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-1111, Approved For Release 2003/ / : CIA-RDP67B00446ROa0300170023-6 1965 CONGRESS AL RECORD -APPENDIX A147 ern European exports have doubled and our exports to Japan have tripled. Our European markets have made possible a favorable balance of trade of over $3 billion, U.S. wheat and milk donated to Japan 'in earlier years has contributed to.making Japan today the single larg- est consumer of American agricultural products today. U.S. aid is so familiarizing the world with American products and techniques that it is creating a market which is potentially four times that of the Marshall plan countries. As these coun- tries achieve economic growth and sta- bility so will demand and purchasing power for buying U.S. goods. The President has stated that the role and responsibilities of the U.S. private sector in the aid program is growing. More opportunities will result from the enactment of the President's request to expand the existing investment, guaran- tee programs and the enactment of the investment tax credit program: At the same time, the foreign assistance pro- gram affords many chances for advance- ment for the private sector in the de- veloping countries. The program loans to small business and development and agricultural credit banks as well as tech- nical asistance will encourage private enterprise and provide a favorable cli- mate for investors from abroad. These aspects-the expansion of U.S. exports, earnings from U.S. foreign in- vestments and acquainting nations with U.S. goods and services-mean that the foreign assistance program, contrary to sol)le popular beliefs, actually contributes to the long-range improvements in our balance of payments. Aside from the benefits to U.S. business and export, American products have added new dimensions to the living standards of developing countries. U.S. wheat and milk which went to Japan during assistance days created a market for additional quanti- ties of milk, wheat, and corn products now important nutritional ingredients to the Japanese diet. U.S. tech- nology and business enterprise have appealed to the inventiveness of the de- veloping countries and by their example have importantly contributed to better living standards, future industrialization, with accompanying job opportunities. The foreign aid record is particularly encouraging in light of these facts. It certifies the prudence of our loan record and responsibility with which recipient countries have carried out their agree- ments. It proves itself a sound invest- ment for the U.S. business community. It represents an investment which will _Increase U.S. exports and further reduce the U.S.- balance-of-payment deficit. Most important, it is a sound investment in creating a world of modern and secure nations, EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. BURT L. TALCOTT OF CALIFORNIA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, January 14, 1965 Mr. TALCOTT. Mr. Speaker, prob- ably too many American citizens and leaders fail to remember daily that we are at war-a dirty, dying, deteriorating war-in Vietnam. Some of America's best manhood is dying each day in Vietnam. We` need to remember. They need to know why. More than 18 graduates of the Defense Language Institute, Monterey branch, have been killed in Vietnam. This is an enormous number. I recently read the following requiem from the U.S. Air Force Academy stu- dent magazine, the Talon, of December 1964. The first Academy cadet to take the oath of allegiance was killed in Vietnam. We should remember this outstanding young man. On Saturday, October 24, 1964, the U.S. Air Force Academy lost its first graduate in com- bat. Not only Was he the first Academy graduate to be killed under enemy fire, but he was also the first cadet to take the oath of allegiance in the first entering class. Lt. Valmore Bourque took the oath with the class of 1959, but he graduated with the class of 1960. His mission while in Vietnam was combat support in C-123's. His specific mission on the 24th of October was a resup- ply drop of high explosive and ammunition to Special Forces. He was flying lead in a flight of three C-123's when his ship was hit by ground fire. Although the other two planes were hit, they managed to limp home. Lieutenant Bourque was posthumously pro- moted to captain and awarded the two high- est Vietnamese Air Force citations. The Academy can look with pride on Captain Bourque's record as an officer. He was an aircraft commander and was recently made a mission commander, a great distinction for so junior an officer. Captain Bourque's death marked the first Academy graduate to die in combat. He is not the first graduate to die, nor will he be the last to do so under enemy fire. But his sacrifice epitomizes the sacrifice each and every cadet voluntarily swears to make upon entrance into the Academy. Moreover, the death of Captain Bourque illustrates more vividly the true mission of the Academy. This does not include excellence in aca- demics, physical education, or military train- ing alone, but rather in a willingness and re- sponsiveness to give up whatever is neces- sary, including the life itself, for one's country. 'While at the Academy we are still a long step from participation in the mission of the Air Force. In effect we are training our- selves-mentally through academics, physi- cally through athletic programs, and profes- sionally through military training. However, often our vision as to where we are going, or why, is clouded by problems of immediate concern with regard to academics, physical education, or military training. To us, Cap- tain Bourque is not only a symbol of why we exist, but he represents these characteris- tics each one of us should try to emulate. He realized his responsibility; he undertook the mission in full realization that he might not return, and he prepared for the untimely conclusion. In preparation for this assign- ment to Vietnam, he requested that should he not return, he would like to be buried in the Academy cemetery. Our vantage point of Captain Bourque and what he contributed to our further development can best be sum- marized by the somewhat unrenowned phi- losopher John Berrill: "I am like a man journeying through a forest, aware of occasional glints of light overhead, with recollections of the long trail I have already traveled, and conscious of wider spaces ahead. I want to see more clearly where I have been and where I am going, and above all, I want to know why I am where I am ana why I am traveling at all." Can anyone in a position of leadership or authority tell the family of Captain Bourque "why he was there" or what the sacrifice of his young life contributed to the betterment of society. These val- iant young men may be willing to die for their country, but should they not have a purpose? Long Campaign Breeds Venom EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. JAMES J. DELANEY OF NEW YORK IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, January 14, 1965 Mr. DELANEY. Mr. Speaker, I would like to call to the attention of the Mem- bers the enclosed article which appeared in the San Francisco Examiner, Novem- ber 6, 1964, on the subject of long cam- paigns. This presents the views of two outstanding leaders in the Democratic and Republican Parties-James A. Far- ley, a former Democratic national chair- man, now chairman of the board of the Coca-Cola Export Corp., and Leon- ard Hall, a former Republican national chairman-who agree that the length of a campaign should be given serious con- sideration. The article follows: LONG CAMPAIGN BREEDS VENOM Two of the Nation's most respected politi- cians, James A. Farley and Leonard Hall, were as far apart as the poles in their election posi- tions. Farley is a former Democratic Party national chairman, Hall a former Republican chairman. But they stood together in advocating shorter election campaigns. Farley con- tends that a majority of the people had made final decisions in the first few days- or weeks at most-after the national con- ventions. Hal attributed the campaign ex- cesses of bad temper and bad taste to pro- longation of the effort to influence the voters. Long election campaigns stem from the days of slow communications and travel. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 A.48 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - APPENDIX January 14 Those days are long gone. Now communi- cations are virtually instantaneous. Physi- cally, San Francisco is less than 5 hours from New York. Most of the venom, hate and calumny of the 1964 campaign built up through the un- necessary weeks and months of the contest. Politicians and candidates said all that needed saying and then kept on saying it over and over again, with embellishments. The more a story is told the farther it gets from the truth. The inventions, contriv- ings, exaggerations and misrepresentations of it political campaign amount to wearing and wearying boredom for voters. They change few voters, if any. The British concentrate their major elec- tion campaigns into a little more than 2 weeks. These are tense weeks, with con- troversy, personalities and vilification to spare. But candidates and voters alike get in and out of a campaing fast without in- jury to the democratic process, without risk of an uninformed electorate and without any damper on free expression. We do not propose a 2-week national election campaign in the United States. We do propose as do Messrs. Farley and Hall, that shorter campaigns would take much of the bad temper and bad taste and much of the cost in wasted time and money out of our elections. The Dedication of the John F. Kennedy Elementary EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. JAMES A.' BURKE OF MASSACHUSETTS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, January 14, 1965 Mr. BURKE. Mr. Speaker, it was my pleasure to be the principle speaker on Sunday, November 22, 1964, at the dedi- cation ceremonies of the John F. Ken- nedy Elementary in Holbrook, Mass. I presented a flag which had been flown over the Capitol as well as Senate Docu- ment No. 59, Memorial Addresses in the Congress of the United States. Following are my remarks: Mr. Chairman, on Friday, November 22, 1963, the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy brought shock and grief to both great and humble people through- out the world. The inspiration of President Kennedy's courageous, stirring leadership will live through the years to strengthen and sus- tain our great Nation and time will enrich the greatness of this outstanding American, who shall always be remembered for his cour- age and his dedication to freedom, peace, and the cause of humanity. How impressive was his magnetic person- ality, how appealing his alert mind. How appreciated the lightning of his ready wit. How admired his lofty ideals, his intrepid courage, his concern for those unable to speak for themselves, his inspired battle for social justice, for equality of right and op- portunity for the cause of the oppressed. His determined struggle for peace and order and a world organized on the rule of law, his firm resolve to preserve the Integrity and security of our Nation and the free world, to uphold the basic moral and ethical principles of the American way of life. The name of John Fitzgerald Kennedy will go down the long unbroken annals of history like a great gleaming beacon light casting its warming glow of toleration and justice over the Nation and the world and showing us, and generations to come, the way to prosper- ity and peace. My friends, rarely in the history of America has one man blazed his path of glory across the horizons of this Nation in so short a time and with such momentous impact as did John Fitzgerald Kennedy. He was fashioned of the heroic stuff of which great Americans are made. Yet we who knew him best can testify before all the world that here was a man of gracious charm, broad Intellect, and rare wisdom, a man with all the courage, faith, and compassion which real manhood forever requires. And as if aware of the tragic limitations which destiny was to impose upon him, he swept with power and purpose out of the mists of relative political obscurity to burst upon the consciousness of the American peo- ple as few men before him have ever done, symbolizing in his vigor, his leadership, and his vision a new generation of Americans. In all of his formative years, it is difficult to find a time when John Kennedy was not testing himself, when he was not sharpening and perfecting his moral and intellectual capacities for that fateful moment when he would keep his long appointed rendezvous with destiny as President of the United States. His entire life became a hymn of preparation for the brief but critical months of service he would undergo as leader of the country he loved so dearly and for which he finally gave every last ounce of devotion that there was in him to give. Though he wrote three books, he con- sidered himself no author. Though he was a decorated war hero, he was no militarist. Though he served with honor as a distin- guished political figure, he was no politician. But, first and foremost, he was a great patriot.