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Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
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Document Creation Date: 
November 3, 2016
Document Release Date: 
September 25, 2013
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Publication Date: 
August 10, 1942
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Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Immew ,mign7Primminn_!7777 , ??????' ? .? ? 1, Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 :??? S. ?fr..14.-1414,1 t'.14Mi_e.tg`a7g. 41.4t.:4 ? %--?? ???; r?L.:143 74---" ? AR, ? - - gmadaraina- fOROMMIregla Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ? LE11111111111111111111111111111?11M Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 4 c, , !if, ---i-------_-;:it: ,.., -i-,Hit 'lie ii2.1212atittitt- ---t ? q ,, ?#0 ;?,7;? ',:i: Vtil'ic-ist use -0 Oragi.66.1: wOteire ,b6014 :41. :Tb....,,,,,,, : ,confusiaa of -partY 'struggles and vasi-_ warfare in Whieb the party vas bOrn. Italy was on the victorious side but had. suffered terribly in military casualties and in economic welfare, nd felt that she was being treated as a defeated nation. ighlY lyrid propaganda tactiem were devised, coMbining P6 T. Baraum showmanship with the devices developed in all countries in "Win the War". campaigns, 1915- 1918? to win support for Mussaliai. These efforts were at first made chiefly fcr home use, but after 1924.1925 were directed at Italian 4colonialsw abroad and at oreign apiniaa. From the '?-tart, Fascists put psychological considerations ahead of all others. Instead of doing a thing for its own seam mad then lauding or excusing it as might bo, thoy consistently planned psychological 6ffects desircld? than visualized appropriate al,s upon which propaganda to get those effects could be based, and then carried out those acts for the sake of the effects. Of course events frequently =Ike along over which they had no such Mg. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 eclassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ? , , PORTL-477"."-- ? .11!1,1- l? ? ? ?antra; Alin thab hopenod PdtNicit paioholosii frequently Iookhd aillyo But evermoll thoir teohnique helped great17 bo orouto tho illueion of dplerd ata in their movement, tho ineuleAtion of which hao In the pub boot% one of ow enemloe *hitt ovormall triumph%) in tho fiad of payehologm 14A1 WArr4r0 againat their own peoples and againat j 71, Purvam2S~Rolai. Summary or the altuation Whon hoatilitioa bogan tho Pgaelat leadership :nood the problom or peranadind A very nonm bolltpoao population, atill bearing hurt%) from tho lamb war, inflation, the doproonion, Spoln, ftnd ovormLanatlon to richt in Allianoo with tho moot, roarod And hatod notion in Europa, for torts Lorton row wantod that badly. Added to th000 poblomo WAM th0 gravor ono, from the point or viow of V0,0010, loodora, that Itnly wao woarym inv. of PAIJOitim itnOlft Tho tanivivol or urttigin, thm Wrriblo ooath or thy Orook, Multilane geW Libygn warap And the onLitsv or the Uhityd Statea into bho wgr have Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: if& Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Viliall*P49,100777:71' f , further encuMberedFOcistPsyci109g0 efforts have been directed at be4ttling the en at exalting Axis invindibility, ,and now reiterated over eighteen years, of bettertim0:- when these glorious tasks have been achieved. (b) Effect desired The main tasks of Italian psychological warfare are to prevent internal disintegration, and by working through Italian colonials chiefly in the Western Hemisphere to give what help it can to German efforts there. Radio broadcasts are the chief means employed In reaching outside Italy, although contact with subversive elements is also maintained as means allow. - (3) Appraisal of ETSE7-2.1aSalla.a1111-1.2iticassses (a) Strengths and weaknesses inherent in the situation 1. Fascismfs 20-year record is both its strength and its weakness. Whatever the facts, it succeeded in convincing a substantial part of Italy's population that it had overcome bolshevism, anarchy, and foreign disdain. It also impressed foreigners 3/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 11(k triumph's of Agan " ! 