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May 21, 1980
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CI-AT Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15: CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15: CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15: CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 1404 LONGWORTFI HOUSE OFFICE BUILDING WASHINGTON. D.C. 2051 TELEPHONE: (202) 225-2876 Congresses of tbe tiniteb if'tatess Ifiotia of AtpresSentatibesS elastington. air. 20515 Resource Management Staff Washington, D.C. 20505 Dear May 21, 1980 Enclosed you will find five speeches that I delivered on the Floor of the House of Representatives, the last of which was last week. I thought you might be interested in reading them. rs truly, IK SKELTON Member of Congress IS :kr Enclosures STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15: CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 STAT f Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15 : CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 I ? - -OngrestiOnal Retard United States Kth of America PROCEEDINGS AND DEBATES OF THE 90 CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION .Vol: 126 :WASHINGTON -WEDNESDAY, APRIL -2, 1980_? - No.-55 ? ouse o Re resentatives " - --1? ? ? -"; 4 ! ? '. AMERICA; WORLD PEACE, AND THE -THREAT OF SOVIET. POWER IN .-HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE The: SPEAKER. 'Pro tempore. Under a- previous order of .the House, the gentle- man. from Missouri (Mr. .SKELTON) Is recognized for 30 minutes. . , ? , Mr. SKELTON. Mr. Speaker, 46 years. ago?just-5 years before the outbreak of the Second World War in Europe?Win- ston Churchill rose ? in the House of Commons to deliver the first in a series of speeches warning against the weak- ness of British. air .defense.. His was tru- ly a voice crying in the wilderness, re- jected or ignored by those who placed. their faith in the pacific intentions of other nations, it was, an era In which. ? what was called "medal" disarmament," the renunciation ' of force by nation committed to the way of peace?This way of thinking enjoyed widespread?ap- peal in the democracies, deeply wounded . as they were by the ImPact of the First . ../World War less than two decades before. , It was the mission of Winston Church- ? ill to sound an alarm at a time when:, there were few in the West who wished ? to hear. It was the year, 1934, in which ...disarmament talks among the powers' finally vallapsed. Both Japan and Ger- . many:had already withdrawn from,. the- League of Nations and were vigorously' . pursuing an extensive military buildup. Thus, 'coming events cast their shadows' before. ?- ? - ????????'? ? ' t-This was the ?irantediate backgroiuid to- Churchill's prophetic warning, a lug widely unpopular and Ill received,: , Ffe Observed:- . ? 1. ? . .- ? ? .? :,??? ?We ere vulnerable as we have never been 'before? ? ? - ? - i.(we');:sre left .exposed to a mortal thrust. iand are deprived ,of..that sense of' security land independence 4:upon Which the .clviliza- tion of Out ?has been' built: * ?::The'?failure j? heed. these sober ad-. 'i.monitions would eventually be reckoned ;In. blood. Having. retreated suocessively _ from everrconfrontation.with Nazi ;ex-. ?pansion during the thirties, the Allied. Powers were to find themselves unable to '.help Poland, to whose defense :they had: ;pledged themselves and forwhose Integ- -rfty.they, finallY tmade their ?stand in ,I 1939." How ..inuch Europe and' the world krilight?have been spared had Britain and , -the West generally-resitonded tothat r of Churchill. ? , . ... ? . ? Historical -analogies' ere- always In- rexact, yet it remains true that those who twill not learn from'thistory'sre -*doomed to repeat it. 'Today, we in the United ;States confront the grovPing power of the Soviet Union both In Europe and in Asia., , /7' believe-,thatwe, In I:Words, may..'be vulnerable as we have not : been before.'We.7100: are hicrea:slirgbk-,` rexposect.: to- that,' inibilariee Of 'power ? Which rlake?Some thrust. \WO.' 4-; too, are increasingly deprived of "that # .senrer..-Of security'. land-independence" ? , ,upoirtwiithe.Sur.stvar of the;y,Jest:11.as,.?'? In subsequent statei-nents.'191r:, Speakr. hope to show the nature and 'extent ??./' of :the 'Soviet build-uto in:Comparison. 7 th our American defensecapabilitY.:r. 'hope turther to'indleate what Must be? [done?what weinust do If-the peace of / the L world, is to .be- maintained,. that .peace which,'-,in tile: final analysis, depends ?uponae'lliterrent poweLoLt441?_Tatiori..,.! Today, We see that similar exPansionist Two- ?fundaniental points -should be Impulses have again led Russia?in this ? Made clear from the beginning=first, case as the self-designated instrument of ? my conviction that the study of history Marxian advance?to invade the tern. . must lead to a. realistic appraisal of hu- tory of Afghanistan, an area of vital man nature. One of our most eminent significance to the security and stability ? American theologians wrote- eloquently : of India and Pakistan .as(?well as, of the _of "moral- man. and immoral society." ''Near East-in general. .. ? underlining the tendency_ of men in the- . Thus, history seems to repeat herself. aggregate, of nations, aggressively .to Apart from national expansion and ide- ? pursue collective self-interest regardless. ological commitment, we may Well ask ? of the _moral sensitivity of individuals.. ?what it it that motivates Russian policy. Seen in this light,. history ,Is ndeed not -only in 'Afghanistan,: but through-, melancholy record -of man's inhumanity out -the extentive borders 'of the Soviet to man. In his "Discourses," Machia- Union in Europe and Asia alike. Many velli. reflecting on this grim symbolism, experts discern an obsessive concern observed that the state is ultimately with security, n concern which . has' founded Upon -violence, albeit as a. last . shaped much of Russian history since resort. Similarly, in Genesis, human cul-- the invasions-of the MoirgoLt in the Mid- ture and civilization, the settled. life of _die Ages, invasions ,whose Impact . has cities, are portrayed as established by never been forgotten: . ? . Cain on the brutal slaying of his brother. . 