- Above personal ambition, above party affiliation, above petty conceits, John F. Kennedy will forever be a challenge and an inspiration to all those patriots, present and future, who would take their place among History's honor roll of the brave and the good. Though many men are called to serve their God and their country, a very few men in any generation are chosen to walk the solitary path to glory which he walked. His entire life was a noble overture to his sudden and tragic death. No man so captured the imagination of his age as did John F. Kennedy. No man so mir- rored the ideals and aspirations of the Amer- ican people as did he. When John Kennedy died, people the world over felt hope within them die. When JohnKennedy was struck down, men everywhere saw reason and sanity and understanding being struck down with the same brutal senselessness and violence. But the ideals which were so much the immortal part of John F. Kennedy shall en- dure beyond the grave. The assassin's gun and the assassin's bullet has not been made which can destroy freedom's dream-a dream that is indelibly impressed upon the minds and hearts of men. The dream of freedom shall endure so long as man himself endures. On January 20, 1961-nearly 4 years ago- John F. Kennedy said: "Let the word go forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Amer- icans. * * * Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or in, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival of liberty." John Fitzgerald Kennedy has borne his burden. Now let us take up ours. With God as our shield, with freedom as our cause, let us labor to create a new and even greater America so that historians, in the years to come, will not find us unworthy of the sacri- fice made by one of the noblest men of this or any other age. A list of the members and programs Is as follows : BUILDING COMMITTEE Thomas F. Hoell, chairman; Henry L. Dye, secretary; Thomas Ahern, Andrew H. Card; Stanley R. Christianson,' secretary; Walter W. Donovan,' Peter George, Francis Hoban, Edward Huntington, George T. Jameson, Jr., Gerard Lane, Frances MacWilliams, James F. Magrath, Donald J. Martin,' chairman; Miss Grace G. McCarthy,' Irene A. Moran, Roger F. Poole, Ralph A. Samuels, John C. Sarhans. Superintendent of schools, I. D. Reads; assistant superintendent of schools, John E. Zoino; principal, Irving Waitz; architect, Korslund, LeNormand & Quann, Inc.; con- tractor, Marshall Contractors, Inc.; clerk of the works, Irving Winslow. Hosts: Holbrook Parent-Teacher Associa. tion. DEDICATION PROGRAM Presentation of the flag, main entrance: John J. Kelly. Invocation: Rev. Charles B. Murphy, pas- tor, St. Joseph Church. Welcome: Thomas F. Hoell, chairman, school building committee. Introduction of platform guests Music: Kennedy School Glee Club, director, Marcia Galway. Presentation of keys Contractor to architect. Architect to building committee. Building committee to school committee. School committee to superintendent of schools. Music: Kennedy School Glee Club, director, Marcia Galway. Presentation of John F. Kennedy portrait Council No. 5046 Knights of Columbus, William Godfrey. "God Bless America": Audience. Benediction: Rev. Roy Bruce, pastor, Brookville Baptist Church. Open house: 3 to 5 p.m. Who Says What? EXTENSION OF REMARKS OF HON. ANCHER NELSEN OF MINNESOTA IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Thursday, January 14, 1965 Mr. NELSEN. Mr. Speaker, the editor of the Mankato, Minn., Free Pressraises an interesting questions about who should make agricultural policy. I would like the editorial, by Franklin Rogers, includ- ed in today's CONGRESSIONAL RECORD: L.B.J.'s REMARKS Comments on President Johnson's state of the Union message included one from the Department of Agriculture that he did not say what that Department had told him to say about the farm problem. ThePresident informed the Nation that he had instructed Secretary of Agriculture Orville L. Freeman "to lead a major effort to find new approaches to reduce the heavy cost of our farm pro- grams and to direct more of our effort to the small farmer who needs help most." This apparently surprised the Secretary and his advisers. A legitimate question arises here, however. It revolves around who is the boss, as far as the executive department is concerned. Is it the President? Or some of his under- lings? Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 Approved For Release 2003 r _ =FDP67B004 6 3GQ17t3023 = R ECORD - SE E 196 CONE ESS1 L E$ectIve tax rates under R.R. 8363 'Will the passage of a bill under which [Married cpu le with 2 dependents, with typical dM- the "tygioa]" taxpayer With a realized d ends 1 gains and other income,' and typical income of more than $1.5 million a year itemized eductions; pays less than 16 percent represent an Tax as 9djustedgross Realized Tax under percentage incemg l income 2 II.R. 8363 of realized income $3,060--- ------- $3, $4 000_.---------- 0 130 26 5 $103 219 2.5 3 4 ..__ $5,00 $6,000___ '1 6, 6 339 . 5.5 $7600 ___ ___ : _ 16 000 7,63 186 10 569 972 7.4 5 9 __ $ _, $12 500 , 736 12 373 1 . 10.8 ---___ , $15,000__-.---- ____ , 15,385 1 830 ',, 11.9 $17,500____________ 18,033 1 296 12.7 $20,000____________ 20,713 2 820 3 13.6 15 3 $25 000 _: $30 000 26,0 6 31 461 .98 1197 5 . 16 8 -__ , $40 000 _ , 42 331 , 8 392 . 19.8 _ _ , $50 000 ----------- , 53,203" , 12,217" 23.0 , - $75,000____________ 81,220 20,672 25.5 $100,000__ ___ 200 060 113,212 247 580 29,670 56 675 1y 26.2 22 - 9 __ ___ $ , $500 000_ , 721 365 , 138 216 . .-,, 2 19 _ ___ $1,0 0,000 ____ , 1, 501, 588 , 238,037 . ' 15.9 typleal dividends and-capital gains. Estimates of typi- cal dividends and realized capital gains and itemized ded retlons aree baased on 1960 tax return data. ? weal(zed income exceeds as usted gross income largely because ad] usted gross income includes only 40 percent of capital gains under TI.R. 8363 (50 percent under existing law). NozIE, -Several items, such as tax-exempt interest, of long-term capital gains, including so-called statutory ggains which often have no logical relationship to capital transactions, depletion, and intangible drilling costs, are omitted, from adjusted gross income and from realized income. sourge of basic dais Office of the Secretary of the Treasury Otlice of Tax Analysis. See table on p. 709 of Finance Committe hearings. Mr GORE. Senators will find that the highest percentage tax payment shown, on thetable is reached at an adjusted gross 'income of $100,000 and a realize dL iflcoine of $113,212. This high point, of tax rate for "typical" taxpayers in the various incpme groups is not the ,table, Senators will see that as income productioAi. It is leading for'est this point, I wish also to invite the at tax st lecture is one way of dealing w father with a child to clothe, feed, an M the Senator knows, there are cer- educate would be allowed an exemption tal,h tax deductions which are loopholes, for himself and each dependent of only avid I shall help the Senator try to plug levy. In 1940 a man and his wife had Mr. GORE. I thank the Senator from an exemption of $2,000. That amount," Oregon. His comments are encourag- was reduced during World War. II izl ing. Perhaps many other Senators will now need to dampen the consumer de" mand. of low-income, people in the /sills of Kentucky? We do not Ilped now to supprges de- mand, Our economy needs stir tttlllation of the consumer sector. President Johnson has dec}ared un- relenting war against pove . I a p7 plaud liim for it. He identid the place t Pher . we si ould start. He ailed alien- tiolaro the fact that o fifth of our pebj'il-e live in or near poverty. One- fifth of our people live either in abject poverty or on the very verge- of it. This is, where we need to start the war on poverty. to not forget that the tax bill is supposed to be an important part of the. War .on poverty. ldo. 6--4 of pro- sion of I think it very"important that those who are interested in this subject-who speak, comment, and write on the sub- ject-be very sure of their facts and read carefully the report. For our people, with their deep interest in it from the standpoint of health and its important economic interest to thousands of farm- ers and others, require that this subject be treated factually. My purpose in speaking briefly today- and I expect to comment later in more detail-is to emphasize the,need for care by calling attention to one specific point which has been commented upon very widely. In news reports, and in several editorials, it has been generally stated that there is no evidence that filters used in cigarettes have any value. Some statements have gone further. They have indicated that the report of the Advisory Committee stated that filters have. no value. .I think, in part, this im- pression or misconception followed the press conference Saturday by Dr. Luther Terry, the Surgeon General, Dr. James Hundley, Assistant Surgeon General, and members of the Advisory Committee. I noted in the New York Times of Sunday, January 12, 1964, a report of their re- sponses to questions from the press. The inference is drawn from the state- ments in these articles that filters in cig- arettes were found by the Advisory Com- mittee to have no helpful effect. I read the report and I could find no conclu- sion or finding in it to substantiate such an inference. In fact, I found, from my reading of the report, scarcely any mention of filters. The Committee evidently made no comprehensive study of filters, pointing out they had been in use only about 10 years. At pages 60 and 61 of the report the Committee uses language which suggests that further study may show that filters are or would be helpful. I quote from page 60: The fact that side-stream smoke-- By which is meant smoke along the side of a cigarette when it is not being smoked, as distinguished from smoke in- haled from the cigarette- contains three times more benzo(a)pyrene page 61 I find this statement:. gaseous co activity. I do not,w_ t to go into details, for I am not a sclen t or a doctor. But these statements do_s Best the effective value of inters, -The PRESIDING OFFICER. The time of the Senator has expired. Mr. COOPER. Madam President, I ask unanimous consent to have addi- tional time. The PRESIDING OFFICER. Without objection, it is so ordered. