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December 9, 2016
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July 24, 2000
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Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A000100110010-7 BEST COPY AVAILABLE Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A000100110010-7 UCS ip ii. ns illations, con- , ve op Ufa repor for several years niques. er World War - .. . -scale initial upswin Soviet shipbuild- . , ement -,industry g technique dates back to about 1946 ustr? *hentheshipyards all over the country prior t 951 waist Shipbuilclin ere in the process of reconditioning, rogram had been a 'naval constructio Modernfaation and 'iexpansion. Building program for all,Practicarpurposas. Most ways were-ripieadvwedit--12-old stationary cranes ,heavy duty traveling vessel* :*.e.r.a,:bulit ? 'rritiet instances adjoining f :the: A?Vi,,;iii--""Ifirrog re added. ildirig ways ee Iii ? r 110 p refabrication.1 :The oldtime sta. ved subassembly areas we ionary bedding cranes with limiied New workihops, prefabrication shops, and ing area and lifting capacity were *till assembly sheds were built in the major being used. A minor exception. to this shipyards. and covered building ways and type *i construction was the ectional -"building sites became more common. laying millinelrailways for the launching construction of submartnes. 'Many Soviet shipyards had been em- 'rhe Soviet naval construction prograrn had come to * standstill during World ships from the building sitesz instead War II. Alter the war naval vessels up usinA building ways which would re- to and including destroyers which had not quire more overall area and length of been damaged during the bombardments shoreline. Transferring the vessels from - were slowly completed, while the large the building sites to the marine railways vessels like battleships and battle cruisere had been a slow and cumbersome task due %I. the difference in slopes between the sere scrapped Soviet shipyard 'facilities, in general upper and lower part of the marine rail- '.poor condition and the allied in- ays and the slopes of the building sites. were unable to produce a reason he Soviets now developed a hydraulically . ably good standard of propulsion and - . controlled platform or cradle so the auxiliary machinery for ships. Electrical vessel could be built on flat ground and quipment. including cables, was of very , launched over varying *lopes and still inferior quality by Western standards. ., amain in a nontilt,o4tion. The cradle Many failures in machinery and electrical consists of a platform supported by two equipment, both on new-constructed ships , bogies or trucks, or sets of trucks. which orrever. 'strayers 61 the D s ENINGRA h been transported in section to the Fir East and assem- bled in graving docks in Vladivostok. These ships had been Conetructed at tlikotayev and disassembled into fPections for shipment. These destroyers bad been con- structed in the convolutional manner on building ways from keel-up with a small amount of subassemblies such Ss bow and stem sec-limns. 19 I-DECLASSIFICATION/RELEASE STRUGTIONS ON FILE elease 2000/08/26 : CIA-RtP61S00137A000100110010-7 ve .vertical telescopic tubes fastened : ;twine railways are defined as two or more rails lead- ing down al slope on land into the Neter with a truck or cradle. This facility is often used for lausching ships under control of brakes, as well as for hauling ships for repairs. A side launching way consists of .0 sled on a set yt runners and cannot be used for flawing ships. a by binge pins and boltsdto or cradle. , The loieshocapriic cmtrolled to allow trucks the ,lop.d rac t catic untris., with o?etai1s forticular velopad *lor auseisa eonaitiOne, past.).I' 111 it Soviet design showed Athol.** t.cb?jtrUCt1 e which "hadlrilut developed ;through *fa s.acbn4 Ii1oot.ttc the el are o*5ider.4i*ObS on Par with tha'beat 64thalrardittriitenintrieso beginniag of at Mertflaint ehip coa structicin program for Oceangoing vessels -, took place in? 1951 whir& Nowa* Shipyard in NikolaYev.built -12.000.4,1rT .?,tanker which became the proto ler nAlerie Althaallh all *Id irfard iacditiaa en reconditioned or 1949 the ,-floviets --boas ,Atiesti1itus4 b band/ as in fact, 11e UeWIU dTDflh1fS "'production yard, V4144 ? ,The latest development loinasies pro-? 