8ecunity like charity, may be said to To draw again upon Churchill's words: cover a -multitude of sins. ,Russia. still -Thistruth .-may ? -be unfashionable,. the German invasion in the ? palatable, mindfe.. unpopular. But. it. is the truth. ----Ill of' Second World War?which itself. re- 'The story of mankind, shows that war was, called' Napoleon's campaign over a can- universal'and unceasing for minions of years before armaments were invented_ or armies ?Ury ore as, responded! to Its own -organized. Indeed the lucid intervals of peace , perception of how best to se.Cure Its 'ter- and order only occur In human history after ritories .by seeking to control,, directly armaments in the-hands of strong govern-- or indirectly', neighboring cc:amides and ments have come .into being. And civilize- geographical areas. The danger of, this tion has been nursed only in cradles guarded 'activist policy in the name ,.0f security i ? by superior weapons and discipline. To re-. 7 Is that it can be endless. ?, ."' tt, ? ,? ". . I move the causes of war must go deeper than. armaments, We Must remove grievances and. So with Soviet power. triday.'ari. j SS in earlier years, it Is power, or rather- injustice. we must raise humPia? thought to - ?counter,power, "which ;Russia respects t a higher plane and give a new inspiration to, ?"and'-understands i' It hat.: deterrent.,___ the world. Let moral disarmament come' !:phytiCal -disarmament will soon. follow-43ut power which alone will::indicate to.: the what.sign of.thie is there now? Soviet, leadership -when and *here .the - 'time has come to stop::/ 7'; A . - Berlin 'in this year of. 1980:Mliat sign Of this dulnbe, ;t1h94e8S'o.anviedt 1U94ngio..njui knew in ew " there nOw? - t ' .4 twhen to-stop precisely becanse of Ameri-`-',4 Of course, te.cite this trait of human, can our ??? Rather than -submission, our- rallying- it to stet limihts tdo Soviet expansion, and nature need not t -lead to despair or gloom. therbby to ,preserve the.; ease, of ,he -cry must be preparation knowing that in strength -of arms lies our 'best -hope for world -? ? ? ? ? ?. -5-? ? peace. Such preparation, -as ? ChUrehill :Today we may well ask: Have we lost noted,_?!involves statesmanship, exPerrie7 .the credibility we hadlhen? If so, what- noted, "Involves exertion?! but "neither subsissiori. must we do to restore it? Since the erid nor preparation are free from suffering ? 'of lnithone _StrouonvdateWdooryld, mita:ern; thIpez:E:soearnu, My second fundamental point- ?Mr: and danter'" ? " ? ? ' ray, the impulse to support and protect Speaker, hal! 'to -do' with the challenge . ? Marxist regimes, Whatever the motives---; has steadily increased the territories rd . facing the United States today?thatr. peoples under -her, -direct. and indirect and,,,i Lthe nature of the Soviet Union, past and, . control. 'WhereS prerient. '`and the threat It - prises to the; halted, American ;power; -counterpower;=4 ? iMet power has :been' . j F world corrimunitY.:- 4"--"" has -been the effectivel '..:That threat is. ?COmPosea?. of two "ele-- and only" barrier to that expansion z'? . deterrent power . - '.. :?rnentr.:-L?theone, nationalist and, indeed, r' if we are to heed the warning shins, .1 limperialist ? in Its -ambitions; _ the' Other, . given by the Soviet move into Ideological, the'Leninist-Stailinst brand Aston, we must look:at' the -unchanging *nd Marxism. an-embracing Hilts .Russian anxiety :for security 'Insect' In -a system of Ideas sustained by?isolation,?; 'recent-Years With the Soviet ideology_of:, iindoctrination??:and?in-the end--g,91 ?;.advanoe. And we must note the -changl.?, timd bayonet, the?ultimate arbiter's.' ing balance of:power, In the.relitionshiP L The history of the 19th century Is one:of, the -Soviet Union .:ancl,?,?the?.United:4.1 ?of steady Russian advance into. Central States. ?;' Asia, the gradual 'subjugation #1-17-the."z'Mr Sker ss with ChurchIll in '1934 Musllmithanates? and- oy4er ? areas'. Until: ? so we todoy-ffioe the growing' power of at last Inthe 18130s Russian arms: - ? . :reached -Afghanistan Itself where fierce .? an expansionist' State "whose Interests Russian and i. are directly. counter_tto -ours:. If we btit clashes occurred between Rus to the occasion; we need fear neither 'Afghan -forces: Rising tension.with.Eri-': rise Ptahi seemed likely for A time to fesult-in, st?waf novrttmor Of Wax:-Rather,?.we -71 van between ??Ryssiat and Britain over ; by our responie'to?the Soviet eliallenge"=:. /Afglianistan;?? "war narrowlt averted.- . assure the peace of "the 'world tindependerice6!...t?_:-" -` generation and, let us Oray', for genera.: ? tby -,`?.riegotiations ' securing 4,,,'4f.ghan tions yet unborn. - ? , ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15: CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 . . . Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15: CiA-RDP11M0136R006400140030-2 . .. ? .. ? _ . , ? ?,..,,,..Nq# ? . .. .,....._? ..,... -. --- . .v14,.. ? ? ii.. ta, 4'.. ' ? 14 ? , , . iZo ? "....1......79,41.:V, ??? f,. , . ?..... ??,...., ! ,,a0-^ ' ? I . 1 ; th 1111111:, f' resstonat Record_ ..?, let: i -? y . -.; United States: -3n?-.? Kth ? -- - -----1- . --:-'''-'. ,.?-.