipinos arc further identified with indolence, a trait often attributed to other Southeast Asian peoples as well. Members of the lower class seek socioeconomic advancement not only for the monetary rewards and increased prestige, but also for freedom from manual work. Observers agree moreover, that tipper class Filipinos have frequently lacked the ambition and drive. to compete effectively in business enterprises with Chinese and Westerners. Filipinos have long been noted for their stoicism and resignation in the face of physical disaster or other serious adversity. char acteristic`s which derive frnm 0� D�iaRamesfabr.SVM,....nm+r urn.' soon+.. v.........-.-.....,...�.'... w.-....-..- ...i....- -rte, 1 i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 The basic value system of the Filipinos can be traced hack to pre Spanish times when the universe beyond an established known kinship group was believed to be hostile. Although Spanish and U.S. cultural influences and mass education have modified the indigenous values, this traditional view of the world can still be seen in various interrelationships among the Filipinos. y In pre- Christian times, if the Iilipino was to be strong enough to withstand the hostile elements of the outside world, he needed a secure place in an established setting. Similarly today, the most deep seated values of the Filipino relate to his position in society. His concern with his place in the social system involves an emphasis on face- saving, common to many other Asian peoples, which in turn has brought about a national tendency toward euphemism, equivocation, evasiveness, and procrastination. More importantly, it involves a sensitivity to personal status which has been reinforced by the Spanish emphasis on self esteern. The Tagalog term for the concept is hiya, defined as "an awareness of personal dignity and honor. This value has traditionally governed interpersonal relationships among the Filipinos, evidenced by a natural courtesy in evervday encounters and a deference to elders nd those in superior positions. Howeve it is also the source of volatility when real or imagined insults are serves to maintain mutually beneficial relationships between persons of different social levels. A high value is placed on gratitude for services rendered or favors received. Gregarious by nature, the Fi'pino seeks pleasure in group activity whenever possible. Important in this connection is the fiesta, a legacy of the Spanish colonial era. Usually held in commemoration of the feast day of a patron saint, the fiesta, with its attendant carnival atmosphere, is the high point of the year for many Filipinos in rural barrios. Extravagance is also enjoyed whenever possible, although in widely varying degrees. Ostentatious entertainment and pre tentious luxuries are common among the wealthy, .while poor barrio families have been known to bankrupt themselves for the fiesta. Filipinos arc further identified with indolence, a trait often attributed to other Southeast Asian peoples as well. Members of the lower class seek socioeconomic advancement not only for the monetary rewards and increased prestige, but also for freedom from manual work. Observers agree moreover, that tipper class Filipinos have frequently lacked the ambition and drive. to compete effectively in business enterprises with Chinese and Westerners. Filipinos have long been noted for their stoicism and resignation in the face of physical disaster or other serious adversity. char acteristic`s which derive frnm 0� D�iaRamesfabr.SVM,....nm+r urn.' soon+.. v.........-.-.....,...�.'... w.-....-..- ...i....- -rte, 1 i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 Eri 0�n0TQ5 grim struggle for subsistence endured by most and from a pervasive belief in the inevitability of "God's will." This sense of stoicism, called bahala na, and its accompanying tendency to accept the status quo have been giving way to new ideas and attitudes among those Filipinos who have benefited from the massive expansion of education begun under U.S. tutelage and continued since independence. U.S. concepts of nationalism and democracy have raised Filipino political awareness far beyond that of other Southeast Asian countries, and the emphasis placed on national self reliance, equality of economic opportunity, and a competitive system of free enterprise have greatly increased aspirations for socioeconomic advancement. Since in dependence, various social conflicts have reached serious proportions. In the urban centers, primarily Manila, intellectuals have become increasingly critical of social inequalities, and activist students, through sometimes violent demonstrations, have aggravated a latent discontent stemming from industry's fai!ure to provide jobs foi an expanding urban population. in the rural areas of Luzon, impoverished tenant farmers have risen against their landlords, frequently encouraged by Maoist guerrilla hands. Added 'o these tensions is the acrid dispute between Muslims and Filipinos over arable land in Mindanao and in the Sulu Archipelago. The Muslim population, once predominant in Mindanao, has become a minority there after two decades of settlement by Filipinos from islands to the north.:'rom time to time throughout this period the Muslims have resisted the encroachment of the Filipinos. This has caused social tensions, often assuming the dimensions of civil strife. Because the settlers are Christians, the conflict has taken on religious overtones, although the basic issues are the problems of land ownership and the alleged reluctance of the Muslim community to adapt to social and economic change. Although the Sulu Muslims have been more amenable to government programs than those on Mindanao, the fear that land grabbing Filipinos would also overrun the Sulu Archipelago has led to clashes in that area also. Government troops have been fighting rebel