9,192,38_ and a'ue ?lead? inei4ffM weilie440SA technique, vas'f Center attentibn -bj:pyrote-C nioi displ4S'.!upcia' what it wanted seen, hiding alk othernatters-in obscurity, and ing such spectators as it could* Of value from the start were strong senti' mental affections for Italy found among American and British tourists and residents, the glorious reflections of the Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance, Catholic respect for the Italian head of the Church (exploitable after 1929), and the peculiar ties of emigrant Italians to Italy. These were played upon in every fashion, most effects being aimed simultaneously at the domestic and the foreign audiences. Mussolini was political boss of a tourists' resort for which he was public relations ran, and he made each function supplement the other: (a) to prove that Italians were clean and efficient (b) to prove that Italians were bellicose Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ELMMOMMINOININIMAMS601111111bOWE Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 = " 4 ';:' :--.?.,:-,!- .'.. ? : '-?-? . ..? ."'.'? 7.f '? ' *.- - ' 1 -1:.- - 7,- :? :,..1, WI ....... , ..., ? ,..,- ..---. - , ? --e. ?--/;'..---W,40,. - 2:2?,"?,,-,44-0, :.'lf.-.-?:,.-.0-.- .--,y,,,,?--,,-.._-.....?--n., = --.I.,:4-?, .'-i.--..7:2 1.-,44.4.-2 J e 1).E;t1 , '? -(c) to prOirb .tliat, Italy deierveds.nan, would win wIth fle sword (but ecoaciMically)e her juit x' -,t (d) to prove that Fascism was bettt,3i, thsri r 11.41 3 a*), democraCy. 'r ? 7 = ,,r c. " - (It should be noted that all of those are defonse-- cover's against Italian self-appraisal and fqXeLI1? e- attitudes') Events since 1939 have simply demolished these - basic propaganda drives; creating that weakness which comes from false propaganda unmasked. 20 Weakness in face of counter-measures through psychological warfare, at All skeptical, shrewd Italians (who prize shrewd skepticism) are open now to a propa- ganda which compliments them for having taken Fascism with a grain of salt all along. Not one thing Fascist propaganda said for eighteen years is so. b. Discontent with a visibly worsening material situation. II Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 c. Distrust of all leadership. du -Distrust 'of all all 4 e. Fear of all enemies.' ,.; f. Weariness with Faseismo:. of how much worse things will be Fear of Italy becoming a battleground. Fear of German vengeance for any defection. e. Idealistic nationalism which can yet Mussolini if conditions so develop as to f. The influence of church leaders against rocking the boat. g. The integration of the personal interests of leaders in government, the armed forces, the professions, and in business, with the ?." - Strength and weakness in the organizational set up 1. The strength in the Faseist set-up for psychological warfare has been chiefly the strength of Mussolini c-f,= Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/ 511 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ,?? - - t r. ? 4;?.1'?? hmse1t e.s4"t?blibli.4-.Tiaiti, edtr, 4eban *P. e-cei. , ?,?.,. ? 