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6, attack, a battle, in the war on poverty? Such a bill would be a battle lost in the war on poverty. We must start not by giving the greatest benefits to those who need them least, but by giving tax relief to those who need it most-the parents with the largest number of children to educate. Madam President, the Senate Finance Committee is proceeding with orderly consideration of amendments to the bill. In due course it will be reported to the Senate. I shall offer amendments in the interest of equity and fairness; but I shall not wait to alert the Senate to the unfairness and inequity of this bill. Daily I shall speak briefly in the Senate on this point. Mr. MORSE, Madam President, will the Senator yield? Mr. GORE. I yield. Mr. MORSE. . The Senator from Ten- emption on a voice vote. - We - i want t Senator to know that when his amendm nt, calling for' $1,000 -ex- emption, rea es the., fioo of Senate, I shall support it. My mi is open about other proposals4ilade y the Senator from Tennessee. Also, I shall suppo some reduction in the corporate tax f'. 52 percent. Two years ago I said o the oor of the Sen- ate that I would-? o as lo as 46 percent, but I would b glad to c promise at join in the battle on poverty when the Senate considers the tax bill. SMOKING AND HEALTH-REPORT OF THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE TO THE SURGEON GENERAL Mr. COOPER. Madam President, the report of the Advisory Committee to'fhe Surgeon General` of- the Pub c` Iealth Se.~r~vice entitled dlSmokin and 1=lealth " 3s, being stucliedan corisl ere' ious y throughout the country I mind dater this week to discuss it more fully and, I hope, constructively. 'Y'oda7'I want to bring to the attention of the Senate, and to the news media, a point about which I believe there has been widespread mis- 328 Approved For Release 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67B00446R00030 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Mr. COOPER. I want to make the point that the Committee did not make any findings upon the effectiveness of filters. To make certain that I was correct, I wrote a letter yesterday to Dr. Luther Terry, the Surgeon General. I asked if he would respond as quickly as possible. I received a letter from him today which verifies what I have said. I will read the letter. Then I shall ask that my letter and his reply be placed in the body of the RECORD. The letter is dated January 14, 1963: DEAR SENATOR COOPER: This is in response to your letter of January 13 which poses cer- tain questions as to the Advisory Commit- tee's views on cigarette filters. Certainly, it is erroneous to conclude that cigarette filters have no effect. As noted in the Com- mittee's report, filters in common use do re- move a variable portion of the tars and nicotine. Your specific questions and our replies will follow: 1. Is it not correct that the Advisory Com- mittee made no judgment as to the effect of adding filters to cigarettes? Answer. Yes. 2. Do I understand correctly that the Committee made no finding on filters because It believed- it had insufficient evidence from animal experiments, clinical studies, or population studies-the three kinds of evidence It considered-on which to base any findings as to the effect of the various types of filters? Answer. Yes. 3. To the extent that a filter removes tar, nicotine, and the gaseous elements of cigar- ette smoke, is it not reasonable to assume that the effects of the filter will be similar to the effects reported by the Committee of smoking fewer cigarettes? Answer. A categorical answer to this ques- tion is difficult. The best I could do would be to answer "Yes-perhaps," or "Yes--prob- ably." A part of the problem' here is whether the filter in addition to removing tar, nicotine or other elements of cigarette smoke might also lead to different levels of cigarette consumption and different amounts of inhalation, etc. Another difficulty is that we do not know all of the substances which different filters do or do not remove. Since we do not yet know all of the substances in tobacco smoke which have adverse health effects, a given filter might permit the selec- tive passage of hazard substances, as well as selectively removing others. 4. Does not the limited discussion of a new-type filter, on page 61 of the report, sug- gest that the Advisory Committee believes that the development of selective filters may have significance in terms of reducing the hazards to health the Committee believes It has found? Answer. Yes; the Committee felt that the development of better filters or more selective filters is a promising avenue for further de- velopment. 6. Would not standardized research on the effectiveness and selectivity of filters, as well as additional research on the components of smoke, be desirable? Answer. Yes, unquestionably. I hope these responses will be of assistance. Sincerely yours, LUTHER L. TEARY, Surgeon General. My comment on this is that those who study this report must be careful not to extend the conclusions of the Commit- tee. No findings were, made with respect to filters. It is important that further study and research _be conducted on the question of filters. Dr. Terry has stated that the Committee felt that the devel- opment of better or more selective filters is a promising avenue. I urge that re- search in this area be expanded. The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- out objection, the two letters will be printed in the RECORD at this point. The letters ordered to be printed in the RECORD are as follows: U.S. SENATE, . January 13, 1964. Dr. LUTHER L. TERRY, Surgeon General, Public Health Service, De- partment of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, D.C. DEAR DR. TERRY: The report on smoking and health, and the press conference Satur- day, January 11, by the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General, appear to be widely interpreted as having included a finding that cigarette filters have no effect. On the contrary: 1. Is' it not correct that the Advisory Commm4tee made no judgment as to the ef- fect of adding filters to cigarettes? 2. Do I understand correctly that the Committee made no finding on filters be- cause it believed It had insufficient evidence from animal experiments, clinical studies, or population studies-the three kinds of evidence it considered-on which to base any finding as to the effect of the various types of filters? S. To the extent that a filter removes tar, nicotine, and the gaseous elements of cigarette smoke, is it not reasonable to as- sume that the effects of the filter will be similar to the effects reported by the Com- mittee of smoking fewer cigarettes? 4. Does not the limited discussion of a 3-6 January 1 J# to the effects reported by the Committee of smoking fewer cigarettes? Answer. A categorical answer to this ques- tion is difficult. The best I could do would be to answer yes-perhaps, or yes-probably. A part of the problem here is whether the filter in addition to removing tar, nicotine or other elements of cigarette smoke might also lead to different levels of cigarette consump- tion and different amounts of inhalation, etc. Another difficulty is that we do not know all of the substances which different filters do or do not remove. Since we do not yet know all of the substances in tobacco smoke which have adverse health effects, a given filter might permit the selective pas- sage of hazard substances, as well as selec- tively removing others. 4. Does not the limited discussion of a new type filter, on page 61 of the report, sug- gest that the Advisory Committee believes that the development of selective filters may have significance in terms of reducing the hazards to health the Committee believes it has found? Answer. Yes, The Committee felt that the development of better filters or more selective filters is a promising avenue for further de- velopment. ". Would not standardized research on the effectiveness and selectivity of filters, as well as additional research on the components of smoke, be desirable? Answer. Yes, unquestionably. I hope these responses will be of assist- ance. Sincerely yours, LUTHER L. TERRY, Surgeon General. suggest that the Advisory Committee be- lieves that the development of selective filters may have significance in terms of reducing the hazards to health the Com- mittee believes it has found? 5. Would not standardized research on the effectiveness and selectivity of filters, as well as additional research on the components of smoke, be desirable? Because the report of your Advisory Com- mittee is the subject of wide and general interest, it will be helpful to have your answers, at least to the first question, as quickly as possible. Sincerely, JOHN SHERMAN COOPER. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCA- TION, AND WELFARE, PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, Washington, D.C. Hon. JOHN SHERMAN COOPER, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. DEAR SENATOR COOPER: This is in response to your letter of January 13 which poses cer- tain questions as to the Advisory Commit- tee's views on cigarette filters. Certainly, it is erroneous to conclude that cigarette filters have no effect. As noted In the Committee's report, filters in common use do remove a variable portion of the tars and nicotine. Your specific questions and our replies will follow: 1. Is it not correct that the Advisory Com- mittee made no judgment as to the effect of adding filters to cigarettes? Answer. Yes. 2. Do I understand correctly that the Com- mittee made no finding on filters because it believed it had insufficient evidence from animal experiments, clinical studies, or pop- ulation studies-the three kinds of evidence it considered-on which to base any finding as to the effect of the various types of filters? Answer. Yes. S. To the extent that a filter removes tar, nicotine, and the gaseous elements of cigar- ette smoke, Is it not reasonable to assume that the effects of the filter will be similar SAIGON'SUMMARY Mr. DODD. Mr. President, I invite the attention of my colleagues to an ar- ticle entitled "Saigon Summary" by Miss Marguerite Higgins, which appears in last week's issue of America magazine. This is a shocking article; indeed, it would be almost incredible if it did not come from a correspondent of such ex- ceptional stature. Although I am in no position to vouch for the accuracy of Miss Higgins' statements on every point, her article raises such serious questions about the conduct of American foreign policy that it cannot be dismissed or ig- nored. On the contrary, I believe that the Foreign Relations Committee should look into the charges and allocations made by Miss Higgins, and that Miss Higgins should be called before it as the first witness to report in more detail on her personal knowledge of the develop- ments in Vietnam. "Saigon Summary" is the story of the final days of the Diem regime, or, in Miss Higgins' words: Of the inglorious role played by the De- partment of State by encouraging, for the first time in our history, the overthrow in time of war of a duly elected government fighting loyally against the common Commu- nist enemy. In her article, Miss Higgins makes the statement that the agitation about Buddhist persecution was a complete fraud and she charges, further, that the State Department knew that it was a fraud. She quotes Roger Hilsman, As- sistant Secretary of State for Far East- ern Affairs, as telling her: After the closing of the pagodas on Au- gust 21, the facts became irrelevant. Miss Higgins, whose personal contacts are second to none in the Washington Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 I Approved For Relealse 2003/10/1.5 :,CIA-RDP67B%~ 61~70023m6 . 