Muslim elements in the southern Philippines ever since President Marcos' declaration of martial law in September 1972. Young educated Muslims seem to be leading a well organized revolt, and amnesty offers by Marcos have been largely ignored. In an address late in March 1973, the President admitted that military action was not the answer to the troubles in the south and announced a number of reforms designed to gain Muslim goodwill and support for his previously announced "New Y 12 Society" program. The reforms include writing off the interest on debts owed to the government by the southern provinces in which most of the Muslims reside, strengthening institutions of higher learning throughout the south, and providing at least 2,000 scholarships for Muslim students. Plans for the "New Society" encompass the previously mentioned land redistribution measures to help impoverished farmers, price and rent controls to benefit the urban poor, and more equitable taxation to relieve financial pressures on all sectors of the population. The credibility of the President has suffered in the past, however, because of his failure to implement grandiose promises, and many West- ernized Filipinos are highly critical of his decision to rule by martial law. Few of the Republic's presidents have inspirod confidence among the electorate (among the exceptions were the late Manuel Quezon and Ramon Magsaysay), Cynicism toward politics and politicians pervades all sectors of the society, manifested in the increasing disrespect fo� law and order. A growing attitude, fostered by -widespread corruption in government, appears to he that law exists only to he circumvented. Despite the pervasive cynicism and dis'rust of officir_ldom, Filipino nationalism is strong. The sense of nationhood, symbolized by the slogan "Filipino First," transcends linguistic ties, regional interests, and political loyalties. Filipino pride in national independence and in the cow:`ry's accomplishments seem almost an extension of hiya from the individual to the mass of the population. All take great pride in contributions of the Philippines on the international scene, particularly its active participation in the U.N. and the various U.N. specialized agencies. By the same token, there is great sensitivity to what night he construed as derogatory attitudes toward the nation on the part of foreigners; this is especially true of the educated elite. Filipino nationalism has been one of the factors fostering hostility toward the Chinese population in the Philippines. Since Spanish times the Chinese have been disliked because of their commercial competition and aaso, in ruore recent times, because of their potential for political subversion. Despite rigid administrative regulations and heavy taxation they continue to dominate retail trade. Chinese busi- nessmen usually avoid direct involvement in Philippine politics, but have often contributed heavily to both major political parties in the hope of future favors or mitigation of restrictive legislation. In addition to the friction generated by the near monopoly o` trade enjoyed by the Chinese, many i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 r i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 a :2 Filipinos are alarmed by the open admiration found among some Chinese toward the accomplishments of the People's Republic of China. Although there is a growing sympathy for Communist ideology among sma!! segments of educated Filipino youth, most politically conscious Filipinos are anti- Communist. The deeply rooted anti Communist sentiments are being offset to some extent by the realization that normal relations witl: Communist countries has become economically desirable. Among foreign peoples, the Japanese have incurred the most hostility from Filipinos, stemming from the atrocities and humiliations suffered during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II. However, postwar reparations paid by Japan, growing commerce between the two countries, and the healing effect of time have resulted in it considerable lessening of animosity. The traditional attitude of the people of the Philippines toward Americans has been predomi- nantly one of friendship, manifested in an obvious desire to absorb U.S. cultural values. Many of the older people in the islands, Filipinos and Muslims alike, recall with warm sentiment the dedication of American officials, teachers, and missionaries who worked among them during the period of U.S. tutelage, and the common defense effort against the Japanese in World War lt. However, some have always found certain aspects of U.S. culture vulgar, and particularly so during the past decade. Rock music, X -rated firms, and the imported hippie cult, while enthusiasC ally welcomed by many young urban Filipinos, are repugnant to the more conservative elements in the society. Similarly, although a large number of urban Filipinos have adopted such American characteristics as the firm handshake and the instantaneous use of first names, many members of the upper class, particularly mestizos, deplore these practices as a departure from dignity. On a more important level, considerable anti Americanism is now apparent arnong certain sectors of the population, chiefly students and intellectuals, who accuse the United States of holstering the oligarchy. Anti American feeling is also found among some elements of the rural population who profess to believe the United States is supporting the wealthy Philippine landowners against the interests of the peasants. C. Population (U /OU) In the years since independence, phenomenal growth has been characteristic of the Philipp;-ac population, the number of the country's inhabitants having more than doubled in the 27- yearspan. During the 1960 -70 intercensal decade alone, the population rose F 9.6 million. This increment exceeded by 2515 the tote. r )pulation