'stage designer; lidot-writer,a6d-hief.aetore': -,f 01. ?, Its Wile -weakness as been in, the samo histriOnie approach to affairs, by which aetuai military operations, for example, have been staged for psychological effect without making sure the enemy would play the part of beaten slave, as in the attack on Greecee As a man above all conscious of publicity values, Mussolite, has seen to it that a great effort has gone into creation for his use of a mechanism for psychological warfare, with a, proportionately large budget. af Intelligence activities i. The Ministry of Popular Culture (i.e. Propaganda) has intelligence sections which draw information on social, political, cultural, and economic conditions at home and abroad from its own agents, as well as from the intelli- gence sections of army, navy, and air force. It also monitors foreign broad- casts, keeps track of Italian organiza- tions and personalities abroad, and Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 irgtg$ 5C-,514g. 11?1654113215"61114111111111101---- ---esanglieWZMISMIEBINNEraaim Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 - - ? - - -VN-TiliMTVW4 attperviSei the ac.tion' ,aild..pro3a6Uttceiin ". of thach as it controls by s various mec Army, navy, and air forces have their respective intelligence sections, perform; tag according to their megsas all normal funttions of such sections, but serving also the Ministry of Popular Culture and being served by it. Foreign Ministry intelligence work is under the ministerial direction of Ciano, and hence of Mussolini. It has functioned closely at all times both on the intelligence side and the policy side, with the Ministry of Popular Culture. iv. The Ovrra or secret police has worked above all in Italy but through the CAO (Centro American? di Operazioni) and parallel sections for work abroad has kept data upon Fascists. and anti-Fascists and in- fluential foreigners for many years. Now integrated with and subordinated to the Gestapo, it is scarcely an independent instrument for psychological warfareo v. The Fascist Party abroad, integrated with I-Nest-4 c c if i ri and Annroved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 10}11111.1111.1110097161711111M.111.= Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 - pow"' r 10.044''1ft,sq4i 6111031-, _ 0414%64 -; tim taken the e4 t 'Itddin pzoUin r1 ctivitie* dolsignea- , 16 furthei ti t Moots intermits. It is subdi4idea into elomAnts Which work on: intellectuals, an laborers, on veterans, and so forth, to onlist.their support at Maoism? and to use them as sources of ieormation. b$ Oporational activities i. Tho propaganda ministry has in thy past spont all it ooald gob from a poor country and from gifts or genteel blackmail abroa4 The total has-boon lowmr blqan the Nazi total expenditure), not because\ the Pascist will and imagination wore woak but bocause the country is poor. Xuakets to Italy wore subsidized, "culturs centers" set up to dloominato propaganda mnd enlist sympathizore Mae wore made (not very suooesetully), and radio work war) oarried oni eopeolanLy direotad at the Balkane mad the Motaam Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 -akeminwigs?mag_FT.P.P",ir"-,- - ? - - , tbe'eneSi6,;j.find Its ' .-? 061-Onittli" an.the,pther. In Imperial. Italian Arica special bursa-Lie- fUnctione to keep upthe morale of, colonists ia:d tol control and Win over natIve elements. ii. The Ministries of the armed forces'haVe , doubtlessly tried their best to keep up home morale, troop morale, and undermine the morale and fighting efficiency of Greeks and British, but whatever they spent or tried to do hasn't worked so very well. The operations of the Italian police, to judge from impressions received by reading all reports on Greece, have been singularly ineffective in controlling local irrecon- eilables. How well they have done their job on the home population is unclear, except that it was apparently felt Gestapo help was imperative. iv. The Foreign Ministry se l; up large staffs of extra diplomatic agents at consulates and embassies, on Nazi pattern, for operational Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ..,4;, _ t.t- ? ?. -44. ?a? , -',:...,' ? ' : - , ,. -?,1=,,,?,-1.,: =- 1,.:???4,''.