- ...of*nerica ,`.;:t:-,1',1i0CEEDINGS AND _DEBATES, OF THE y ? CONGRESS, SECOND ;SESSION _ ,. VTVol.1Z6 '?'??;WASHINGtON,'WEDNESDAY,, APRIL 16,1980 a. ? ?:?,."1?10.: 58 ouse resentatives r;iiiii?olikki; NEW PACT: THE EMERG- i 0,-;:ejNo IMBALANCE IN POWER 'AND ;*: t,?: ? ITS CONSEQUENCES POR AMERICA. ; ? - : _ .? - - - . -,? ? ? :. .7 The SPEAKER- pre tempoteUnder 'a ?3, Previous order of the House,. the gentle=' --, , man from Missouri (Mr; Sicstrox) IS - i. recognized* for 30 minutes: ? ? '.,,?; - ---_, . -1 ^ Mr. SKELTON. Mi. Speaker, just '15- ? years. after the ,triumph of Soviet corn- t muriism. in .Russia; Winston Churchill, *1 'speaking in the House of Commons, told i of the emergence of Soviet power in the . , international scene with these prophetic * words : ' ? - ? .. . .. "- There is Russia. .(She) has made herself an --Ishmael .among the nations. :but she is one Jot. the most titanic factors in ,the economy t and in thediplomacy of the world (with) ,her : enormous. ' rapidly "inereasing ? armaments. `1 i with her tremendous development of poison , r gas, aeroplanes, , tanks, and every- kind of. t forbidden fruit. . , .'? ..-. , ..,.;_. ,, -.. .: life went On to speak of her "liniitless; 4 k manpower and her Corrosive hatreds"- 1--all these, he concluded,," (weigh) heavily: ? i'. upon a _Whole. line ? of :countries, some !..; small, some considerable, from the Baltic : to the Black Sea,- all Situated adjacent to ? I-Russian territory." He further noted that E: these nations,. yhose -independence and j. nationhood were tiered to them,, were. i -carved. in- whole or in part, :Out ..of the , old Russian Empire...1.,7-..-, -,.,:;"--? ,,'? ..-_,.. ..,.*. -?-? ...It' has _.: been 'nearly '10 -,.'yeari ' -Since, t.Cluirchill spoke those words to alargely1 t? urihearing House, to a largely indifferent" -;.*:wOrld. ' -? 4.???-?::- '''''....- 7.-'-' ???-?-?,"--:-.:?fc.'?,4ift4;:77';.:7!.: , ?%.Looking back, siwyeying the' Past and! :then the Present situation-of those ,nit71 t? ions and peoples to whom Mr: Churchillq ' alluded, we are startled.t,o find that fewi / .7-can "lie'. said :-.to 'el:tic& that ;indepen-dent 1 s- national.. life - to-which ,they ? had?andi ,* 'have--a' much light as any.'It:is _With] ? ra grim Sense of the Unfolding ? realities'. Pot' ; Soviet power ....todaY- and: its, steadyi *.7.eiipins1on? that:We ask:_-Where" are .th6r., ??now? 'i Where -are 'those -countries, Small i Land ? "lai8C:1;Whicli,A,eictended from the i r: Baltic ? to -? the,:?Black-,Sea?,-Some,havel ! been ? literally swallowed, tiff*, absorbed.* 4:into ;the- Soviet imperialffs.'tern?., their:1 17-',7riational identity !Sniffed out:their, reli- ,. .- ,.,..?.??. . , . fj-gious- and' cultutal-'lietitage:tramplecL ?down and oppressed. Others?the stiong-47. ;.'er ? states-find themselves: yoked -to the . Soviet ai-'satellites;.:ableat :: liestzLto;,1 lutaintain -a- cantious! national _ existence ..] !--so- long as they 'Subordinate themselves to the interests ,of Moscow-. Still 'others 'find themselves :effectively '..'neutralized,"1 'existing at-the sufferance Of -the Soviet leadership, -whose ovei-Whelming strength) tis *Willing te ? tolerate "-what 'need :not :, be A --directly absorbed:,-.i.-'::i?j..._,,..-:,,,t4.,-.FtS:..;;*?-4:- ,-;t? Fi'Ve :maY Call the ...roll 0f :nations ? ail-a peoples upon -whom' the,: -Power-, ef "i thi...4. 413oviet?Urtiori ;Weighs "thus heavily ..in one A .way.or anothef froth' the Baltic States'-f4 LithuaniaLattia,...;?Estonia,--=and-from-:,1 -Finland to the-coimtries.which.'-in ar3T., . what ? Mr14:Chutehill?Youldflater ;ilestribel , Ing" -degrees, '-'continue ,.,.t.b.- . exist :Lbehind -as ? an Iron i?Cuitain: -iPolanct:Himgary,'N ? 'Itornarila,Y'Czechits,...........ivaldSt Etitst.itClerTjr ..rt..--.7.?.4?...? . _ . , Bi --this lime --we . are'-more 'or iess ..- 7-,_4i.-77-9.-r-?-?. f=, .t (.77.A--c7r?urjial?Vd-ofte4-if neglected element ? i'resigned to the extension of Soviet infiu-,--11 Inhethface Mt olifcyAlliklieod7nunaipt.?eaparppeelisnemessenint was- 'resigned ? Vence and power from the Baltic 'to the ; !face of German rearmament:Ai early as t Black Sea. Today, however, as we move :' virtu- Into 1980, we have seen a new and more - ' 11934 Winston. Churchill, standing . virtu- -rominous development: the Soviet inve- rsion of Afghanistan. We see today that 1 :iallueyn palroesnene, twedit7eedfereelocqeunimentlyens. in..theatm,,ofn- , ;the threat of Russian expansion is not dee fen s world,e:defenses, t I ilttee 'Psrtreesfitherbefuinsouannaceitionofalt!I ,..confined to Europe. Rather, as through- li 'mud especially of- our air defeltses, Is no .out modern Russian history, it extends I ? along the length and breadth of her -1 t longer adequate . to secure the, Peace. ;vast Asian frontier. It- casts its shadow .Safety. and freedom of -Your ...Majesty's over the Near East and the Persian Gulf,: !faithful subjects." His was a voicelargely -.over Indian and Pakistan,, over China, , :unheard until almost too late. ' ? and Japan: ? . It iimy conviction that this Nation to- ' ? Only one unfamiliar with the story of - ? ,clay confronts a' crisis -with the' Soviet . her paSt' 'would suppose that this expan- . I faced with Germany hi the decade of the , : !Union not unlike that . which Britain: sion into Asia -represents something un- :-,, .precedented in Russian history. ' !thirties. It is-a crisis to secure the peace., , '="- . ? ..; ??? *safety, and freedom of our people and of ) those .peoples -everywhere 'whp :seek the: fulfillment., of .. their legitimate - national:, ?t aspirations for political: cultural, and re- ?, iligious independence. It is ?for them and tfor , us that I, urge the upbuilding of rAmerica strength, an upbuilding based 1 iupon a 'realistic assessment of .Hoviet 1 i:power novt and in the years te come._ , -, ::, ' ? ;.What ? is -new arid . unprecedented.