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I CONFIDENTIAL 32A /G; /MG r Yemen �an April 1973 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVE APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100029 -4 r ,Y t i f I I i I f. Z� I.' NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound -by- chapter format so that topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, .Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS cavArage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to s all countries, are produced selectively. Per small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Sasic Intelligence Fact. book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. AA unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence j and security organizations. i Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major s portion of the study is considered valid. A quarterly listing of ali active NIS units is published in the Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate i chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency, WARNING This document contains Information affecting the national defense of the United States, within the mooning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorized person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED BY 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIFI� CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 58 (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. r 1 ti� ;ar:m -i 5 WARNING 1,..' a The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re, leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or internatipnol body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: (U /OU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret u. `v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100029 -4 This chapter was prepared for the NIS by the Defense Intelligence Agency. Research was 'sub- stantially completed by November 1972. z a; ts i V YEMEN (SANW) CONTENTS This General Survey supersedes the one dated June 1970, copies of which should be destroyed. A. Location and description 1 Importance of location, size of country, and num- ber of people. 1. Topography 1 Brief overview of landfomis, vegetation, water supply, pattern and physical characteristics of settlements, and transpoilation network. 2. Climate 4 Summary of climatic elements� temperatures, rainfall, cloudiness, relative humidity, winds, and visibility �in the eastern plains, hills and mountains, and the coastal plain. B. Military geographic regions 5 Effect of terrain on operations by conventional ground forces, airmobile and airborne forces, amphibious forces, and irregular forces in the fol- lowing regions: 1. Western Plains and Highlands 5 2. Desert Plains 8 CONFIDENTIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100029 -4 a I Page Page C. Strategic area 8 Population, primary activities, significant indus- tries, and key airfields in the San`a' strategic area and in another important area, Al 1Hudaydah, D. Internal routes I....... 10 Description of terrain, road characteristics, and conditicns for off -road dispersal and cross- country movement along the land routes connecting the land approaches and the San a' strategic area. E. Approaches 10 Data on land boundaries, coastline, and distance of offshore territorial waters. Page L. Land 10 Conditions for movement in the border zones, and description of terrain. 2 Sea 11 Conditions for amphibious approach to the i coast. 3 Air 11 r Approach routes to Yemen and critical terrain and weather conditions en route. FIGURES ii Page Page Fig. I MilitLry geographic refions and ter- Fig. 9 Strategic area, internal routes, and rain (map) 2 approaches map) 9 Fig. 2 Rugged mountains west of Santa' Fig. 10 San`a' strategic area (map) 10 (photo) 3 Fig. 11 San`a' (photo) 11 Fig. 3 Narrow stream valley in highlands Fig. 12 26 September Street (photo) 11 photo) 4 Fig. 13 Terrain along northern land ap- Fig. 4 Plains in the northeast photo) 4 proach photo) 12 Fig. 5 Desert plains photo) 5 Fig. 14 Weather conditions in the air ap- Fig. 6 Street scene in Jisayn photo) 6 proaches table) 12 Fig. 7 Ta`izz photo) 6 Fig. 15 Terrain and transportation Fig. 8 Climatic elements chart) 7 map) follows 13 ii j at r 1E 4 �e ay r 4;L 4. A ly -r. r q ty) w�,4 x ti ".L,T'IyFti, t uw T'" ::n i a rt.;; �ri a y. X l cr w' F mf t j 8 s ix +rtyrv J j,�' {r Apr I 4 1 a -'7 .�y w 61 Pry t to yt't+fr .'lff ,e.:: s� .b,iy .AUB G 1's" 11 v, Y r a ,t8 W' r -..w.�s'- -,:ir .:tar0!'OG.m'aid'?J.'4M�pFN+ r1 Y .,f m. .5...w.. a k'pw; ty mm 1 1 r 0 y 4 r tw TT �,w y I L. r' 7.. m.t W! M, J v r r r r :/M. y 1 1 r. v e. &1 t r p r Y+ L I I r wa r ,q i �v L f1 f' A +I,r,+r"'�r ,6T:.fYK 'R` s. wy "+M. f,r Y.� ti f�e ir.. .F i I��. 4�'r"'.7f.'i� SQn`a' (ulou) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100029 -4 Military Geography A. Location and description (U /OL1) Yen)en (Sar --the Yemen Aral) Republic -is located in tile, southwesterr, corner of the Arabian Peninsula, north of the strait connecting the Red Sea Will) the Indian Ocean. `i'be nor(hcrn boundary of th c �ocmtr is witltirt 800 nautical miles 0f the principal Persian Gulf ports about 1,0OO nautical miles from Cairo, Egypt, and within, 1,300 nautical miles of the U. S. S. It. Yemen lists 1111 stirnated area of about 73,000 square miles, The` country's exact size is difficult to determine because Yemcu has no established boundaries in the east. using the boundary in the cast recognized by the British, the country's size -1111 shape is about the Sam(! as that of Illinois. Maxirriuni dinumsions are 340 miles' north -south and about 230 tt)iles cast vest. Yen)cn, less barren than roost of the Arabian )'cninsula, has ;t relatively high I)opuhition density �an estimated 6,074,000 itihabitants. 