` 'I? ,,,...,...---7. , ''''-:?_',.- 7 ':' -',???-?:, , ,. - ? " ,...?; ,..1'..,.0 ? 1 :."1.71:::-::: -...-1:: A, ...;. - r- ??:' e ' - 9-ki, 4,-',- ?., N"----... ,- - ----,!.''''''':4'tz--',-,,,,,tp,%?,:tzw.-. ,;;?..-7.:::,-,_;,--, ' .- 1,-;H:'4-- , .? - y ? -. ---il -=-. ??,_ -. 'Mk --. ...I:, ' -?'1 . ? ''''' ?=,, ? ? ontir3,; , 016 ,:0 ?:4 1.1:.%. . ? . 74 'fhb ilaPi4'i.,O;Oncidotirig the ,i100,0 , ., .4 r iih, Italana and aeooad gen0ratiO& :._. did A zindularly poor job I J ^ : '' ?' t ' , torvenb Viadicte abroad, The oori 0 ::' ' true Vaaointa which did vome to 0%10 kti tht overcool Paaol must, however,* '',,' taken serLoualyi, at locct as probable recruit? for Nati Agenoleal work, e Be aaktIona Tho greatoot veaknena in tho whole impocing pattorn or bureaum tor thia purpoce and orgontzationa for that ones le that too fewi of the human being@ engage6 in doing the aoWal work OAPO very muoh that 11 be done fact and ettinienbly. Partly that Attitude abeme from quiet contempt for Pamlico, partly from inm differeneop and partly frau aft attitude toward bimo gild grinding aoottrato doLmil work whioh deioo oorpootion? Orftrb ntt nopotium have 111 ; rt: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 .5?-y-tioa ? .4. ?-????? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 1,4 I ?1' ? ? ? ? ? ? ? , to..a.,4, ? 7 Nte 5. ? . ?. 7, ? , . tt, ? t t . . ? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 S ..,;:4:?z-- ii...`: 3? -=??lf.D. r?., ,-4t_Fi'D,Ic.,I, -A-Int...I-1.4 {',..4-1,..tr, -'..,??:',1*.-1 .:' ? ,-,,.V?vray-- 5,..---- ? i-V- -F14,--,...,:,...e.4 ^ -fr"-sr,vt, ? ir JOINSIMINEMEI Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 in Ett 4-? Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 4 ' 5 FNMA* TOt SUMMIT' , , ? gdmond L. Tay-or Li,oz 0- t , ?..1. , ,71 1.f.T. Pi' ; ' - ' ? A . ' Colon:al aono4W1 _ _ , . tachod Memorandut on This roport utemtiCtonm )^: ? A onia' -10,6 lkokt 1* QM, - - 41:11d unOul studioa f th 1.thid thiit I 1i dtsecon,'- nhoulki thinic that the tirot:part-Atd a tow cmcorptp rrom tho ouggestions in regard to propagandav might surely be communicated to tho On und would be,' , vbiuubIo Lo thorn) but nAturally, the"question of coouzlity Nhoulu be curcru134 weighed. tAt em Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ? 0 TO: .4 low. 1.10, ith Q40Isikti rt: eiwg t:Awb.41,0,irtak 6044.01 1,64, foratose*:0.0 pre-..""a igto.446, 4z.440&441,1 "s4 -er" e * haLlti coot,, ?to 146z".4.. v FROM: JOHN C. wILEY I Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 1-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Attaohod Iktrowith nro1wGOumonto juotAipm oolvod, vio r it rolinbio oollttiotl Pram owofirt116 vloffit diatinpa ohod fronboro of tholtuliftl unttorgrOhd' now in Lilo 114 ,tod Antrim. The, htfto boon oxoldnod rind lh i betiovod thutthoy RP@ oP Vint' Ifiportmnoo. Thov ohrwit in many roiTiootp with tie?orot- elld m111,11110 turomilIon. Thoy 600m to oiftriPy tho ,)1.4?rt=10,-Af,y OFLIVILIon crow tlivo to oxiattin Lho Drohloftn or oondualing ;0'11 ImenrtJ 1Ij1 thy. Fonotnt roRimo. T 4!.(1 nrrl th0 NAY 00niOM WO }MVO. Y011 mmy wioh VC i i 4 0 thrvi timorip: tho moAoro rr i 1 r oomM a tO0 8 [ QArotholy onn ridont,i,h1 wituro 1-t,vitrili) to ti f' 000100 r(q.1. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 Al- L443,1 RIM .2-- ?