0, duction of. large merchant ',floosie is a T new shipyard The Outstand ing feature of this Terd is that tn the .shipyard, including aitsembly and Eitting-out ways and launching basin pier D. are st ground level.. The launching basin ? constructed of reinforced concrete bulkhaads abovo ground level.*.r,The eye .? Om of multirsile and about 4110 ?truck, requfrad for. osisinwy itioTopalinuction., y have,'" -high initial cost, hat ft is bi- tted a time- and coStfiarid$ isciitty. it La believed thrall', first tnber built in Nikolayev in 1951 was constructed on new facilities *Miler ?.$0thasa- - ? atm Ian t upon 'etst OprtlisallSvellion t1o0.'4411"ito *ach1ag*$* 40144 es ,prolinCtion parts where accuracy in essential, j*qhlso a:tittle tufortn?on o? s cut in Soittst shipyards lather Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A000100110010-7 elease ?raStrati ,,?,., time ' requp,rtl uliser Sliritiiit,,- iz iii a poiO Mid' 114P..4e * usr Irt 13a1tIc s in Lerungradi er), _... _. conettuc sernbly , ., c onC:14c11- ' 1kh? sub- . ard 7 ructon enticat Using .icit - a'u abr e-tt" condi.fib reep, y rial t as grea wu14 }ay strtmt. en!qe* uiibr ?ntbert ? pre 0 4did that Mt, y,erFI 'qripeteb0,1*e'etio aid..iciliipme 01. ii,,,Tel pyar de it, is realior, efatirltatien g;.?e orApyarcI prove -?r Release 2000/08126 :-C1A=RDP61S00137A000100110010-7 Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A000108341004:a ceret Supplement Approved For Release 2000108/26: CIA-RDP61S00137A000100110010-7 Ap r ved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A0094R11194061e7nent ---- -- .,..r.,....., ' ? ,.? -* .., ...12= .2,....1.." ......--......!-- ,... " .............,.......2A, . --""'"" - ? --- "...7.---..-. .....12.--..........,..-".""' ..anummilispeolimmommuosr., . .......---.....-2:2,7.? F..: 2.? ' ?' ... .....,......... ,2 .:;...;?:".;?2 ,,,,,,,, ...? ... 4, .400.? .???..Z r.......r,,,,ap, ,... Nom.' ??,????" se,: ?..... !, ? ,..7.....???,.? . ???!????............... .??? .. do - ? .....? ??? ay...., .....*.??????? ..., ? ..1.? .??? ........,.....on '...7. i :?????-,tra.????????.- ???- ?? ..; ., 1;47.4= f.l.......... .../Rem.? ? ? ?,?. "` .A0,, .... .? , ,ite, ....WIT., ??,???^ ? ..,????? .????,,, ' 4,4???? .???? ? ? ???? ???-? ..." e ? ? " *ft* ol . . .a. . ..0.' .... .. *.......-......../. ....^- -,.???? ??,..- ????,0,1?? ????? I. . s. . , ? . MINWS1410.111. 0.0?1/1.0610. ...., ,I? . 4111.....;41, ?t? ? ? ? ^ ... ... ? 4.... Weiler. ? 1?? ? . r .. S I I i I I IF Xaell?r10.1,51110141. . 40,1 ,,,iffr? . ..411111111111110liAlka Im111111.31 enummorm~ummielm .2g. IRO it ~NW ,e."..."".. 01111101111114~.ftemsew IMPOWINIPOOlowaLlillairyillOmillima . ?,,..,.. ............. -4..r.o. ???.. a.???????? . ? ? ?..' ,ffir, f , ,f ? P ? - . : pproved For Release 2000108/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A000100110010-7 App'roved For Release 2000/08/26 Secret Supplement though most Western shipyards do grind the welds to a smooth shell surface it is not necessarilf poor workmanship to leave the welds rough. It is more a question of appearance than of strength and efficiency with respect to the resistance of the bull n the seaway. The Soviet requirements for welding of ships as shown in the Soviet Sea Register is as strict as Western rules. Their inspection is carried out with the most modern equipment. The Russian* control the welding of sheU plating with the help of radiation from radioactive cobalt which is a more convenient method than X-ray photography in many instances. Material control by gamma rays is now in general use in most industries in the USSR. ? Thicknesses of platings are checked with ultrasonic resonance gauges where accurate measurements a r required without having to drill holes in the plates. The Soviet Sea Register for merchant ships also requires greater strength in the plating amidships, including stringer plates, sheer strokes, and one or two : CIA-RDP61S00137A00010011rep9jew strikes