1. Topography r. Yemen consists of a coastal plain hordc'inl; ll)e Red Sea, hacked by a broad range of hills ;ind high nu>11ntains which fall away eastward to a flat to dissected desert plain (Figura i ;u)d the Mill), Figure 1.5, at the end or the chapter). The mountains and hills, 2,000 to IQQOO feel ill elevation, are in wide- ranges that exlend across 1'crnen from the Saudi Arabia boundary in the north to Yemen (Aden) �the People's I)etnOCratic 13cpnhlic of Y(,n)en -in tit( south and southeast. A few mountains exceed i Lwo feet; the highest peak of the Arabian 'Distances are in statute miles unless nautical miles are specifically stated. Perin' 111 located west of San'a', is 12,336 feet in clevat,on (Figure 2), 'I'll( motilititins and hills are part of ;u, irregular helt of highlaricls extending :,long the entire west coast of the Arabian Peninsula Slcipes in the tnounlaitis and hills are cnnlmen1y 3W,( to more than .;.j 'I'hr nu)n,t:ii11 sur)n)its arc ;it least 2,(1(x) feet above adjacent valleys and frequently are 4.000 to 6,000 feet. 1 11e sto'y soils are shallow will, numerous o tilc'rops of bedrock. Ifills, including uutnerrus y01- ca'Ile are generally 300 to 2,(x)0 feet above acl- j'leent valleys, Sma!1 lava flows occur in same hill areas. The sandy coastal plain, tuostly from 13 to 30 miles Wide, is uSUally flat to gentl sloping, but in 1 n )laces is declAy dissected i)Y wadies. In Sol]](. Sol]](. areas ear the coast there are discont i uo,is. low sand dunes and scattered salt flats. The pl ain range ill clev,itic :n from Lea level to 2,(X10 feel. with sh,I)es generally less than .it'j, except in areas (t dissection, where !hey arr 20`4 1()4, I'lle mountains and hills are drained by sever;d streams� which are perennial in the highl:urds butt intermittent along their Iewer courses across the cc ustal plain, (sipper and middle stream courses are conur,orly confited in narrow, steep -sided vallevS (Figure 3) and gorges, and gradients are steep; lower courses are generally broad, with moderate to g(-)tle gradients. 'Tributaries and 'lost smailer watercourses in the 1110untains and hills are intermittent throughout the year and flow, generall for brief periods. only after occasional torrential ruins. Floodin of valley bottoms may occur, 1 11111011 9/1 most of the runoff is caught b low, earthen darns. The water is diverted via irrigation ditches to many small te raced fields on slopes adjacent to stream valleys (sec the Economy chapter, under Agricui(ure). The terraces, which hove stone retaining walls 6 to 20 feet high, cover large 'For diacritics on plane'. tonnes see the list of names on the apron of the Terrain and Transportation rnap, the nuap itself, and rnaps in the lext. 4 1 4W 1;1 IIr,. 1Ih` 1 w Iii 74 14 fm P, m 2 FIGURE 1. Military geographic regions and terrain (C) APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200100029 -4 of th4- %%1,1(.1 sI,q wh of tilt- 161;111.111(1, IN't \t 4-1.11 3.11(H ;old 110m) fort ill vl4-salion de "'rf I)laills \\jilt s(� ;tltrtwl I'm hil!, 4410.131\ fill 4-11 4d Ih4- i It ritII of tiville11 Tllc IILIiIIs i li};ur4- t', ar4- Ilat to disserle11 .1nci It:,v4- ntairll\ ,ands sI;rI' I ,II ;c� arcas of IIto- I\laill ;Idiac�r�rlt to the r 1)4Jr3111;1111, and hills art' (11 dlssecled 111 '.II f ;tasked \%aches IIi0i ,und dime's o4-eur ip Illr mml It. nr;Ir the S;III(Ii ,%r;tlri ;I In yd4-r. ;nlll It la dIIIit s 4r4-I a large arra vast 11i lvla'rlh. Vlc%atimi 113 flit. plains I;ttit;r Iro:..: )41)41)41 (ItH) Irt't itl fhr soulll\\1'sl 101 _'.iAA fret ire flit' m)rlhv_%I. I.(ic al relief is 21)(1 1,, too feel in (I is,eetcd ;Irea ;11)41111 :)(11 Irrt near 1114� s, Altered lo\\ hills. mid fr4lnt IU to alluut :350 feet in areas (it, %anti dines, ~1(41)4� in dissected urea,. s:uul dunes. and hill ma\ 1�\l�I 3 0', l�I,v% %hvre ,1(II )1, are gc iwrall% less (hall 5'e'. V vgclati11I1 is sp arse thrlNighmit Ihl� grv;iler parl (Ii If 4-l. Mrlsl ()I' the imrthern and vasivni 1!lairts ;Ire 1r.lrren. I'urt. 441 li:- southern .Intl \\eslern 1lains are ,11;Irsel\ em'e!ed 1J\ I(IN ),!vas, as \14-11 a, (11�(�id114111 bi!shes f(` \1 small scald' red 41;Isrs, III(Istl1 lol Ill +;!(lie,, have palin trees. t,ras,, aild bushes. Moto III the m 1laitls :1nd fliv mliaclIll hill ;m-a Irn111 :).((H) to 10,000 J'cA in e1e\ alion, siipp 4-t ciihivaled t.Itit111, t'tolls lm( 14lains .Ind \4-14'1:Iillrs. ;lIli 1ht-rl� .I r4- :I sII1:I 'Alit 114-;�'. 1 ,t �11,i\I. ;,rt-n, 01 ru1ti\:114-d ,'1(:111,11 (11 ro\t-1 much If !h4- t4'traerd \\v tvlfl l,t-,oi Ilic hill" 'md liltrlr111:1ill" (:1411,gl4m11 1111 IIit- triI;I �4-, 111rIold" Qrallr t'irtl:ill r/lll la Illlld II.) !YYItit�i. .I I!(I etrl T 4', I. 1 1lanl k% :)1 1114. nrn11nt,Iiu, .uul luh i, \111wd1\ I4- mt HL!Itrc .ii. \\fill palill 114-0�, .I Ill 1 ,111:411 gardens art- loe;llld in \%'Idi cs. chit-ll\ it 4't�\ Ili I It1 111 I 1e(�t W.I1vi