=i, r 4 ? _ , Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 - 1 - , 0 .1014111a11161t ; AU 0PINIO cP0142,10AL ? cr, wit6on 1) - In 'low of totivities in Whichrilywoccie ot t?P: - , er.lf , ?4;. ' - tatMearliblitanta retir mmift envisions should be, Mimi itItc 400110 ? ? - , '4 lta:.ituvo z 5 At A roAtitively small group of Riteeitite who oonititute igawer04..,09 'r h14 egonomie maehino and rule the country? Their main strength 410 7tWt day r:som an ettneiedet and well organized Mice and from .4erita4,atkletti 0 A 14rgo mass 0 people who had adjusted themsolves without too tothol? datioulty to tho Oti.00ttat maims but resent today tho promOcrman.iclioi of tho present rtaer$, Thny probably conetitmts the majority of polLitel 00 ly-mlnded itallati*. They belong to the upper classes act well4to to bott potate510 timd tb omrttiin emotions of' tho working; ?lassos* Froupt Path the tom an4-ifashoieds are indioated those who hays oppooed 004: J A rOlfttiVtlr oftral minotity of antifascists reunited from every ettaal. oi4.prit1y thq POMO-tat regime or those who, aithOugh having boon at tioloo \ Attntoto4n by fatmist ideologies, promisee and interests, have later on deal*. Irihitely broken with the regimes J) The) root of the nation including millions of politically uneducated porpilm who, muter favorable circumstances, may riot and revolt but mosl at.p k. 11 - , 11,1 !, ;a far maI k.loria tho antiftsoists (group 0) are not numerous in ita744-0, 11 ? 1?Aptmtinp, thoso who have boon arrested for politleal reaeona by the faseia'f.'_ 11110 thov Kr(' not a npg1iMiblo minority an it lo shown by the figured ff) Ir? 1 e trip itms simply follow those who aro in power. nmither tho firet nor the it group will be tann into a000unt in wpAt follows? I i - .rt ',A.TI ; _ ;T-7 f Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25:CIA-RDP13X00001R000 00450006-9 liT''s1i;;;;:t114 ?....m.v.iwiwmmtwwJMEINUENNaMMM5nMte Declassified and and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: is% - gA-RDP13X00001R00 - ? T. ? " t 4 gzovsremeTt. More Ma oit ithsfl, g$ imis-1 poll.tical prisoners wert in ja$1 at the same 0100450006-9 4T: .? , ' xU organizations exist nmongItalian antifas* Leto, Thei'a4tit tr,z1.71,1ding all the antifuscie2s but it is through them th4 haps, 0 '1.0atr. 3 ? vl ok4t *hat little agitation has existed tn Italy during the last:ti Isenor- ,tw - ' 4 - t-glventeen years against the regime. Me largest antifascit organization is prOablx thi:irtA* .0 to OC nitcotec with the Comintern, Italian conmuknists have alwayi had zsie hinds, ' t. 'Ier datifaseist groups for their underground organization.in /44 la the second place, numerically, come the 04amocratta" groups Which, tAre developeii in various parts of the coantry wither autonomouSIrrsm under 4ne influence of cailkts not belonging to the pre-fasoist political parties4 :hese vrolps are inspired by a rather vague liberNI-socialist or liberal 7Fith01.1?, ideology. They are not well connected with each other. In the third place are tne groups which represent the survival of pre- fascist political movements (syndicalist, anarchist) or of pre-fascist pol- :tical partieS (socialist, republican, "popolaren, etc,).Some of these gro- '.,:lb Rfre f::61.rly active until ten years ago. Through death and desertion they !Lre now very small and are composed of people who are ecoming physital ly an mentally too old. it.rould be dangerous to have illusions about the size and capacity to act of Italian antittanctzu amstat antlfascism. It is practinally non- exisient In certain districts of the south. 