- at ; least since the beginning of the era called: .*d?nte.'- is the naked brutality, the un-.- i *veiled eharactet,--ef -this :move: a direct,, t massive, and continuing intervention in ;an 'area in Which Soviet :influence had ? '-been clearly -dominant in -the -previous. : regime?'-and ifig-oroitsly -repudiated ? by ;the people.It -is ..anjntervention which ; 1 ,To urge the preparation of-defense .4 not ' ;Airings Soviet nillitaty,powersto-thg? very . ;to assert the imminence of :war. ikborders of Pakistan' and India,;closer to - ' - - - ? i;,', the oil-fields-of Iran:and 'the Gulf And -I 14.10 the'strategic Indian Ocean. . . ? . , f ' - -. ' r ' No doubt we do .not -now perceive' the .1 I.:invasion :,of -Afghanistan . as ..a ' direct -: ...threat .to this Nation, but-I ditect your-, ti.consideration _;., to ?":-. a =parallel situation_ [some four. decades 'ago?the German .in- f.vasion of Poland In?1939..Neither Prance I .t. per, Britain then Perceived .that move-as1 ?,Ei.."..dfrect .threat.:Both nations --were' re- luctant :to. act.. Poland was far away : ;-.iti could not be effectivelsi:rdefended..";hyril then, ??go".te?Yar:ovektlie !...,`Polish-,Ques?-"i -?tionr.'4.n-tthe.;end.-; only' ,111.r.:;*Chamber-:1 ??.lain's; outrage:1d:- Hitler's ;brazen -deaeit'j Persuaded antuiwilling ,Prairice . -:.-0- -??? , ef(f. -.. A.?.; -s - ..United States."' - - ' - :.;...,t.41::,=:-:...P.:1:.'s -,":.:?",.-.e.:..,--." .:".?????_-.4r-i ''.5'...... . 44.:11t:trti" -*''' -% .....:? '''' ' )rt'' 7t.'"::rt:',7 :L'.4..k.-.4...:, ..!. . ' "-.. r?,,,,t...:.. `14 t :` ['J.::: It: In .1??????,11',.. ' 121, . '' '.''r ""..r : , %?,__. ' -.". ; 6th ..":":' i3 ;^17erie 7 * .2 ? . ..". ..; , ..''' 4,1, .! i. ,.. I-, .of America P.Ii0CEEDI.N GS AND-..DEBATES OF THE: .. C.ONGRESS,.:SECOND:-SESSION . . -... ,.:,-.),i; 1 :?.--; L':: ...! ,:l?- . ,... -....; !'-!!;.,,.- ...: .:7'.; :.,?,..a ?....,-Je..,????r-,,i:v. -..1-.:? ????? 1; ?,1: ---- / . ! ' Vo- l. /26.7f-' ? WASHINGTON, THURSDAY; MAY !15, 1980 _ '?1 t;i;7-..r.,c1..t.,14.:iiii 40.: elfM?47,.. + ,4'. ^ ' .' ''''' '''' ' . "' 1-.' ! .-,,,, -? ? : 4.,,,Ti.-. ;I' .1: ? ' M17 . ' 7 ? , t AS. .....,... " .....,,.; t.,..r, ,,,, I.), z, ? f .,,s , ,,,,t.,,,,,,....*,... ,.....,..... -,,,,......,,E. .;., ?At.' "; . V yll'. .1.:.? ...- fi..:.::, ..Cr.? ' '".". ... .Y-1 +,.;11%.,51...!-..........; ,..1 . .t...,... ...,:. "; : !?1 ?tri4.. tt. HO USe '' '-i .0 .. .'..resenfatives: Rep.....,..,..,........?, 41ir: ; ? '." - ? ... a _??;.....i ,.,..:,;?,...t.?.r.z ,,,,?,,,,,' ' ., ...0,,,,....-;,44,-,?,. ..,1......, ? ?...-arLI 24r11.-1.:),PLI .1.... rt. 3. ? ? 7. 7 ....?????? SPEECH ON THE PRESERVATION OF PEACE ?7 . The SPEAKER pro tempore. Under a previous .order of the House, the gentle- man from' -.Missouri (Mr. Sp:Evros) is 1-recognized for 30 minutes. ? SKELTON. "Mr. Speaker, recent events in Iran have diverted our atten- tion from the continuing warfare in ? Afghanistan. Without for a moment ? Minimizing the situation in Iran, I sug- gest that it is Afghanistan which should , be in the forefront of our concern. . The Soviet invasion of .that land has . ft rendered 'unexpected service to this Na- ? Zion. It .has sensitized the Persian 'Gulf 4 rcoun-tries.once again to the Soviet threat ? and enraged Moslems about the treat- I --ment -their 'Afghan brothers are receiving at the hands of the. Soviets.- Further the -NATO countries' have been forced to rec- s?ognize where the defensive line must .1 ,? be drawn in the Persian Gulf. ? ? ? .? ? ?-?-? Soviet actions--will undoubtedly be -.airned at destabilizing the Middle East, ...fomenting unrest: here, supporting dis- sident activities there, always taking ad- vantage of existing tensions. The situa- ? - tion . will call for American leadership? _ :patience and" 'restraint, yes and also %firmness, and resolution: qualities -which -must be rooted in strength. - ? - - Tru1y,- the Afghan crisis marks a his-, i'toric watershed inour relations with.the ? - Soviet Union, ? , ? -:.- -?: : ai? :Historical analogies-are:always inexact i 'rind may :therefore? be misleading. Yet only the most foolish would conceive-and :-execute foreign policy tuunindful -and !'-'heedless of ,the lessons' which -the past : -affords. . For: .this reason' ? been ; drawn to those Words, of warning spoken :Toy Winston ?Churchill the -decade' of ?the ????' thirties, r.:Words prophetic character would .be :vindicated-. In his- - nory's most terrible war. ,:;,l-"-C') ? In-March 'of '1939:4 4e?Vi' daYa"ifter ,:the Germany; ? in flagrant. -Violation of ? '-the-Munich agreement,- had occupied :-..the Germany; In flagrant-Violation of) '-'the 'reinaluing 'territory-: of ?:-Czchoslo- ;4akia.-?:-Churrbill rose in Commons - and 'spoke --of the great peril 'which,' 1Ong -'foreseen, was . now -an ominous, real-, clty: Germany, rearmed, 'aggressive, - and ; confident of- success. Within 7-6 . -months- the 'Nail ? armies, would 'strike: and 'overwhelm Poland:On the eye of . ,,the-Second 'World War, then,- with Brit- -and Trance humiliated and unable :sto act;' -Churchill recalled the words of ',General Weygand in .France-spoken the E Week before at the: 21st anniversary Of the -last great 'German 'assault -in 1918. ",-::SPeaking Of Marshall ,EOCh, named iSupreme,Allied Commander in. the midst,, "of 'that' terrible battle,'Weygand 7 If Poch ha-dile:mi. with Us today, be, wouId !not have; Spenthis time-dePloring what had ..been'iost-He would beimsaid;.!Tko not,yield ? Nnother yard." ' ' r -)!fa. which Churchill added lhat,those =words :"' n? - _ 62: . -A ? /..t.... r? -1; :well -be- our guide'.-.:. .,at' this stage .in 4 Lout-',Jourley". 