196 CO-NGRES SION AL RECORD, 329. pren corps, states that Secretary of I cf' a g ede'~is b lic 669f Yo I c one om)osed a coup 9'etat because the reared its con- sequen&s "b I ut~ f.Ae.y Were oveIT~led by the pr'o-c-ou p dletat 1 16 , d by Ambassador Henry Cabot J,odge, Under Se' . 1 8 r~6ii, 6'd #etary.of, tatiAverell Har- - Assistant Secretary bf~ State for, Far, Eastern Affairs Roger Hilsman. The ~oint was made' by every com meritatpr at tlie time that through its August 25 broadcast, the Voice of Amer- ica virtually called on the Vietnamese military to overthrow Diem. Mis's Hig- gins_ offers th6 -additional rmail'6n that: : At thi-same time, Amiba~s'~doi ~~dge asked the.=to poll the Vietnamese g6ii6ials and see v7vWn and i~,-~hey were ready to, translate. rev0t Wlk- wtQ~,PtCti0n~ Migs , Higgins also points out - that Thic).i Trl (4iianj, the 146. 1 13uddhist I - .- . ' ' - ' f " th Americ - leader Who Wo refu e lp an w6s, kccor Ing to his own ad- rrabass~ line - b - ' ' misslo4, a one-b mem er of the Viet- Minh, 064V~'st liberation'front; that he had twice been arrested by the French for deallngs with Ho Chi Minh' that hi's brojhei~`j currently w6rkifig for, the Min- 1,9iry of'the Interior in 06mmunist Viet- naj~; alid thaf Thich Tri Ouang- is an oui4,8',okeii n utialist. She quoted Thl6h~ Tri ng ~, as t-ellanj hei~ We cannot get an axrangement with the' north until we get rid of biem. and Nhu. I the aiticle would be As i'~have s I(. all but, lj -- - i~,di.d- not come from a corres,ponde , of Miss Higgins~ stature'. I Miss .- Hjggin~, despite her ~ relative . youth, was jeh6rall~ credited with b6iu, liq %btt Of the ,prps of Ameri- one of _r 6 6 11 1 " " World War. can cor espo dents covering - X1. Sh-' P"ov'eeid the t6rean war wkkh equal 9stincti o , ri. She fia . s r6 p I oft ed on the.majbr political events of oiir time in the couise of fravels.that have taken her repeatedly through many countries. She h4sserve'a"as chief of the New York H arld.,T~Jbu I AV Bur6au'both"'in Berlih e, J J& Pulitzc~i and in Tokyo. , -She has won Priie ~ alid nuifiekous other ~ou~nillsfk honors., But ibove. Wleve that Miss Hxginq! article deserves special attention because of the enviable repu- tation -which 'she enjoys' both for thoroughness i~fid for infigrity".' 0 11 f th , is I Q I an sp - eak frbm'p~qofiai ex- perience 'ecause I came to know Miss Higgi I ns elf when sh - e w as cov6ring the Nur,vm~ekg trials and I was serving as executive tilaf coun~el under J sti Jackson, In 41'of my Ion' .1cle g experience I have never met a more honest or more conscientious, correspondent thaii.Mar- -guerlte~111 " 4'. And I believe this opinion of shared, by everyone who knows her. Unlike- some of the journalists who covt d,, the V..Tet1iR s' ~ - -Isililfox, the . . r~ , - pese cq ment in the south. . She was A -witn-ess- PA- .,-early date, to hear Miss Higgins be- to. the 51ji lokt. WLmcAU9qs cause.I.-ain certain she possesses more in- and progress that t99k placeqn.deXTres- formation of,. &-confidential nature that ident Diem. AJ -d -she - I a WMJ4 Viet4q.T- she,-hasnotyet published. again both bpfore_the,rQcpnt cou~ anci - There. being no, objection, the articles After the coup. ' were ordered to be printed in the RECORD, Unlike some of the other, American as f6ij QNS; correspondents in Vietnam, Miss Hig- [From America, Jan. 4,1964:1 gins did not conflne herself to Saigon. She traveled ~extensively. In the-Viet-pain- esb countryside.- S e interviewed Gov-w ernment officials, and leaders of th6 Bud- dhist opposition,' Vietnainese -Villagers and Vietcong deserters, American offl- cers and rank and -Pile members of the American -forces iri Vietnam.' 'in " i6riiarit~ible'series'ol"ar-ticles-which the wrote f6r"'t-he' N'6w York Her-ald Trib- uffe during the last week of August of la,st year,,.Miss Hig - , _gins did not absolve the Diem -government for its handling of the so-called huAdhisi crisis. But she sought to look at the picture of Vietnam whole, examining its strong points as well' as -its weaknesses. Her articles devoted much attention to the situation in the rural countryside, where'as she pointed out, the overwhelming majority of South Vietnam's 14 million people live, and where the war will be either won or lost. I have hesitated to say anything crit- ical of our Vietnamese policy because I believe that in a situation such as exists in- Vlqtnam, we must accept the regime in power, seek to help it overcome its shortcomings by persuasion, and Cooper- ate with it loyally. ..While I deplore the assassination of Diem and Nhu, and while I gravely fear that their overthrow may produce a worse situation rather than a better sit- uation, I have not wished to say any- thing that could be construed as under- cutting the military junta now in power in Vietnam. It is my hopei indeed, that we will sup- port the junta somewhat more loyally than we supported the government of President Diem; that we will not demand of it the democratic perfection that we demanded of Diem; that we will not sub- ject its shortcomings to propaganda bombardments that can only play into the hands of the Communists; and that we will not again stoop to engaging in intrigues against an allied anti-Com- munist government, 1 hope that, by our actions, we will give the lie to the Peiping broadcasts which have been warning the new rulers of Vietnam that American imperialism, when it suits its whims, will betray them as mercilessly as it betrayed Ngo Dinh Diem, It is for this purpose that I speak to day, and, it is for this purpose that I ask unanimous consent that the article by miss Marguerite Higgins entitled ".Saigon Summary" be inserted into-the. RECORD at the conclusion of remarks. My - I . - - ~ Byway 6i `histoi~i~al b'ac: k-ground, I also Viet- , gon thought-out of the most idealistic and -1 b "' "Ind- d- ne*cofi!6~ to- e nam. n ee she has text of the series of. six articles~ on t-gq t Euilly ev6r"' af they iv6re serving a be un ry at vir nz4n which Misi Hi the, PiLtil6tic m6thi wrote fo: since Dienbit _phu. She ngw-y 06d cause in arousing world opinion against 0,171 IP, r i=,thqlast 9 -prKZUWJJU, , _Diem. Whether his strengths and faults were XW the perlod'of crisis 3 week. of August 196 greater or less than those of his junta sue- t P e e French puhllout and Me i urge. my colleagues to give Miss Hig- cessors remains to be seen. pe&t I 't coun, try, w n Irt all~, gins'..a icle the-careful study which it ary junta, 11 ~ u I I '. _rt -It Is certain that under the milit. all e tic, ]Department pundits merits, . I, hope, . too, that the Foreign ., V isyp been jailed for far less than e of creating a 'viable govern- Relations Cominittee will be convened at was'necessary to send a person to prison Approved For Relea'se 2003/10/15: CIA-RDP67BOO446ROO0300170023-6 SAIGON SUMMARY: OUR COUNTRY PLAYED AN JUG .LQ=V3-R %9XZ-JN THE FINAL DAys or THE DiEm REGIME (By Marguerite Higgins) (Miss Higgins, Pulitzer Prize winner, for- in~r New York Herald Tribune bureau chief in Berlin and Tokyo, has just returned from S ei I oiky, She . now reports for-Newsdav, Gar-. What is the meaning of the five tragic self-immolations that took. place in. Vietnam in the 6 weeks following the November coup d'(5tat against Diem? How did it come to pass that under the military junta, which seized power in the name of an end to "per- secution," there have been more suicides by fire over a short period than had ever been the case under President Diem and his broth- er Ngo Ninh Nhu? Even though virtually Ignored by the Western press, will this latest spate of suicides by fire-without clearly stated reason-destroy at last the false no- tion that the repeated acts of self-immola- tion in Vietnam were Indisputable proof of massive persecution of the Buddhist religion by President Diem, a Roman Catholic? Will historians be more equitable with President Diem than his conternporaries were? On two trips in Vietnam In 1963, one be- fore and one after the coup d'6tat, this writ- er was never able to find an instance of re- pression on religious grounds. Under Diem, there was repression on religious grounds. Under Diem, there was repression of Bud- dhtsts, Catholics, Confucianists, etc., when- In defiance of clearly stated laws-they took to the streets to demonstrate against the Government. But Diem's repression was not directed against a religion. It was tAmed at overt political opposition. There were de- plorable police excesses in Vietnam, but there Is no sign that they were desired. or con- doned by Diem any more than police ex- cesses In Alabama are condoned or desired by Washington. There was, for a long time, a clear double standard in Vietnam, in which accusations against Diem gained, in most cases, giant headlines, but attempted refutations re- -celved only perfunctory notice. For In- stance, last summer Thich Due Ng4iep, the Xa Lot, pagoda spokesman, told reporters dramatically that 365 persons in a Saigon suburb had been arrested "because they were Buddhists2' That figure was headlined throughout the world. But when I went to the suburb in question, I found that a rou- tine check was being made of a neighbor- hood.through which the Vietcong often In- filtrated. I stayed for 2 hours to talk with those rounded up as they emerged from the police compound after questioning. I talked to 20 persons-ancestor worshipers, Catho- lics, Confucianists, Taoists, Caodalsts, etc.- before I finally found a genuine Buddhist among those picked up. So the charge of persons arrested because of being Bud- dhi " ww.14ve . Tliere Is no doubt that the overwhelming 330 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 14 under Diem. Said a European observer: "Under Diem, a Vietnamese had to do some- thing specific against the regime to get into trouble. Under the military junta, a Viet- namese can be jailed without charge, simply under the suspicion that he was loyal to the Diem regime when it was the legally con- stituted authority." Sanche de Gramont, of the New York Herald Tribune, has estimated the number of arbitrary arrests right after the coup as around 500. So far, Mr. de Gramont and this reporter are the only ones who have written with any detail about the junta's reversion to some of the police-state tactics the Saigon press corps so bitterly criticized in Diem. Nowadays, some of the most ardent anti- Diem writers, such as David Halberstam, Sai- gon correspondent of the New York Times, acknowledge that the Buddhist agitation of last summer and fall was politically moti- vated. In an admiring magazine article writ- ten by his close friend, George J. W. Good- man, Mr. Halberstam is quoted as saying: "I always said it. The Buddhist campaign was political, * * * I thought I always em- phasized that this was a political dispute under a religious banner-the only place an opposition had found to gather in an au- thoritarian regime." Whatever Mr. Halberstam's intentions, his and other press dispatches last summer and fall did create the impression in the outside world that some kind of religious crisis was going on inside Vietnam. And it was the image of religious persecution-false as it was--that paved the way for Diems down- fall. Without the embarrassment Of being the patron of a country suspected of battling Buddhists, it is doubtful that the United States would ever have reached the decision. to try to get rid of Diem. The authorities in Washington knew, of course, that