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CONFIDENTIAL 71/GS/S Guaternal March 1973 NATIONAL INTEL CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM gg:g APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA-RDP01-00707R000200110050-8 NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE SURVEY PUBLICATIONS The basic unit of the NIS is the General Survey, which is now published in a bound chapter format so at topics of greater per- ishability can be updated on an individual basis. These chapters Country Profile, The Society, Government and Politics, The Economy, Military Geog- raphy, Transportation and Telecommunications, Armed Forces, Science, and Intelligence and Security, provide the primary NIS coverage. Some chapters, particularly Science and Intelligence and Security, that are not pertinent to all countries, are produced selectively. For small countries requiring only minimal NIS treatment, the General Survey coverage may be bound into one volume. Supplementing the General Survey is the NIS Basic Intelligence Fact book, a ready reference publication that semiannually updates key sta- tistical data found in the Survey. An unclassified edition of the factbook omits some details on the economy, the defense forces, and the intelligence and security organikitions. Although detailed sections on many topics were part of the NIS Program, production of these sections has been phased out. Those pre- viously produced will continue to be available as long as the major portion of the study is considered vaiid. A quarterly listing of all native NIS units is published in tha Inventory of Available NIS Publications, which is also bound into the concurrent classified Factbook. The Inventory lists all NIS units by area name and number and includes classification and date of issue; it thus facilitates the ordering of NIS units as well as their filing, cataloging, and utilization. Initial dissemination, additional copies of NIS units, or separate chapters of the General Surveys can be obtained directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. The General Survey is prepared for the NIS by the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Intelligence Agency under the general direction of the NIS Committee. It is coordinated, edited, published, and dissemi- nated by the Central Intelligence Agency. WARNING: This document contains information affecting the national defense of the United States, within tho meaning of title 18, sections 793 and 794 of the US code, as amended. Its transmission or revelation of its contents to or receipt by an unauthorizod person is prohibited by law. CLASSIFIED 8Y 019641. EXEMPT FROM GENERAL DECLASSIN CATION SCHEDULE OF E. O. 11652 EXEMPTION CATEGORIES 5B (1), (2), (3). DECLASSIFIED ONLY ON APPROVAL OF THE DIRECTOR OF CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE. t_ r r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 WARNING 0 Z F 0 t i r i! The NIS is National Intelligence and may not be re- leased or shown to representatives of any foreign govern- ment or international body except by specific authorization of the Director of Central Intelligence in accordance with the provisions of National Security Council Intelligence Di- rective No. 1. For NIS containing unclassified material, however, the portions so marked may be made available for official pur- poses to foreign nationals and nongovernment personnel provided no attribution is made to National Intelligence or the National Intelligence Survey. Subsections and graphics are individually classified according to content. Classification /control designa- tions are: WOU) Unclassified /For Official Use Only (C) Confidential (S) Secret APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 l% This chapter was prepared for the NIS under the general supervision of the Central Intelligence Agency by the Bureau of Economic; Analysis, Social. and Economic Statistics Administration, Depart- ment of Commerce. Research was substantially c completed by Octobcr 1972, r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 GUATEMALA CONTENTS This general Survey supersedes the one dated Jan. uari/ 1969, copies of tchich .should he destroved A. Introduction 1 Cultural turd economic disparities as obstacles to social integration and mutimial unity. 13. Structure and characteristics of society 4 1, EtImic and cultural groups 4 I'ndinos and Indians; prowss of ac�,ultura- tion; divisions within the two major groups. 2. Social organization a. Class Influence on the class structure of the dud nature of society; stratification among Ladinos. b. Famil and kinship groupings 10 Traditional family cobesivetness; wrakcn- ir.r{ of ties among migrants to urban areas; godparenthood system; marriage. 3, Community life 12 Patterns of organization and activity. CONFIDENTIAL NO FORGICN Dlssr m APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 Page 1, VahtcIS an(] attitudes 13 Uldino 111141 lodia11 value syslrnrs; Ilttttndrs toward lrttional life, 37 C. Population 15 Demographic trends till([ trroblems. 38 1, Size au(] (listriblttiou 17 Comic dAll; density and geogral)hical dislri- 38 btttion; urban -rural distribution; migrntioo, 2. Ag(, -sex structure 22 Depot I'll" burden; sex ratio; to�bIn -rural difl'erencrs, 1). Societal aspects of labor 22 I. The Ixcople and work 22 Limited onrploynt,rlt opportunitiv%; high rates Of un -,1101 ymt�nl and uuderrnlploylnont; tim- 43 tutles toward labor and fuctors JI'vethlg prod- uctivity; work conditions� 2. Labor legislatiolt 24 Labor cotle standards poorly enforced, 3, L,abol and lnaual;cnletlt 25 Developrruvnt of tilt, labor movement; n111trage- ntt,11t associations. 47 E. Living conditions, welfare services, and social problems 27 1. Levels of living; 27 C.rncrally among the lowest in Latin America; deterioration of conditions for many. 2. Social services 30 n. Developmental activities 30 Limited effectiveness of governmental efforts, 11, Welfare services 32 Little progress in development of n com- prehensive socinl insuram:e program, 3. Social problems 33 Violcll- e and crime; drug abuse; alcoholism, 55 F. Health Low levels of health and sanitation. 1. Environmental stinitat'ion 34 Water supplies; waste disposal; food handling, 2. Common diseases 35 Principal ailments and causes of (lentil. Page 3. Dial atld tulh�ition 30 Low 1111tritional Ilwels; cldorit, intake, -l. Medical porsoll1w] lulu ftteiliti+'s 37 Irradectnate 41111lutily, quality, and distribution, C. Religion 38 0eucrul role mill intportance, 1. Honlitu Catholic Clltlrell 38 Attempts by Spanish to convert Indflms; syn cretic pl%letices; anticlericalism mml chnrrh� stale rctntions; organiratfoll told activitft,s of tilt chill-ch. 2, Protestant churches aucl other groups 42 Leading dolloulfnatiorls; missfonary activity; )ews; nuubcltrvcrts. It, Education 43 Weak role, despite immovrrmmnts in for cclucn- tional system. L Thu people and education 43 llttelleutul +I life illlllled to it snu;ll minority. 2. Edocatiood system 44 Chief chai coal itr'oblems, 3. CYovel�Itl ono till(] e(]tletitioll 47 Level of govcrmnrnt impolvrinrat: efforts at educatiomrl reform, 1. Artistic and intellectual expression 48 Indian and European influences; folk arts; fine arts; arcllftec'ture, literature: r11trsic and t11111m, J. Communications media 53 I,intited tievelop11rent of rrinss media; irr.portimet, of word- of�nlollth conl1111ulicatism; relations be- twecu nledin and tilt government. 1. Printvd matter 54 SiAllificaut role of newspapers lunong dveision- making groups; loading papers; books and libraries, 2, Radio and other media 55 liadio, the host extensive and efficient mo- (litnn; television; motion pictures, K. Selected bibliography 56 Glossary 58 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 u4 FIGURE Fig 1 ECTI ISNItativc' 1)IlYiicill t t (ph otos) Yl Page. 1 11(, 11 #Iousin c!c l'iciP (cha !'a /.c Fig. 2 1)istributiot of the Ltcliurl o nllit- 1 1 5 Fig, Fi g, 12 13 Inlpruvis(tl housin,tw photo) l,Jrlrtll 28 29 flan (map) ryp) i dwell ilig'Mits chart) Cin(�rul)111 ;3f1 I I il;, ,3 13ishrib(Itdon of Luliult lun u;tg(s (map) ,1' K 15 dWellilig photo) Outdoor buthiut; (photo) ;3Q Fig. 4 Vitttl riltes (chart) 1 17 I 1(3 8 %vC1t1IMIs f (photo) 3y Fi f� J Population, irO:l, iln(1 (1('I1tiitY, by departillent Fig. 1'1g, 17 1, C miscs of (it!+lth (table) `;illlll'1(' pt'Ut('l,, I 35 Vig. 0 (table) Population density, by ppu nicipio. 1 1' ii;� lei 18 lltilk(' le) r (Po!) 36 38 Pig. 7 map) Migi�atit� to the 1)(. );u'tlnent c 1J Fig, 2f) 21 I;clucit )n ;tt ilthotu) SclOul t.uroll,,uent (tabl(r) 44 40 t) Cuuteillilla (chart) i 20 Iig, 2 Auyun ttull)Ic r,,ins (photo) 119 11g, 8 :.A(llilO lUl(I In(llan 111iJ{t'iltlO,, (chart) 21 I'i 13;tekstrap loo,,) (phot 49 Fig. Pig, 10 Ago sex sh'uet,,t'c! chart Makeshift shrlter chart) 22 g li;, I 25 N;t n uul il)strul,,cnt (p11nPu) 1);uuxe i)f 01C voludores (photo) 53 photo 24 I ig. 26 Doily urivspupers (tablr") 53 5 5 f J H APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110050 -8 The Society The survival of indigenous influence in the syncretic religious Y g practices `O `;1,W at Chichicastenango symbolizes the effect of the attempt to Impose the Hispanic pattern on Indian cultures in Guatemala. Despite four and a R half centuries of interaction, the society remains culturally divided. WOU) A. Introduction (C) illtl igh ,1111 \I1 1� \'111\ ila 111 \;II'cl .I It11111' Illllllt'cl t' ;unt1 uu1Ll1I 111'i1'1\ i, ,till di\ dell illlll (\\11 di,lin(�I I�n11nn11 tr1u11n. it I;It'11'. llllln'clill,I11' Illcli;lll n1i1111ri1\, IwIlll(I If', rt'li> iuln Ilt'li1'I, mid ,11c�inl c�ll"lctln, lu ;1 Ir;Illiliuu;ll a:1\ ill life�. '111d ;I I.:Illinu III;Ii1l1'll 111111,1' \;11111' ;Intl ill 11;1\1' r\vll \rcl Ircltn Ilmm. illlrcl(Illt�cd 11\ tipillli;lrcl, in tllc� 16111 1't'llllll'1. Illltll ;;l'ullpn III 1111' Ill;lill ;11'1' 111111'�111', itnl>c1\1'ri,llc (I, ;llid llnur,g;111i /od, c'ullclitiutl, II1:11 ,I�Illd ill Shirk cmilI';I 111 lilt' ;Ill \;IIlt;ll r, t'11i11 cd II\ ;I '.Ill;lll I�;IClillu t'Iit1'. \\flit II cvlllr111, tilt' t't11I111r\. 'lilk ,uc�i;ll 111'll1'I', 11'111;1111 11111�II:IIl1,1�cl ,il1t�1� Illy t 1 1111111;11 111 1 ,ar �r.; 'd`r� 4 AU 4 I�\c�1�id fill tilt' t;t';It111;11 t�Il It' I" ul ;I N ll;tll 1111111111' i'I; 1 \\;I ,1�1 lulld Ill If ;Itrn t'cl Irk sm. lut�t'111r11mic Whil'lll" ill Illy I'c' \IIIIIIIUI;.11\ ISi I I -.1 I I11'1'iml 11111t d w,1' rt'fllrlll, \1'I't' 1;111'1 I 1' \1'I \I'l lilt' II' \11111111111. II\ 1 \111'11 ltll'lll 1'I'\ 1'tl 111;1 \;I lit �II ;4111u111!, tit 17111' 111 (111' In 11 !�I' IY'Inl, ul 111'j1't\ ;III ;I \1.111'111' 1,. Ili' \1 I�II;IIlIIl k !111 1111� 111;11111111'llt t1f 111'1;11 .Ql;ll, Ill ;Itldiliml it 1',I;IIIII,Ilud Illy 1'1111('1 ;11111 III 111111ld.I 1i1111 I n 1, ,Illl,c'clurnl tntult',I lu'nl;rc'� ill inlln'tl\iu14 11� \1'I, 111 1 11';Iltll, cdlll':Iliml, .IIICI v t'll;Ir1'. I't'I1'I,;,I Ill till' ut'1;11 r 111 ills' It'\t1111111111;11\ pvritul,c'I III1' It 11';1 I)u1;ll'I /;Illutl 111 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 attitudes crtphasiziug radical social reform or( the one hand and (h4. presesvation of' Ilw ,vlctltte c111n 1111� otlu +r. In torn, (Iris polarization has (�ndentic vio Oct wc� The underlying c of 111is intern 4.cine struggle iu tilt- view of rel is des widening gap hclscccu (114- Imirgillal sc�etors of Indian 4111(1 I,adilto stricly alol Ih4. Upper Class. tilt ec�011011lic intbal;11tc(� which to a largo- degree has 4.(Inte (o pa; Alel c�ul(tiral disparity as a major obsl;m�I4. to social irtegrllion ;Intl nali,lnal tuily. Official effo rls to allack dw t-corunlic {rut's of Ihesc pr�oblcuts my represc�Ced I)v the clevelopna�ut pilau for 197 directed in iargv Iwrl to raising living levels for Iht- poorest rural in11abilants. r1s in the 11.,1 ,1, howeycr. implementation of reform tnc;ISums 11,(s (ended to c4.nlcr at high level+ of govvniownl, ;Intl 11111C allt-utl)l Ills buell nmde to itvolve the lower sectors lltro,tglt 111e formal'r(Iu ill' grass runts ur ganizatiuus. As ;I result, soci;il change cnnlinucs to cl4.p4.rld 11 1)( 1 11 1114. good will of those in pow4.r radwr dart upon (11e int4.r. ctilln of all cletncuis of soc�i(1v ill tilt- political procvNs. Soc�i ;i )att4.rns derive largely I those established cluriug Ih4. volorsia) 4.1.11, wilco hispanic instilntions :Intl values were sotxvirllpawd upon Ihoa of (114. indigenous Indians, 'I'll(- Spaniards who ;irrivod by way of NIt-xico its 132 -1 lilt-( lilllc resistance f'roru (h4. Iribvs inhabiting the highland 014.;(s, 'I') support the colonists, the Spanish Crows allowed Ibent to 4.xact tribute in the I'Min of goods and personal servivvs. Corporate bldian communities were f in those areas where t1w popid(Itiott vats sCallert-d, and, where possible, civil servants and mission ;lrics were sent to adtniui:,ler (h4. Hies selll4.tnet :l s� In gctieral, however, n4.itht-r the c�iwil nor the religious fonetiouarivs were able to replace iudigrn()tts w;lws with hispanic culture and rvligiot. Adaptalio lls and compromises sweet Horde by bolll sides; Idispiulic� Ieg;Il and religious pat(erus were superimposed opuo the Indian culture, but the litter remained largely intact, especially in remote dr(NIS. Concomilalll wills the evolution of this basic social pattern that ill ;I large Indian majority subordivatc to altd exploiled by a Spanish minorily- -There began to vinvrge ;111 intermediate social grouping, consisting ill l of aCC011uratvd Indians, ineslizos. Negroes, and rnulalloes, lit linw, Negroes and mulallocs lust divir separate racial identity through ntisceg4.nation, ;ltd (ht- inte social grouping, called I adhlos, Cana� to iuc�lode persons of any racial c allegory whit belonged neither to 111C traditional Indian cour111111 nor to Ilw privileged Spanish group. By (h4. 19th Century the terns "Spaniard disitppeawd I III w cuurnutI usage, all d Iliv 14.1 I'mIioo c�anit III 4.nc0ntpass all p4.rsons who did not Iarlici pal e in 1111� lift� of o Ir(liti(maI Irldi ;ol nIIIIIuoiIt. The It r 4.1:Is I,ntlilio, howl ycr, 11:a, largely exenipled from 11e more blalanl I'Ilrtns of social ;IIld VC( nl Ill it discr�itni I'll iill ill IIicicd or Ih4. In(I ian, whose :ilmdion delerioraled ra :)idly toward the clid of tIll coloidal cra and in lilt- p4.riocl folloswing indep4.ndviwo front Spain ill I-S21 A ,cries of laws 'Wrlaioing to Lind temtre rights and I l;lbor 1 ;Itionshilrs.-- pro111 1119aled by IIc govcmineltl ill t11c 10th c�enlIll\ t0ctisibly to Ih4. Indian 11'()rll 4.xploiLlliuu en;lhletl the alisloc�rac�y to ;InIIIiIv cunlrul over indig4.nous lands and (o itlAil lit iott;tlize OW boltcdage ol� t11c Indian, During the firs( half of the 20111 conturc more sobllt- forms of Iegulized forc�ec) lalml r'4.placed 1114. old laws. solidr`f the prel'1111m�Itce of ;I sn ;111 Stroup Id privileged I.;ulinos. llndl 1111 raid '?O111 ccrl(I Iy yirto;dly uothitt; was Clone lit integrate eil11cr� the Indi;Irls or lilt growing mimbvi s (of marginal Ladino, info Ill� mainstream of society. Thrmigholtl roost of its (Iislory ;ls ;111 iudepcudenl n;Ilirat, :u;rW111,.II;I had ruled by cotsveyativl� imloc�ratic c�utiddlu.s' (slrungnietl) snpporicd by (h4. siu;dl bnl 1)owerf ll upper class, Everl I h4. acb end of t he IibcraI adIllittistraIion of hve id4.nI Jlisle Ilnfino Bard4Is IS1 :1-85j 1;1111�(1 esscilIialI tI ;dl(�r IIll� established S structure. W the iIIHIlx of large sc� ;Ile foreign lllyesIIIIvIII ill the ;eut Ann�ric�an frui ;Ind colTvc grossing ioc11istrics c lid ng Ih4. adilliltist rat iorl of President X1;Inut-1 Est r ;Ida (:abrer;I 1 1920 :uawinalo become 1114. s(ereolyp4. 01 a "banmsa mpnblic in which lurk prohls accrued to upper chtss entrepreneurs and fomigu inycs(ors swhidc rural devedupno�nt Itogllisbed ;Intl urban slam ;Irons proliferated. The bases for socioe4.ofloolic rc�forrlI .were est i s Ic( p Ira(1, icrllly, dnriII the uclmiIIisIra(iorl oI' 1'resi I III Jorg4. l'bico 14).31- �1.11, last of (h4. oI(I�Iine rvttulilln.e. Nowd for his devotion to hoo4.sts' ;Ind eI in overmnent, t'bico nuur;lgeo: to ac�11icvv considerable material progrvss for Ilw c�uuntry. IIis restrictions on civil rights and his kick. of a clynauic� social policy, however, resultod ill (he coalescence in the early 19 of' opposition elenienls within the 4.rnergelll middle sector, which iuchided industrial workers, btisilessruen, professionals, Ivachers, students, a nd junior military officers, Following the ouster of' Ubico ill 14)11, 111esc 1)4.wly orticulate forces elected Juan Jose Arevalo, a professor who had spent 1 11 1 1c11 0l his ,111111 life ootsicle (h4. country, as IIresitlenl. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 l)tider AmyaIt) (14115 -51 scriuus aflempts were nade I'or the first time ill (:n;cfeui:dan Itistor% to extend tilt beuel ul'socioeconontic cic�vrlultnc�nl to a broad spvclrmn (if' society. A compreliewive labor code was r�rracted, a bruit� social security program %%as ivaugimavd, Imblic e(hication was ezl:uidt,cl to rt,acch lower class Imclinos ;old the 1114li:111s, ol(I 11 org:uiizalion (if' tilt loner sectors of snciely sas initiated. Tllvse imltrvu(ions seriously lhirt;tiviwd lhe traditional social stricture and the rrtouopoly of the elite ern the i is( rot menls ef 1 i wer. Iii an effort to bring abom drastic social c hillige in it niiniinunt 111loout of tinc, the sulst,clut,nl administnition of* Jacobi Arbenz (:uznt;tn !4151 .i1) inaugurated rt,fctn al all increasingly rapid pace. %rbvnz came (o rely heavily on Commimisls as skilled organizers and ;iclvisers, particularly ill the ;treats of (nide union organization and agrarian reforo, a step that (listiirl)ecl conser%ativv political I'ac�tions and led to a coalescence of opposition ;tniou9 the traditionally artli- (:nrnnrcinist Iniddle and upper clerneuls of society. !it Ilddition, file substilUtic,n of political parties mid agrarian commitlevs for tradilion;d organizations of local political control in Intli;irt corlntnrities represeiled departures front established pallt,rm of authority avid carised considerably local turiuoil. The iuost controversi;Il of tilt� reforms, however, was the Agrarian Heforrn :tw of 1953, the laicl distribution program which w IS the kev invasme of thct Arbenz administration's social pmg rain and the one which represented the most serious chalivnge fit the eslablislwd order, 0 -nerating increasingly vocal opposition I'rott file upper class, Iht, church hierarchy, and lilt arnwd forces, t!a� k 1,rariau lieforrn contributed to the overthrow of Ubenz in June 1951 by a U-S,- supported force of exiles Iecl I,y (:ol, Carlos Gislillo Minas, The Ill -year experiment in social revolntinu lt,l�t a legacy of mistrust and suspicion froth on the purl of those who reccivec) bvitefils that were later wilhdrawn a on the part of the elite whose power wits for a tiniv seriously dircittenvd. Since 195�1 allcritpls to deal clTectivck with the nation's social probleurs ha.ivc� beers lintitvd, despite geucraily satisfactory advanees in the macroeconomic sphere. :ertair, inocic�rnizing influ- ences, iuclnding increased t,chicational opportunities, improved Iransportalicu facilities, and a more extensive its( of radio, newspapers, and television, have tended, however, to break clown the isolation that charuclerized MAM communities prior to file 19-10's, adding to the potential for social ferment generated by the revoii;tion, Uncicr I'resideul ,litho NvIvIldez `Montenegro 1966 -70), a left -of- center law professor, some limited Ivogress was made i the areas of he alth. od wation, civil service reform and tax reform. I)III the major (lit of his adrainistnttion as din�elt,d toward m;jiritaining itsrlf it, rfficr in the (;ice of opposilimi f'rorn %om� arm% elemeWs wlto fell Ihal lenclt,z colild not h ;udlt, tit( stlwersive threat. further gradmil progress h ;ts been made undt,r I'resiclt,ut Girlr;; ;Iraua (horio, an ;trine officer who was elec�led in 1970 on it "law and order" plaN'orn with the support of a conservative political c�oalitior. To lilt discomfort ol' his less progressive backers, Arana has demonstrated an oIlvxpecIvd concern for the vconomic bellermeul of the� least privileged i;rouls of' mwicty. hill inlrlc�tncnlatiort of his development programs depends in large inasom upon his ability to gather the nvc�;�ssary hunuut and financial resources for a large -scale attack on social problems, Morcovvr, ctucstions of internal security conlino;� to pl;tgut, tilt, Ar;uta administration, s',p honing c,l�f ineager fmids ;avail for soCi :rl clt�velopincut and seriously inhibiting progress in the area of social integration, A Yearlong slate of siege l asting fron November 1970 to Novendwr 19 1 hand erect opposition attempts to organize trade anions, cooperatives. peasant leagues, alnd grass roots political organizations, emicerb;iting political ilml social tcusious and thwarting Ar ;ours efforts to promo(- feelbigs of n;Itioual unity. In general, little progress has been nt;rcle towards tilt achicycnicut of it conse"sus as to national goals or the means to achieve than. Although certain vit -m ants within the mililar\ est ablishuu�ot (rare shown increasing concern for the soci;il welfare of the m,dt,rprivileged sectors of society, the army remains ;t pmverful c�onoterbalance to ;tit\ moves that might seriously threatc ii the position of yt,sled eccuotric intcrvsk, Tl1v Homan Catholic Clurch, dcspile the progressive iuflnt,nce of sonic foreign missionary groups and the impact of recent Vatican pronouuc�t,- nu�nls on social justice, c�ootinoes to be an essentially cow,urvalive force ill society, Thv inherent cultural conu�ryatisnr of mast Indians, mo rcover, cottslitcttcs it c rious obstacle to the imple-nentation of reforms which might threaten the distinctive pattern of their c�nllure and estilt in Iht, loss of their identity as a group. Although there is no evidence of a novetucnt to I the Indians 1'rom their subordinate position, an increased awareness aunong sonic In(liuns of the possibility (if' achieving material progress is reselling, accurclin9 to some observers, in growing discontent. Stich ;c d(welopnu�nt, combined with the wit :cuing gap between the "lr;ves and lilt "have nuts,. could portend increasing instability ill Cuatc�ncalan nalioual life. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 f. R. Structure and characteristics of socict% i (C) Guatemalan society has beets shaped by an interplay of various cultural elements that hat failed to forge a national etl,ety despite almost four and a half centuries of interaction. A relatively honuogencotts Ladino sector, united by a common langu;.tge and religion, contrasts with all Indian population which, while sharing certain basic Values, is itself ;t plural society compo.,ed of many grotps. Basically Incompatible value systems have served to maintain the distance between these two segments with the result that the Indians, today comprising about 405' of the total population, have remained in a position of titter subordination. 1. Ethnic and cultural groups The common characterization of Guatemala as a dual society masks certain complexities which combine to give the country a nonnational character. The Ladino group, made up of disparate racial elements ranging from pare Caucasian to pure e Indian, represents the national culture, derived from Spanish origins and Western in its outward manifestations. The Indian sector, on the other hand, is an anutlgaun of many cultures which share certain attitudes, values, and norms of behavior, but which may differ radically in external cultural trappings. Ladinos and Indians cOlstitute what is be..t described as social races; that is, they are distinguished on the basis of sociocultural criteria rather than ancestry. ht fact, Guatemalan physical types comprise a considerable range, the mestizo makeup varying according to the predomi- nance Of Caucasian or Indian blood (Figure 1). Language, clothing, and social organization are the basic differentiating factors. If a person speaks an Indian language as his mother tongue, wears Indian dress, and lives in a traditional Indian community, he is considered an Indian. Similarly, one who speak:. Spanish, dresses is Western attire, and does not participate in Indian affairs is considered a Ladino, irrespective of his racial origin. White upper class Guatemalans may regard themselves as conslittting it third division, but the rest of the population do not recognize the distinction. Because the Indian population vastly outnumbered the Spanish immigrants during the colonial period, interbreeding was frequent, and the mestizos soon were more numerous than the Spaniards. Eventuall the term "Ladino" came to encompass mestizos, persons Of pure Spanish :flood and I-Iisparicized 4 Indians as well. Althorgh the Ladinos of Guatemala share ill the general Hispanic culture common to most of L_alin America, they range in type from wealthy pure blooded Spanish families to poor peasants whose level of livin); is indistinguishable from that of their Indian counterparts. "The Indians are classified according to degree of "Ladinoization." or acculturation. Those who adhere most strongly to indigenous values and customs_ wear typical Indian dress. and reside in ,it Indian community arc termed "traditional" Indians. "Those who show some acceptance of the Ladino way of life are described as "modified" Incfij:::,: 1aty modified Indians are seasonal wage laborers who leave their corntttuities for months at a tune and during their absence adopt certain Ladino ways for the sake of convenience. While away from home, tile\ ma\ speak only Spanish, wear Lac lino -type clothing, and even Ater the eating habits. Lpot returning to their native communities, they revert easily to the traditional ways. Other modified htdians cain be found residing permanently in Ladino areas. 'Their language and dress may not be altogether changed, and they still retain the feeling that they are Indian. Clothing is an import -tnt factor in distinguishint, Indians from Ladinos. In the past, each pt tuti(gpia (the basic administrative unit) was represented by a clistinctive native costurie, with local variations bringing the total number to about 500. while� some styles are rapidly dying out, there is still substanti t1 variety in Indian dress. The percentage of the population who regard themselves as Indian (or who are so regarded by census �akers) has declined as follows, reflecting both the process of L.adinoizatiort and, at least ill the past, the extent of racial intermixing: CENSUS YEAR INDIAN LADINO 1778 78.4 21.6 1880 64.7 35.3 1921 64.8 35.2 1940 55.7 44.3 1950 5.3.6 46.4 1964 41.4 58.6 Indians predominate in rural areas and Ladinos in urban centers, fallowing the pattern established during the co!ortia! era. ho 1964, some 82 of all Indians lived in rural communities; l,adinos were fairly closely divided between town and country but trade up the hulk of the urban population, even in predominantly Indian regions. Ethnic composition varied markedly by department in 1964, as indicated by tite fact that Indians accounted for 95.4% of the total population in the Department of Totonicapan APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 FIGURE i. Representative ph /s:,al types Q rr Mestizos (C) Indians (U /OU) Caucasian (U /OU) and fm- ((nlx 0.2? in I Prugres((. I,u(liu((s ((luslil11te(1 lh(� 11u1j(urit grmtp ill 12 dep;irinucnts. I11(hails i11 1(). \1'ithirl each (lelr,utlncul. h(mvver, the cthnic 111akelip ufte11 "t"ie(I h\ nrrmicipio J`ig11rc �?I. \lost Illdialls lire iII the ccntral uIld \\esleril hig'tlands. purti(�ttlarl\ ill the area itnmin(I (le \titlau' I.ukc r \lillan It( Iwi -I. s((rne (i r; ((f the I((l:(I Ill (1iIll Implilaliun ((us cu11ceIItralc�d in ei,ghl 'For diacritic, ;ai t(lac nann�, tin� list (I nann�, a1 the cn(I ..I the chanter delmr(Ille11ts in thece11tral :111(1 \(ester11 highlil11ds. and :ulcclher I I'( li\i'd ill the 1)(Tilrtntc�nt (,f. \Ita Vcr,ilmz. in the cc11ter Of the c(n111tn. The IIldi:lus sneak 21 distinct langu:lges. N( hick :(re In )"(.I*\ classified into( sip 111 ajnr linguistic grmlpi11gs. SI>eukers (d a particular Ia11guuge d(1 n(1t necessurik cxhihil anti (�111tun11 cnhcsiNrncss ur sense ((f rluit\. alth(miji cerluin gI arc ass((ciate(I ssith l>arlictllar secti((us of the Fignrc :>1. I.ill-nistic diffcre11ces e111phasixc the (lip isi((ns ill 10ciet\. 11migh the Ilse ((f ludi:ln 1:1ngu:lge, is 5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 DEPARTMENTS 1 Guatemala 12 San Marcos 2 El Progreso 13 Huehuetenango 3 Sacatepequez 14 El Quiche 4 Chimaltenarigo 15 Baia Verapaz 5 ESCUIntla 16 Alta Verapaz 6 Santa Rosa 17 Peten 7 Solola 18 Izabal 8 Totonicapan 19 Zacapa 9 Quezaltenango 20. ChigwmUla 10 Suchitepequez 21 Jalapa 11 Retalhuleu 22 Jutiapa FIGURE 2. Distribution of the Indian population, by municipio, 1964 (U /OU) 6 Percent Indian 80 -100 60 -79 40 -59 C] 20 -39 0-19 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 MAM GROUP Mann WilJ14l Aguacateca Jacalteca Karjobal Chuj C Ixil P ')COMAN GROUP Kekchi Pocomchi Eastern Pocoman Centrat Pocoman QUICHE GROUP EM Quiche MD Cakchiquel M3 Tzutujil M Uspanteca 3 Achi clecii Ili ng, an estimated one third of the total Population still speak an Indian language as their pritriary tongue. All hilt one of the Indian languages are of the 1Maya- Quiche linguistic family, which is subdivided into five language groups; Black Caribs speak at Carib- Arawak derivative. In gcueral, the various languages are mutually unintelligible, 111(1 even among speakers of the same language, local variations in grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation may tltake communication difficult. Increased CHOL GROUP Chorti 25.000 11 Chol 500 MAYA GROUP Lacandon Yucateco 2,500 Mopan CARIB GROUP Carib 1,000 No dominant indion language Figures indicate estimated number of spc zkers age 3 and over. total number: 1,150,000. contacts with Ladinos, government programs promoting Spanish, and improved communications have combined to further the use of Spanish and some Indians use Spanish as their primary language. It is likely that most Indians know at least a few words of the language. Among some Indian- language groups Spanish is the lingua franca. Unictue among the Indians arc the Lacandons, who are found in a part of Peten Department which was ceded by Mexico in 1882 and who are related to APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 FIGURE 3. Geographic distribution of Indian languages, 1964 (U /OU) neighboring groups in Mexico. Mane of tlu!sc people have resisted dominatio: f centuries and still live in scminonadic clans. Ladinos inhabit the coastal regions, the eastern highlands, an(! the Department of Pete In addition, some Ladinos are found even in the most heavily settled Indian areas. A small number of aliens and fewer than 5,O00 Black Carihs together constitute less thou 1 "i. of the population; for census purposes, these groups are counted as Ladinos. 'There are few Negroid traces in the populati iudiculcd that onl\' 19,260 persons, or I.5(, of the labor force, Stt'ry rint'ut {Toyed, the actual figrlre tt;ts closer to 10". Oflieial statistics for Ilion, rec�t'nl \r;u's. mailable ollk for ClIaterttal;t (:its, are hillil,d to IlIvIIIpIo\t.d persoIlS rcgist,rt'd s\illt 5 \I�:: in the ,nrl\ 1970 rt'gistt'recl \porker, lotikled It's, th;ut 1.11(1(1. f;tr fv\%cr than Il)t' actual nundwr kuoS\u to be out of \\ork. l'nvtnpIo} tnent in the formal sense is hight'st ill the cities and the cotttut,rcial (;arming ztult's of 1�:,cuintla, ~until liosa, Suc�hit,{mc{u,z, and 1(elalhulett. Fill Il1ory conuuon, hoStrcr, is Ill deretnplo\ntenl, a critical problc�ut in both nrh;ul :111d rttr;d ;ur:ts. In (ht' chit's, tnatt\ {n�r,o11s eltgagt'd in sere it't'S fuucl{on it[ rut v\lr(�turl\ lost IcvvI of prodttctivity in tedious Ilu�nial Jobs which offer little 0 {1{rtu'tunit r u{,t;trcl Ilxtbility. 'Hit situation is t'St'n S\orst' i11 1 :eras t\ ht're two- third, of the labor force reside. Nian\ suhsistt'nce farulers ()\\1t {dots tort snl;tll to pro\id, \ear- round \ork. lu addition, disease, tualnutriliou� and anti({natt'd hunting tnr�thods diminish productiv- ity aIllong bout uuthile and stable agricultural laborers. kpproxint;ltel\ 120,000 youths, moreover, reach lh, ;1ge of 15 annually. BccattSe tut' labor market cannot ay APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 Size of Unit Rooms 100% Six or more Five Four Three Two One Walls 100% Floors Wood and Stone other Cane stalks or poles :8.5 Brick Wattle and 1 14 4 daub Brick Cernent Wood Al t Adobe Earth 109 1949 1964 1949 1964 Note: In percent of total dwelling units FIGURE 13. Urban dwelling units, by size and type of construction, 1949 and 1964 (U /OU) ullsorb all of these lww %%ork('rs, the problem of un('mpioyllient and uoderempio'na ('nt is conl pourtded (-,tell year. kt the satin� time, Cuut('nudu is exp('renc�ing an acute sltc,rtagc� of skilled labor, exacerbated In the lack c,I' industrial training facilities and the persistence of attitudes hich denigrate manual Libor. 'flue National 'I'raitting cord I'ruclue- ,30 Roofs Other Cement Straw or palmleaves Tile Metal 100% li\�il (:enter, it I \\hiclt speeiulixes in training managerial and adnainistrutisr personnel. is being rxp;uuled to prop ide iustrUCtion ill industrial and tec�hllicll fields. Social services 1)e4 activilir,s Grnertnnenl ('fforts to inapro\e tit(' material \\cll- being of' the bulk of Ille population hose be('rt ivacleyuule. sporadic, and dircct('d I)rinuu'il\ to the \\clfurc t,f the I,atlino sector. \lane it it'll tbers of lh(' elite acli\el\ oppose cell} ueasur(' hie h r,ulcl lent! to cause� ch:utgc in the status (1110 or in the Struetor(' of societ y. including such llwasurc�s us agrarian reform1 and nt;tss eclu('ation� In additioll, t1wre is widespread opposition In enacting Hvw luxes Or improving the collection of existing tuxes. \loretwer, I'ttuds tease been diverted frolu social welfar(' projects Io internal securil\ rectuirenit�nts. The r(W(li' it of the lust major('fft,rl A social relortu, itlitinted bv the revol tit iortary r \r('v:do and ;\rbeni rc;gilnes, left a legacy Of' Suspicion and mistrust uluoug the thousands who had benefited front agni ian reform mid other tne;astn�es. The uchniuistrutiou of \leader. \lontrnegrc,, labeling itself the "Third Governntetat of the 11twolulion," 111.1de some att('ntpt to recapture the moneutuln ol those )ears, moving APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 FIGURE 14. Typical one -room rural dwelling (U /OU) Type of Construction 100% 1949 1964 alnca(1 in sucli areas its civil service refornt, social insurance, and education. In addition, it prepared a 5 -year development plan for 1971 -75. Accepted by President Arima shortly after he took office in Jule 19 the plan comprises it series of related projects designed to provide un integrated attack oil the endeulic pmert} of the most depressed areas of the country. Both the 1971 arl(I 1972 budgets hare reflected the pl;11i's goads, stressing agricultural development and soeial services, especially ill the fields of educ;ltion and health. Financing is being supPletllented by :\I1) loans of USS23 million for agricultural devel(q)ment. 87 million for rl el(Ttrifieati(m, and 52.5 million for rural health ura progratls. Major funding. h(wever, is expected to come Ir(n) ordinary governnteut revenues. 111 1971, ill an effort h) inerease those revenues, the gmernnteut reorganized the Ministry of Finance to c�oor(linale:11r(l improve tax colleetiug operations. I'll(- governineids National Program oI :onimnnity Development IPNDC) has been ehoseu to implement tam of the plans Programs in rural :11�(.as. Its functions cover it wide range of projeets in such ar(.us as literaey, agrictillwal extension, home economies, health, cooperatives, an(I conuuuriit, 0n.g;11nizalion. like iminvrous predveessOrs. the PNDC is suppose(I to provide technical and Material aid than is hewild the resources of iinl)(ACdshed conutnnities. ;ts role is 11ot well defined, however, and its activities Wild to encroach upon those of other go\ erilment agencies. In addition, it faces the sane major prohlenl (d previous o,;gatizaliots, manipulation as a personal political y(.hicle.: \s of 1972, PNIX: maintained personinel in S9 Ill till in 10 cleparltu�nts. mainly inn the \\t-St- Central liighlillick these individuals w(.rc (.ngaged in comnittnit\ orgimizaliun, livestock development, training in home economies Mitt handicrafts, 111(1 coolu'rative assistance, T\\ent\ total and four regional training centers phis a haildi(�rufls center are the focal points of PNDC activities. The reaction to the prograiu has been nnixed. \CCllstoltell to receiving exaggerated promises that fail to materialize, manly rtn�11 residents have beconne inurvd to mmouneenienls of nee( progruns to inipl-me their living (-mlditi(tns. Ot the other hand, Presidvilt :1r.1ua's (�nlPliasis on the n(. (.(I for each eonlrinnnity to take the iiiiliatm in solving loc;tl prul11en1S is thought to represent a dvparhur front ol(I political pledges, In personal visits to most ullieipi(1s. Ar:u,a has tol(I local residents that govcrtutent aid ill (lepentd lai ;g(.I\ on nmtching local elllltribntiolts. major featnn�e of the d('velopuent plait is making eredit available to Iow- inc(uue groups. fll:t51t111(�ll as contterc�iad banks are unwilling to uudem rite lu;tns for high -risk borrowers, such as small farmers and snl:.tll busiuess,nen, the go went nlent has it lout gliarautc programs to stiniulate lending� it these sectors. \Ithough lo;llls ure being granted ut ;t rapid rate, the\ are largely confined to the capita) ;,u(I to ill(. manufacturing conlponenils, b\ passing those areas of' the ill most (lire need. \lore (limed\ affecting small rural development projeets, it 0)25(1,(10(1 guaranty to the Peuuy I�'oundation. a private enlil\ engaged in rural development. was granted under uuother prorunl. t h(. Overseas Private Investment Corporations' Comilm- tily (:rc(lit C(iaranty Program. TlIv N;tliooaI :\grieultural Development Bank. established in m-, 1, is also designed to provide credit to iuuovative prOdUcers. basicall\ sinall farmers. In urban areas, the Workers' Bank has Stepped up its loan aelivit:es. I':nblic (.Worts in the field of housing art� hanipered b\ it critical shortage if' Itt(is. \i;oi\ 1)nil(li11g Materials must be i11)ported at high cost., ;un(I the uee(I to initiate or expand Mater supply and sew(�rage systems before construction constitutes un ildded drain on se;11�ce fitaneial resources. In addition. planning has suffewd Irmn a laek of su(�11 basic items as s,nail- scale naps, and front it dearth of arehitv0s and engineers Specializing in log\ -cost housing. although the S(�flool of l'rbat- Regional I'luiuning at the University d Carlos, established in I)1i,5, is expected to increase the supple of Skilled persotnel. liesputsibilih for pl;uniug 1111(1 executing the housing prugn:,ln is shared Im INVI and INT.V IN\'I lies overall a(Inlinistrati(e responsibility for urban public housing projeets� while IN�l�:\ is simil;td\ inyoly(.(I with rural projeets. Inilde(luate fin;ulcial resources have plagta INT.Vs aetkities, Ilia urbat constn�uclion goads have been lan ;gel\ stet b\ IN \'I. Must of IN\'I's ,mils \\ere it the 0)l,UU(1 to Ql,O(111 priee range an of w(.re ri1;(do w iIiIable to I ;ouiIies with it nt+uthly ineonne of front Q:35 to QISO. Middle- ilwonit. families purchasing houses ill the 0.5,(1011 and up e ;tlegor find a(Ie(lu ;tte financing through (-mnnnerc�ial baulks, whose funds it re supplemented b\ all :111) hutuSing gu:11�;11n1\ lo;ul of S i million. Ill addition, loans ;nregranted b\ the \Yorkers' Bank for the purchase or repair of houses btlt ire limited to twice the borrower's monthly s;tlarv. An Instin'd \lortg lgt\ Dm-4 111stitute, established in 1961,further(. 1eom�agespri\ ateseetoreunstruelion by jusuring mortgages up to 025,0110. Private sayings and ImIll associations were iteorporaled into the trtlional mortgage insurillwes\Stenl in the mid-1960's. Eli APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 Private efforts in the developmental field suPplement those of government agencies. The fenny i'ouncfation. financed largely by Gttatenudarn businessmen, and the iVlaryknoll Fathers sponsor cooperatives, credit unions, and agricultural projects in such fields as soil conservation, experimental fanning, irrigation, pest control. and livestock and poultry improvement. 