'wb1ch,',though encompassed unmeasured ;perm: -is ,eustaizied by solid ; i.cunlidenceand, not nzicheered ,by 'hope. et-, :True 111,1918.. true .ta 1939, And true to= ; day in- 1980 as : our..country-linds itself', -also 'encompassed by: tuameasured perils , !Whose.nuclear dimensions far ,exceect the elestrietive warfare-of the past.loviii-Z-V25,' yard."" It is the 'COunsel,not of despair, but of clear-eyed, ? _resolute -will., Let us develop that will so we may preserve the peace?that peace which, ,in the final analysis, will -only be as secure as American strength. -? Throughout these speeches, I have em-?, nhasized the nature of the threat which ? Soviet power and Soviet purpose hold for , the United States. I have called atten- tion to the growing imbalance in our re- spective military defenses and .the con- ?sequences thereof. We-need to evaluate 1 our total strategy, first making better ,:use -of what we now have and then in- ..creasing our armaments wherever neces- liary..."Put mot your trust in princes.7. is /the advice of ,the Psalmist who reminds -us not to rely on-any foreign policy or, ,national defense-based upon simple trust.: -George F. _Kerman, . in a tele- I i-gram sent from .Moscow to Washington, made t.his observation:. .c? ,..;r1The-Soviet.Calon) . highly. sensitive to ,the logic of force._ ._;_For this reason, it can . easily withdraw?n4 usually -does?when ? strung resistance it-encountered it any ! point. . ? ? ? ??? ?, -? - - _ Headded: ?????'. ?:/?_1.?+ , If : the ,adversary hag's. -suMcient ,iforee --and 1 ?has to doe?. ' ' world has changed .in 'the t 'three decades, The balance -of, power Is t h makese Sovietclear 8-eadec eprh:::OS:::: take .^1 ..:.gess Clearly In- our favor. 'Little ,wonder ?%11, .luircHine-Inove into Afghanistana-:4 "blatant -and Increasingly !brutal 'Akin :of the" ightof peopleS iaSettrdeter- lflination?whUehe' 'West, SpedifiCally..; the' United States-has been Preoccupied Lwitli 'Other inatters=.4lie 'Iranian' crisis, 7 -!:the Centered' slit' the- Lsraell-1.', :Palestinian conflict, and the-heightened' 1 '"sensitivity of Islarnienationa to thc'need 4 .-.for 'oil' by Industrialized states. ' ? i?F?!..-The peril is evident. We have ;a1 least ? --begun to address ourselves -to 'our areas of weakness in military defense. Weltaiie: lastItegunlorallyth.e will of our lead- ,..-:ership In behalf of our Interests abread. Sufficient'force mid the readiness-to use iit-;-ourassura,nee of conildence.andsome arieasure' of .hope for' .the peace., United ?States is the iirst , World ' ,-..:P.ower In-history to maintain large-scale 4 tcarmed 'forces withoutaime farm of 1,011.- 4 Vire.muspasksihetherthtet ex;-.4 LtraordinnisVPolicr: is Troliing:lo--he-suc-__i kessfuLls-ourreadinesszafticientlo.meet 1 the posstbl?rises we =nay -have to Iface2 Whether .or 'not. therdraft. shOpid- be:re- stored,' we must encourage_ the upbuild- of our defenses. Ourinutiediate need f,...1s to develop trained forces. Registration. :::ts a vital step In that direction: L For. one thing,-our Reserves-are strength7r.-.185,000 short of .,:otir" Our iReseives.?-are,1 as 'Major ; General .:I3eWitt r?iilterna- tiie ;to': nuelearrtvrar."..:TheyOwill; k. determine are to avoid the,choicel I of Surrendering :or 'to ? nuclear , the that hours of aMaJor conflict.. ?Ur:Active 4nxiy has also fallen. short ita.reitrill'ting goals=some 10,000 short Vat. prisent.-Soin.e_have estimated that If both ItekerVei and active troops' were all :up ke:WOuld -.be short ? by 270,000.- _There is ittle :doubt that the deterrent r,imPact of our, Army. has-been greatly im-; enlisted 'ranks areno. ?longer' .bibadlY :rep.resentatfve Of our society. The 'loosening;:of -standards-has -created in- ternal- problenis-Itoo much ?turbulence:. too few..rnen, too little.fmtipment. ? . . Last month;-:durineademonstration against conseription; the , slogan , "there IS nothing worth 'dying for" 'Waa' widely acclaimed. To which we can Only *observe that where there is nothing worth dying for, there is likely to be little or nothing ? 'worth 'living for. The "me" era of our recent past must give way. to a new sense of patriotism, a concern for the survival of America. We in America have much 'that is worth living for?..and we want to maintain it 'both for ourselves and for - our posterity. Indeed, this - Nation re- mains the last best hope of freedom?as witness the influx of 'refugees each day from lands that have fallen under brutal tyrannies. That exodus of refugees?Al- - ghans, Vietnamese, : Cambodians, Cu- 'bans?tells us "much about the nature ? of communism in Practice. It is no..acci- :- dent . that -the Soviets have increased their pressure upon the dissidents in .:their midst even as they are dispatching ',their troops to 'Afghanistan. ' ? I havequoted repeatedly from Winston :Churchill's speeches in the thirties be.. ' cause they seem to me remarkably per- 31nent for our day. Far-seeing then, they are no less so -now:- though the nations are changed, the principles endure-The Great War of 1914-19 came about be- - cause of an imbalance of power. SQ with ,,the second war.,It need not be the case iydth :a possible third, 'provided we,. are t,determined to preserve our strength and, to 'use. -it-,With.,fastraint and Wit.h iptC,14,7 ..;.; ? - toe t tr. - - fi.,..n.Let,me close tvith Mr. Churchill's som- :her 'Peroration _to his...speech ? in'. Octo- ber 1938,-that:speech .which _struck an ? 