1%0 :ealt nstirlial areas. In a medium-sized city It is also nearly non-existent (I0),000 to 300,000 inh.) a 1-41-; of 50 to 50 organized antifascists in each of the two main tendencies Cc- -jtund democrat5.0) can be coneidered a laTge group. Only in till h4 f.dczen of Italian big cities and in some highly developed industrial or Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13xnnnniprvul.,,,,, I I 1 ' 4r Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 MallffinatigROWpOIRP! ,;1*ttli rt I I. i; 1 , ? trfti teas,t rthailiffSgtOrn LOINOCAV d (411 ir;r1,c46 iolth a latyp popuittMortoon4 ligA rrompub Devor hl!ftrd et orpaloott igniipo or otiSes rot evoivir' ty thus 2Io to )00 peeplee F)rganised antiftiltilm in Italy should be ritekiesta at tay4i4oi, Inovt trt temneande of membora thAn in tens at thotitsinitts r?cre,g lattle that or nised antirsoolos WO boon anti is 'able to 441 t,411g/. Nit' As own means:, PrmOtiOm114 every Italian antifasciat mbh It tha rzsiiry ?fmnt ilbradsd with the hope to find outside the help whieh, he theughl hr ildleponaable in order to aohleve something within the oountwe The ka ,i'oi-tAty or political exiles to satisfy the need for aohievemento keenly folt iv wh- etayed behind btoame often reeentment against the exiles* voro riro probably two, main reemono for tho tailure of ItaliaA antia. r,124040ta tu ROW.V0 More thAntPIJdid achieve: look of funda and the con- 4- 1-07rittid by rtn all-pworful and offieLent polities ?qportnre who camel baok recently hftve @tromped the inoreasing climatic ttmongitw Mfoiy hmwg oonoluded that these dieeatisfied Italiems ,eromo !,01t)fmeoiate. convereatione whioh / hat with refugee@ (who re- '. nr. 04 g4000% to n largo 'latent tho attitude@ of thome who etaid behind), cwInA1 imttere from Italy0 nontaote with ItmlAan aoquaintan000 in New wavhinFtnn who had not broknn with thn Fauciet oligarchy, inter- nen-itmliang who arrived here rmoontly after having apent oe''era voa.-an tRiy, 11 me to the oonolueion that the doduotion was not oorromt ,40mt t'eponflibir, Jtaliane (with thoi tom rmeponeibln I .ndto;ito thoue At-Ir to think vnlitiomily) ht4d boon ul!molbed into thcp VueOst ova% ',-011.24%0 if tho auworptiOn had takon plmot enthualftetioally, ratio- tAvki, Ilikilarrtronog. 000nor or ifttmr thenr hud oome to bmliove that 44:%4-?':?:.1,--le.?V.F.44-'*4X7.- '4' '''ICii .1- - -- f ?? '1. 1 _....- 11 %-,4 ' - i' ? 'r" u:-'11? ' - ? ,? .,..,-Si.A ' ;: Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13X00001R0001004sonnR_q 0?:_gz:ki?Ngkr ' Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: Mit WITRMIVIET7 777:47 r4 tf:tt itr VA.4liem W1.46 dime 'emu sod to titiOit kal; ailAt. in the typicallimftmoitti e. tngit-44 iwItitutionse May hofflo * Wrg CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ? 7, Ifn rep 11 ? 1`01 '0137W 001,44 batep tqt- int/1444o the Pritiah 0cmsowe4th aili the VOLV*. Iscaponiliblosi thro11g0 thAir control bier aVlirgeflOot afthittilf , = , ?1,-.: ,.. frit* Ttitlyta goonemlo an4 political dien00141eis , het the *We titilitp MOM. or thyme VaSpOrgatle ViiWt#4, 4xio policies of the MitesainitwOiano grogps May tear NasiNti-144 ,- , it atemsk oaateelpt ear Itte440 preeent XeadeVO? Tho ditterenoe tetwon tno group D and the group 0 is thaOhe tiist sir3444, trday Fl *Mingo within VII preoent Sietaitip; Wale iho mond twantspt, a nhangi olltOttits the rtWolet regime. What 1 may oall ant/irk/Am ttaliatt (0043 ,1) oliollt4 bo Wriqentoed by Italian antitacointg whom they 410104 today de , m401 .441 thoy dielAhpd theM bdore tht Ai m came into oxiston00# 1 ati unaor tho iw4.apicn that oonvoT014114 Mgt D to 0 are not 4UMNIVOQ00 fro' no 1 !mow, there is little or no orpniAed oppoloition to 401s 101141ton in tho vfolip B. Tho anti-Asia al6MentO re9rOdent a large MO40 Ot h Ars Ilvilunin 'ho nrn tInothlo to expreae d collective personality. Mutual diotri r4n6. mcrP inortant, tho ooritrol ogeteifiled by the rdeolOt and tho Nati pcl! 00 iiam atrong enough to preVent oonta0to and the octabliehment of organist Clorma 4 ;vivo broth mOOMilitOd in the paet with the 06101.14 Or ono important Ian in MtAmn, of A itiading Invairotual, of two genpralo (now In thp roaxrpd 1101) who, beetamo the eimilar notivitieo or 14 few lukewarm PArty 1n1J-It4, triad to ereato their or organisation among !rands and symporth: Alig littoMptO failed before