6. Weljary services Although the Constitattion re cognizes the right of all citizens to social sec urity, in the sense of public provision for those who cannot care for themselves, little progress has been oracle in developing a comprehensive social insurance program. lost persons in need are still depen(lenl on family, conuuunity, or paternalistic employers. \-lady, caught in it state of transition, arc without even this form of assistance, having broken family ties, forsaken the protection of the community, or traded a personal relationship with a rural employer for impersonal ties with an urban enterprise. A general attitude (if indifference on the part of the public, contbitecl with a chronic lack of financial resources, is responsible for the extremely slow evolution of the social insurance system. A Social Security Law permitting the establishment of a national system was passed as far back as 1946, but until 1968 only two forms of coverage were available: one, it comprehensive \yorkrnera's compe rtsation program providing work injury and general accident protection, was operative in 21 departments; and another provided maternity hcnefits it, Guatemala Department only. fu that year the system for Guatemala Department was extendeel to include sickness benefits, and it 1969, disability, old -age, and survivors' assistance. The system is administered b the (IGSS) GMAtenudan Institute of Social Security, an entity established under the 19.16 law and financed by payroll deductions and contributions from employers and the government. As of 1969, more than -1- 17,000 persons, almost ;30(i of the economically active population, were insured under the workmen's compensation program in effect in all departments except h Over 122,000 of' this mmnber, or 8(' of the gainfully employed population, were also eligible for the general illness and maternity benefits available only in Guatent:da Department. The latter group was also eligible for disability, olcl-:age, and survivors' assistance as of 1970, the first year of that progrann's implementation. Civil serv pvrsonnel are incluciccl in the systeut, but domestics and the self employed are nett. Mauv occasional workers probably avoid ;32 payment of contributions and consequently forfeit coverage. \\'orkers in the primary sector, the bulk of them full time Plantation laborers, comprised more than 60"1 of the total enrollment under the worknen compensa- tion plan; those in the secondary sector, 15%; and those in the tertiary sector. 255 The high proportion of insured agricultural workers, unusual in Latin America, suggests considerable progress in extending social security to rural areas. A separate Institute of iMilitary Wfelfare covers career officers in tle armed forces. Providing disability. retirement, and survivors' benefits. The systcnn is financed primarily through contributions from Participants. IGSS facilities in 1968 included 28 hospitals with 970 beds. B ecause of it serious shortage of Personnel. only I I of the hospitals were more than 50CC occupied during that year, and the average for all 28 was 36ei. The largest hospital, in the capital, contains >25 beds and 100 cradles. IGSS also operates a re�habilitalion center, polyclinic, family planning clinic, artd social service department.. Like similar agencies in other Latin American countries, the IGSS has been plagues{ by it serious shortage of funds sitc�e its inception. mainly as a result of the govcninivids failure to keep Ill) its Contributions. Ill 1wi9 alone. the Gu:atenr,dan Government owed IGSS some (x�63 million. (;ouse- cluently, facilities are grossly understaffed and personnel underpaid. IGSS is nevertheless fairly well organized and has been described as one of the more effective governinew agencies. Rehabilitation of the Ph handicapped has received special attention front both Public and Private sources. By 1970� facilities included a well equipped poliomyelitis center treating some 200 patients daily, it new school for blind and deaf children, a workshop for blind adults, it modern school of pfnysic:d lherupy h G and te ISS- a dt niu d isIerc� rehabilitation renter for it c�cidcnt victims. The rehabilitation Program operated by 1GSS, in u(l(litiort to medical Care, Provides vocational training in such areas as handicrafts, tailoring, radio and shoe repair, and clerical work. Efforts of private and religious groups in the field of social welfare have paralleled and often superscclecl those of the government. Anwng private entities, the Association of Infant \1'elfare provides child care in some 30 clay -care centers and operates two temporary placeu n tcut houvs. Utter Organizations supplying various tyres of welfare services include the National League Ag:;rnst Tuberculosis, the League Against 1'olionlyelitis, the UlAvtnalan llvd (gross. CAilE, and APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 n Catholic Relief Services. A number of orphanages, homes for the aged, and hospitals are operated by the Catholic Church, which has in []many cases provided welfare services in areas neglected b\- government agencies. 3. Social problems Serious social problems have been overshadowed during the past decade by the high incidence of Political terrorism, bl many cases, crimes perpetrated by political l llotix, groups are difficult to distinguish from those conlulitted by eolnnunl criminals. As robberies, kidnappings, and assassiva- tlons have become Commonplace, increasing cylllelslll has developed toward police and judicial efforts to cope with this type of crime. Because judges are reluctant to Sentence criminals for fear of reprisals, Police and army elements have resorted to (,xtrul(,gal procedures in handling suspected terrorists. Conunorl crinlin;.11s have uncloubtecll taken advantage of the ccconlpanyillg social disruPtiun to commit cringes which cur imputed to terrorist groups. The Arana administration, which canoe to power on it "lacy and order" Platform, has taken a strong stand on the issue of crime, directly linking criminal acts to the state of unrest engendered by terrorist groups, Vowing to attack the problem through legill [])calls, Yresfdent Arana in 1971 announced an c reform of the penal code, including stiffer penalties for such acts as publicly justifying crimes, ;aiding in escapes, creating disorder at trials, and falsifying documents or license plates, 011 the other band, the revisions spell out penalties for public officials who illegals' detain persons, imprison suspects without clue process of Icl\\, or disregard release orders. In m1ditioll, it new I'olice:\Cadeu)y accommodating approximately -100 trainees annually was inallgurcaled ill ,lauuary 1972 ill an effort to professionalize the police force, "'xtcrasfy(, achllillistratiye reuaganizaticnl has also takela Place, along \yith improved mainteu;ulee ol� facilities and equipment. Drug abuse is lot a major problelu, although bard drugs snlugglccl in b\ foreignel:s cure available in small atllantit\ and the government has expressed concern about the problem. N'lam of the Synthetic drugs c�cul be obtain( in pharmacies withollt prescription, but deaths from "VI doses are yirtualk unknown. The llse ol' marijuana among niddle cold upper class i�Iclnents has increased ill the past decade, leading to More vigorous enforcement of existing lays, as well cos nc�\y legislation to provide stiff'(-). penallies for cutlivalors and traffickers Ill mail instances, the local supplie):s of marijuana are uuaMare of its illegality. Solnetinles described as the "national via, alcoholism is a serious problem. It is partirltlarly prevalent ;lmollg Indians. who commonly cousilrne hard liquor on social occasions and in c�onu with religious rituals and festivals. 1)rinkf ig, forexarnple. is it social requisite during Plalting and harvesting celebrations, and at parties, weddings, and funerals. In some areas during the dry season, moreover, a scarc of water results in excessive consumption of homemade liquor. Alcohol anlcnlg both Indians and Ladinos serves larger- as a Psychological crutch, Providing it release front the drudgery of daily existence, from hunger, and front the discomfort of endemic illness. TO some extent, widespread drinking during fiestas has become a substitute for the songs and dances which formerly provided an emotional ouLlet. The clandestine distilling of liquor has become an important enterprise in some areas. The crime index is closely related to the collsarnption of alcohol, most crimes being committed by inebriated persons. `wore than half of all traffic accidents also involve drunkenness. `lcntaI illness does not appear to be an acute problem, and the suicide rate has remained fairly stable at approximately 2.1 deaths Per 100,0011 Population. In any case, facililivs for treating []rental diseases are grossly inadequate, although psychiatric servi ,s care re I to rtedI nary being planned for departmental hospitals. A General Directorate of 1entul 1lcalth was established within the Ministry of Public Health a Social Assistance in 1965. F. health (U /OU) Uel'ic�ient diets, inculcquate medical care, rudin)en- tary or 1)alnl�xist( sculitatioll srryic(,s, amcl pour personal Flygienc combine to 'rive Guatemala one of the lowest standards ol* health and sanitation in the 11 Ilenlispherc. Although disease and un- sanitar} c�onclitiolls plague urban centers as well as rural areas, the []lost severe health and sanitation problems are foaled in the colultryside. diddle caul upper class urban 1'(,sidcuts Kaye access to adequate Medical facilities and comsequvlak enjoy better health, bast th( bulk of the population suff er s I'ronl a high incidence of prevent. able infcctiolls and colmnuuicabI(, diseases. :1s with other indexes of !material well- being. health conditions reflect the gap between Ladino and ludiau. the kilt(,). being consigned to lower levels of health bec;atlsc of greater' poyert\. I'vwvr opportunities for medical attention, and cultural inhibitions. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 Low literacy levels and a corresponding lack of knowledge of basic hea.ith and sanitation principles militate against tine use of preventive measures and frequently result in a failure to recognize disease when it occurs. Illness is thus often far advanced before medical aid is sought. Folk beliefs concerning the nature and treatment of disease also tend to retard health care:, particularl: among the Indians, who traditionally liave believed that illness results from the influence of evil spirits. Severe ps distress, sleeplessness, and loss of appetite often follom upon imagined encounters with such spirits, predisposing the vic�tinl to real phYsical illness. The extreme shortage of physicians and other health personnel it, rural areas impedes the spread of information or the causes Of diseas and of modern medical practices and fosters continuing reliance on curanderos, or native healers. 'I'reatnurnt b a curundero usually consists Of herbal remedies or the performance of it ritual of one kind or another. Some curanderos also stock it few Intent medicines. Lower class Ladinos still cununOtl share sonic of the Indian folk beliefs, but, in ,general they have greater access to modern medieiw readily accept the ministrations of a p }tvsi 11114 my better informed about the causes of disomil, 'I'lie difficult topography of Guatcvtllla and flu� enervating climate of tilt lowlands are not to good health. Mount ainous terrain s takes transf health centers impractical in some areas, and nloblj health services do not reach the more inaccessible places. In the lowlands, heat and humidity cunbiue to provide favorable c�Onditions for the propagation of disease- carrying insects and parasites during most of' Sewerage s scrn'e but a small portion of the the year, and heavy rainfall increases the possibility Of urban population, and there are nil sewage treatment infection and contagion through surface drainage. plants in the country, Guatemala City has it combined Children are particularly vulnerable to the health sewerage and storm drainage system covering little threats posed by environmental conditions in tine more than half its total area: Only IW Of the area of lowlands. According to one study, preschool -age Queziltenalgo is served by snch a system. Open children accoutted for over 70% of ill deaths in ditches for waste disposal, Often flushed Out Only by coastal areas, compared with less than 3(),- in the rainwater. are found in many urban areas. In the c entral highlands. countryside, disposal Of Kunlun waste is even more haphazard. Garbage and trash accumulation also poses serious problems in heiyfly pOpulated areas. Must urban centers have no regular collection, and refuse is clunped at the Outskirts Of the city, attracting scavengers and pests. Householders in Guatemala City pay a fee for garbage collection trash is collected 1 of charge at specified pickup points. Collections are burned in an Obsolete incinerator or clumped in One of two sanitary landfills. Irlaclequitc' facilities for processing, storing, and marketing food often result in spoilage ;uncl L EnVironniental sanitation Among the most impOrtant factors it the overall health problem is the low Icyel of environmental sanihtic,n, reflected in coutaninated water supplies, inadequate provision for waste disposal, ;and unsanitary food handling. 'These conditions exact it heavy toll in terns of the spread of discos( During the 1960 s, the mortality rate from dvsenter more than �l0 deaths per 100,000 population �was tit( highest in Latin America. :3.; According to it survey in 1967, only ;38.8,, of the population had access to piped water; improvement since 1964 is indicated ill the following urban -rural breakdown, in percent: 1964 1987 Urban centers 70 88 Rural areas 8 11 Most rural residents obtain their water front a comnunit)' well or from a nearby river, lake, or strewn. Tlic drinking water is subject to gross contamination, since it comes from sources which serve as places to wash laundry and bathe, as weal as depositories for sewage and garbage. Few localities have water treatment f acilities, supplies being utilized directly from the source. Private bathing facilities are Ifniited. Public baths are generall available to urban residents, but rural people must rely on the closest body Of water for bathing purposes. 1 Indians often use \%;arm springs and streams, persons of both sexes and all ages customarily bathing together Figure 3.3 fn addition, swcathO,ises (tcInuscrtlr�sl. similar til a sirr,na bath, are popular in certain regions t F igtlrc� I,h \It' lWellitlg units are without toilet facilities of att\ -1- he types of sanitary facilities available it 1461 In�rcent of total dwellings, were is follows: 'TYPE URBAN RURAL TOTAL Byjd drain 30.1 7.0 15.0 Toilet 25.7 1.1 9.6 Cesspool 14.8 1.4 6.0 No facility 29.4 90.5 69.4 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 contamination. Open -air markets are common; meat and other perishable foods are displayed without refrigeration and are exposed to dirt, insects. and handling by customers. Virtually all meat is sold on the day of butchering. A municipal code requiring inspection of food and food handling conditions in Guatemala City is not generally enforced, although meat is inspected to some extent. Although efforts to improve sanitation facilities arc complicated by a luck of funds and trained personnel, some progress has been made. In 1965, the Ministry of Communications and Public \Yorks began a program to supply potable water and sewerage systems to communities which could not afford to finance such projects on their own. Other programs arc being tindertahc In carious agencies of the government. 2. Common diseases Fur nary years, gastrointestinal disorders have been the host common ailment of Guatemalans. The country also suffers from a high incidence of helntinthiasis, influenza and upper respiratory infections, childhood diseases of all kinds, dysentery (loth bacillary and amebic), and onchocerciasis. 'Tub(rculosis, although declining, is still widespread, particularly in Guatemala I)epartrnenl, pointing up the effect of urban crowding. Syphillis, gonorrhea, and other venereal diseases also have high incidence rates. For the population age 5 and over, the principal causes of death as of 1968 were gastrointestinal aililienls, influenza, and pncununtia, Because of fluetuatiuns in reported mortality rates for various r diseases during the 1960's (Figure 17), it is difficult to chart trends in most instances. The number of deaths resulting from tuberculosis and pneumonia, however, is clearly falling, while those resulting from measles and homicide have risen markedly, the latter reflecting terrorist activities. Approximately 505 of all deaths in 1968 were those of children under age 5. C:astrointcstinal ailments, respiratory infections, measles, and whooping cough :ire high on the list of reported causes of mortality among young t :ildren. `'lost of the deaths can be traced to environniental factors or nutlnutrilion. FIGURE 17. Principal causes of death (U /OU) (Number of deaths per 100,000 persons) 1960 19 1968 Gastritis, duodenitis, enteritis, and colitis 217.2 2.12.5 2:30.6 Influenza 186.5 125.0 112.2 Pneunionia 132.9 126.7 10:3.5 Measles �15.0 105.5 93,2 Whooping; cough 65.5 79.2 65.8 Dyseniery 41.2 42.4 -15.9 Anemias 30.5 40.0 42.3 Accidents (except motor vehietc accidents) 29.4 28.5 25.7 Brollehid. 3.1 .11 21.5 211.9 Malignant, neophisms....... 24.7 2.1.1 25.�1 Tuberculosis of rc ;piratory systetlt 30, ti 25.7 22.0 11 omicide 9.7 10.2 15.7 :\rterinscicrotic and deg;enora- tive he;u�t disease........... 10.0 18.2 17.1 35 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 FIGURE 16. Temascal, or sweathouse. Water is poured over stones heated inside the adobe structure, creating a steam bath used both for bathing and for medical purposes. The door is covered with a blanket. (C) FIGURE 15. Outdoor bathing at a warm spring, Momostenango (U /OU) Studies have shown that malnutrition is a contributing factor in almost half of the deaths of children, although it is reported as it direct cause in only it small proportion of cases. Ignorance of proper treatment for common childhood diseases also frequently results in coniplications leading to death. For example, the customary treatment for measles and whooping cough in rnally Indian connnuni ties is a steam bath, which is often responsible for severe pulmonary difficulties. Smallpox, yellow fever, and typhus, once prevalent, have been largely eliminated, althouth localized outbrc,, continue to occur. %Malaria. the leading cause 'if death in 1930, is still present in the C Mal region:,. ,pread be 111�wlit vectors. Cont have had considerabl, ccss, howe iml% A deaths from rnalaria were reported in 1166. Prtigr:1111s for reducing the incidence of the disease 6\ c int')lttletl ll an AID- sponsored spraying campaign t ()trt if I conjunction with the National Servic;, I the Eradication of Malaria. The Pan American d Organization has provided technical assistance. 