below the sheer strokes depend- ing on the depth of the vessel. The ultimate tensile strength of steel called "Aldur SO" which the Soviets obtain from Austria, and which meets the re- quirements. le about ZS percent higher than that of Class "B" steel which is used in the United States. The minimum yield point is almost 60 percent higher than that of Class "B" steel. "Aldur SO" is not always available in quantities and a steel named "Union 56" made by Union Horde, Dartmund. Germany. is often substituted for it. This steel has properties equivalent to "Aldur SO" and is cheaper. However, special electrodes are needed for "Union 56" steel. The requirements for the rest of the shell plating of the ships are about the same as United States requirements Soviet armor plating for naval vessels Is generally considered to be on a par with or even better than United States armor plating. Tensile strength is ade- quate for deep submergence of sub- marines. Special requirements are also made for naval and merchant vessels operating in heavy ice. Turbines installed in cruiser* and de- stroyers after World War II were un- reliable and caused constant breakdowns. With the aid of German technicians and turbine experts the turbine designs were improved. The manufacturing was also improved when the Soviets moved a com- plete turbine manufacturing plant from Germany to Leningrad. Today the?"bugs" have listen taken out of the turbiries and brealtdowne are seldom reported. There are six known manufacturers of , 'roar me diesel engines in the USSR. Kuyby- shev Locomotive Works in Kolornna is the only one known to be producing diesel en- gines for eubmarines, but is estimated to have the srepacity of producing all the engines required to supply the MALIIIMUM capacity for submarine construction as well as for replacements. MO plant is also manufactu ringheavy-duty, slow- speed, marine diesel engines. The largest engine manufactured for a merchant ship 9 Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A000100110010-7 ??1. ? AmrRyAgfor Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A0001010,1MCguOWlenient .,-,rloped 6,600 BHP at 125 r.p.m., but ..(;:le larger than about 2,000 BHP have heen placed in mass production. The en- gums for the first 12,000-DWT tanker KAZBEK were two 1,400-BHP German diesel engines. The next 32 tankers of the same class received 2,000-BHPunits. Diesel engine research and designwork is being done at the Kuybyshev Loco- motive Works in collaboration with the Research Institute for Diesel Engines in Leningrad and the Central Design Bureau of the Ministry of Shipbuilding. Experimental work was conducted with closed-cycle Walther turbines after World War II and an experimental prototype may have been launched in 1955. There is no indication, however, that development progressed to the production of operational boats. Hydrofoil boats have beendeveloped and PT-boat size vessels maybe in production by 1957. There are indications that the Soviets are designing and are possibly already constructing an atomic powerplant on board at least one large vessel of about 16,000 or 25,000 tons displacement. This plant is believed to be very similar to their developed land plants, which con- sist of reactors having low-percentage fuel rods and operating with low-pressure turbines, probably with saturated steam of about 250 pounds per square inch. It is not known whether nuclear- propelled submarines have been under construction nor have any construction plans been divulged. There are, however, indications that research on reactors suitable for use in submarines is in progress in the USSR and that these could be installed in a submarine ready for commission before the end of 1957. The Soviet shipbuilding know-how has been vastly improved since World War II. With the interest shown by the govern- ment to develop and encourage ship de- signers and with the German technical personnel and the experience obtained from recent naval construction, Soviet shipbuilding today rates among the lead- ing shipbuilding industries in the world. Secret Suppiernent 25 Approved For Release 2000/08/26 : CIA-RDP61S00137A000100110010-7