the con-, filet in Vietnam was political, not religious. But they were reluctant to speak out lest, in the process, they attract to Washington some red-with hardly any of the onus being Kern, contradiction-on DiBy staying silent, Washington acted as if it thought Diem guilty. And this helped to complete the vicious circle. Or as Roger Hillsman, Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, put it: "After the closing of the pagodas on August 21, the facts became irrelevant." So, evidently, did a sense of perspective. What? for example, about the fact that President Diem was far more lenient to his political opposition than President Sukarno of Indonesia orsPremier Sarit Thanarat of Thailand, both recipients of American aid? Whereas some 300 po- litical prisoners, at most, were found in Diem's jails, the prisons of Thailand, Indo- nesia, and.Burma were filled--and are still filled-with tens of thousands of political victims. "But," explained a pro-coup State Depart- ment officer, "the world spotlight is not on those countries, and it is on Vietnam." At the State Department, there have been some attempts to rationalize the coup d'etat by describing it as necessary to save the Viet- namese war efrort.from going to pieces. One difficulty with this argument is that it makes liars out of Secretary of Defense McNamara, Chief of Staff Maxwell D, Taylor, and Gen. Paul Harkins, who testified under oath to Congress in October that the war was making reasonable progress. If the State Depart- ment ever took seriously the argument that the disturbances in the cities would affect morale in the countryside, it betrays a re- grettable lack of understanding of the struc- ture of Vietnam and of the gap between the countryside, where the war will be won or lost, and the cities, where less than 10 percent of the Vietnamese live. For the Buddhists, intellectuals and stu- dents who marched the streets in anti-Diem demonstrations could not have cared less about the war-before the coup, or after the a Voice of America broadcast that virtually coup, Vietnamese students in particular called on the Vietnamese military to take tell you quite frankly that one reason they over. At the same time, Ambassador Lodge prize admission to a university is that it en- asked the CIA to poll the Vietnamese gen- ables them to avoid the draft. Vietnam's erals and lee hen and if they were ready intellectuals have narrow horizons, are execs- to translate revolt talk into action. sively inward-turning, and make constant Diem's shock at the Voice of America and factional critic In their specialty. Ex- cept for a handful of terribly militant lead- ers, the Buddhist monks are rather passive. If the success or failure of the war were to depend on these groups, Vietnam would have been lost from the st^rt. As to the effects in the countryside of the critical clamoring by Vietnam's spoiled young intellectuals in the cities, it was virtually nil. The Ameri- can attitude seem-d to be that if a Viet- namese student demonstrates, virtue is on his side and the government is wrong. But in the countryside there were many peasants and plain soldiers who disapproved of the defiance of the regime-in those rare places where anyone knew anything whatsoever of what went on beyond the next village. If there was any slowdown in the war in September and October of 1963, it was be- cause the Vietnamese generals-under American prodding-were concentrating on thoughts of a coup d'etat, while Diem and Nhu, out of fear of America, were concen- trating on how to prevent a coup. It was not until after the coup d'etat that the Vietnamese war took a decidedly down- ward to-n. The military junta with its un- certain leadership, after purges of key (and scarce) officials, finally plunged much of the countryside into the confusion from which it purportedly was trying to save Vietnam. No wonder the Vietcong took advantage of the situation to seize the military initiative for the fleet time in many months. No wonder that, in the 2 months after the coup d'etat, the military junta lost more real es- tate, lives and weapons to the Vietcong than at any previous time in the war. It was precisely out of fear of such predict- able consequences of trying to change re- gimes in midway that Secretary of Defense McNamara and Central Intelligence Director John McCone oppose a coup acct ut they were overruled by the pro-coup d'etat faction led by Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Under Secretary of State Averell Har- riman, and Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs Roger Hillsman. The Diem-must-go decision came shortly after the temporary closing of about a dozen (out of 4,000) pagodas on August 21, which outraged Washington. Diem said that his only aim was to get the Buddhist leaders out of politics and back to religion. The Viet- namese leader insisted that unless he shut down the propaganda machinery of the pa- godas and put a halt to the glorification of suicide by burning, public disorder in the cities would mount and world misunder- standing would deepen. Washington dis- agreed. Further, it felt that Diem had not only humiliated it and flouted its advice, but had broken a promise to be conciliatory. Washington's anger was heightened by hor- rendous stories of alleged killings and bru- talities during the pagoda raids. (There were no such killings, as the monks them- selves later said.) In any case, on August 24, the State De- partment sent out word--without the knowledge of Secretary McNamara or of CIA Director John McCozie--instructing Ambas- sador ge to 'unleash" the Vietnamese generals with a view to toppling the Diem government if they could. Plotting among educated Vietnamese, including the gen- erals, is a kind of national pastime, as chess is to the Russians, Until lately it had been a pretty harmless pastime, because every- body knew that real action was dependent on an Ameirican green light-and until Au- gust such a green light had been withheld. But on Sunday, August 25, Washington publicly gave the generals a green light in broadcast and the CIA poll of the Viet- an only be imagined by namese generals car!" turning the tables around. Suppose the United States were engaged in a war against the Communists In which we depended al- most totally on aid from Vietnam; suppose, in the middle of that war, Vietnam issued a broadcast calling for the American Joint Chiefs of Staff to overthrow the American Government? The miracle is that the Diem regime sur- vived as long as it did the virtual declaration of political war served on it that August by Washington. What, after many months of hesitation, finally decided the general (in mid-October) to stage the coup? In separate interviews with this correspondent, members of the military junta spoke of these factors: 1. The late President Kennedy called, at a press conference, for "changes of policy and maybe personnel" in Vietnam. 2. Washington announced the withdrawal of 1,000 American soldiers by` the end of 1963, and possible total withdrawal by 1965. (Said one general: "That convinced us that unless we got rid of Diem, you would aban- don us.") 3. The economic aid was cut. Many gen- erals agreed that this cut was physchologi- cally the most decisive goad to a coup d'etat. "It convinced us," a key plotter ex- plained, "that the United States was serious this time about getting rid of Diem. In any case, this was a war we wanted to win. The United States furnished us with the jeeps, the bullets, the very guns that made the war possible. In cutting economic aid, the United States was forcing us to choose between your country's help in the war and Diem. So we --chose the United States." Ironically, President Diem did make some important concessions to the United States in September and October. For example, in mid-September President Diem agreed to every pointput forward by the United States in a program to reform and consolidate the strategic hamlet program in the Mekong Delta. Many'Arnericars had long felt that this program had been overextended. At last President Diem agreed with the diag- nosis and decided to do something about it. Why was this move toward the American position never publicized? One Western diplomat put it this way: "Ambassador Lodge andhis deputy, William Truehart, were so determined to get rid of Diem that they were opposed to putting him in a conciliatory light. They were afraid this would strength- en the hands of those in Washington against a coup d'etat." Even at the 11th hour, Ambassador Lodge could, of course, have turned off the revolt if he had chosen to give the slightest sign that the new frontier and President Diem were even beginning to move to heal their rent. As one member of the military junta put it: "We would never have dared to act if we had not been sure that the United States was giving us its moral support." In the last hours before his death, Presi- dent Diem was stripped of any doubt what- soever of Washington's hostility. Telephon- ing the American Embassy from the Palace at 4:30 p.m. on Novemb"r 1, after the bom- bardment had started, President Diem asked Ambassador Lodge: "What Is Washington's atitude toward this?" Lodge replied: "I don't know Washington's attitude. After all, it is 4:30 in the morning there." "But you must have some idea," Diem said. Whereupon Lodge turned the conversation to the matter of Diem's safety, offering him Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 CIA-RDP6fB00446R000300170023-6 1964 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE 331 an airplane to take him out of the country. Could anything have indicated more clearly th>It, jn,l)ye;cah eyes the., success of the coup d'etat was a fait accompli? The only certain thing about the murder of President Diem and Counselor Nhu is that they were shot in the back (Diem in the neck, Nhu in the right side) with their hands tied behind them. Nhu also had a dagger or bayonet wound in the chest, which was apparently indecisive. These, facts were established beyond-all doubt by this reporter through photographs and through talks with military eyewit- nesses, attendants at St. Paul's Hospital (where the bodies were first taken) and from information given by two relatives, a niece and nephew who handled the preparations for the burial. In the light of the way Diem and Nhu died, there is a strong possibility that the shootings were ordered by some or all mem- bers of the military junta. Would a junior officer take such a responsibility on him- self? Now for the Buddhist leaders who Started it all: have they got what they wanted? I use the word "leaders" advisedly, for of the Buddhists in Vietnam, who form about 30 percent of the population of 14 million peo- ple, the overwhelming majority are largely nonpolitical. Buddhist monks tend to be somewhat passive. They would never have dreamed of resorting to violent demonstra- tions had they not be subjected to the skill- ful and Inflammatory propaganda that poured from the humming mimeograph ma- chines of the Xa Loi pagoda. By the end of last summer, the original grievances of the Buddhist leaders in Hue--matters of property rights, flag flying, etc.