3. Diet and nutritio 1 Nlost Guatemalans stiffer front low nutritional levels that exact it high toll in terms of hralth and productivity. Inadequacies in both tile quantit} ,old the quality of food consumed result in a shortage of nutrients essential for proper growth and sll ,,lncc. Food deficiencies are clue in large nurasttre to lo\y agricultural productivity. caused by an outmoded land tenure system and primitive farming techniyu(,s little changed in some areas front pre Columbian times. Other factors contributing to the logy levels of nutrit' include limited purchasing power, lack of adequate facilities for transporting and storing foods, popular ignorance of nutritional values� and cultural inhibitions. For uu,st of the population, high protein foods, such as milk and meat, are too expensive for frequent consumption, lIl many areas there is it failure to exploit available resources, for example, be fishing or hunting sluall game. Although there are social and regional variations, most (:uatentalans depend 011 it diet of corn, supplemented be black beasts, squash, chili peppers, tonlatoes, onions. fruits, and occasionally meat. Ladillos. ill ge ner al, consume a larger variety of fo ()cis than Indians, reflecting greater economic resources and more varied tastes. C orn the basic food of hoth groups, is usually eaten in the form of tortillas. Other couIlnun items of diet utilizing corn are stole, a drink of gruel consistence which is sometimes flavored with spices or cocoa butter, and tantal (,s, mad( b wrapping cornmeal in leaves or husks and then baking 3(i or steaming them. Tamales may include meat mixed with c ornme al on special occasions. Second in importance in the national diet are beans. usually made into it thick soap or mashed and fried. Coffee is the most popular beverage, despite its high cost, and is given even to infants and young children. The alcoholic drinks most widely cousuntcd :1h agnardiente (distille(.1 sugare;tnc juice) and beer. 111 1966, per capita daily intake of calories was estimated at between 831r and 9(11( of the WC011ln)(111ded norm, and cereals contributed most of the calories and protein, resulting in it grossly danced diet (Figure 18). In addition to it shortage 1 of animal origin, the typical diet is lit,tl krlly deficient in Vitamin A and riboflavin; there 1 a lack of adequate a.m, lnts of "1'he of iron and thiamin generally exceeds luirenlents, and Consumption of calcium and niacin uas been judged sufficient oil the whole. It would appear that the nutrition of children is less adequate than that of adults, part) because of prejudices which prohibit children front rating certain foods. `Ialy of the dietary problems of the general population are related to the dependence upon corn. Although etforts are being made to improve the nutritive \-,title of the corn consumed, and to supplement it, ()Illy a diversification of the diet call sole the nutritional problems stemming front the donlinanc(, of one food. Both the ynautite and cltlalite of the diet vary somewhat according to region. Because of their greater po verty and their d(,pendesce up on local source, of food, rural residents are less well fed than their counterparts in th(, cities and towns. Subsistence FIGURE 18. Per capita daily intake of calories and proteins, by item of consumption, 1966 (U /OU) C.V.UaIES PROTEINS unl- Peret'nt Pereent her of total Crams of tohll Cereals 1,484 e;n.s 39 ti Sugar 291 1,3.1 6.2 U,y Fats and oils........ 15;, 7.0 1 1Isty 1ns,y Vegetables (othor than tubers) 118 5.3 7.11 13.9 Ments 81 3.7 S 1 Milk and milk prod llets .1 :.0 �.3 4.0 I. ruits 25 1.1 tl �1 0. Tubers 13 0.1; 0.2 O.Y Eggs 7 0.3 tl.,i U.;1 Fish Y 0.1 0.4 Total ?,221 100.0 56 ,8 1 (t),0 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 farmers in the west central highla11ds are the illost disadvantaged. The diet of tile townspeople of the region also compares nnfavorahly with that of urban dwellers in other regions. For trlanv Guatemalans nutritional deficiencies are so great as to affect the ability to lead a normal life. lu extreme cases, death results front diseases directly related to nutritional insuffici0nc�v. Over 1,300 deaths from vitamin- defic�ienc�v and related diseases occurred in 1968. Tll(' most serious collseque�llces of the generally poor diet are seen in children aged 1 to 5. the age group in wlliell severe rmalnutrition oec�ttrs most often. In its most extreme form, child malnutrition leads to multiple deficiency diseases similar to the kwashiorkor found it, Asia and Africa and characterized 1)\' edema, skin and hair changes, anemia. and retarded growth and development. "etinls usually die unless treatment is given, and ill Guatemala death is often precipitated by the popular notion that a liquid diet will aid recover\ F.vell if a child survives the disease, growth retardation nla\ be such that he never makes up for losses incurred during the crucial first -1 gars of life. Government, private, and international agellc�ic�s have joined in a rllarv faceted effort to itllprov(' nutritional levels. The Nutritional Institute of Central America and Panama (INC:AP). c�arrving on programs in research, education, and applied nutrition, has probable made� the greatest impact. One of its nut,jur contributions has been the development of a low -cost dietary stpPlement known as Invapadna, a high protein food made from corn, cottonseed meal, and other local products fortified with yitarttins and minerals. When cooked with water, Incapadna 1)econu's a dish of gruel consistency resembling t1)(' widely consunlcd atole. At a cost of -1 centavos per four- s0rving packet, it provide protein and vitamins equal to that contained ill fresh milk. INC:P has also attempted to establish standard diets, based on available local foods. \yhich can meet nlininlal nutritional demands at low cost. Other activities sponsored by INCAP have included pilot programs in nutritional ('ducatioil it government health centers and pul)licatioll of a series of pamphlets for homemakers. 'I'o combat the dearth of professionals in the field, the organization initiated universih -level courses f dietitians and nntritiollists at the University of San Carlos in 1966. In addition, it works with private groups in promoting an awareness of nutritional problems. Other international ;agencies providing assistant�( include the l!uited Nations Cliddren's Fu11d, CARL .old Catholic Relief Services. whi have combined to establish feeding prograrrs in schools and health centers, largely through the provision of U.S. Food for Peace commodities. Under a law passed in 19; I mort,mer, all public and private sc�Ilc,ols are required to establish such prograr_ls. The school lunches generally c�ollsist of hot soup, rolls, and fruit and are frequent1v ilec�onlpatlied by practical lessons in nutrition. Problems in enlisting cotnmtluity support for transporting, storing, and preparing foods have� 1)( encountered it some areas, howe\er. Mau\ schools, furthermore. cannot afford to establish the necessary kitchen facilities for preparing l uches. and few of the poorest children are able to make the small n anlelary contributions needed to cover local costs. 4. Medical personnel and facilities Human and material resources to c�onbat disease are inadequate in terms of' numbers, distribution, and epualitY. In 19 70 Medical personnel per 10,000 population numbered as follo \%s Physicians 2.5 Dentists 4 Craduate nurses 15 Auxiliary nurses 5.2 Laboratory technicians .3 Because of substandard facilities and difficult living conditions. few medical and paralnedical personnel chose to work in astral areas. As a result, concentrated is concentrated in urban centers, particularly (:uatenlala Cite. where an estimated S(1,( of all physic�iarls in the country lrautice. Several attempts have been made to establish cortlpulso r\ Medical service in rural areas for medic,d students or interns, 1)ut not until 1971 did the University of Sall Carlos initiate suet a program. The shortage of doctors is such that only I londuras, El Salvador, and f laiti ill Latin America have fewer PIlYsicialls in proportion to their population. Moreover, no more than 50 doctors are graduated ;ulnually from Cuatenlala's one nu�dic�al school, the I of ,Medical Sciences at the- University of San Carlos, although at least 1,000 doctors will be needed in the next deeadv merely to nl;tintain the 1970 ratio of ph\sicialls to population. Paramc(fical personnel will probubl cuutinue to pla a major rule in providing health care to the population. Paramedical personnel are trained in t 11r schools, a school for auxilia nurses, a school of dietetics and nutrition, a ph y armac school, and a I ublic health training center. liural health centers, in uldition. provide some training in environment;,f sanitation, health education diseast� control, and APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110050 -8 neidwifer. 'There is it severe shortage of nurses, and manv trained in the profession do not practice. The shortage is partially alleviated through tilt- use of nurses aides. in Indian areas, niany of the midwives, mostly elderly women (Figure 191, also receive some training as auxiliary nurses. :llntost all hospitals are located in urban areas. -lore than half of the 1,_1,()(13 hospital beds available for use in 1970 were located in the Departneent of Guatemala, and specifically in the capital, where the General Hospital alone accounted for over Wi of all beds and for more than IWi of all hospitalizations in the country. The number of hospital beds has increased considerably since the early 1950*s, resulting in it ratio of 2.5 beds per 1,000 inhabitaurts in 1970. In an effort to provide medical care to it larger proportion of the population, the Ministry of Public Health and Social Work has been promoting regional outpatient facilities. In 1971 sonic 70 health centers and well over 100 health posts, sonne staffed oil% by a nurse or neidwife, offered at least elenientar medical car Supplementing the health centers and health posts ill rural areas are several MD- sponsored mobile units, nsuall\ staffed b\ a doctor. it nurse, and it chauffeur- assistant. "I'hese units pro\ide ini nuniza tions, examinations. emergency medical treatna {�nt. and health education programs. Anion); tilt- factors hindering effective health care is it severe shortage of pharneacetttie�atls anel medical e(luipreu�ttt. Most must be imported, and there is little stockpiling. In addition to tilt- shortages, the high cost of drugs prevents nuua\ persons from obtaainink proper nu�dicatiom. step toward allvviatin this situation PI FIGURE 19. "Granny midwives" displaying certificates and supply bags after graduation from a public health school in Chimaltenango (U /OU) 'S was taken in januar 1970 with the opening of the first of it series of state owned pharmacies selling drags at cost. A comprehensive effort to improve nnedical care in the countryside was initiated late in 1971 when ,111) agree(] to loan the government $2.5 million as part of a 86 million Plural Health Progrurt. According to the program, health posts will he established in each of the i2. tttticipios through a cooperative effort in Much the community would contribute land, labor, or cash for the facility; staffing and ecluipneent worId be provided by the ,Ministry of Public I Iealth and Social Work. "I'he Posts would be iiianned by rural health technicians trained in administration health care, and biomedical ecluipin(,nt naintenance. "l he plan also calls for the establishnnent of it training school for technicians in Quirigua. In addition all posts would be linked by radio to larger health craters all(] to regional hospitals for reference purposes, ordering of supplies, and rapid notification of epi(lenics G. Religion (C) Roman (:atFtolicisna is the doneicaot religion, although tar proportion of the� population chill, adherence to the cbarrcit has bct�n declining .i,t,i probabIN did not c�xccecl 9(),; at (ht- beginning of l 2. For most (:natentalaut Cittholics. moreover. religion is largely it formality: Ir\\ folly comprehend or practice the teachings of the church. let Catholicism. it major elenu�nl in the Hispanic� cultural heritage, continues to shape Ladino \allies and attitudes to a significant degree. while the syncretic folk :atholic religion of' the Indian permeates almost ever aspect of his (fail\ life. I'rotestaints. known as c�run ic�os in Guatemala. coustitaUe about :3)" o1 the population, No- thirds of all adherents be ins Ladinos: those professing no religious affiliation comprise about 7`( of the peopl I. Ronuun Catholic Church (:hristianil ..;as introduced bm Honuue Catholic priest., who accompanied the Spanish conclue�rors. Despite earl\ efforts to instill Catholic doctrine, aboriginal practict-s continnotl ill most areas. 'Too fey\ priests were at\ailable to inep,art sustained, eff"t-ctiye instruction in the faith, and the rugged topo�,rapliy I(ariller limited rnissionar attenepts to Chrisliauize isolated auras. Moreover, the existence of some\ hat similar eleneents in both the aboriginal auto? the Christian rt-ligions ea used considerable intermingling of the two ill the Indian mind. For the most part. Art-- Colitnibiaut beliefs all( practices still extant lo(la\ relate to the agricultural APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 cycle and to healing and divination practiced by the shaman. Among the Mayan gods associated with the cultivation cycle and still revered by the Indians are the rain and wind gods and the sun :ind moon deities. Healing rituals vary but usually involve an appeal to special gods, often performed in one of the many outdoor shrilles found throughout the country, arid the use of herb remedies. Divination usually occurs in conjunction with the interpretation of the sacred Mayan calendar, as it particular god is believed to control each day. Only the shaman knows how to use the calendar, his knowledge being a closely guarded secret handed down only to chosen individuals. 'file shaman is usually consulted for such purposes as ascertaining the cause of illness or had fortune, or determining the propitious time for traveling or Planting and harvesting. Some shamans who specialize in malevolent powers are believed to cause bodily harm or death to the enemies of their clients. In addition to these and other purely indigenous components of their faith, Indian religion is characterized by ,,ally Christian elements, solne adapted to Indian beliefs. For example. Christian religious figures such as Christ and the Virgin are confused with pre Columbian deities: in addition to its Christian meaning, the cross is believed to represent the four sacred directions; baptism is associated \\ith the Indian concept of "holy rain." Indians, moreover, tend to worship the images of Christian saints. livery conllnunit has its special patron saint represented b\ an image kept in the church and cared for by the cofradia, or local Indian brotherhood, which is in charge of certain religious activities. Dressed in robes, the figure is carried in fiesta pr ocessions along with inrlges of the I -lol\ Family. Syncretic beliefs and practices vary widely from one locality to another. In some mu rlic.�ipios, such as San Juan Ixeoy ill I Itlehnetenallgo Department, aboriginal beliefs predominate, While in others the efforts of local priests and catechists have done mucll to elinlirtale animist elements. Whatever the degree of intvl.lix- ture, however, the Indians do not rc, gnize the dual nature of their faith and consider it to one religion. Despite continued adherence to aboriginal beliefs and practices, moreover, the local Catholic church is always considered the center of religious faith. As a group, Ladinos observe more conventional forms of Catholicism, Urban Ladinos, particularly nleinbers of the middle and upper classes, are more orthodox than rural Ladinos, whose :atholicisln has been described as an "illiterate, popular Cflristianitv," containing many pre- C:olunlbian elements. Ladino practices associated with religion include participation in the public fiestas, which involve most of the comm and in priv ce remonies, limited to the family and close friends. ;Major fiestas honoring the town's patron saint or celebrating holy days usually feature elaborate displays of pageantry. The Good Friday procession in Antigua Guatemala, for instance, is said to rival that of Seville. Hundreds of worshipers dressed in biblical costumes take part, and numerous floats are decorated with flower and Christian images. In general, fiestas are organized by men from prominent families or by committee's appointed by the municipality. Where Indians are found in significant numbers, however, they arrange the fiesta, and the Ladinos celebrate separatel sometimes on another day. Although the typical Ladino fiesta has sacred aspects, it is predominantly secular. Private religious ceremonies. important vehicles of social contact in Ladino circles, consist mainly of baptism and wedding celebrations and novenas. Baptism takes place as early as possible after a child's birth, depending on the av.ilabilih' of a priest. :onfirnuttion is less colrinum, as it de-,)cnds on the visit of a bishop, who is rarely able to accommodate the numbers waiting to be confirmed. Novenas are celebrated in private homes, largely b\ women, and in some towns they assume the character of social events. At intervals, prayers are offered before the small altar found in Ladino homes of ever\ social and econonlic� Icyel. When death occurs, the no\ena serves it function simil to that of a prolonged wake. Ladino nle ll usual'\ participate in religious activities only during tithes of personal or communit crisis or on special feast days. In fact, practically all lay assistance to the church on the part of Ladinos conies front wolnen, especially those of the upper class, who place great emphasis on the formal aspects of Catholicism and regularly take part in church rites and special observances. In families in transition from Indian society, however there is more participation by nun. Pilgrimages, although generally thought of as an Indian religious practice, are probably wade more frequently b\ Ladinos. Usually traveling by bus, pilgrims visit numerous shrines in ;uatenlala and several in neighboring El Salvador and Honduras. 'I'll( shrine of the Black Christ at Esquipulas, by far the most important center of pilgrimage in Guatemala, draws visitors from Mexico and other countries in Ce ntra l America as well as front all parts of Guatemala. From late Deeember until after Easter the shrine is filled with worshiper. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 Although the clntrch was it strong social and political force during cololtial tittles, it was stripped of rtlnch of its wealth and privilege in the 10th century, when anticlericalism hee;lltlt, the dominant theme i)f church -state relations. As aI result, the i`hurch has tended to be poorer and less influential puliticull th;arl in hutch of the rest of l:atin America. I)uring til(' first anticlerical period, from 1829 to 1139, the :Archbishop of Guatemala CitY and a number of priests wort, expelled, monastic orders were abolished, the government assumed tic right to appoint church officials ant) to confiscate church 1) ro pt rt\, civil marriage was "little obligatory, divorce was le Itlized, and cemeteries were st,cularizt,d. In 11.39 the church was largely restored to its former position, and in I852 Guatemala bveanu' the first I.atirl American country to sign to concordat with tilt Vatic` ;ut. I3t 18�,1, however, severe restrictions, most of \a contirlut,cl Well into tilt 19 -10's, wort, refnslitutt,d. In addition to the confiscation of all church property' and the dt of juridical personality to the church, nuuustic' orders wt once again barlcd alttl all foreign -horn priests deported. The church renuahwd in the hackg rot, 1Id, gave tacit support to tilt government, and its hierarchy identified almost t \yith conserva- tive elements. In rural ;urns the influenet, of tilt churcli was further wvakenvd as laynu'n took cliargv of religious practices in the uhst,nct, of clergy. Church- stalt' tensions rust, it; tilt, 19.15 period, despitf' vigorous attempts b\' tilt kre\'alo ad Il i list ri tion to dispel an alitichurch image. Although the priesthuu(1 gt,11er4111Y favored the social reforms ;advocated by President Arevalo, lilt, church be(`tune increasingly concerned over )ht presidt,nti it c:uttlidac u! Iucoho :rhe'uz in 1951), and after ;lrhenz \vas elt,cte(1, church opposition to his administnitiou grew as its (;onllntnlist erit,nttltiotl bcculni` more apparent, With :0rlanz overthrow, t:ronlint,ul (:alhohcs, including it nunlbt,r of priests, \\t're allowed to participate' it,, tilt, drafting of it Ile\\ eousliltllion, Although Ole docunu`nl (an(I its 1966 rt,l)! ;ttrnu'nt) did not rt,estahlislt (:alholicisnl its Ihv owillsfyt, religion, it conferred oil tilt' church it number of rights not t,njoyvd in years, 'fit, church \\'as granted it juridical pt \\',is allowed ""they morl` tit acquire vild possess property (although only for religious_, t,chacalfon ;al, or rlturilahlt, nst,$), Iutd \\as permitle(1 to provide Catlolit ;education in church schools and to offer ittstruct;� n in rt in ptlLlic selools. Priems were given t1w to official"' in marriages, hill divorce rellud h a, l e vI. No rt or indenttlific;ation for confiscated church property \vas malt,, however. Since 195.1, the church has improved its position sorlle VIUlt, despite the general anticlerical tenor of official Policies. Although as an institution it cotltimu`s to rd](T -1 the (task conservatism of Guatetllaltn Society. increasing utunhrrs of elviMly and laity are advocating it Illore active role in political and .a,riul affairs. For a nundwr of dears, fur cxatttplc,'.hc church has refused to colllnl('111oraty tilt victor)' of Castillo A ntas in 195-- thereby t the antagonism of the National Lil)cration Nlovenent (NII.N1, the political party fonndt,d by Castillo Armas, In 1968, dirvv \larykrloll Iuissionarit,s were' vxpvIIvd from tic countre' h their superiors f involvi'ntt,nl guerrilla groups in a higfll\ publicized affair \vltielt, although ;ut isolated incident, adversely affected the c hurch's position visa vis tilt, goyt,rnnlenl. In lilt(' 1970, moreovvr. Iwo furvign