in 1903, and it roughly matched the entire population of such countries as Belgium, Chile, Greece, and Portugal. Since 1970, the population has continued to increase rapidly. On the basis of an average annual rate of growth of 3 it was estimated to have reached 39,693,000 at the beginning of 1973 and 40,194,000 by mid -1973, unless checked, it will number 50 million in 1940. Until late in the 1960's, the traditional desire for large families and opposition from the Catholic Church effectively precluded anv initiatives to curb Population growth. Officialdom, moreover, generally regarded growth favorably, seeing it as a means of settling sparsely populated but potentially rich areas of the archipelago. As it became increasingly evident, however, that the burgeoning population was outstripping economic development and threatening to lower an already unsatisfactory level of living, a small group of concerned officials and citizens, with encouragement from foreign foundations and agencies, including the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID), began to press for action to relieve the pressures created by population growth. With assistance from the press and radio, these individuals made public discussion of birth control respectable, earlier inhibitions notwithstanding, and they then lobbied both pa.blic officials and religious leaders to sanction family planning programs. In 1969, the government responded with the creation of a Commission on Population, and it subsequently lifted the ban of the importation of contraceptives and incorporated family planning into the overall program of the public health clinics. 'Today, both public and private clinics offer all forms of birtju control measures, although the public clinics "recommend" only the rhythm method of contraception, reflecting the official position of the Catholic Church. This approach has tended to mute church criticism of the program. While family planning activities, sponsored by some 20 groups under the overall coordination of the Commission of Population, are now underway, the program to (hate has had only marginal impact, and major obstacles are yet to be overcome. Ignorance of methods of limiting family size is a serious problem. A survey in 1165. for example, discovered that 55% of married urban women and 69% of married rural women were unfamiliar with an form of birth control and that many of these were not �specially interested in acquiring such knowledge. Although the proportions undoubtedly have since declined as the result of widespread campaigns designed to acquaint 13 F S APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 orI@nt -Is@I &ffr the populace with knowledge of family planning, the desire for large families remains strong, particularly among rural Filipinos, who still view many children as the only dependable old -age insurance. The 1965 survey indicated that rural %vomen considered five or six children ideal, while the norm for their urban counterparts was four. Until infant and child mortality is further reduced, it is unlikely that many Fi!ipinos will change their minds about the desirability of large families. Family limitation appears to have caught on mainly among middle class, urban couples and among those with some education who are attempting to move up to middle class status. Upper class families, as a general rule, continue to .re large. During the 1960 -70 interensal decade, the Republic's population increased by 35 rising from 27,087,685 to 36,684,486. Growth was due wholly to natur. ^crease and, in fact, would have been slightly greater had it not been for an annual excess of emigrants over immigrants. Emigration, although not extensive, is of concern to the Philippine Government because many of those who leave the islands are professional persons, particularly physicians, scientists, and nurses. The "brain drain" has been accentuated since 1965, when the United States, the principal destination of Filipino emigrants, relaxed its quota on immigrants from the islands. In the years 1967 -71, an annual average of nearly 22,000 .Filipinos were admitted to the United States as immigrants; the number of registered Filipino aliens in the .United States rose from 80,000 in 1967 to 149,000 1971. Canada follows the United States a, the fay.n -ed destination of Filipino emigrants. Rapid population growth in the islands is the direct result of a consistently high birth rate and a high but declining death rate. Because the registration of vital events is grossly deficient, it is impossible to determine birth and death rates precisely. Philippine demogra- phers hold that the birth rate has been essentially stable since at least the 1920's, being al 45 per 1,000 population. The death rate, on the other hand, has fallen dramatically, from approximately 26 per 1,000 population in the 1920's to an estimated 12 in 1965 -70. For the decades of the 1951; s and 1960'x, the United Nations has estimated the following vital rates: RATE OF BIRTH DEATH NATURAL RATE RATE INCREASE 1950 -55 45.7 16.0 29.7 1955 -60 45.1 14.9 30.2 1960 -65 46.6 13.4 33.2 1965 -70 44.7 12.0 32.7 1 11ilippine sources suggest that the numher of Filipinos in the United States approximates 250,000. 14 As the U.N. figures indicate, the birth rate dropped by about 2% during 1950 -70, whereas the death rate decreased by 25 The rate of nat+ ral increase rose by 10% d the 1950 -70 period, culminating in a &W annual rate during 1965 -70. Emigration, however, served to low( r somewhat the average annual rate of growth during the late 1960'x. With the decline in the death rate, life expectancy has increased. It rose from about 25 years in 1918 to 45 years on the eve of World War II and was estimated at about years in 1970, with females on the average outliving males by about 4 years. 