-had largely been met by the Diem regime. In the midst Of the anti-Diem,, ferment I wrote an. article asking: "What do the Bud- dhists want? They want Diem's head-not on a silver platter, but wrapped in an Amer- ican flag." You have to hand it to ,the Buddhist lead- ers that they got what they wanted. But will this satisfy the more militant Buddhist leaders? It is heady stuff, even for Bud dhists, to have the attention of the entire world focused of you, and to exercise the kind of political power that can topple gov- ernments. Will, for instance, the venerable Thich Tri Quang, the mastermind of the Buddhist campaign and by far the most in- telligent and militant of all, be satisfied to take a political back seat? Thich Tri Quang is a Buddhist leader from Hue who was granted asylum at the Amer- ican Embassy even though his past is in some controversy. According to records of the French Colonial Office, he had twice 'been arrested during the postwar French occupation of Indochina for dealings with Ho Chi Minh. , By his awn admission, he was a member of the Vietminh Communist lib- eration front. He claims to have fallen out with the, Communists later. Again accord- ing to the French, who still have repre- sentatives at Hanoi, Thich Tri Quang's brother is currently working for Ho Chi Minh in the Communist Vietnam's Ministry of the Interior. The duties of Thich Tri Quang's brother are the direction of subversion in South Vietnam. None of this, of course, proves anything about Thich Tri Quang's current attitude toward the Communist Vietcong. What does seem clear Is that he learned a lot from the Communists, about organization and propaganda. He ran his emergency head- quarters at the XaLoi pagoda like a com- pany command post. Orders were barked out, directing a demonstration here, a pro- test meeting there. Messengers scurried in and out, carrying banners with their newly painted slogans. Respectful monks brought in the. latest anti-Diem propaganda blast for Thich Tri Quang to review word by word. In my discussion with Thich Tri Quang, I was somewhat taken aback at his indif- ference about the war against the Com- munists. When I asked whether the oc- casional outburst of turmoil might not of- fer the Vietcong the opportunity to infil- trate among the demonstrators, Thich Tri Quang shrugged his shoulders and said: "It is possible that the current disorders could lead to Communist gains. But if this hap- pens it will be Diem's fault, not ours." In the same interview in the Xa Loi pa- goda, Thich Tri Quang told me that his preferred solution for Vietnam was "neu- tralism," adding: "We cannot get an ar- rangement with the North tmtil we get rid of Diem and Nhu" The Vietcong are suspected of having led several of the attacks against property on November 1, the day of the coup d'etat. For instance, a small but violent gang of young people attacked and demolished the newly opened headquarters in Saigon of the Asian Anti-Communist League. This league had no connection, ' financial, or otherwise, with Diem. Yet the coup day rioters sys- tematically removed its anti-Communist literature onto the streets, burned it, then wrecked the headquarters. Whether the new military junta's govern- ment by committee can do any better than Diem and Nhu remains in doubt. The junta is ripe for further coups and countercoups. In any case, it was not because he enjoyed being condemned by world public opinion that President Diem engaged in repressive measures (mild as they were by Asian stand- ards). The new Government will be faced by similar problems, because the fundamen- tal situation has not changed. For example, the change of Government has .not altered the tendency of Vietnam's citified intellec- tuals to take to the streets. Within 2 weeks after the coup d'etat, 10,000 students at Hue demonstrated noisily against the military junta because it had not dis- missed'several professors who had been loyal to Diem. This is but one example of pressure by mob. Can the military junta long tolerate decisions enforced by street mobs, or justice by demand of the newly freed and utterly irresponsible Vietnamese press? Three Sai- gon newspaper have closed-and righty-al- ready. The smut and sheer mendacity of the postcoup free press of Vietnam is one of the blackest marks of recent months in the annals of Vietnam's so-called intellectuals. In view of the indiscipline, factionalism, and irresponsibility of citified Vietnamese, can the military junta long escape resorting to the same tight rein held by President Diem? The only sure thing in Vietnam today is that the United States has set an extremely controversial precedent by encouraging, for the first time in our history, the overthrow in time of war of a duly elected government fighting loyally against the common Commu- nist enemy. [From the New York Herald-Tribune, Aug. 26, 1963 ] VIETNAM-FACT AND FICTION: FIRST OF A SE- RIES ON THE ASIAN TROUBLE SPOT BY MAR- GUERrrE HIOGINS (Today's events in South Vietnam are con- fused, uncertain and contradictory. Pulitzer Prize-winning Herald Tribune correspondent Marguerite Higgins,, in 4 hectic weeks in the Vietnamese countryside, has spoken to the rulers and the peasants, to the government and its foes, studying the background to the present crisis. This morning, she discusses the general outline of the situation in the country today. In five subsequent articles, Miss Higgins will present the facts and an interpretation of the Government-Buddhist dispute; the United States-backed war against the Communist Vietcong; the "new breed" American adviser; the Vietcong de- fectors; and the over-all opposition to the Diem regime,) (By Marguerite Higgins) SAIGON.-The Montagnards, their spears at their sides, stood at rigid attention in the brand new village whose bamboo fence cut into the vast sweep of jade-green plateaus that stretches like a Shangri-la between the shelter of northwest South Vietnam's soar- ing 7,000-foot mountain peaks. How do the Montagnards (non-Buddhist mountain people) feel about the Communist Vietcong guerrillas? Their chieftain stepped forward mutely to show a badly butchered hand and arm. It was the cruelty of the Vietcong, he said, that was bringing his people (nearly three quar- ters of a million strong) away from their beloved mountains and nomadic ways to the villages in the lush, emerald plateaus. South of Saigon, far back from the moun- tain peaks and deep in the dull, flat muddy delta, a wizened Buddhist monk, considered a saint by the local villagers, shook his head disapprovingly at the news from the capital. "I would not kill a fly myself," he said, "I do not believe in the taking of life in any form-even by suicide. * * * All this talk of discrimination has nothing to do with real- ity as we know it here in our village. Our village chief (a Buddhist) gives out pigs, fertilizer and'i'ice seed without asking any- body his religion. The Catholics don't get more than we do, and we don't get more than the Catholics." Up north in the arid coastal plains of Phan Rang Province, a Moslem leader of Vietnam's Cham tribesmen (of Indonesian origin) stood outside the mosque with its blue mosaic dome and shook his head in puzzlement at the stranger's question, as did the villagers who crowded around. "We know nothing about any religious persecution," said the Moslem. "President Ngo Dinh Diem was province chief here (be- ginning in 1923). He helped our people build mosques, and now he sends us rice, seed and water. So we are grateful to Presi- dent Diem." This is a fragmentary picture of the sel- dom told other side of the story: The atti- tudes in the deep rural countryside where the overwhelming majority of South Viet- nam's 14 million people live. This story contrasts violently with the tragic headlines and anti-Diem ferment in the big cities of Saigon and Hue, which have a combined population of slightly more than a million, but which have captured the bulk of the world's attention. And it is in the countryside-not the cities-that the war will be won or lost. Despite the strident antigovernment cam- paign spread to provincial towns from hum- ming mimeograph machines at the Xa Loi pagoda in Saigon in the months before the government's crackdown last week; despite the tragic suicides by fire; despite the loss of most citified intellectuals including uni- versity students, President Diem's Vietna- mese armies continued this summer to gain in those areas of the countryside where the war is fought the hardest. Paradoxically, the blacker Vietnam's image grew in the outside world, where President Diem was widely assumed to be totally at fault in the Buddhist affair, the greater grew the momentum of the Vietnamese Army's assaults on the Communist Vietcong. Contrary to recent published reports that the situation in the rich Mekong River delta area has deteriorated, Gen. Paul Harkins, chief of the American military mission here, insists that the opposite is true. In a curi- ous coincidence, the week that saw the great- est number of suicides by fire also brought the greatest decrease ever in Vietcong-initi- ated action in the delta. The American mil- itary, with few exceptions, are convinced Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 332 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 14 that after 18 months of buildup, setbacks and false starts, the war in Vietnam is be- ginning to be won. - SAVAGERY That is why the Buddhist affair and the savagery of the political repression are dou- bly tragic. They rivet world attention on the dark and dismal side of a picture that is by no means all black. Why did the Diem Government institute Its crackdown on the Buddhists last week and declare martial law? Not, certainly, for religious reasons. Rath- er because Mr. Diem was bitterly convinced that the leaders of the General Buddhist Association were going for his political jug- ular and that the conciliatory policies ad- vocated by the United States were only making them more thirsty for his political blood. President Diem stated this conviction in the strongest terms during an interview even though at the time he was still trying to please the Americans by going along, albeit Teluctantly, with the policy of conciliation. This policy only allowed the Buddhists to stage otherwise illegal antigovernment dem- onstrations and to disseminate antigovern- ment propaganda. It was a privilege not extended to any other political or religious organizations by Mr. Diem's authorization regime, which always has pulled in the reins harshly when it felt politically threatened. U.S. officials in Saigon and in Washing- ton agreed with Mr. Diem's assessment of the Buddhist leaders' ambitions. But they disagreed angrily and bitterly with the brutal tactics with which he silenced his po- litical opposition. PRODS Right up to the moment of the imposi- tion of martial law, Americans had pleaded with Mr. Diem to put some sense of personal 'conviction and dynamism into the policy of conciliation. They argued that in this way the Buddhists would be deprived of an Issue and would in due time 1?e pacified by the real concessions which the Americans gradually and painfully had extracted from President Diem. But Mr. Diem, prodded by his more miI- 'ltant brother, Counselor Ngo Ninh Nhu, and his brother's wife, Mrs. Nhu, could only see that each concession brought new Buddhist predictions of demonstrations and suicides to come. Or as a Buddhist spokesman told this correspondent several weeks ago "when Lodge gets here there will really be some excitement." Now that martial law has been imposed, it seems impossible, In this reporter's judg- ment, that President Diem, irrespective of American pressure, would again permit the Buddhists-or any other group-to set up mimeograph machines and start back up the road of anti-Government action. In an authoritarian state, where there is no outlet for political steam, anything can happen. No one is more aware of this than Mr. Diem and, his family, especially Counselor Nhu who is the President's closest political adviser. COUP At an interview that took place prior to martial law, Mr. Nhu said: "I do not think that a coup d'etat could be successful with- out American support. And I certainly