mnything oonetruotive could be all IOW*. le, It.F111,1 ' c. -t,tt.,410 Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 `.4 PAgNaNnEM Lain Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 I "?..ero -ire firloorm In the armed 104417who14-04143 the, . I- 044 V4IVIIIIM *0 clomo ilm 411 40ccid Ili* th4 n4to4 00044 .... v :.11,,pc ulay oar, d* vote la that direatiena The'vmma is,tru. Or 4- , J,a ,.:. tdho group At Pthe big businteenso a tioitertho 414t 'he IlibikONK kaa.;,4 4 'd*%I.Jletu.,11141 who bowed to Vaseline* tes the mall businalismi und Wanta tf the more advanced seelouatural net, st:.1NT Ca? h" 21t1W)01 *OrKere# NU. c . 4 41 . ? fri Prc 4 thore le a iplarly complete leak of the 90.iti4 , Inortr-p theno who belong to the group 04) This may perhaps' ectipiob ;!1 lthoh of poporle willing to risk empriecnmont in,er4er to sit oppositlion? 1.1:1?an thl inetiotlon between antifasolot Italians an411n414.74s 3 4 11, e IwporLmat. Thi two dromps carinet two-achy+ the Ammo *sr - pqnr,o. bq approa0ed Lty the maw' people An agile WAX lAt tros1e4f . J- : ,riAoAtolmt blit not by an anti.Axle TtalAmms mmadoingi amdproalac 111..0 -? r to mntifmeetets will haven the eyposite effect On *Mimi:Cie 21 , '011 vi0A-vorta, r, rind 4mon4j the itntifasoista people who armWt115Jg .to englitg ;cno.ftki,40. No wtoh peolability T WDt be1l070 to exist among th KfltimAxi r who on Rho othor hand may be willintit in certain 0411.0, to anew{ .:maLtori 4es,ivititala and who aGrtainly can holp in bringing about th tt,(161 dtoitltplgre.-tten of the rmigimS* whu thin in terms not only of winning the wita% but almo of w:1 ahouil to11.60 tato eerioom ounstdwration th0 diwia100 in Itm ta mnd anti-Axio nominate Rnd they shokeid try tl have 1.14,1s it tho tql;%tigei etenpth And tho mime or the two grotapeo 1TSRF-4 A d Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 i 1 :el-17;W r. $i'fr -ft -el-m>"?91h - -,i ? Ji 4 ??= Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ? _3 ? Ig'sif;'.. ?-?, oar, rE 1 ANTI AII8 ACTViITIWITW It44- (r141A,me regd first th$ other onoloota repor0, , 0 1) - Xt Ss the opinion of the writer'Fiam-nd , ,,v.tAti 3n Italy ?en give taastiole results Wiltiss,ths: 114'411 ,r* realized : a) kelltch avAon suet be part of a oomprehensiveo Ilnestangeirw - different kinds of activities* ThO GACCUt1001 of the plan to ' be entrusted in the hesids f111,644 Failure4 ,* which are bomnd to be buseroda - to be disregar4odt, 4) Abandant finKnoial and other means to be provid4d* SeAerecy to be well kept. 9 . !N, OTh1WI , t 2) - It is also the opinion of the writer that actions. An order tO be Boo(llesful, must be carried out by grompe or orseaLmations, thlot the tain pi>lolen is either to develop existing organisations or to oreAle, 114.0 opus. Th' imaividual agent or operator may know little or nothing 0 the or 41.4 ir.).tion to whioh he belongs, but his usefulness will be determined 105001? bf-Ing N ciog which fits into a large and emoothrorunning m4oh41e? - Tho various typos of activities can be grouped undor thr4 Omidinge; A) publicity ( radio and printed matter )4 4) military operations ( commando raids )4 C) underground vork ( establishment of an organized opositiony infor- mation/Una si:botage ). ',tot 34,41 gicti p / Publicity is Ornady being carried out. unfortgnately with a Xamenta. e, i.447.1* of coordination and with 14 remarkable look of effectiveness* Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 9 1..ant, in -41-Ve I titliNEERI '470". - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 ' ? , F*5-- tritir 4n A i;:r igWrfi' .4M:v.tri+44w 7 .4 r." 2 6.11.2?????II str-ialtAffirfr=0.0Aqiewcarrrr-mivr,...7?L ? ? "41 %here art at pronenta2iL6000;00 V ) = iPtA?,) nU:uld Mut Cairo, all direlt!tbd to rbai 0*-111 ?