7unwelcome note in the midst of then pop-, ',lar enthusiasm :1?.;_;! fa bib? peOple,:should :know.ithat...there been gross neglect -and-gleficiency in our de-' enses;.they-shOuld knoiv.that we have sus- T;tained a defeat without 'a viier,the:ecinse- ,-Ouences -of " which 'will -travel 'far' jvith us . ;along our "road; they shciuld know ,that we :,have passed an awful milestone In' our his- ' ,;.tory, when the whole equilibrium of Europe , ? _has, been deranged, -and. that :the ' terrible ,?words have- for the time' being .heeni? pro- I `tnounced 'against -the Western ? democracies. ,'Thou are vieighed in the balance and found t:marrting.'"And do not 'suppose that this is the end. This is only the beginning of .the inFeakOning. This 18'0111y-the first sip,-the first L,foretEiste of a bitter cup_which will be prof- ifered?to us year by Year unless by a Supreme recovery of ,moral-health and martial vigour, .4 - ? - ; we arise again and take our stand -.fpr free7 :`:?:dom as hi the olden tiroe.:47,..' tv-L1 FoAmeica rin11980,-'thiS. r: :need not be?"the ' beginning. of .the rec- f-tkoning.".1ciay we-come to see this critical" as ;the beginning Of our . awakening, 4nci unigea:sant inhiany-reipects hret- also 'bracing and -renewing. :The late '-Bishop ? Sheen 'once:Suggested 'that k ipug,ht ? to -ratse: a statue of duty, 'perhaps,, on thelwestooast,-.to' match the familiar Statile of Liberty in theEast and to serve; 'as a reminder' that trio ?libertY" dePends ;upon the -commitment-of otir . people to, gthe duties of responSible citizenship: 'or :liberty to floiirish,rthere Must be'secur4T1 ;for the individual and for the Nation'?,i the greatphra:se-of Williard-Plti the ? fElder, "our watchwordnnist ;Only then may We hope to keep the'Peace ? :hi a troubled ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15 : CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 Dedassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15 ? CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 Annan was the 4th congressional aistnct Truman's background?he never represented the district in the House, but served in the Senate from 1935 to 1945?tells a lot about the district, even today. Truman was born in the town of Lamar, in the southern end of the 4th, near the Oklahoma and Arkansas borders. His family was Democratic, which means that in his mother's case at least it cherished a lifelong sympathy for the cause of the Confederacy. The largest city in the 4th district, way at its other end, is Independence. It is an old courthouse town, where Truman lived on what now is Truman Road in a nineteenth century Victorian house belonging to his wife's family. Just a few blocks away is the. Jackson County Courthouse where Truman was once County Judge (an administrative position) before his election to the Senate. In those days Independence was a small town, the incongruous seat of a county which included bustling Kansas City. Today the suburban growth emanating from Kansas City has so ballooned the-population of Independence that Truman's old Victorian town has nearly been engulfed. The 4th district is a combination of rural Missouri counties, like the one Truman grew up in,. and part of the Kansas City metropolitan area, where he began his political career. Its political history is almost totally Democratic. The rural counties, though to a diminished extent in recent years, have clung to the party more sympathetic to slavery (or most unsympathetic to abolition). Kansas City has been Democratic since the days of Tom Prendergast, the political boss-who gave Truman his start and later ended up in-jail. Truman himself had no part-in Prendergast's graft but he was certainly a beneficiary of the fraudulently high number of. votes the machine piled up. Jackson County was reported to have cast 295,000 votes in the 1936 election?more .than it has ever since, despite considerable growth. (The 1976 total was .235,000.) The 4th district's representation in Congress has alternated between the rural area and Jackson County. For 17 years, from 1959 to 1976, the Congressman was William Randall, an Independence Democrat who before his election had held Truman's old job of County Judge for 13 years. A cautious man of conservative habits, Randall was a member of the Armed Services 1 Committee; he made few waves there or in the House, and decided to retire in 1976 at age 67. ' Nine Democrats and two Republicans filed forrn the seat, but there were only five serious contestants. In the Democratic primary two candidates from Jackson County split 45% of the , vote; the winner was Ike Skelton, a state Senator from rural Lexington, who won with 40%. The . Republican nominee was Richard King, the Mayor of Independenc,e:and a young (32) protege of Governor Christopher Bond. ? Perhaps unwisely, King tied his general election campaign .to that of the Governor and Senate candidate John Danforth. Danforth won but Bond, in a surprise, didn't, and neither did King?He failed to carry Jackson County, although he came very close, and carried only five small rural counties; Skelton had an unexciting, but sufficient, 56%. Skelton had pitched his campaign to the rural areas and, as he had promised, won a seat on the House Agriculture Committee. This is a seat Republicans would dearly love to have won--it has gone Republican in many statewide elections, though it did deliver a small margin for Jimmy Carter. Probably the last chance they will ' have to retrieve it for some time will come in 1978, and Skelton .can hardly fail to be aware of the, advantages of incumbency which have made so many freshmen in recent years politically:. invulnerable. Census Data ? Pop. 466,940. Central city, 2%; suburban, 47%. Median family income, $8,740; families above $15,000: 15%; families below. $3,000: 12%. Median years education, 12.1. The Voters Median voting age 44. Employment profile White collar, 42%. Blue collar, 38%. Service, 12%. Farm, 8%. Ethnic groups Black, 2%. Total foreign stock, 4%. Germany, -1%. Presidential vote 1976 Ford (R) 100,517 (48%) Carter (D) 108,477 (52%) 1972 Nixon (R) ? 