1. Density and distribution With an average of 346 persons per square mile in mid -1973, the Philippines was almost six times as densely populated as the United States. Because of great variation in terrain and climate, however, the population is unevenly settled throughout the archipelago. It is heavily concentrated in the central and southern portions of L uzon and in the Visavan Islands (Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Negros, Panay, and Samar); it is less dense in the islands of Mindoro, Palawan, and Mindanao, in the Sulu Archipelago, and in the northern part of Luzon. The most extensive area of urbanization occurs on Luzon, in the environs of Manila, but both urban and rural populations are concentrated on the coastal plains and lowlands, leaving much of the interior and mountainous parts of the islands thinly settled. The valley of the Cagayan River, the Nvestern coastal littoral, and the great central plain on Luzon are the areas of the most intensive cultivation and densest habitation. Population density varies markedly among the provinces and the city of Manila (Figure 3). Tile most densely populated area is the city of Manila, which had nearly 89,000 persons per square mile in 1970. Provinces with more than 1,000 residents per square mile were Rizal, Pampanga, Cavite, and Laguna. All are in central or southern Luzon, near Manila. Nine other provinces had densities of between 500 and 1,000 persons per square mile. Palawan Province, comprising Palawan and nearby islands, was the least densely settled province, having only 41 persons per square mile. The Philippine population is predominantly rural, and the typic .l settlement form is the village (barrio) or the rural grouping of farm families (sitio). Nonetheless, there has been a st ady trend toward urbanization, although it is not possible to trace the growth of the urban population, primarily because definitions used in various censuses to determine urban and rural populations have varied. In 1970, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 31.8% of the population was classified as urban, but the proportion probably overstates the actual degree of urbanization. Many of the small poblaciones" which meet the socioeconomic requirements for urban are, in fact, small towns with more rural than urban features. Additionally, some of the 59 chartere cities, all of which qualify as urban, cont in rural areas within their boundaries. As determined by the 1970 census, the 59 chartered cities accounted for 65% of the total urban population. Included among them were 17 with populations in excess of 100,000 (Figure 4). The city of Manila, with a 1970 population of 1.3 million, was the only community with more than 1 million inhabitants. Greater Manila, encompassing the city, its suburbs, and such nearby communities as Quezon, Caloocan, and Pasay, had a population of over 3.4 million in 1970, roughly 30% of the total urban population. All provinces and Me city of Manila registered growth during the 1960 -70 period, but some provinces grew much more rapidly than others, mainly as the result of interprovincial migration. Overall, an "A poblacion is the seat of a municipality, an administrative division roughly equivalent to a U.S. county. estimated 2.1 million persons changed their province of residence during the intercensal decade. the volume of migration varied widely by province. Net migration had an almost negligible effect on population growth in such provinces as Surigao del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur. In Rizal Province, however, the contribution of inmigration to total population growth was greater than that of natural increase. On the other hand, in Catanduanes Province, outmigration removed more than 88% of natural increase during the decade. Between 1960 and 1970, 25 provinces gained population through inmigration, while 41 provinces and the city of Manila lost population as the result of outmigration. In general, the provinces of northern Luzon, the Bicol Peninsula, the Visayan Islands, and northern Mindanao lost.population through migration; those in the Cagayan Valley, in central and southern Luzon, and in southern Mindanao gained population (Figure 5). Rizal Province registered the largest gain (784,662), Negros Occidental the largest loss (258,396). Although the city of Manila lost some 86,000 residents as the result of outmigration, principally to the city's suburbs, the Greater Manila region registered a substantial increase, the metropolitan area FIGURE 4. Growth of cities* of 100,000 or more inhabitants in 1970 (U/OU) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200090005 -1 AVERAGE .S ANNUAL RATE POPULATION OF GROWTH, 1639 -70 CITY ISLAND 1939 1960 1970 (IN PERCENT) Manila.. Luzon 623,492 1,138,611 1,330,788 3.1 Q uezon 39,013 397,990 754,452 2.1 Davao............ Mindanao......... 95,546 225,712 392,473 4.7 Cebu Cebu............. 146,817 251,146 347,116 2.8 Caloocan.......... Luzon na na 274,453 Iloilo. Panay............ 90,480 151,266 209,738 2.7 Pasay Luzon............. 55,161 132,673 206,283 3.3 Zamboanga........ Mindanao......... 131,445 131,489 199,901 1.4 Bacolod........... Negros........ 57,474 119,315 187,300 3.9 Basilan............ Basilan............ na 155,712 143,829 Angeles........... Luzon na na 134,544 Butuan........... Vindanao......... III 295 82,485 131,094 G.' Cadiz Nr,ros............ na na 124,108 Batangas.......... L�azon na na 10 Olongapo no na 10j,785 San Pablo 46,311 70,680 105,517 2.7 Iligan Mindanao......... 28,273 58,433 104,493 4.3 na Data not available. Pic`. pertinent. *In the Philippines, cities and municipalities tend to resemble U.S. counties or townships in that they include both urban and rural areas. The data given in this table include the population of both areas. The population of Manila and Quezon are considered completely urb .n, but in many of the other cities, the bulk of the population act-tally may be rural. Akio 16