cl`rgyna'u, oat' ;t Catholic priest and the other an Episcopalian bishol, also expelled, this time by the government, for havilig signed it petition condemning violent,(� as evidence of moral depravity and requesting lilt end to llle slate of seige then in force. (Loth foreigners aild religious Personnel are prohibited by lit\\ front ptu'ticipating ill politics,) (:ardinill Mario (:asalrit,go has twincmI some sympathy for boll) Ieflwiug and rightwing politieill factious ;Ind has allentpted le, moderate' the excesses of bolls. His kidliapping in February 1968, report t,(I l\ 1) I'ighlisIs, gailn`d iulrrnuliun;l) atlentiol, although he was reh`Ilsed unharmed after I days, Activities of the chilrt,h in the s 'bill field have aL;o resulted in frictioll bt'1\vt,en the hierarchy and lilt MIMi 'list rat iol, In 1967, for example, lilt prinati' issued a postoral letter which reileratvd the precepts contaim'd ill ,::e papal vIIc\clic;Il i"ewdorum 1''l ressit" gent,roll,\ eomidered the most progressive of rt,ct,nl papal prouoluteelnenls on social doctrine, Galling for "massive social reform,' he dt,nouneed the "lrenlendotlsly Inl and unbalanced" (listribtltiou of wealth, citing ine(luitabiv landholding patterns and unti(luated (111 hiring practices, la matters of social reform, the hivrarclly has tended 10 follow the lead of the Vatican and has also ht,en illfluenced to solliv degree by other Latin Anu'ricau hishops, particularly tIll'ellgh pmlicip.1tioll ill Ills` I,a till :Illl'1'ie::tl Episcopal Committee, it leading force ill restoring to dynamic character to the church, lndfyidlial priests are nulspoken in Iheirconcern for social action, hilt their number is small, and they are not as inf1twillie.l lis the n' comit'rparts ill solute other Latin Anu'rican countries, Atlong lilt most aetfv(' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 k propoirnls of iucreuse(I chireh inyolyen1,111 ill social sph1,ms ;ur the tMarykuoll missionarivs. Spillish Jesuits ill Rafat,l I.tuuliyar Utdvvrsily, and til bishop of Q11vvudlemingo. In 1970, over 7l) Marykroll hatht,ls were active ill four dittet`ses, plus tllore than ;ill Marykioll Sistvrs if, (if( Ilu1,Illitgvnango area, i ud(lition to usual lllissiolum- t,fforts, (h1, Nlary knollers have institulyd rre(lil nnionx, cuup1,ruliyrs, agricul- tural training pl'tgt'illll, (itt,r;l(' courses, and liu1lrrous other projvets whiell hay1, roltribulc(I to tilt socioecolloillie dt` doilllivilt 111 oat` tit Guatl`illtlla s Inns'( isi)LIted areas. As it compivint`tllary activity to divir rural ,york, Mar\knollers Ilavv introduced the rrusillo among the urban vxIl- to -do. This type of training progriull, designed to create awareness of the Christian laynai's rule in socict\, hits hrt,i inslruntenlal in mo(lif\'ing li ronst,rx ;tiy1, atlilud1,s of nmm uppo,r class Catholics in regard to social problems, 111 addition, Misr �knoll nuns in tlr capital operate o prestigious school fur girls, Reform minded priests art, organizvd into Ilit Confeder ;ltion tit' Dioct,sall Priests of Guatemala, hllt this o,nliIy has not X1,1 d1 nlneII vffectiyen1,ss. Reform cit,nlents were ills( runl1,nlal, howeyt,r, in organizing the celebration of National Pasloral Wcvk, held ill Into Isms, wht,n over 1,()1111 clorgy null layllivil gildwrt'd for ti` first ill -depth ;lialysis ever made of 1111 cllureil's role ill collemporary (:ulll1,nullai society, The church is tirganizrd in tilt trtt:;iiiitmll t`piscopill 11ttutm`r. Under lilt nulhority of th1, Archdioct,st of (:111ir1Ilala, cmaled in 15 3.1, art, cighl snffrugtul dioeesys, alld two prdiltllivs, oat` t`Ileolnpasshig (lit shrin1, at Estiuipllills, In nddi(ioll, there ago, two apostolic admillistrations Under tilt' jurisdiction of Ihr Valiean. The Curdilull Arehhishop of lilt tvilmlit City is aidt'd within tilt arebdioc�t,so, by Miner amiliarY hisholls; two oilier auxiliary hishops urr asrifgncd to the dior1,s1,s of 111101110vu allot Salt Nlal'cos. (;41111ploing (h1, 26 -1111111 Iier ;redly amt, right tvsidt,il hishops, Ill yivilrs gea1,ral, and Iwo I ptimthe tdillinisl I'll tots, Most of tilt stlffrtlgall jorisdiclions were rstablisl1,d b\ Ihr V'Itica11 ilft1,r 1950 in order to roduce the power of Ihr archbishop and It,) slrellgthell local ildministrn- lion of :urns outsidt the capital, bong ehal�aeleriied b\ tilt ct,ntrillizadoi of aithority, the church Mils 11/,81111 to t`xpvr1t`IIt'v it hr"I(l"I'llg ill' tiet.`ISllllllllaklllg pow1,r, On controversi;d mallt,rs, how1,yt,r, the hishops inynri.116 flileliou \\illlin Ihr frnlnt of lluiyrl ;�oil church polio a, dieliI1,d h%, tilt Valicilll through its milleio, II' it cnnflict mist's oy0 it purrl\ local Immure, lilt` tlrchhishop normidly pr1,yails oy1,r tie 111111641, Ry ;nil lal ;t;1,, 111t, laity have little inlluo,mo, ill the for11lulaliol of ditwesun polio In 1liv I lueiuo,terl;tllgo Diuvow, however, because of the 1llt1,rIIIVdinr' v roll` played by Illo, t` ;tIvellists and th1, dvpartln1,nt's isoiaton front the capital, tilt, bishop ltsually respoids to local needs its ;o'liculatvd by the laity. As ol' 1970, there wrret352 parishes, mort 111 ;111 twiee t1w number existing Ill years pr1,viously, The avvni I 1lurldwr of parishioners per parisII \\,IS still ;1pproxi lilt td y 15,000 iu 1970, or more than six tildes the ratio in lilt, I!Ililyd Stalt,s, \land p;Irishrs luriI ;bras coyer vast t,xpans1,s of lerrilury, purls of which can be rt,acbc`d only by foot or of horseback. According to official cllurrh slalislics for 11170, ihcr1, were 608 priests, almost half of whom wvrt wrving ill the archdioct,sc, Although Iht, 19 fignm represents a siitblo, increase MAT the )till priests aeliyl` ill 1953, it serious shorlagv of ordilirled del"; continues to rrstriet church actiyilies, The 1970 ratio of roughly oat, prit'st per I0,000 iuhabilallts was higher than that ill lilt\ olllt,l� Latin ,lmo,ricall t.viiltr), Onk tit svIIIIf trlMIs, nort,o\1,r, wt,rr training to b1, priests, Ilu'gvk becanst` Cow young na`lt possess tlualificatons (or, ;It'll iitt,rt'sl ill, church service, tithe parishes Irlyc no resident priest, and ImIldivds of chapels ill vilingt's anti hanilcis 'o'1, ,cry1,tl h\ it priest tilt inure dull mwv a year, 111 1h1,s1, )daces, Indi ans ltl;ly rvgard tilt sllanlal its a substitute for 1111, prirsl, Prior to 111.13, most of Ili` clt'Ny wvIv s1,cu1411, or. dioet,sto, priests, Following )ht, sullso,tlucnt itillux of fnmigrl dorgy, this ratio wits r1,yt,rsvd, so that b\ 19 40 store than two Thirds of Ihr prirsl, \vrre illrmht,ls of r1,ligions orders. i1whiding lilt Nl; ryknnllvrs, Ihr himi'st group, josiits, Bolvdictii1,s, Fraieixvwls, I,nzarisls, \torus',, Rcclrnllllorisls, I)onlillicaus, 5tigmaliie Father", ;Intl r1,pr1,s1,ntilli\rs of st,vend Spanish orders, :\ssisling the clrrgy in 1970 \lerr titil) )Mils lulu oy1,r �100 lily brothers, its wril its nunlerolls Ian nlissiomlri1,s, Almost all U.S, ellurell porsonot,l ill Glial1,nnla, of whole Iht,r, weer 1 mt,n and I(!a women ill 1968, ;Ire Inelibrrs of religious orders, principally the Milryknoll Ordt,r, Fomign -born priests cullslitnit` ;111proxilntllely ,Sol'( of !h1, local body of clvrp, illl Spunitlrtls pr1,donlinating, followed b Iliilinns, (!,S, \Inr knoll priests abut aceuunled for l,3 of IIIt priests ill 197 Of !ht, 13 bishops, only six art, nativ1, (linlrmalnlls, Girdiia) :asarit,go mid Iwo 111111,r prriates alv sparlislt b\ birth, Iwo bishops arc llikhalls, ;oil lilt law bishops l'ronl lilt Xhlr\ktloll Ordvr art, t', ti, ciliv its, lit adtlilinll1 ililst lit brother,, illlts, tltld lily Inissioliuiex W1 of foreign 1,xtractiml, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 'I'll P I)rrsrne1r of a 111 rgv lit nllhwI of foreign priests h ats alt limes aroused resrtthn'nt o the part of lilt` uativv- horn clergy, whose youtlgrr Inelubers in palrtic�tllar fee) that foreigners play tot) pronllut'nl a role. Forviga- horn priests art sotl)etines prone to rvgau�d lilt nudge elrrgy als poorl\' h�aiul'd and its more intt,mstt,d in Inaintailling vxt('P11ad Itpl)t'al I' nves thall ill ministvring to the urt of their parishiollers, lit 1970 the church operated t)a; eharilablt itlstiutions and 171 schools, the nunlhrl' of schools was more Ilum douhle that in 1960 hill wars srlull compared \�till that of illo Latin :Wit'ricall eotulries, The klaryknll Order has also trainr(I It number of Im entt'eilists to work atilont; tilt Indians. Colvellists 11a\'r� mlltie' it e011\id('labll' impact !u uutn\ rurall eonunuu!lies, particularly in bringing religions beliefs auld practices more !n line with Catholic nruls, In 5111111' alrt'als, ho\wt, er, attempts to Illodify trmlltiollaal forms of rdi lous expresxlr,l) haler mt,l wllll strolIg opposition from euirrncht,d vofradiiis, th'nlonstratting lilt tenacity with which Indian sorlrty dt,frn(Is its ellstollis, III sollit' l'ast's, t'Iiragl'd Indians lal\'e drivoll priests or calevilists from their yillalgvs mill rebuill de'stroyod images used ill swllcrt,lit' rites. III aldtlitioll, lath nlenlbc'rs of reform groups, such as Calholie Action an(I tilt' Third Ordt,' of tit, Fr-mcis, work !n both urban ;ultl rural areas, 'I'hrongh Itolnt' visits 4ln(1 stud\ groups, dwsiv lad nleu attt'In n pt to pllrlf Chr doctrine b erllphtlsizing sillple ritual! anti dally prnyvr ill plater of fit`slal cdebratiolls, ill doing so, thr run the risk of antagonizing friends amd ut,ighbors, who souu`lililt's rt tse to elder it rhtlrrll when the rt`forlll at vocallt's ally \woe's liping, 2. protestalllt ehllrelles and other grollps Ill 190"t, tilt Protest ;alit comm,11111\ wits diwlded uluong 11 eliffrlc'ul dt'mlulnnliols, Ihl' Ia11;a;rs1 of which wvry the following; COMM UNICANT T OTAI� MUNIllms rommUNITV Nlttlowd HvanQelicid Presbyterlan Churl:h of ctlawtnilla 8,300 21.,50!1 Friends Church 7,00 12,C10t) Church of God O,l)t)t) 11,000 Asselllblies of Cod 0,800 27,700 EminKeltcid Church 0,t10t) 22,000 Sew filth -!lily Adventist Church 5.3C10 1!3,8!10 \II togolit'r, tilt Prolt'stanit vounlunily eolnprist's no rlore Ihim 150M00 persolls, ul' about a "t of lilt, tolall popllliltioll, Prott'shkills lire l'lIlnl ill till plll'Is ill tilt' country but art'. proportionitt,ly most nuluerous in alit' drpartmenls of lonbill and /,neap,, \Brie the\ vollstiillit' ahoill ",''r ill the popllaltiol, _12 Protestants first t'rih Cumvituda ill 15.12, but 1 lissiomiry endeavors wort confined to l st,ltleln`uts until tilt' early ISSIYs, Since that till', lilt, nctllbrr of Prolt,stullt groups hats gradually incrvasvd, lilt larger, traditional deuolllinattions operating in turnd art'as and anamg n1i(I(llc�- an(I upper- incolllr urban groups, aunt lilt Pentecostal wets working in low- income urban areas, Almost all 1'rolt,stival gn ups art asso,ialt,tl \rill, ,,ld firlunce(I I)\. it puarinl:ar sciools: public au�b:1u schools al the I)reI)rinl:u'\ and levels recorded the second highest rutio,:39:1 for both I }'Iles� A greater problem than the scarcit\ of inslruclors is dw high prof ortit)n of poorly (Iti;dified IeacLers, 1 \\illrt)ut Iwdagogival training :are folnld in Ieaching posts al all levels, :ud 11 large number ol� leachers ha\e 11ac1 no education be\urld the lv\el at \\hicll the\ teach, Newel. than I" of all second:ar\ tt"Idwl's hold a university degree, or lict� lisle, \\hicll liroreticall\ is a retluisile for teaching at 111a1 loud. In Ml (1l It, raise 111e le\�el of prolicienc anr.)ng uncertified prill);n�\ instructors, evenfnv; courses and a suutuler Intirling progr ila have been offered. The c`hrorlie shorIngt ol (Ialalified leachers derives in I)url I the Iaet dolt teaelafng holds liltle 111nictioll :s ;a profession, Teacllilig conditions are Door, p articular!\ i1( rural ;areas, I`e\\ leachers Bare to rella:ain APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 1'11aLIC I TOTAL Preprhnary 72 21 93 Primary: Urban 737 281 1,033 Rural 3,125 806 4,021 secontinry 75 293 368 Industrial training centers at. tached to primary schools 17 0 17 All school 4,02(1 1,500 :5,532 I'lle \\orst conditions pre\;1il in the rural schools, most of Mlich are one -room structures, Tlly\ are goner lk o\ercro\\tled, I)oorl\ lighted and ven(ilated, :and completer larking in slulit;ar\ focililirs. Urban schools, altholigh also )verero \\dv(L are lls(lall\ divided into svp1trale elossrooltls null nua\ have the IM benefit of electric lightilig Mid sonic sort ol sanilar\ arrangenlelit, tichool e(luil)nu'nl is ilacle4lu :uu1 touch of \\flat is in use is I)rinliliva`. Tv\tbooks and other teaching aids, such as blackboards, charts, :ind Malls, :are scarce. NlaUl\ In1I)ils i1( rural schools taaust snare textbooks, Schools i1( or neau' the capital ore the hest salt)I)livd, Sonle te\tbooks, school ecluilnnen(, :anti leaching mat('rials have been provided through All) ;1(1(1 \arious irteruationa) agencies. While the inade(luac\ of school pl;uts constitutes a basic obstacle to progress in etlue:alfon, the shortage of instrnctol:s is v(tuall\ serious.:kllhoug11 the Ilalluber of :available leachers increased k about 600 pt'r \var during the 1960's, the gromll in slal�f, p articallarfI i1( public educolion, (ailed to o\ercona` a longst:andiug leacher deficit. prinlaril bec;anse of the rapid inrre:ase in ellrollulenl, The highest plipil teacher ratio in lie educational System, �16:1, existed in the operated rural >rinl:ar sciools: public au�b:1u schools al the I)reI)rinl:u'\ and levels recorded the second highest rutio,:39:1 for both I }'Iles� A greater problem than the scarcit\ of inslruclors is dw high prof ortit)n of poorly (Iti;dified IeacLers, 1 \\illrt)ut Iwdagogival training :are folnld in Ieaching posts al all levels, :ud 11 large number ol� leachers ha\e 11ac1 no education be\urld the lv\el at \\hicll the\ teach, Newel. than I" of all second:ar\ tt"Idwl's hold a university degree, or lict� lisle, \\hicll liroreticall\ is a retluisile for teaching at 111a1 loud. In Ml (1l It, raise 111e le\�el of prolicienc anr.)ng uncertified prill);n�\ instructors, evenfnv; courses and a suutuler Intirling progr ila have been offered. The c`hrorlie shorIngt ol (Ialalified leachers derives in I)url I the Iaet dolt teaelafng holds liltle 111nictioll :s ;a profession, Teacllilig conditions are Door, p articular!\ i1( rural ;areas, I`e\\ leachers Bare to rella:ain APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 ill the small rural schools: nurn% conunute to their jobs from tilt- closest urban cvilter, where lhry hope vycntuallY to obtain positions. Salaries are logy, and raises ;amounting to 0 of solar\ arc given only at 5- vear imteryals. Finally, little prestigv accrues tc, the profession. The average teacher is not regarded :lit\- more 114011\ than any other lilt-rate person. NNl:uly teachers use leaching as a slna!I step up the social la dder, Icayiug as soon as possible for more wwarditag jobs. Because they usually have smaller side classes and amore textbooks :uul ilislrnctional materials, private urban schools are generally considered superior to the publicly operated facilities. `Iainluiued i cominer- cial or philanthropic yetlltrcs, the private institutions charge tuition fees 111(1 are attended larger b, children of upper and middle class funlilit-s. j9;m1y of these schools are operated tinder tilt auspices of the Catholic Church or b other religious groups, Ill rural areas, most of tilt prix atrly operated primary schools Iry nlllimtaint'd b\ commercial plantations as rrtlllircd b lacy; except for those srpportv(I b tau` ltnited Fruit Company, du y Ire generally of inferior (luulily, 3. Government and education A scarcity of financial resullrces, cu11 bimecl with ;u elitist tradition of educational privilege, effrclivviv blocked attempts to r(401 education fur More !11;111 a c entury after independvilce, The t`t;t ul'slagnuliuo was broken ill 1911 \yilll tile� I "-lion of Iltan josv:\revalo, all educator, to the I't 1( y. :011migh some of the programs were nulliyalc,I IIV ptiliIical c0 nsiclrrati011 s, lilt period 191.1 -5.1 \as Ilotable for 111, expansion u1' schools and for the first st'riolts eflort to include Illdiams in 111e educational s\ste11l and. ill rur;ll areas, to prouole a curriculum better stliled to local lived�, \ftvr Ilu` ball of \rvvalo saaevessor, jactibl! echtcation l;tlguisltrd for some 12 yvm,s, Itntil the elvctiotl of 1'rrsidrnl Mvtldv% MonWilegro, whose administratioll devoted vonsidt'rable ;a(lenlioll to dw problems of education. progressiyr5- ye;arr(luv;alitna phm was incorporated into div naliotlal dt'v(doptuetlt phul, and basin del it'll ts�-- -which bear Much similarity to concepts adopted t v been inlplemrc`nled b lilt' Nralla ad kill mistralhill, Foremast altru(ion is brim; gkol to rural vdllcaliul, through it network of regional schools imtemled to operate ;Is teaching, ad millislrn(kv, mid work centers, providing glliclancv to saivllitr schools in tilt surroanclflg area so that (lit`,\ might, ill hlrll, be('(alllt' fllll('11o1 ;Il 111 ik ill tilt eonumnmitirs tlwy seryv. Eallphasi zing the r(wisioll (lf curric,1111111s so as Its "take into aecomit tilt divers, educational rvtluirena`tls of alt, colmlrv's major cultural eoncenI rat ions," the plan calls for the abandunnm`nl of some of the traditional acadeunic� subjects and methods of instruction and for the adoption of practical subjects. related project calls for tilt- cstahlishtm,nt of pilot schools, where educators are etwoulagecl to d(Wdop in11oyative curriculums suited to local needs; after a period of experinenta- tion, curriculums tray he introduced into the regional school sYst(nt. In ;tdditiou, a large number of single grade schools are to he c onstruc ted iu mmote areas. :u)d a so- cAlecl yillagc education plan, comprising basic literacy training and instmetion in farmliug ,methods for Ca"Tt'simos haying no formed education, is to he launched in 1972. dticatimi is regulated b, the 19(j(j (arslitmtiem anI the 1965 Organic Law of National t`:ducatioli, According to these documm`nts, the goals of education include personality deyelop lilt- mt, physical and spiritual belternu`nl, pronloticln of a sense of irldiyidlal rspu11sibilitY. stimilla(ion tit' patriotism, ;tad inculcation of respect for hum an rights. Public rducatiti11 is dvelared to he co11lpulsory and Ialifornl ill lll;gallizatietll, administration, and sllpvrvisiml, Fv of OW specific stipula(iolls, litmever, ;-re energeticlik implemu`rllyd. Private schools ;ire emulated Im the slate and arc` re(luimcl to conform to goyernrla`ut st;umhuds and to use prescribed courses of study. The Ministry of I'atblic Education is wsponsible for adtllitlisterimg vdtication below lilt' university Ieyvl, hampered b ;a lack of funds and pet:.ollnel, the` ministry offers little opportunity for parents, teaehrts, and local board" to !hut curriculums and activities according to collilmirlit\ tweds, \'lilt (he ex,eptitin tit' involving Im"II rural cotnrn Ind Iics ill school construction, little has heen done to oyercorlre the problems wrought b oyerct'11lr;ali %atic,11. Public educaatiou is fillalleed ;almost vwIllsiyely lllrorlgh central goyernmlent revemtc;, with sonar 'ti( l foreign and imler11.1 o11,11 sources, EITorts involving local p;Irlicipa(ion in the tusk of WhOol construction have also brought assist; llev from Ian` private sector in tilt form of cramp me`r and building maalerials, Since tmidcrntur\, educational m1wilditures Itayr consislenlly represenl,d tar largest single item ill lilt Motional budget, imcre;silig froul Q6,7 ill iIlion ill 191 )0 It! Q4 mullion ill 197.: \s ;a propurlioll of tilt total budiwt, such rxpendilures have I'luo11,11ed from a law of I(t,9''i ill 1958 to a high of 18J)"i in 1972. \1Inuxituatrf 80 of all illotivy spent till educatitim goes to !vacltrt;s' salaries, 'I'hr prinam'\ l(wel accounts for dw bulk of expenditums, even though tilt, ay,ragv rust of educating a secondary school pupil is abuttt four tinm`s nigher. IN APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 �1�ht Uni\t,csity of S Carlos is I+. entitled to receive 2.5"t of all ordinary public revenues: other sources of funds include tuition fees and imcone property owned b tilt univenit. N more th;ut threv- fourths of the university's ;omit budget derives from the 1 "m hu\ve\er, in p :1,t bec:ulsr tilt institltion usually fails to receive its rightful share from the stale, IWil annual increase ill the university's operatin>; budget, \\hich totaled approxinnatel\ Q5.5 million ill f9; 1, is projected. Mort importantly, the d0-0101)nul:t 1)1:111 calls for the oxpenditurt of x)31) million during the 197 1 7 .5 period for expanding the physical plant. acquiring ne\\' t and hiring additional facmit\' members, 1'111 these investments, governnu�nt planners hopt to stimulate a greater imvol\'elnent on the part of tilt academic conitlllllit ill lilt, problems of the nation's socioeconomic dt`velo1)tnenl. NAM\ the level of higher educatiOl, pri \ate school,, which ill 1969 vontprised about ?i'( of tilt total and acc0lnmodatod tl'i of all pupils, 1)1,t\ a Iess im1)0rlant rc,lt, than t,ise\\llt,re in CV11tl'al :\nu`rira. Nonetheless, enrollmmrll ill private st schools during tilt late I960's surpassed that in public secumdar' facilities, although a decade varlier enrollmlent in public secondary education \\;t, nearly double that of the private sector. Major emplmtsis is being given under the dt,\elopllr`nt plan to the upgrading and expansion of pul,lic sevoudary schools so as to reestablish their primacy, 1 right st`condnry schools are to be construcled in the national capital and 11111e ill dep;u'tntt,ul;ll capitals by 19�i, The facilities phollwd for tilt\ national capital are to be shoaled ;l\\;l\ from tilt Center of the ell, "1 most sf`enll(hlt' 1)1;1111m MV }11't,sellll\' l`011041ll ;ll ++1 o :1 tl1 provide Inure opportuuilit to the children of kmer imcomd` familie,, 1. Artistic and intellectual expression (L1 /OU) :\rtistie and ill(vilecrtatl e\111�omsionl reflects both Indian and Fu1,opeau i1Iluellces, :\Ithough tilt` etlilury of the \la\alt Indi ;tors \\as ill it stale of declint` at the time of tilt` Spanish conequesl, bel\\t approxi1n ;11 el :\,I). 