131,874 (69%) McGovern (D) 60,472 (31%) Research; Rep. Ike- Skelton (D) Elected 1976; b. Dec. 20, 1931, Lexington; home, Lexington;.Wentworth Mil. Acad., U. of Mo., B.A. 1953, LL.B. 1956, U. of Edinburgh, Scotland, -1956; Christian Church. Career Lafayette Co. Prosecuting Atty., 1957-60; Spec. Asst. Atty. Gen. of Mo., 1961-63; Practicing atty., 1964-71; Mo. Senate, 1971-76. Offices 1404 LHOB, 202-225-2876. Also 219 Fed. Bldg., 301 W. Lexington, Independence 64050, 816-252-2560. Committees Agriculture (25th). Subcommittees: Department Investi- gations, Oversight, and Research; Forests; Livestock and Grains. Small Business (24th). Subcommittees: Energy, Environment, Safety and Special Small Business Problems. Group Ratings: Newly Elected Key Votes I) Cut Defense $ NE 6) Delay B-1 Bomber .NE ' I I) S Korea Mil $ Cut NE 2) Dereg Nat Gas NE 7) Chile 'Arms Sales 'NE 12) Common Situs Picket AGN 3) Gov Abortion $ NE 8) Consumer Prot Agy NE 13) Prvt Uranium Prod NE 4) Rhod Chrome Ban FOR . 9) Nuclear Carriers AGN 14) Delay Pollution Stnds NE 5) Hatch Act Repeal NE 10) Assassination Invest AGN 15) Curb Bill Collectors AGN Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15 : ;IA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 A77 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15: CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 THIRD DISTRICT ? Missouri's 3d congressional district Consists of the south side of the city of St. Louis and an adjacent portion of suburban St. Louis County. The line drawn through the middle of St. Louis to separate the 3d from the 1st district also neatly separates the predominantly black part of the city from the part in the 3d district which remains overwhelmingly (92% in 1970, and about that today) white. Here on the south side there are still signs of the German immigrants who made St. Louis one of the nation's gemutlichkeit cities of the 'nineteenth century; today, symbolically, an Altenheim (old people's home) still sits on the banks of the Mississippi. The most famous of the St. Louis Germans was Carl Schurz, a friend of Lincoln, a northern officer in the Civil War, a Secratary of the Interior, and United States Senator from Missouri. . Today in the ethnic and elderly neighborhoods of the south side of St. Louis (median voting age in the district is 50), people have stayed with a New Deal Democratic preference or, in the slightly better off edges of the city, have remained Republican. The suburban portion is a natural extension of the city. Most of the people living there now moved out along the radial avenues extending from the middle of St. Louis. The suburban voters tend to be somewhat more conservative and Republican than their counterparts in the 'city; although their parents voted for Roosevelt and Truman, the suburbanites were inclined toward Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew. For more than 20 years, from 1952 to 1976, the Representative from the 3d district was Leonor K. Sullivan. Like many women elected to Congress, she won her seat following the death of a congressman-husband; in Mit. Sullivan's case, she served far longer and with greater distinction. Her major achievement.was passage in the House of the truth-in-lending law, opposed for years by major banks and retailers; she would have ended her career as Chairman of the Banking Committee had that post not been won in the Democratic Caucus by the less senior Henry Reuss. Instead, she spent her last two terms as Chairman of Merchant Marine and Fisheries, the body which maintains heavy government subsidies to the American shipping and shipbuilding industries and to members of 'the various maritime unions. This is basically a Democratic district, and the struggle for Mrs. 'Sullivan's seat, despite some expectations to the contrary, was 'fought essentially in the Democratic primary. The main Contestants were Richard Gephardt, a 35-year-old St. Louis City Alderman, and Donald Gralike, a union leader with support in the suburbs. With a 2-1 margin in the city and only a narrow loss in the suburbs, Gephardt won. His general election opponent was a former president of the St. Louis Board of Aldermen, Joseph Badaracco. But there are few Republicans left here; and Badaracco had little money to spend, while Gephardt ran television commercials aplenty. At 59, Badaracco was a little old for heavy personal campaigning. He figured he had to carry the city portion of the district to prevail; he got only 33% there. Gephardt won what appears to be a pretty safe seat. Census Data Pop. 467,544. Central city, 67%; suburban, 33%. Median family income, $10,199; families above $15,000: 20%; families below $3,000: 8%. Median years education, 10.6. The Voters Median voting age 47. Employment profile White collar, 52%. Blue collar, 36%. Service, 12%. Farm, ?%. Ethnic groups' Black, 6%.? Spanish, 1%. Total foreign stock, 15%. Germany, 4%. Italy, 2%. Presidential vote ? 1976 1972 ? . Ford (R) Carter (D) Nixon (R) McGovern (D) 90,574 85,741 102,959 73,362 (51%) (49%) (58%) (42%) 478 'MISSOURI Rep. Richard A. Gephardt (D) Elected 1976; b. Jan. 31, 1941, St. Louis; home, St. Louis; Northwestern U., B.S. 1962,U. of Mich., J.D. 1965; Baptist. ti : Career Practicing atty., 1965-76; St. Louis City Alderman, 1971-76. , Offices 509 CHOB, 202-225-2671. Also 3470 Hampton, St. Louis 63109, 314-351-5100. ; Committees Ways and Means (23d). Subcommittees: Oversight; Social Security. Group Ratings: Newly Elected Key Votes I) Cut Defense $ 2).Dereg Nat Gas 3) Gov Abortion $ 4) Rhod Chrome Ban 5) Hatch Act Repeal . Election Results 1976 general Richard A. Gephardt (D) 115,109 (64%) Joseph L. Badaracco (R) 65,623 (36%) 1976 primary Richard A. Gephardt (D) 48,874 (56%) Donald J. Gralike (D) 32,791 (38%) (6%) NE 6) Delay I3-1 Bomber NE 11) S Korea Mil $ Cut NE 7) Chile Arms Sales NE 12) Common Situs Picket NE 8) Consumer Prot Agy NE 13) Prvt Uranium Prod AGN 9) Nuclear Carriers AGN 14) Delay Pollution Stnds NE 10) Assassination Invest AGN 15) Curb Bill Collectors NE FOR NE NE AGN Two others (0) 95,t 6 Leonor John B.) Sullivan (D) (75%) ($27,800) 1974 oeneral K. (Mr. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15 : CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 ($2,254) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15: CIA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2 s the northwest and north central parts of the state. It includes the-thin panhandle that goes west to touch the borders of Colorado and New Mexico. Aside from a small portion of Oklahoma City and its suburbs, the 6th is almost entirely small town and rural. Around the turn of the century, the plains west of Tulsa and Oklahoma City attracted thousands of migrants,--probably a majority of them from nearby Kansas. Like so many settlers of the Great Plains, these people mistakenly assumed that the land was more fertile and the rainfall more reliable than was actually the case. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s hit already and northwest Oklahoma hard, and in many ways it has yet to recover. In 1907, when Oklahoma was admitted to the Union, there were 401,000 people living in the counties now wholly contained in the 6th:district. By 1970 that number was down to 390,000. Due probably to the Kansas origin of its first settlers, the 6th has always been the most Republican part of nonurban Oklahoma. In the late sixties and early seventies, when the Conservative trend in the state was shifting ancestral Democrats to the party of Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew, the 6th became one of the most Republican parts of the nation. In 1972 Richard Nixon won a larger share of the vote in the 6th district (79%) than in any other congressional district outside the Deep South. But such trends can be short lived, and the Watergate scandal had its fallout here in Middle America as much as anywhere else. Not only did the traditionally Democratic counties in the southern part of the district switch back to the Democrats in statewide races: so too, to a considerable extent, did the traditionally Republican counties of the north central region around Enid and Ponca City. Republican ?Senator Henry Bellmon, a native of the 6th, did carry the district on .the way to-a- narrow reelection victory in .1974; but Democrat David Boren carried all the counties but one here in his successful race for the Governorship- the same year. Two years later, Republicans seemed a little stronger. Nevertheless, the Republican percentage for President declined from Richard Nixon's 79% to Gerald Ford's 54%. The 6th was also the scene of one of the nation's biggest upsets in House races in 1974. The incumbent was a 66-year-old Republican with the agreeable. name of. John N.. Happy Camp, a, solid conservative who had served 20 years in the state Senate and had first been elected to Congress in 1968. Reelected in 1972 with 73% of the vote, -be did not seem to be in any conceivable political trouble. But Glenn .English, the 33-year-old director of the state Democratic Party, ran a vigorous campaign which by its very nature contrasted his youth to Camp's age. English ended up carrying not only the traditionally Democratic counties near his home town in the southwest corner of the district, he even carried the only two counties in the state (Alfalfa and Major) which have Republican registration edges. The result was a solid 53%-44% victory. Like so many other freshmen from 1974, English -had shown his political acumen by winning in the first place; given the advantages- of incumbency as well, he overwhelmed his opposition in 1976 with 71%. He seems likely to remain a Congressman for many years to come, unless he decides to seek statewide office. Census Data Pop. 427,445. Central city, 5%; suburban. 10%. Median family income, $9,305; families above $15,000: 19%; families below $3,000: 15%. Median years education, 12.3. The Voters Median voting age 45. Employment profile White collar, 45%. Blue collar, 29%. Service, 15%. Farm, 11%. Ethnic groups Black, 2%. Indian, 2%. Spanish, 1%. Total foreign stock, 5%. Presidential vote 1976 1972 Ford (R) NA Carter (D) NA Nixon (R) 150,998 (79%) McGovern (D) 39,712 (21%) Rep. Glenn English (D) Elected 1974; b. Nov. 30, 1940, Cordell; home, Cordell; Southwestern St. Col., B.A. 1964. Career Chf. Asst. to Majority Caucus, Cal. State Assembly; Exec. Dir., Okla. Dem. Party, 1969-73; Petroleum leasing business. Offices 109 CHOB, 202-225-5565. Also 800 W. Main St., Yukon 73099, 405-231-5511. Committees Agriculture (20th). Subcommittees: Conservation and Credit, Department Investigations, Oversight and Research; Livestock and Grains. Government Operations (17th). Subcommittees: Government Activities and Transportation; Intergovernmental Relations and Human Resources. Group Ratings ADA COPE PC RPN NFU LCV CFA NAB NSI ACA NTU 50 - 79 56 - 90 79 60 1976 25 39 23 .33 33 20 . 27 1975 16 30 - - 73 18 15 Key Votes I) Cut Defense $ AGN 6) Delay B-1 Bomber AGN 11) S Korea Mil $ Cut AGN 2) Dereg Nat Gas FOR 7) Chile Arms Sales FOR 12) Common Situs Picket AGN 3) Gov Abortion $ AGN 8) Consumer Prot Agy AGN 13) Prvt Uranium Prod FOR 4) Rhod Chrome Ban AGN 9) Nuclear Carriers FOR 14) Delay Pollution Stnds FOR 5) Hatch Act Repeal AGN 10) Assassination Invest AGN 15) Curb Bill Collectors AGN Election Results 1976 general Glenn English (D) 137,498 (71%) Carol McCurley (R) 55,953 (29%) 1976 primary Glenn English (D), unopposed 1974 general Glenn Fnglich (111 7610 ISM (78,411) LDeclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/15 : 53,532) IA-RDP11M01338R000400140030-2