-;z? ii'r nbeing dohe thrOuah "bleAO.stai4o04 04401 ? t V'itOtit Italian program on (short or uediam weivAsn-ntre otfeW TtAliane who wieh to risk empxinenment in prdir to ?0 tar?4_, the outside %mad, uemally turn to French ovals .4 OtklAiinICAOLY fox k'renoh people but often produce-4x deplorablo r 4.46 :t/Wan audionne. oonnidering the low level of ttalatin notett%o f7a!a AIIled 4feiolm1 seuroetib it .L0 probably a' good thing- tare able to eater- the/ft* it C! prQgrnms, /toad take tho liiii5rty of making the fel3ft ;,nLy news, obiefly news 'so/looming Italy itnolfa ? h- Qnly if what ta written, said and ramored in Italy nveAlnble to the ocrixt writers? eommontd, mery brietly. s rnri t4taaicialts have been eat ofg from aour000 of idsan twonty plare. Those who maks the effort to listen aro people intel14ent idemse ; rdlmition between Amoriean, Brit!i.sh znd Oar* radio stem to follow eimlior pelioieon t.41 vrwl previmo wtqLoh lo not qOPiALSot with what io naid ? 4cvtivmu of Vic-I tctm3fl ftudlenec ohould be falfluenclee; Se "ortelciq-" radios Nam to hftwm fo11ormd m genorta poliay of i. fl tc) To;.-t;ir rivIrynnn; the King Ind tho i?opublioan, Ihe Pepe nd the !, tht, r,llotitltst and the workors the milionalist and tho 11..40.111;%11P1,1 Itlq result iefn to bo thnt n4 one i4 atitiefied &nd ,1 %V th#1 impr4a4lon of laolaNt eAroetive Nene. A group pooplo (posmibly nOt Itatauto but ab 10 to 3fltth* lorkinig of the Italian mind) &tumid b* aukcd to detormire rolt?nn Lhe Rattan natioP. C11 ':u4 mere notful to the Allied 1.4 Fre.rt Chat oncul d be otreootd to Mete over and over again. . , , M111: thr dirnorvnce between (VCUp i3 nd 0 of the Italian fm0,0 tmu ottlor roport). 1 ti /4. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13X00001RnnninnAgnnna o ONSIMM 111 1,%; Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25: CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 1111 rt 4; )4 - 7 4 alotita4o expemmt eho aqua IV 5totrinialt etAles tVid committri 10 in-th dOuld Uto at got* day and. MAU writer fwvora a lame distabutiOn Orinted ,t. ardOr te6b this di otiributtop ,1100114;11i tr-i)ula bo 4ftsimblio it at regoldir intervals OA 032 4003 4041:reOli rr P tht it* rtt,Pid little risk) mould awcp civastPtiitest ot 100100 -MIL (Nr siu or *even politically and eoonsmiDetpiy Amportaili I4a3tAit tht4 prgya43on ot the leaflet one should fonow, the suggom a4410nakil mudm for tht railo. The otce,si4ni ZttAflpLtt*tj. to pp01)10 14Ugho Th 4 ratiuLar one, containing newse comments and ideAs kos pc,c00 Tho leaf/Ana ihbuld be *Tittor! ana signed bp Ita2immic or by or itglimo ortgins ? - An ogcnoionra *ommando raid annoys %he pecy%e? A repetition of cenmaf 10 10 qtnif#10 Impr5Ismiono Ptople of /t&lian orogin should partioipate In "ViriVirotO riAld KA4 their partioipation should be publicised by leavint ? ? matorlea. A oommande raid should 'De evaluated not only OA tIknia of mWtary ronults but also on the belie of mohologival remm 101,4, Vqr thim rwlgon4 thorn could bo series or aommAndo raids en poimt mklitnry Amlitto anti thoroforo not etrorAy guarded. 'm;1-rprfUm1 wf.;444 Av ventionod in the tInoleed report, there are in nmpIl 11natrgrolina proupa, orgnoimed by antirftemimte ( *esti on 0 of '1; u piItjrn ) Thpitv posisibilities for notion (organization .414 4 lee/ t iCtif Mil 0,111(1E401 ) 3.0 rixtremnly roduor,dt Among neriourt. 1f1 V thi"f'n ohiCh coulti be obvimtea through contaete with the outchde 4 r ig,k or eAlito, iftek of material for the execution of acts of cm- fly - : 3 55,1. ot prport ting in undergroutA work. Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 3r1 ketiMMEZWRikafiffl - Declassified and Approved For Release 2013/09/25 : CIA-RDP13X00001R000100450006-9 4fM4rm'' '4\c-t? 4 it ifs.t 1111W041144441144 iht0444 g 0 t41. f ' r I If qtulorgroorx droop* la X.W0.44v4 %he D041601 1,0 mr? 4,4111,.? co 11 t.%