300 and 91111 it had ;ttlained it It,\el Burp;tssing that of most itImrigiutt) peoples ;ltd e\idollt`ing ;l ,ellse of esthetics rivaling thol of Greece and Hulot`, Work ing \\iIItilt a sinp10 Stone ew Ieelmolop, the \I ;1 \;ts constructed iII11)rvssi\t cerel lot Ii;ll centers ehtu�acteriat,d b\ \\idt a\vllues aid 1;111 p\ r ;Illlid ;ll te111ples (F igure 22): inlerior \;fills \\ere decorated \\ilh rLfborale murals. The ruins of huge stone cobinutm, fti carved ill has relief, are amour the finest exampiv, of \luvan sculpture. \'la\an \\riling, mainly in tilt form of pictographs but including some time of symbols to represent sounds, is found on nloilunit�nts and potter'. Oml\ three codices, large hooks of folded hark paper, sur\i\t,cl the destruction of tilt- Spanish conquest, Yoder lilt, tutelage tit' missionaries, ho\\ever, some \la\an \\arks were later rill(`nl down. among them Popol Vuh, a sacred book coulaining the cosmolog) of tic` Ma\a- Qhliche people. Ill addition, tht` NI..t\'as had a highly deyt,l01)etl S\mtenl of nlathenlatics and of astronorlt\, ;ud ;t c:tlemdar more advanced than that in time ill Fiirope. The folk art of prt,aut -da\ Guatemalans reflects \ta\an artistic achivvvments Mll\' obmcurt,l\. Objects made for eyt,r\da\ list rtweal ;111 artistic sense of color and design, bat ft itelm are made for then' esthetic value alone, as \\ere m;111) products of the highly soplikticaled Mayan artisans. Native handicr,lfls brsi vwmpfify the Mayan tradition in art loch\, TeWlt \\easing i probably the most Iighl\ devolopt,d of these, more than 500 differenl wea\ing tt,chnit{ut,m having Iron identified. Indian \\oulem still list the Art, (Atimbian back loom (Figure 23) for \\raving cloth, rugs, and blankets, ntan with st\hzed motifs dating hack to \lad ;ml times. bill the foot or Iroatlle loom is employed ill shall imltlstr\, I'otlel'\ is also produced in abllndance, eilher b hand or \\ith molds: the time of a potter's \\heel is genorall\ confined to f,atliuo artisans. Other handicrafts include the \\ea\iing of stray\ teats, baskets, and ha1,, lilt decoration of gourds, and the fashioning of masks and costmn`s for use ill mgiotud folk d;u ves, I'rior to lhC mid -20th ventur\ tilt` polrnliul of tilt Indian cultural heritage was ,l;euer ;tlk ignored, For most ol the blue bel\\ren Ihr contgu(`st and independence, Spanish euflure 1)reclonlillaled. :\Iter indrpt,mdt'IICo, artkliC and intellectual t,xpressiolt, \\11X11 had flourished under tilt palrollagt, of tilt Church ;old ('1,o\\ n. I:u ;t;rl clrrlfned. \Ithough some inflnenct on art \\w, vwrled f\\ Mv\fcar interproli\e artists inspired by the 19111 Mt.\iean 11t \\Ito cnlphamired Indian Ihenn`s, it its not until the 19.1.1 -:34 period that sonic (malcmalan artists and intellectuals seriously alleln}Itetl to adopt lie\\ ideas and art foruls stt,nnling from abroad, \\hilt, o1he1 brg;ul to stress indigenous subject rllallt,r that \\ould be comprehensible to tilt` populace at large. Since that lime, most artists and \\rilt`rs, as \\ell aN arcfulects and Illllsiciatvm have volltillm'd to focus oll tilt civatiolf of authentic Imttionlal l` {11't,mmlt,ll \\hilt' renlainills o t`11 to inlernatfonal devviopmenls ill the act APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 "IMVI'llIlWiIt. I it ul ;irl\ It111t1\\int IIit u\ t`IIIII(I\\ I) 1 rIit I 111 141,11, \I1l'II I;11',l' illlllllll'r\ It`It till� l�tlllIItI Or,lliir (11r tliftitultit', I icc`tl 11\ arli \t, ;Itul \\ritt�I their \\llrk, aiv admirvil I1\ tilt` ttlutatttl nlrnt tit 1111 1It ;I(iI) 11, ,h ill (lit'\ t`IlIt1\ t�tlll \Itlt�r:1111t' 1I1't` \Ill;,�. I)iiriIi!g I IIt colonial period t 1. I 11 I Iar`t it 1111 I1 ;IIlItIlll' ;Illd rc` ;111,111' 1 \t'11niltlttl .\tIittox lalut, nI \aint\' tuulnli \\itlnt`tl it\ flit- (�11urch \\t�rt 1111 tlt1111i11 1211 1t1r111\ III 11,I1i1l111 ;lllli \,'ill; >tllft'. 1'I1I lit Illo "t pa t�U1t111 I)i111 11 II I )I Il':It etI 1. 11I111I(% II Iitl ;1\ Illtt'ritIr ttI llctI II1't1l111 c�t'll 111 It 111',1 :111,1 in I't`ru. 'flli'citri,ed \\taulrn .sallto\, till t lit tit IIcI \VI't' ,1I \1!c'II \111'vIitlr tIIuIIiI\ III,II I11:Ul\ \\t`It t` \I)t1r(t'll. \II itI11 lic� coluliiA t'Il11itt11 \It 111 'It I ill lit I 6 �7 (iI \;1, 1111` 1't'l't1t11 /t ll 111 1 1'IIItt111!till flit� Aidlic ul S ;tint Sc il ;uti;ln 11\ lu;I 1 tit ('Ilit\ci i\ tun \itlt`rrtl t1It fin,',, \in: It` pit-ct' ul \t II IIrt'. I'ain(in ,Intl \t ulllturr t,il n ;111`,1 in flit` 111`1 atlr\ I1111u\\in iutlrlltutlrnt't. 1\1,11 tilt' c�hlilch in it r;lkrllrll \lcltt aIty, in Inlrnt t`, t tlulnli,,itln\ tlrrlinrli, ;nut arti,I�. \\itII It t`\t`r1Nilln tuuul tit ;Il FIGURE 22. Ruins of the temple at Tikal, one of the largest structures built during the classic period of Mayan civilization (U /OU) 1)1',1111,' :1 t`Ilt'1:11 1't'lll\'tan� UII tlh' 11;11', UI (lit` Illltllllc and It1111t'r t`I,i \,t`, (tI I1i11it r ;Irti \lit' t�Iltlt ;1\ t or to lintlntitt` lull, m tht`ii ary 11101,` 11111- tllllt� itrtl \I\ Ili tilt ltllllltI\ Ill ;111 I` \t`r Iit'ItIII" II rl`III;lin\ IIIIIii�IIIt, In1\\r\rr, It, l;lrn ;t II\init ,olck tllrtlulll ;Irli \lit` IMr,Ili itrtl \ork ;IItIN1 t' \,`Ill \I \t l\ till 0 \11111 111' WiwiI it om 111 (lit ;11't \t`Ilt ill ht` I ilk ''ilitit` lilt lrt`l1 \VI ll,l \I' IIt`rll \,Iil ;k lilt, It11't' \Ilillitills UI' \t'llllllill't`; ,1\ (alt` ;1\ 111, 1, tIIt'lk` ;1 \,1111\ t11u llri\;ltl'vtluutu`rl'ial ;illrr\. Itllalrtl iu (;ualrin;lla 1:111. inl`t` 1411 1 tllr t lla, It�trrrtl (larlil�i1l;ltitlu in It,r,'i;;n \tunlll`lilitnl\ anti t'\Ili11i1it1n III add iIit111, llllriII tilt` 4 k1 1'1(;11,, ;111 altt`111111 ;1\ Itl,ttIt` lt1 t`tIt ItIr,11 t` 11IIIIlll` Illtt`1't`,( 111 tilt`;11'1, IIri ail anllnal i'c' \li\ ;11 111 lllr \rl\. llrlll ill \nlin ;l (;Ilutl`Illul;l. '1llt` tII AInl ;1\ II Ii\ (lit` \r;lll;l atllllilli \Iratli111 111 141, 1 ,Ills) 1 Ili kllu ;1, tilt 1 ;111,` tit 1'1`1,1 ;Il t1) It 111111't` 1. IIII{\t` (1 ;IIIIt`I\, \t'11111!4 11'\, ctlltI IIII is; t'I ;111\, tilt' II;Ilitln rltt`r ,Intl I1l(t`lIt'l�111,II" II.I\t' I't`t't'i ,III1111 "1 1itI Iit lit I (lit` H APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 FIGURE 23, Backstrap loom, most commonly used by Indians for weaving household articles (U /OU) twalthv individuals and the govvnnent Mere not so generous as patrons. Not until (ht late 19th (vzditrt, wilvi President Jose Maria Reim) Barrios tvnYnnlis- sioned storks for tilt beantif�ieation of tilt capital, mas artistic aetivitt rented, althorgh felt outstanding storks (sere produced. luring the earl( 20th centnry. ina ny artists, influenced b., the Ronlantic \lotemelit, turned to the depiction of local customs and mannvrs, ;t mode of expression known as eastuub6sillu, One of the earlit,st p ;init,rs in this school and still a feuding hdhwnce in rotltemporar Guatemalan painting is Andre" :urrichiche, :tit Indi tt hose numerouw works portray Indian customs from religious rituals to dailt activities, Other costunibrista painters include llumherto G ravito th. 1897), tvho has specialised h% local scenes, and Alfredo Galvt Sure. (1899- 19.1(11, who painted a mural in tilt National 1'alace, The paintings of Aduro \lartincs k1912 -56t depart sonuvtvhat from the vostunibdSto sltic, exhibiting a highly I rical quulit obtained in part lhrotigh tilt, use tlelicutt, colol�ing vonveing a dreanilike at- mosphere, Perhaps the best vosltIihrista sculptor is Itodolfo Galeolti 'Torres h, 19121, (silo has usod Indians as models, later Iln�ni n to \Iaall gods ;Intl lt,gentlarr figures as subjeel Inatler. Guatemala's only 20th centnrt artist tt ith a solid international retinlalion is Carlos Merida (b, 1891 Although lie has lived in \Iexiro sil,te 1919 auul spent Iraq lime in Fitnipe at tilt beginning ttf the century. Merida was the first Guatemalan artist do incorporate indigenous themes, st rllbols, and motifs in abstract paintings. IIis storks arc replete \011 s.00morphic theries and trialguhr� gt,onwtic elements reminiseenl of Nhn an art. \lerida has exerle�d a strong inllucnce till 1110d.ern Gnatellrlall p ;lilding. St'rt'tal of the c)ntt'nlporar 9el,t,r,16011 of puintela have gained rccogniI it; n dIt riIig the Mast decade, znuong them talis Waa. (b, 19'191, hannar Rojas I l l It1 1, and liobt,rto (:alurra (b. 19,391, Althorgh most curuv painting tends lU be incleztsirg ab- stract, some youngel artists are emphasising highl realistic and overtly political themes, .such as a recent series of tvatelrolors depicting, the ;Issassination of it political figure, (:ontrmporar sculptors include I.obt'rto (:onzalc4 Got ri 111, 192-1 1, noted for his std l- iked stunt` figrrt's in tilt' Inallnel tit hh"al) arllfaets; Osctr� Barriontos (li, 1921), lit rvccules arrlil1,01'de \sticks in metal; and F.frail, 11evinos b, 1!,33, who quvi dins in an1dwcl"MI seulptum, \Ian; tvmtt,mp porary ;ulish art gradnatt of llv National School tit' Mastic Ark and later studied abroad, 30 lit reevid dt,rades, !loth painters and sculpto haVe received a numher of go\erument eonnnissions, This trend toward using (ht, storks of' natirc artists to adorn public Fiuiltlings fiegall during the c'tutstrtu�tion of the National Palace. \(brit sculptor Julio Urruela Vastturz (h. 1910'1, noled for his stork in stained glass, directed a (call, of :tatlelnal ;u sculptors ttho integrated their stork ttith that of the architects. More recent ev iinples include the capital's (:itic (:enter, a complex of strikingly modern buildings incorporating relief sc ulpture and decorative elements inspirt'd hY indigenous designs, ;nd the glas,enclo"ed \lunicipal Building (19561, tthich eonlaiits a fanwts "INK) sttuart foot mosaic b Merida, Beca list Gualenah \vas no( ;is ttr ;dtht as Peru or \Irvite. most r ;uly tolonial architecture was r ;ether nustem. Churcht,s doubled as fortresses, letting thick exterior walls and bare interiors. In einitra.t, Arent latt, 17th vvnlury hildings invorporated elenestts of the barotpte sly le. Antigna Guatenrda, lilt capital 1. 11u11 1511 to 1773, contained some of thv finest exainMles of Spanish architechnr in the Nety World. \lore 111.111 ornate churches acre huilt, varying in sise small open structures to large edifices ttith (lure naves. During lilt' 1700",, Antigua Guatenrda suffered three major e;r�thttuakes, which destroyed sore t:f its finest buildings, before the capital ttas moved to its plrselt site. Outstanding structuirs include tilt catheehal (Iwgrn in I( N), olne of tilt purest vv;unples of Spanish aurltitectusr in Latin Anwriea, tilt Clinvel of La \It,rced (17;11)1, the Old National l'alace 1176.1), and lilt original building of the Univel of "san Carlos, llo\\ the Colonial \I1lseunl, In the nett capital, neoclassicism, epitouliled bt the cathedral 08151, dominated architectrial stele, Vast building sclelnes ttrre undrrtakeI ht it sn(vt'ssioll of prrsidrltls, beginning ttitl heir, Barrios, tvlo song to nake Gnatenala City a Tittle Park" In the 19-10"', however, archilects Mio ll,,d studied abroad began to develop an authentic 01atelnalan arebitvcttnr suited to local climatic eondit�son', As a nrsull, uodern urban construction n lects a blend oC lnl indigenons design. 01'.0onlida 01\, for exanple, conlains modern steel and concrete buildings inntelspe NA'd \tilh Spank t�tllonial antl 11e00;slit' A1 netnres. 11110tlillgs wfivet the Latin American pench;tlnl for ilnlrgruliing Ilit, t knt l arts into architecture, livvanse labor is cheap and building ncticrials e\pemk e. potentially artistic nlatt,riak Snell at, meuc, taut lie 11411 as altenWti\AN to pnvt,nsUucdtvf nnaWdals, 'This tmnd is exemplified in the capital's Civic (:enter and \111166pal building. Art and architecture :use also inlegra led, bud to a iest,r degree, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 ill commercial and residenti buildings, partirtlEari\ in sev eral mode apartment complexe.. designed Iw architect C rlaettssler. \dell of the literature produced during the vad colonial period \\as written b\ (:athtilic missionaries. :\trtong the most outsta llding historical treatises \\as the fuulous Brevisinta relac�ion tit la drstrurrio do has Indius t Brief Stor\ of the i)estruction cif til Ir(lies). b\ the Domirica n friar, Bartolotne de las C;asas (147-1- 1.366). In udditiolt, a number of works were written in Irittin b\ neubets of the clergy, notabi 11dael La ildi\'ar (17,114). Missionaries also in�. traduced the trt(litiona1 Spanish auta dc� de- signed to impart doctrine. to replace the pre ("I'lillhian drtmas Wilich the\� suppressed is pagaul, Certain elements of indigenous drunk \\ere retained. including ttpulatr language aut(l sone use of magic c-t sidered necessary to the iitli ;tn ps\ but the main figures represented \\ere those of the traditional tatztt) church, the devil, and deat{. The NO, ceutilr\ \as (marked b nt\\ directions. it, literature. Essayists began tee colsidrr politir;tl and social prublrtn..: \utonio lose dr Irisarri (1786 1S6, k1lifiml the literu�\ figitrrs of this era. halving lived abroad for 1.!ng periods ;end pnbhshtd \�olutninousl\ un higlil,, diverse sufIects, including political polentic�s, \rlst, romantic no\ t,ls, and arlicles on philclop, Follo\\ilig indtpeldrnce. it uttrber of tretttist,s tilt evlorial histor\ appeared, tos;rlhrr \\il partisan inh�rprttations of tilt' C antral .\merican illdepVlldVl cr mo\ etnent. :\It \larurt (i S(Ri- 51) and Lorenzo \Iontnf reprrsrnling the iiberatl \�ie\\'poitl( anti Jose \lillat \�idmirt� (1`22 -Q� lilt\ comervatire, \Iillat \'idaure, historian till(1 titlVdist, prodilet'd \\Intl is probabl\: the lintst Colltral :Nmericall prose of tilt 19th crtitiln, Editor of C ilalellalat"s Gaz0a OBrin he ira\eled \\idol\, serving as a tli!\lorir,t durilag the regirin� of liaf C:arrera and citing tilt both fore and lucid customs under tilt' pseudonym of' Salolrn� Jil. Ilistoda tit taa I>c�pe (llistor} of a Foundling) is probably the most remMlit'd of ;ill his \orks, am] its stain chaaractrr, Juan ('hatpin, cnitimu s to t\ pif\ the (:ualenrilanl lean in tilt street, For tilt rl ;ost pit �t, dt ;tnlit Iv (matenmhnls slid not farr \\ell in ctimpt,tition \vide the tllow popillar Spanish roma litie plzw, and during the dictatorships of lilt caul\ 20111 tviatir\, l lams satirizing Colattrir,laur societ\ amt go\r�rim�nl \\�err largelj suppressed, Crtattertul ;u \\rilt�rs throughout lilt 20111 eviku r\ Irit\r covered a idt ralge tit' subjects lilt( have getlerill\ emphits'ized social Intl political llleulrs. Ill at political novel, La stulibW dc ha Caste Malacca (The SIatdo\\ of tilt Wlitt� Ifouse), .Wilu Solo llall 0841- 19.1.1) was the first Goatemallan author to criticize V.S. ilr\ol\enent in Central :America, mlide historian and anthropologist Jost :lritollio \'illa(tirte Calderoo. (b. Iti79) \\its imlotig tilt- first to \\rite realisticull\ of indiat socie(\.Although best known for his fant Baf;lei \re\alo \lartin(.z. (b. iSS -f) litter turned to criticism of the social structure. Other tit hors writing prior to World War Il combine d social Protest \Vitt regionalise in novels and stories set in ruril and coatst;d ;treks. Not until til re\olution of 19 }a, houe\er, an(I the formation in 1946 of the Saker -Ti group (named ;tfttor it greeting in the Cilkchicluel languagei did the realistic rlovel of social protest hecollie doilit ant. Two author�. hest the stciatll\ committed riters Of tilt re\�olutionar\ period, Luis (:ardoza :\r;tgon b. 190� and \liguet \ngel Asturias (h. 1899). C:ardoza .\ragon, anthass ;ulor to the L',S,S.11. during the 19�I0's, \\its a urilur figure ill promoting soci reulisn and a lt mem1wr of Saker -�1'i, 'I�he most flnuis of Iris \\arks. Guatemala. has lint-is de set ano (Guatenlcd ;t, (lit Line's of Her Ifand), ptlWishecl ill W55, evokes the eomplr\ social and cttlttu:t life ol� his native tunnel\ ill poetit lailgllalge and illl ;tLrr\. \sturi ;e, C: lateluala's most itnlortant 20th center\ author, hats barn dt,x�ribt,d as gi\ ing prrnane net ;end unk to ;elites igmred or despised for it long time.�� Miming he ;oil\ from Indian tradition ;ltd thought, hr has beta i list rmntutA in the creation of a national rtlittur through developing ;n aphrrri 1 for ntglertrtl aspects of (:uatiemal socit,t\. his \\orks mii\ best be doscribec) its falling \;thin tilt rra till of social realism am! art ilillnrnrrd i li Spaulish pit,; rt'silue rc,\ el ill lhrir descripli\ e force alid depiction of cruelty in hurr.ul rel ;itiolls, the\ arc imbued with tilt lttatgical o\�t *lont,s of Indian bthel�s and t,ustorits. \fierier of tilt bruin I'rat'e 1'rizt in 1966 and the Nobel !'rice fill' Literature in 1967, Ashtrias I rgan writing in tilt 1920'0 and Imblislied his firs( major tit I. tiendas tit- Gwifem ala, based on Imlian folklore, its 19,30. His no\'eis, beginning \\ith i�:l st-not� presidente in 19.16, gral.!ically port rat the brutalizatitin of soeiely n�sultiug fettle politicall a lld t opprvssion. trilogy m riltett in tilt' 1915t)'s k dilreted agatirlst foreign -e.