do not suspect the Americans of plotting to overthrow us, especially at a point when the war is beginning to go better. Still people are not always rational. And so somebody might be crazy enough to attempt a, coup d'etat, especially in the present atmosphere." Counselor Nhu observed that he had called army generals to a meeting to discuss the Buddhist affair. "The army does not like to have this mat- ter dragged out," Mr. Nhu said. "They see that the Government is successfully defied by the Buddhists, and this is a dangerous prec- edent. It could give ideas to others. So the army is angry with us for letting the Buddhists continue these demonstrations and disorders. STOP "The Americans want us to sit by quietly and, let a handful of Buddhist leaders tell lies about us to the world and foment dis- brders. We offer the Buddhists everything- international investigation of every so- called grievance; but the Buddhist leaders refuse because it is their policy to rouse opinion against us in hopes of overthrowing this Government. * * * There is a point where this must stop." It is of note that Counselor Nhu, after imposition of the martial law, gave army impatience with the Buddhist situation as a main reason for the regime's action against the pagodas. After martial law was imposed, the Viet- namese Army made haste to assure the Americans that the war against the Vietcong would be prosecuted as vigorously as ever. The American military mission has con- firmed that the tempo has not been slowed and that there has been no substantial diversion of frontline troops. Is there a contradiction between the steady American optimism about the war against the Vietcong and the ferment caused in the cities by the Buddhist affair and the Indig- nation of many Vietnamese over the Gov- ernment's brutal methods? The Impact of the Buddhist affair in the rural countryside (the villages and hamlets rather than the provincial towns) is far less than Americans imagine for these reasons: It is' demonstrably incorrect to give the impression that the General Buddhist As- sociation represents 80 percent, or even 70 percent, of Vietnam's population of 14 mil- lion people. RACE In the first place the association, whose member pagodas are largely in the coastal towns, is but one of the many rival Budd- hist sects in Vietnam. In a 1962 pamphlet, the association claimed 1 million members plus 3,000 monks and 300 nuns. One mil- lion members Is less than 10 percent of the population. Anti even though reliablefigures are hard to come by, it is clear that any percentage must not overlook the many different races as well as religions of Vietnam. Thee Defense Department in its "Pocket Guide to Vietnam" and the American Em- bassy in Saigon gives the following as the best estimate of the breakdown between the various groups, although noting that in Vietnam it is considered quite acceptable to have more than one religion. For instance, a special dispensation was given several years agoto permit Vietnamese Roman Catholics to engage in ancestor worship. And President Diem, in his home at Hue, has a shrine there to his ancestors. Out of 14 million people in South Vietnam there are: One million five hundred thousand Catho- lics. Five hundred thousand other Christians, including Baptists, Mennonites, Seventh Day Adventists, and converts of the Chris- tian and missionary alliance. One million five hundred thousand Cao Dai (believers in a mixture of Eastern and West- ern religions and worshipping as saints di- verse figures such as Joan of Are and Sun Yet Ben). POINT Five hundred thousand Hoa Hao (a new religion founded in 1939 containing ele- ments of Buddhism and magic. Its founder, Huynh Phu So, was famous as a teacher and miracle healer and preached that temples, rituals and priests were not necessary to the worship of God. Seven hundred "-d !'"t y t'zeurand Animists (these are mainly the Montagnards, who worship gods of the soil and river, and so forth.) Three million Confucianists and ancestor worshipers (these include the nearly million Chinese left over from the 900 long years in which Peking, the larger dragon, ruled Viet Nam, the smaller dragon. Five hundred thousand Hindus and Mos- lems (these include the Cham tribesmen who are non-Mongol, and the many Pakis- tanis in Vietnam. Five hundred thousand Taoists (again a heritage from the many years of Chinese rule). Add up all these figures and the result is that 8.75 million people are not Buddhists. This leaves 5.25 million Buddhists at most, eliminating those who have no beliefs at all beyonds vague superstitions. So 35 percent would be indicated as a more realistic- though still generous--estimate of the per- centage of Buddhists in South Vietnam. Rufus Phillips, head of the U.S. operations mission that is helping create the strategic hamlet system in the Vietnamese country- side, gives his own well educated guess that 80 to 40 percent of Vietnam Is Buddhist in. conviction, with perhaps 15 percent pagoda- going Buddhists. Mr. Phillips has been in Southeast Asia since 1954 and has visited. literally thousands of Vietnamese villages. PrCTVRE Roger Hilsman, Assistant Secretary of State for Par Eastern Affairs, states that the number of Buddhists in Vietnam "has been exaggerated" and says that the whole plc-' ture is much misunderstood. Additionally, events in Saigon don't seem as compelling in the countryside as in Wash- ington because there are thousands of ham- lets that are so cut off from anything except' -their district headquarters that they liter- ally may hear nothing about suicides and demonstrations for years, if then. Of the more than three dozen hamlets visited by this correspondent, there were only two in which anybody could be found who had even heard about the self-immola- tion of Thich Quang Due, the first dramatic suicide. The steady loyalty of the Vietnamese Army-so far at any rate-is in some part related to the large numberof officers drawn from the 2 million refugees who came south from North Vietnam. These soldiers have known Communist rule first hand and are likely to look on President Diem's rule differ- ently than those who have never had this experience. PRIDE But a soldier's morale and a soldier's pride have far more to do with success or failure against the immediate enemy than with a dispute that most of them sense has more to do with political opposition to Mr. Diem than with religion. And in talking with many officers and men In three different comps-areas, this reporter felt their excite- ment at "seeing the light at the end of the tunnel"-as one colonel put it. Finally, former Ambassador Frederick G. Nolting, Jr. was quite clear in saying recently that there is no religious "persecution" in Vietnam. There has been repression of Buddhist leaders-not because of their reli- gion but because they conducted anti-Gov- ernment agitation. Many Vietnamese oppose the repression, but they understand it to be political, not religious. There probably has been favoritism in the bureaucracy, especially in towns like Hue where the Catholic Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc is one of President Diem's brothers. Currying favor is a full time occupation among some Vietnamese, and there are no doubt Catholics who sought to use acquaint- ance with powerful members of the Diem family to advance themselves. The Catholics are far better educated than the Buddhists. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 1964 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE 333 For, one thing a Catholic has to have at The police reacted in several instances But from a social point of view of clubs or least a high school education to be qualified with rambunctious brutality, beating seated residential areas or education, no Vietnamese to train for the priesthood in a seminary, monks and nuns savagely as they carted hag been socially handicapped by his religion MONK them off to' concentretionareas outside the as still happens today in America to some Under the Mahayana (greater vehicle) city. The government claims that those members of the Jewish faith and as used to Buddhism of. the association, anyone can arrested were subsequently all released, happen to Irish Catholics in those days when go into _ dhi a p the and atl me a monk for But in the meantime a tidal wave of world the Kennedy clan was in Boston. B however long he pleases. No educational cre- attention focused on the Buddhists of Viet- BIAS dentials are needed. And Buddhists tend to nam who were soon making use of their un- be more passive than the Cathntine who have expected ability to manipulate international Never in history has a Vietnamese paper r ..s ??_ ~~_-,2 ment. r aw 6 ...- But as President Kennedy's father and moth- leprasariums In the view and ~ of schools. American officials on In the pagodas, the monks, exhilarated by er well remember, advertisements saying "No scene, P residentDiem himself Is not guilty of the playbacks of U.S. press stories which were Irish need apply" were a fact of life not so a policy of religious discrimination. But in somehow copied from the U.S. Embassy file, very long ago. permitting police brutality, he began talking of continuing their campaign More than half of the 40 province chiefs addition to in Vietnam are Buddhists, ancestor wor- is most, certainly guilty of political and pay- until Mr. Diem was overthrown. More and chological ineptitude which are grave faults more in the weeks prior to martial law, the non-Catholic. Confucianists, Cao Dal, etc.-that is, in a man trying to run a country by per- monks seemed to convince themselves that non-Catholic. Only 6 of President Diem's Boned, unquestioned dictate. wthe oulde be Wshingt or, Henry Cabot Lodge, cabinet of negotiating a 17 truce are with Catholicsthe. The Buddhists task of had Said a high official in Saigon: "If Diem Washington's agent in overthrow- been assigned to Vietnam's Vice President, had gone instantly to the microphone after ing the Diem regime. the May 8 incident (in which eight by- Mimeograph machines, loudspeakers, and also a Buddhist, standers to the Buddhist demonstration were English-speaking press spokesmen were The American mission here has had more am sm. from Mw killed) had deplored the tragedy and pledged brought to the pagodas to disseminate to the Diem's its share of troubles nresulting . theGoverIlment`s best effort to see that such foreign press charges and demands that be- m's lack of political dynamism. No New events did not happen again-irrespective of came tougher and tougher. Frontiersman he. The shock at police bru- where the guilt lay-it would have been omR tality has been profound. But this is not impossible for anyone to pin an anti-Bud- the first nation whose police have gotten out dhist image or him. For instance, the Buddhist Association at of hand. And these days it is a bit delicate "Instead he is ,.so preoccupied with saving first clamored for an investigation of the for an American to lecture because it is not face that he resists admitting anything done Hue killings under credible conditions. But impossible for a Vietnamese simply to reply: his appointees could be wrong. At first When Mr. Diem finally offered them an inter- "Remember Alabama." by he his ad onteethen he nationally observed joint investigation of CHARGE y gave way to each this and every other alleged grievance, the Buddhist demand in such a grudging way Buddhists refused. But prior to martial law there had been that it had little effect." As a price for joining the investigation a certain disenchantment among Americans The dispute between the General Buddhist they demanded that Mr. Diem first admit at persistent Buddhist dissemination of