\\ m d ba hunt plauttaitiors, \\hick ht cttttsistrntl\ attaekcd for exploiting; tl;r laborer and chaining tilt agricultural \,tatlth of tilt nation. Mulala do lah(Millalto Woman). published in 19t i, is mnggestive (if Ills earl\ writings ill its ltetila) evocation of the nl\(hical \\orld of tilt Imliml, APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 As a result of the! political events of 1054, it number of waiters left Guatemala and established a literature in exile." Many of their works are political diatribes. Perhaps the hest known is ex- President Juan Jose Arevalo's El tiburon y las sardinas (I'll(! Shark and the Sardines). depicting the United States as the predator and the small, weak countries of Latin America as the victims. Other authors in exile include Guillermo j Toriello (former Foreign Minister wider Arbenz), Manuel Galich (presently assistant director of the Casa de las Americas in Havana), Raul Osequcda, Jaime I)iaz Rossotlo, and Mario Monteforte Toledo. The last -named author turned from earlier novels depicting the struggle between mail and nature to rite portrayal of social problems. For example, Entre la piedra y la Cruz (Between the Stone and the Cross), published in 1948, is the story of in educated Indian forced to choose between two worlds. Monteforte Toledo is also the first native writer to produce a thorough sociological analysis of Guatemala. Other contemporary authors not belonging to the exile group include Adrian Recinos (1886 1962), who devoted much time to translating and interpreting Quiche and Cakchiquel manuscripts, and David Vela, it journalist and critic noted for literary history and biography. New forms and subject matter, including Indian legends, social problems, and psychological themes, characterized mid -20tH century drama, but the plays of several authors who have written over long periods of time, notably Asturias and Galich, cover a wide range from costr:mbrismo to social criticism. For the most part, the works of contemporary playwrights manifest the influetice of international trends in the theater, with the notable exception of Carlos Solorzano, who emphasizes Guatemalan themes. Several groups perform both native and foreign works in Guatemala City, but because of the sporadic nature of interest in the theater, the _,otintry has no professional compa!w. The formation of the Arte Universitario group tinder the direction of Roberto and Carlos Mencos has helped to recruit and train needed performe:ss. Music and dance, so important in the cultural expression of pre Columbian Indians, remain today, with the exception of certain handicrafts, the purest indigenous artistic forms. The Mayas and post Mayas, like their counterparts in the high Andean countries, used the pentatonic scale, producing it music closely related to the sounds of nature and characterized by melancholy tones and marked pauses. Many native instruments have survived, among them it number of different wind vnd percussion instruments. The high- 52 pitched chirimia (Figure 24) is the finest comrnc;nly used of the wind instruments. The national musical instrument, however, used by both Indians and Ladinos, is thcr marimba, a type of xylophone, with a keyboard of small wooden plates. The Guatemalan version of the rnarirnha produces i t deep resonant sound which distinguishes it from marimbas used in neighboring countries. Ritual dance dramas, fortnerly an integral part of Mayan religious ceremony, are still performed by It ;{inns in various municipios, each region or language grouts having its preferred dances, usually with intricate choreography. special music, and elaborate rented costumes complete with carved wooden masks. [n the spectacular dance of the aoladores the performers swing from ropes attached to a rotating platform 50 feet high (Figure 25). ,I'he missionaries who accompanied the Spanish conquerors introduced European music and instru- ments, teaching the Indians to copy music, to sing Gregorian cliants, and to play Western instruments, such its the guitar, mandolin, and organ. Spanish and Italian music was predomint!.nt, not only in the church, but in the theater, and Spanish folk songs were sung on many festive occasions. As in most of the other arts, it long period of tagnation in the field of music followed independence. Twentieth century composers fall into two general groups, those who emphasize: classical European forms and those who attempt to assimilate native folk expression in an effort to create a national musical tradition. The first to incorporate indigenous themes into his works was Jesus Castillo (1877- 1946), who published transcriptions of Mayan niusic and descriptions of Indis.ut musical instruments. Castillo composed Guatemala's first symphony and also wrote operas and linisicai suites bused oil Mayan themes. Several other composers, including Castillo's half- brother Rictirdo Castillo (h. 1894). have continued this tradition. CL ssical Western niusic is represented in the works of such composers as Salvador Ley (b. 1907) and Enrique Solares (h. 1910). Most Guateillulan musicians and composers are graduates of the National Conservatory of Music. established in 19 -11. Their works are performed by the National Symphony Orchestra. The most commonly performed dance of European origin is the son Chapin, derived from 19th century ballroom forms and characterized by a mixture of short Spanish- Indian rhythms. Danced at festivals, the son Chapin is popular among both Indians and Ladinos. A folklore ballet group produces sophisti- cated versions of popular dances, often performing the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 in coil niercial and residential buildings, particularly in several modern apartment complexes designed by architect Carlos Haeussler. Much of the literature produced tkuring the early colonial period was written by Catholic missionaries. Among the most outstanding historical treatises was they famous Brt,visjma relacqon (le la destruccion (le las lndias (Brief Story of the I)estructiopr of the Indies), by the Dominican friar, Bartolome de las Caros (1474 1566). In addition, a number of works were written in Latin by members of the clergy notably Rafael [.arldivar (1731 -93). Missionaries also in- troduced the traditional Spanish auto de fe, de- signed to impart doctrine, to replace the pre Columbian dramas which they suppressed as pagan. Certain elermnts of indigenous drama were retained, including popular language and some use of magic considered ne cessary to the Indian psyche, but the main figures represented were those of the traditional auto --the church, the devil, and death. The 19th century was marked by new directions in lite attire. Essayists began to consider political and social problems. Antonio Jose de Irisarri 1786 -1868) typified the literary figures of this era, having lived abroad for lo.. periods and published voltt.niunusly on highly diverse subjects, including political Polemics, verse romantic novels, and articles on Philology. Following independence, a number of treatises on colonial history appeared, together with partisan interpretations of the Central American independence rnovern ^nt, Alejandro Marure (18(9;- 5 t) and Lorenzo Montufar (1823 -98) representing the liberal viewpoint and Jose Milla y Vidaure (1822 82), the conservative. Milla y vid,ture, historian and novelist, produced what is probably the finest Central American prose of the 19th century. Editor of Guatemala's Gazeta Oficial, he traveled widely, serving as a diplomat during the regime of Rafael Carrera and writing on both foreign and local customs under the pseudony of Salome Jil. 11istoria de tin pope (History of it Foundling) is probably the mos renowned of all his works, and its main character, Juan Chapin, continues to tvpify the Guatemalan man in the street. For the most part, drama by Guatemalans (lid not fare well in competition with the more popular Spanish romantic plays, and during the dictatorships of the early 20th century, plat's satirizing Guatemalan society and government were largely suppressed. Guatemalan writers throughout the 20th century have covered a wide range of subjects but have generally emphasized social and political themes. In a political novel, La sornbra (le la Casa Blanca (The Shadow of the White House). Maximo Soto Ifall (1871 1944) was the first Guatemalan author to criticize U.S. involve ueut in Central America, while historian and anthropologist Jgse Antonio villacorle Calderon (b. 1879) was among the first tc write realistically of Inclian socicty. Although bast known for his fantasies, Rafael Arevalo Martinez (b. 1884) later turned to criticism of the social structure. Other authors writing prior to World War II combined social Protest with regioutalism it novels and stories set in rural and coastal areas. Not until the revolution of 1944, however, and the formation in 19 -16 of the Saker 'I'i group (name(l after a greeting in the Cakchiquei language) did the realistic noel of social protest becoru' dominant. Two authors best exemplify the so committed writers of the revolutionarN period, Luis Cardoza y Aragon I). 1904) and Miguel Angel Asturia!, (b. 18991. Cardoza y Aragon, ambassador tot b e U.S.S. during the 1940 x, was it major figure in promoting social realism and It leading member of Saker -Ti. 'I'hc most famous of his works, Guatemala. las lineal de sta ntano (Guatemala, the Lines of Her [land), published i 1955, evokes the complex social a cultural life of his native country in poetic language attd imagery. Asturias, Guatemala's most important 20th century author, bias been described as giving "pernianence and universality to values ignored or despised for a long time." Drawing heavily from Indian tradition and thought, he has been instrumental ill the creation of a national culture tbrough developing an appreciation for neglected aspects of Guatemalan society. Although his works may best 'e described as falling within the realm of social realism and are influenced Iw the Spanish picaresque novel in their descriptive forccand depiction of cruelty in human relations, the\ are imbued witlu the magical overtones of Indian beliefs and customs. Winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1966 and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1967, Asturias began writing in the 1920's and published his first major work, Leyendas de Guatemala, based on Indian folklore, in 193(). I-lis novels, beginning with El senor presid. me in 1946, graphically portray the brutalization of society resulting from political and economic oppression. A trilogy written in the 1950's is directed against foreign owned banana plantations, which he consistently attacked for exploiting the laborer and draining the agricultural wealth of the nation. Mulata de tal (M ulatto Woman), published in 1963, is suggestive of his early writings in its poetical evocation of the mythical world of the Inditun. 51 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 As a result of the political events of 19, a number of writers left Guatemala and established a "literature in exile," Maury of their works are political diatribe%, Perhaps the best known is ex- President Juan Jose Arevalo's El tihuron y las sardinas (The Shark and the Sardines), depicting the United States as the preda',or and the small, weak couniries of Latin America as tilt. Other authors in exile include Guillermo 'l'oriello (former Foreign Minister under Arbenz), Manuel Galich (presently assistant director of the Casa de las Americas in Havana), Raul Osequeda, Jaime Diaz Rossotto, and Mario Monteforte Toledo, The last -named author turned from earlier novels depicting the struggle between nom and nature to the portrayal of social problems. Fo example, Entre Ice piedra y la crux (Between the Stone and the Cross), published in 19.18, is the stor} of an educated Indian forced to choose between two worlds. Monteforte Toledo is also the first native writer to produce a thorough sociological analysis of Guatemala. Other contemporary authors not belonging to the exile group include Adrian Recinos (1886- 1962), who devoted much time to transl ating and interpreting (Quiche and Cakchiquel manuscripts, and David Vela, a journalist: and critic noted for literary history and biography. New forms and subject matter, including Indian legends, social problems, and psychological thernes, characterized mid -20th century drama, but the plays of several authors who have written over long periods of time, notably Asturias and Galich, cover a wide range from costunehrisnio to social criticism. For tlrc most part, the works of contemporary playwrights manifest the influence of international trends in the theater, with the notable exception of Carlos Solorzano, who emphasizes Guatemalan themes. Several groups perform both native and foreign works in Guatemala City, but because of the sporadic nature of interest in the theater, the country has no professional comp any. The formation of the Arle Universilarto group under the direction of Roberto and Carlos Mencos has helped to recruit and train needed perform ors. Music and dance, so important in the cultural expression of pre Colombian Indians, remain today. with the exception of certain handicrafts, the purest indigenous artistic forms. The Mayas and post Mayas, like their counterparts in the high Andean countries, used the pentatonic scale, producing a music closely related to the sounds of nature and characterized by melancholy tones and marked pauses. Many native instruments have survived, among them a number of different wind and percussion instruments. The high- 52 pitched chirineia (Figure 24) is the most commonly used of the wind instruments. The national nunsicr. i list run le it, however, used by both Indians and Ladinos, is the uirimba, a type of xylophone, with a keyboard of small wooden plates. The Guatenraian version of the rnarimba produces a deep resonant sound which distinguishes it from marimbas used in neighboring c ountries. R itual dance- dramas, formerly our integral part of Mayan religious ceremony, ore still performed by Indians in vurious munidpios, each region or language group (raving its preferred dunces, ustially with intricate choreography, special music, and elaborate rented costunies complete with carved wooden masks. In the spectacular dance of the roladores the performers swing from ropes attached to a rot ating platform 50 feet high (Figure 25). The missionaries who ;accompanied the Spanish conquerors introduced European music and instru- ments, teaching for Indians to copy music, to sing Gregorian chants, and to play Western instruments, such as the guitar, mandolin and organ. Sp anish and Italian music was predominant, not only in the church, but in the theater, and Spanish folk songs a ?are stung oil many festive occasions. As in most of the either arts, a long period of stagnation in the field of music followed independence. I'wentieth century composers fall into two general group those who emphasize classical European forms and those who attempt to assimilate native folk expression in an effort to create a national musical tradition. The first to incorporate indigenous themes into his works was Jesus Castillo (1877- 1946), who published transcriptions of Mayan music and descriptions of Indian musical instruments. Castillo composed Guatemala's first symphony and also wrote operas and musical suites based on Mayan themes. Several other composers, including Castillo's half brother Ricardo Castillo J). 1694), have continued this tradition. Classical Western music is represented in the works of such composers as Salvador Ley (b. 1907) and Enrique Solares (b. 1910). Most Guatemalan musicians and composers are graduates of the National Conservatory of Music, established in 1941. 'I heir works are, performed by the National Symphony Orchestra. The most commonly performed dance of European origin is the son chapin, derived from 19th century ballroom forms and characterized by a mixture of short Spanish- Indian rhythms. Danced at festivals, the son chapin is popular among both Indians and Ladinos. A folklore ballet group produces sophisti- cated versions of popular (lances, often performing the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 in .holding public opinion. Kadin. however, is the most imporlanl formal chatuuel of conitimnication 1'or the coun'ry as it whole, reaching the largest audience, .1 effectiveness of radio is nonetheless limited b% the practice of using Spanish ill almost all broadcasts. thereby exchaling large uunbers of lucliaus. Although the government operates libraries, rums the telephone system, registers pullications. :lid licenses radio and television stations, dw mass contnunications media are largely ill the kinds of private enterprise. All of till- importtuit formal media are Iceatl-d in the capital, including the principal daily ril-wspapers, the major radio stations all of the publishing houses, all of the television stations, and the first -class 111vaIvrs. In u(I(Iition, the c,cpila1 cutttairts most -()f' tlte- telephones ill the country, The Constitution guarantees freedom of till- press and of expression, Althutigh various statutes itnpint;e scnl-wliat ur; these coristitulioual previsions, comparative freedom prevails. Since 19.41, formal censorship has been sporadic, occurring only during periods of political crisis. It wiv, imposed, forexamlIc, after till- deposa: of President Miguel 1'digoras I dientes i:i 1963 and aflcr the assassivaIions of I.'. S. Ambassador John Cordon Win in 1968 caul W German Anibassaulor Karl von Spreti ill 19 Normally, however, governmental interference has been slight. in large part because till media, works of Cuatemulan choreographers. One of the most admired is the ballet based on till- life of Maxirnon, a legendary figum venerated by till ludians of Santiago Atitlan. J. Communications media (1 /OU) Largely `1eccinsc of linguistic barriers. loco levels of functional literacy, and inadequate financial 111( 1 technical resources, the mass media are nol we ll developed. Accordingly, word -of -mouth remains important as a rncans by which news and opinion reach large segments of the population, especially in rural areas. In small tow-tis, the weekly market and the periodic religious observances, bo,h of which bring Iitrge numbers of people together, afford un opportunity for the exchange of news 111(1 views. Itinerant vendors and bus drivers are also important sources of uvws in the countryside. In urban centers, the daily press is the most influential median) among middle and upper class elements an(I plays it key role FIGURE 25. Dance of the voladores, or pole dance. The performers, representing birds, swing slowly down a 50 -foot pole to the accompaniment of marimba music. (U /OU) .33 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 FIGURE 24. A chirimia, a native wind instrument utilizing a double reed (U /OU) recognizing that their cuutiuued existence amd prosperity depend upon fnvomble official reactimi, exercise reslruinl in their c�overagc of' sensitive dcvclopritcnts. This form of "self censorship" [ills been compounded as at result of the assussimition or atte+ripted lassassi fl iori of several prominent nowspupertncu. Relations between the medial and t he Ammt administrution were stratified by the estrietions i, force during the ye long stole of siege from November 1970 until November 1971. Newspaperimvt complained that the prohibition on prthlishing news that might ",ditrm the populace" was all times interpreted to lnclucle any conurteul unfuvomble to the goverrinicnt. Moreover, press circles have condemned a penal code revision in 1971 that makes journalists who rationulize terrorist acts liable for 2 years i fit prisonrncnt. Marty newsp ipertnem hove complained that because the government guidelines are vague, they often do not know what cuff be printed. In cures of doubt, publishers arc cxpccted to list official handc;uts, Sensational newspapers arc particularly hard hit (tiring periods of restricliou. On occasion, restrictions b;tvc been plural on foreign newspapers and periodicals for alleged misrepresentation of (:uatcrrtalan political develop ments. 1'residew Aroma is reported to be particular!^ sersitive to his country's image ibroild, hilt officio) ulte',ittts t: suppress unfwomble inlortim(ion hove sonic-times huckfired, as even more d:inmging versions Of fin incident appe it outside the country� ;1n inhibiting influence ot limiting I'rcedom of* expression is the existence of the well -org mized and vociferous Associ;,tion of Journalists of (:matemlala (Ai'(:). w hich has on ttutncrous occasions championed the rights of threatened newsr;uCn, dcrumuicing both govermncnl censorship and lerrorot activities. fLidiO and telvvision broadcasting are rcgi+ltcd through the Directorate Gt,ueral of Nation;tl Radio Broadcasting and 'Television, which operates government stations ur,:i liccuses and supervises private stations. Licenses Wray he suspended if programs arc too critical of the governnivnt, but recourse to such action has rarely been Luken, us station owners generally prac,ticc rnorc self restraint during periods of crisis than do newspaper publishers. For at time during tht, Arbenz a(ministrotion only ternponiry licenses, iovok ible it will, were grunted ill an attempt to control clundestinc mitigovernrnent broadcasts, and in 1954 amlatemr radio operations were suppressed briefly for the some reason. More recently, action has been taken to regal itc the content of news reports; at least one radio newspaper (rudioperiodico) 54 wits ordered off life lair for "repettledly broadcasting inform; lion crtusing aflarm mid unrest." The govcnumvil hus also utlernpled to regulate broadcaslittg activities through limitlatioris on foreign ownership land direction of radio stations, In 1970, the Arun.t :tdminislratiou decreed that preference ht, given to pngratns produced Fy Guatemalan nutimmis and that ownership land ditorial responsibility he lirttited to native -horn Gmaleniiihms or to corporations in which (;tt;itcrn;rl hcid it fmij inti rest. mil ;nium power requirements for rmlio slulions Dave also been estublishecl iii art effort to eliminate tnull and often irresponsible stations, In general, however, grumps represruling the cornrntutications media have berm able to block the enactment of strict censorship laws on (ht, grounds that such nivasmres would in1�ringe ou 1'reedom of expression as guaranteed by the corstit 1.!d matter Despite [hailed circulutiou, newspapers ph iv significant role ill communications because of their readership anumg decisioffniaking groups, I be upper Mid middle classes, and such spacial interest groups its studerih and trmle unionists. Sophisticated readers, however, constitute onl la sril ill porticn of newspuper readership� To :ttract t[ie largest possible audience, roost news is reported in it scnsitionul manner with extensive use of photogniphs. Filcluul objcclivity is not conitnc n. and tunny organizolions amd government agencies utilize the "fufu," or bribe, to perstimle reporters to write stories fuvomble to their interests. As i general rule, papers cunccnlmty on local news; they devote little attention to foreign or internutiotmtl news, Ilthntlgll most subscribe to ortc or more of the international wire services. Perhaps the largest iiirornwtion gap is the paucity of covenige given to (ventral Ame ricou news� This hack sterns from the sparse attention given such news by life wire service and from the fact that papers seldom station correspondents in other Central American countries. Ilistorically, newspapers have been established to propogate the views of certain groups. After 1944, journalism became more professional is opposition newspapers were estuhlishcd, signed columns replacer) the a non yrnoits attack, and a department of journalism w is opcfft,d at the t.'niversity of San Carlos, During ti 1944 period, a wide range of newspaper opinion flourished, setting the stage for the development of it more modern press. In 1972, nine dailies were published in Cuotetri :du City (Fignre 26), along with Headlines, it mirneo- graphe( news summary in English. Circulation of the APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 FIGURE 26. Guatemala City dally newspapers, 1972 MOW IIATK KWrAIII.INIICI c11/CUI ATJON arMAI1KN MARIO aK CIrNTn6AMknteA. INNO 12, No llffielal government newmpnper; absorbod /a l unlrmalleco In Mardi 1072. Dteaw rt, Ext-m- rAnnn....... 1071 1.111 KI. 01tAricn 1061 t35,000 LA NnIIA 11144 12,0110 HI, IMPACTO I069 6,01111 KI, IMPAnCIAI 1022 15,000 20,000 LA NAC'ION 11170 110,0011 I'ItKNSA l,lalll' 1050 ntl, slow i ,A TAitim 1071 I f ,0011 nit Datlt not avalluble. nine papers was approximately 175,000, Willi an estimated five readers per copy, these papers reach about one- third of the Ladino popttlatio... Daily papers in Coban and (,Iuezaltclango, as well as weekly. monthly, and quarterly newspapers, have it combined sire atiori that is probably equal to about titres,- fourths that of the dailies of the capital, although no exact figures arc available. Wcekly newspapers ins -lade Ateria, ,tit extreine rightist paper with a low circulation; Verhurn, the official newspaper of the Roman Catholic hierarchy; and Yu, a small lnti- American, auli- Cotntnttrlisl propaganda sheet. Conirriunist organizations m1blish several papers and biMetins clandestinely. Verdad, el weekly, probably has the widesi circulation; others include+ Vanguardia Proletaria, El (:rito Popular, FAR, Revolucion Socialixta, and El f,sludiante. All appear spurL.lically and appeal to a limited sector of the popillatiou. The Netu York Times and the Miami Herald are available In 0jatvniala City the day after imblication. Latin Arneric;Ita editions of Newsweek, 7' -ne, send Life, as well as the Mexican publication Vision, are also available, although the two last named have been temporarily banned. Guatemala has no nativiial news magazine, hilt numerous periodicals are published by t g k a Morning paper; Christiun Dentoeratic orientation; widest range of editorial opinion; at Menem NenNutionulixt; published by Jorge l'arplo Nienlle, Issued al nlldlbty; III trlt list doltaliNt; ss,nsatlonallmt; published I,y former Vied 1 t'limiente Marroquin Itojits and faith- fully reflects IIN personal views; eonntxtently anti- Communist and anti United Staters; criticizeN pace of reforn In tiuuteinala: rarely In accord with tiny adininistratlon. Morning paper; published by 0mcur Murroquin, Nun of Clemente Marroquin Itojam; Iemm c�ontrovermial than La llnra, (if which it IN It pals Imitation, Moderately .conservative evening paper; anti- Coinnutolst: pro United States; cuter? to foreign eommunit.y; curries mevontl 11,ti. columnists; published by Alejandro Cordova, INSUed at inidday; Independent; published by Handro Ponce Monroy send 114-etsir Cifuentes, Morning paper; (ivatenutia's insist populur and respected news- paper; broad appeal; moderate, business oriented position: immued ax it tabloid; published by Pedro JuUo Oureet K Co. E,vening paper; menmationaHst; published by main- Interests em lie Rrafiro and follows snit, hnsic position. academic groups, private organizations, atiel government agencies; these serve as information organs, trade publications, and forums for particular interest groups, The publishing industry is small, producing mainly inexpensive paperback hunks, Several research centers. notably the Seminario de Integrarion Social Guate nialleca, which operates under the aegis of the Ministry of Public ISdticatiou, publishes scholarly I, xks and monographs, while guveninient age ne -acs and wgional organizations located it, (:u ;ltcnlulu publish information for specialized attclienc'es under various formats. Most hooks, however, are imported. Although Guatemala permits the free importation of books, the cost of books hlas cs them beyond the reach of most of the literate popidatiou. Only a handful of reasorvibly good libraries exit in the country, and even these are handicapped by inadequate budgets. In addition to the National ',ibrary, there are 78 public libraries, 29 specialized libraries, 14 university libraries, and 36 school libraries, almost none of which circulate books. 2. Radio and other media !'adio, the Insist extensive and cfficicnt medium of mass communications, reaclics at least half the 33 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 population, inchuling persons in resole aro,s, Since the advent o1' the tra nsistor radio, even poor Indiaun% have access to radio Lroadeats, whereas previously the lack of e!ectricity !it many areas precluded tlae use of receivers. 'I'll(- nurnher of radios in its(- increased from about 20 AX) (10 per 1,(1(1(1 inhabitants) in 1949 to approximately 360,W) ((id per I,(XX) inhabitants in 1972, some 10% of which were connitinily radios located in central plazas of towns or in places of public gathering in agricultural communities. Radio, like other forms o1' mass comniannicalions, is controlled by and almost cxclusivel% oriented to Ladinos. I",xtrenn�ly few programs are broadcast in Indian languages, and relatively I'ew Indians understand enough Spanish to listen with ease to broadcasts in that language. Thus, the extent to which the Indian's isolation 1'ronn national society is ameliorated through radio is probably minimal. A few local stations provide programs in English. and sone broadcasts in the Kekchi language are heard over Radio Havana. As few privately owned stations have facilities for broadcasting live programs, recorded music fills t -lost programing time, Information broadcasts are limited for the most part to news, with the exception of those transmitted by Radio Naciunul, the govcrnrnent- owned station, which also offers programs on gent.. ;.al culture, health, and agriculture. Missionary -owned and operated stations provide both religious and cultural programing. Among the most popnnlar lroadcasts are the radioperiodieus, which emphasize the sensational aspects of the news and in sonic respects enuLat. newspapers, Radio is also sad b private individuals for sending messages or for seeking jobs, and occasionally for transmitting critical political corn rnen to ries. Along with its station in the capital Radio Nadanal operates stations in Flores, Mazatenungo, Mira mundo, Puerto Barrios, Qw-zaltenangc, San Marcos, and Totoniepan. Although there is no national network, Radio Naciunal broadcasts can be relayed in an emergency to all stations to achieve nationwide coverage. One government and two private television stations arc located in the capital, and approximately 90,000 receivers are in use. The cost of a receiver limits the use of television to the middle and upper classes. Stations are usually on the air from early morning until night, hot rarely transmit as late as midnight. Scheduling is ,ornewhat haphazard, With the exception of sonic relayed telecasts from Mexico, programing consists for the most part of imported entertainment shows from the United States. Lase of translation in large ineasme 56 delermines progaan selection. Live trograms are priinaril give -away eluiz shows, children's prograns, or drainatic tsrescnlutiuus, News pngrains am underdeveloped by U.S, standards. as television is not generally considered all important sourc eI' newi or a molder of ptehlic opinion, There arc as yet few good television news reporters, commentators, or canera- men. News prugrans offer little in the way o1 illuslrutive films, but usuall: resart to still photographs accompanied by a description from the? reporter, As a result, television has had little impact on newsy ;apers and radio in the dissemination aJ news and is not set considered in important political 1'oruin, Motion pictures are a popular form of enlerhain- ment ;among the urhan population, although It income levels limit the audience. 'I'hrooghnut the 1960's. attendance averaged 9,8 million per year, witl theaters in the Departeuerst of Gnaleinala accounting fur tlree- fifths of the total. As (if' 1969, there were 10.5 theaters, inclucling one drive -in: 28 were located in the Department of Giiatenala, I'cature hIrns are imported, primarily from the united States; filins froth Mexico. Argentina, and We.stem h,i ope are also clown. K. Selected bibliography (U /OU) Adams, liichard N. Crucifixion by Power. Anslin: University of Texas Press. 1969. A collection of essays on the social stricture during the 19- 1.1 -66 period. emphasizing the power structore and the rnechanisrtas tnscd to maintain it. Asturias \'alenzucla, Ricardo. "The Sickness Insurance Scheme in Ciiatensala," International Social Sevitiih/ Review, vol. 22. no. 2, pp. 211-220, 1969. A useful brief summary of social security by a former director of IGSS and author of all recent social security plans. Chinchilla Aguilar, Ernesto. 11isforia dcl uric en Guatemala, 1524- 1962. Guatemala: Ministerio do Educacion Publica. 1962. Although overemphasizing architecture, this art history provides valuable information, particularly on the colonial period. Colby, Benjamin N. and Pierre Van Den Berghe. Ixil country, Berkeley: University of California Press. 1060. A case study of the Ixil group in the west central highlands, emphasizing recent cultural changes. Fidler, Leigh A., S. J. Catholic Missionary 14 ork and National Development in Guatemala, 193-68 The Maryknoll Experience. Unpublished M.A. thesis, New York University. 1971. An in -depth study of the impact of Maryk rctivities in the Department of 1 1 uchuctenango. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 f. Gould, P. R. and Sparks, J, I' "The Geographical Context of Human Diets in Southwest Guatemala," Geographical Review, no. 59, pp, 58 -82, jaimary 191;9. A discussion of the effect of cultural preferences and agricultural limitatic tis on nutrition. Guatemala. Conssjo Nacional de Phanificac�ior Economica. flan de desarrollo nacional, 1971-7.5. Vols. 1 and IL Guatemala. 1970, A summary of exisdrig social and economic conditicm together with a blueprint for development in the next 5 years. Hill, George W. aml Manuel Goll:as, The Minifundia Economy and Society of the Guatennlan 11:ghland Indian, Maulisor: University of 'Xisconsin Land 'Tenure (;enter, Research Paper No, 30. July 1968. A useful work on social and economic conditions in the highlands as compared with the rest of the country, Inter- American Committee for Agricultural Development, Tenencia de la Herra y desarrollo socio- econontico de Guaternala. Washington, 11).G! Pant American Union. 1965. A major study of land tenure and its relation to socioeconomic devsloptrtcnt; contains valuable information on the income and living conditions of all categories of farmers, Mayers, Marvin K. Languages of'Guaterrtala, The Vaguer: Mouton and Co. 1966, A detailed description of the customs of various Indian language groups, Micklin, Michael, "Urbanization, Technology and Traditional Values ill Guaternala: Sortie Conse�cluences of a Changing Social Strteture,�� Social Forces. vol, 47, no. 4, pp, 4:38 -447, June 1969. A study of tits effects of industrialization and urbanization on the uricctation of personal values in Guatemala City. Moriteforte Toledo, P.Iario. Guatemala: monografia social. Mexico City: Univsrsidacl Nacional Autonoma ds Mexico. 1959. A valuable sociological treatise by a sympathi�rer of the revolutionary movement; contains excellent analyses but some undocumented statistics. Osborne, Lilly De Jotgh. Indian Crafts of Guatemala and El Salvador. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 1965. An excellent descriptive and photographic treatment of all types of handicrafts with explanations of tlicir social and economic significance. Roberts, Bryan R. "Protestant Groups and Coping with Urban Life in Guaternala City, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 73, no, 6, pp. 753 -767, May 1968. A discussion on the significance of Protestantism in two low income, Catholic neighborhoods. Raja` I -ima, Flavio. C: crosideraciones,eweruerales xobre la sociedad guatentalleca, Guatetttala: Ministerio de 1 ?clucac�ion Publica. 1967. 1n c�xanrinutiun of class and cultural altitudes as tits basis for Inelian- Ladino prejudievs. Schmid. Lester. The Role of Migratory Labor in the Economic Ievelopment of Guatemala. Madison: University (if Wisconsin Land Tenure Center. Research Paper Nu, 22. July 1967. A stucly of the living auul working cunditiotis of the sizable group of seasonal migrant workers in highland Indian society. Solorz.ano Carlos, Tealro en Guatemala. Madrid: Editorial Aguilar. 1964, A collection of theatrical works by five Guaternalan playwrights. with a useful introduction on the development of the theater since colonial times, Stavenhagen, Rodolfo. C:lases, c�olonialismo. y aculturacion. Guatemala: Serninariu de Intergracion Social Guatemalteco. (madernos No. 19. 1968. A characterization of intervdiiiie relations as a form of "internal colonialism" resulting from the scan m is clontinance of tits Ladinos. �Thcsing. Josef. "La pnlitica (-it Grtatemada, ,riportes, nu. 21, pp. 30 -60. July 1971. An excellent analysis of tltc dichotomia�s in Guatemalan society by the director of the Political Scicncs Institute at liad'acl Lanclivar University. Thompson. Donald I Maya Paganism and Christianity: A History of the Fusion of Tu;o Religions. New Orleans: Tulime University, Middle American Research Itstitutsr 1954. An excellent treatment of Indian religion. \'out Den Berghc, Pierre L. "Ethnic Membership aml 0iltural Change in Guatemala," Somal Forces, vol. -46, stn. 4, pp. 51.1 -522, June 1968. A study of the process of laclinoization. Villamil, Joss A, "Situac�ion clemografica ds Guatemala y sus efectos socioecortomicos," Journal of Inter- American Studies, vol. J3, tit), 2, pp. 197.215, ;%pril 197 1. A study of ills socioeconomic effects of ills rapid rate of growth. Waggoner, George L. and Barbara. Education in Central America. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depart- ment of Health, Education, an(l Welfare. June 1969. A useful compendi im and analy.,is of information on education. Whetten, Naatban L. Guatemala, the land and the I'eonle. New haven: Vale University Pres, 1961. The fundamental treatment of the� major sociological aspects, with emphasis on rural living conditions. 57 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 C0%F1nr:N'T1n1. Gionary (9 /09) Aaanevurrux sPANM XMIAM AEU Asociacion de Estudiantes Universi- Association of University Students tarios AGA Asociaoton Guatemalteca de Agricul- Guatemalan Association of Agricul- tores turalists APC Asociacton de Periodistas de Guate- Association of Journalists of Guate- mala mala CALIF Comite Coordinador de Asotiaciones Coordinating Committee of Associa- Agricolas, Comerclales, Industriales tions of Agriculture, Commerce, V Financieras Industry, and Finance CLAT Confederation Latinoamericana do Latin American Confederation' of Trabaladores Workers CNCr, Confederation Nacional de Campesi- National Confederation of Cuate- nos Guatemaltecos malan Peasants CNT Confederation Nacional de Trabalu- National Confederation of Workers dores CONSICUA Confederation Sindical de Guatemala Trade Union Confederation of Cua- temala CONT RACUA Con f ederaaion de Trabaladores de Confederation of Workers of Cuate- Guatemala mala CTF Central de Trabaladores Federados Central of Federated Workers DCG Democracia Cristiana Guatemalteca Guatemalan Christian Democracy [partyl FASCUA Federation Autonoma S(ndical de Autonomous Trade Union Federation Guatemala of Guatemala FCC Federation Campesina de Guatemala Peasant Federation of Guatemala FECETRAC Federation Central de Trabaladores Central Federation of Workers of de Guatemala Guatemala FENOT Federation Nacional de Obreros del National Federation of Transport Transporte Workers FESC Frente Estudiantil Socialcristiano Social Christian Student Front FRU Frente Revolutionario Unioersitario University Revolutionary Front ICSS Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Guatemalan Institute of Social Se- Social curity INCAP Instituto Nutridonal de Centroamer- Nutritional Institute of Centra! Amer- ica p Panama ica and Panama I NTA Instituto Nadonal para Transf orma- National Institute for Agrarian Be- don Agraria form INVI Instituto Nacional de Vivienda National Institute of Housing MCI Movimiento Campesino Independiente Independent Peasant Movement MLN Movimiento de Liberation Nacional National Liberation Movement ORIT Organization Regional Interamericana Inter- American Regional Organiza- de Trabaladores tion of Workers PGT Fartido Guatemalteco de Trabalo Guatemalan Labor Party (Commu- nist party) PNDC Programa Nacional de Desarrollo de National Community Development la Comunidad Program PR Partido Reuolucionario Revolutionary Party SAMF Sindicato de Action V Meloramiento Union of Railroad Workers' Action de los Ferrocarrilleros and Betterment SNE; Servicio Nacional de Empleo National Employment Service Asociacion de Amigos del Pais Association of Friends of the Country Asociacion Pro- Bienestar de la Fami- Guatemalan Family Welfare Assoeia- lia de Guatemala tion Asociacion de Bienestar Infantil Association of Infant Welfare luventud Revolucionaria Revolutionary Youth 58 NO FOREIGN DISSEM CON F1DEINPIAL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP0l- 00707R000200110050 -8 Places and features referred to in this Chapter (U /OU) VOORDM ATY.R CONFIDENTIAL v c i I g i 1 CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM 59 1 `'1L. w f. r Tx .,h a y th;;k ^tSr J v `r i x r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 Y ,v. u Antigua Guatemala 14 34 90 4S Cantel 14 49 11 27 Chimal tenango 14 40 90 49 Chigrimuia 14 48 89 33 Coatepeque 14 42 91 52 Cobin 15 -)9 90 19 Escuintla 14 is 90 47 F equipulas 14 34 89 21 Flores 16 56 89 53 Guatemala City (or Guatemala).......... 14 38 90 31 H uehuetenango 15 20 91 28 I%-.An locality 15 49 91 0.1 Jalapa 14 :38 89 59 I Lago de Atitlin (lake) 14 42 91 10 Lago de Izabal (take) 15 30 89 10 Livingston 15 50 88 45 Masatenango 14 32 91 30 Miramundo 14 33 90 06 i Momostenango 15 04 91 24 Puerto barrios 15 43 88 36 Queae ltenango 14 50 91 31 Quiriqui 15 16 89 05 Retalhuleu 14 32 91 41 i Rio Sebol (stream) 16 00 89 59 San Juan Ixcoy 15 :3ti i 91 27 San Juan Sacate.0quea 14 43 90 39 Sap. Marcos 14 58 91 48 4 Santiago Aitlin 14 :38 91 14 Sebol (archaeological site) 1.) 47 89 50 Tikal 17 20 89 39 Tiquisate 14 17 91 22 Totonicapin 14 55 91 22 Zacana 14 5S 8 9 32 i v c i I g i 1 CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM 59 1 `'1L. w f. r Tx .,h a y th;;k ^tSr J v `r i x r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 h CONFIDENTIAL NO FOREIGN DISSEM F rr1 y L 7 uE S f APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8 ir i i i S y L 7 uE S f APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2009/06/16: CIA- RDP01- 00707R000200110050 -8