un- Associatiorl and the Government started out guilt for the Hue killings. proved charges. At one point, for instance, as limited psychological warfare over limited In other words, the Buddhists demanded the Buddhists said flatly that the police had and tocol and justified property. objectives involving Buddhist adelmands that the regime admit-prior to investiga- outskirts of Saigon In a night raaiid. on the p tion-that it was wrong. The admission of that later the vastly amplified, Government permit pwere at first Buddhist flags hist primarily guilt was part of the five Buddhist demands hardOil ly c any of those arrested were Buddhists, to be flown at pagodas and during religious issued in May. But it was not made a pre- that the raid was a routine one to check the processions on special holy days. They also condition of an internationally observed in- identity cards of families in a district asked that certain laws be amended to per- vestigation until midsummer. through which Vietcong frequently infiltrate mit the Buddhists to have greater oppor- In American eyes, the desperate need re- Into Saigon, and finally that all except those tunity to buy property. mains to establish the facts as to Buddhist without identity cards and criminal records MISTAKE charges of persecution for religious reasons, were released. The Buddhists were accurate which is quite a different matter than police on one point. The raid was at night. According to Counselor Nhu, "the first repression for political reasons, although the There is not the slightest tendency among mistake the Government made in this Bud- two are often confused. And the only way the Americans to gloss over the situation dhist affairs was to make a fuss about flags. world opinion can be satisfied is for the -In' here. The Diem regime is authoritarian, ad- advice Let them had fly been any asked, flags I they would want. never If have my vestigation to be carried out in a manner mite it and justifies this on grounds of being that will make the results credible. engaged in a fight for its life. permitted the local authorities to have en- After martial law, this reporter queried forced ordinances against , flag flying." President Diem on this point with this ques- ACTION President Diem has in fact yielded to all tion: "You recently told me in answer to a Because his regime is authoritarian, 'Presi- but one of the Buddhist demands (that he question that a policy of conciliation was dent Diem cracks down on any opposition publicly accept guilt for the May 8 incident) irreversible. Have you now reversed that that resorts to direct action. If Montagnards but not until police ineptness and sheer policy? Or will you hold open the offer of or Cao Dais were to break the law and stage brutality set in train events which neither an internationally observed investigation of anti-government street demonstrations such the Buddhists nor the Government foresaw. Buddhist complaints? as those engineered by the Buddhists, they Violence first erupted in the university ANSWER would be in trouble. Catholics are cer- Coastal town of Hue where on May 8 two tainly not immune. A highly critical Catho- exploding grenades killed eight people, in- The President replied that the offer was lic editor in a provincial town had his news- eluding three children and one Catholic, still open, saying in his written answer: "My paper shut down not too long ago and was The May 8 victims were watching a Buddhist government has never had a policy of re- sentenced to 18 months in jail. protest march to the radio station where the li ious discrimination so why should we re- Americans-especially in the field-do feel monks wanted to put on a bcon- fuse the help of inpartial and sincere frustrated that their efforts seem to monk ng the Government, for broadcast oads ting to observers to make clear to the world our good nished in the eyes of their countrymen en tar- just prohibit flying the Buddhist flat even though And an internationall at a time when the day-to-day cooperation the Catholics in a procession only 10 days be- y observed investiga- between Vietnamese and Americans has fore had flown their, religious emblems. tion to establish and rectify any Buddhist reached an all-time smoothness. re- The Buddhists. blamed the Vietnamese grievance seems the best way This in American porter has not seen and seriously doubts Army for the killings, while the Diem regime eyes to bring some understanding and order out of a confused and tragic situation. any anti-American feeling of any scope in said It was the Vietcong who threw plastic Vietnam. grenades into the watching crowds insisting The tragedy of the events set in motion by the Hue killings is heightened by the fact not come from In the vast countryside, the easant in the that the autopsy showed the fragments did that never before last May 8 had there been myriad tiny hamlets lives far too too elemental Government-type weapons, mention of a "religious issue" in Vietnam. a life to care about what is going on in The late Thich ,Quang Duo considered the Most Vietnamese do not know the religions Saigon, even if he happened to be a Buddhist. Government police to be guilty and through of their friends and coworkers and do not Tending riceflelds all day and defending his tragic suicide by burning in Saigon's presume to ask it. hamlets by night does not leave much time principal intersection imprinted the Bud- This reporter has heard a Buddhist bureau- for thoughts about Buddhist banners and ddh iistd'side, Of the story on the mind of the crat say that a Catholic got the promotion Buddhist property rights, which in any case worl instead of himself because President Diem is are not matters that touch his life. .i?EFIANCE a Catholic. It happens that a Catholic will TOLL It was then -for the first time that the say that the Buddhist got promoted instead The same is true of the foot soldier who Buddhists began. courting arrest deliberately of himself because Mr. Diem is bending over has no time for such abstractions because by staging demonstrations in defiance of backwards to please the Buddhists. No one he is deeply engaged in a war that is being city ordinances that prohibit them (to all has accused Vietnam of suffering from a fought increasingly hard-so hard that the religions) without, prior permission. shortage of human nature, Vietnamese, dead a,nd Injured are running Approved For Release 2003/10/15 CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 339: Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 14 at 14,000 a year. Up in the coastal province of Quong Nal, which only last year was Com- munist controlled, this reporter asked a Vietcong defector, a warrant officer of 9 years service in Hanoi and elsewhere, who was going to win the war. The ex-Communist fighter seemed sur- prised at the question. "Your side," he said, "because we are hungry and tired. When my battalion (the 80th Vietcong Battalion) came down from Hanoi in February 1962 we could get food and recruits from the villages. Now the villages are fortified and it is risky to go in. Life is very hard for us, but the Nationalists (Diem party) get supplies from the Americans. So that is why I think that they are going to win. Don't you?" [From the New York Herald Tribune, Aug, 27, 1963] VIETNAM-FACT AND FICTION: WHY THE BUDDHIST FURY (A monk in flames started it. A bizarre sacrifice in Saigon's main intersection, and the world was shocked and stirred, Since then the high stakes crisis in South Vietnam has grown more Intense, and at the same time more emotional, more complex more con- fusing, But Buddhist discontent remains the one constant factor in the swift march of events. Pulitzer Prize-winning Herald Trib- une Correspondent Marguerite Higgins, in the Vietnamese countryside, cut through rumor and contradiction in a search for the facts of the Buddhist-Government dispute. Today, in the second of a six-part series, she pre- sents her surprising findings.) (By Marguerite Higgins) SAIGON.-The saffron-robed monk came down the steep steps of the Xa Lot pagoda looking much younger than his 24 years. In- finitely, poised, he greeted the waiting jour- nalists, each one by name. From inside the ornate exotic pagoda, whose peaks thrust three stories high, drifted the mixed aroma of burning Joss sticks and Jasmine. Ceremonial services were being held for the late Thich Quang Due, who set the tragic precedent of suicide by fire. Outside the iron-grilled gates, another monk harangued several thousand of the faithful. He was standing, loudspeaker in hand, on the roof of the pagoda souvenir shop. It was doing a brisk business in post- cards depicting photographs of the venerable Quang Duo's self-immolation at a Saigon intersection. DRAFT The older members of the crowd stood impassively, but the youngsters seemed to be visibly enjoying the excitement. They roared back enthusiastically when the monk, in modified cheerleader fashion, gave-the signal to shout "Buddhism Forever" and "Down With Madame Nhu." Back at the inner steps of the pagoda, the young monk-Thich Duc Nghiep, the assist- ant secretary of the General Buddist Asso- ciation'and spokesman for the pagoda ex- pertly fielded in stilted but clear English, the questions of 'the journalists. As is happened, although a number of reporters and photographers got to Hue the next morning, there were no self-Immolations (the word suicide is taboo among the Bud- dhists) until a week later. But the scene at the pagoda was typical of the expertise in Buddhist press handling that was a thorn in the side of the Govern- ment. This correspondent who had never before passed much time in pagodas, was astonished to be greeted on the first day at Ya Lot with a query by Thich Duc Nghiep: "Ah, you are from New York * * what kind of a play are we getting?" Not expecting the question, I asked, "Do you mean is the Buddhist story still- getting headlines?" "Yes, yes," he nodded impatiently. THE PAGODA PUBLICISTS "It certainly is," I said. "That's why I'm here." And when Thich Due Nghiep learned that my stay in Vietnam would be limited to about 3/ weeks, he declared, "You are mak- ing a great mistake, Mies Higgins. When new U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge arrives, there will be many demonstaaions that will make, what went before look like nothing. And there will be many more self- immolations ? ? ? 10, 15, maybe even 50." Exactly what was the discrimination that was causing all this tragedy, I asked young Thich Due Nghiep. "What we want," said the monk, "is for the Government to fulfill the five Buddhist demands in a just spirit." (The five demands involve flying Buddhist flags on certain ceremonial occasions, im- proved chances to purchase property, free- dom to propagate the Buddhist faith, punishment of those guilty of throwing grenades into a crowd of demonstrators May 8 in Hue, and an end to arrests and persecu- tion of Buddhists.) But what, I inquired, about the Govern- ment's claim that it had met virtually all these demands in an agreement signed June 15? A SUMMONS "That is just on paper," said Nghiep. "Is it absolutely too late for the Govern- ment to find agreement with the Buddhists?" Nghiep: "We do not go in for political questions. But it does seem too late to reform." Buddhist intentions became clearer to me in one of the few amusing incidents of a sad period. I was lgaving the Hotel Caravelle an hour before store closing time to pick up some slacks for a dawn departure for the combat zones the next morning. Excitedly, the hotel telephone operator intercepted me to any that "the very highest monk" at the Xa Lot pagoda had summoned me to an audi- ence, that I was to report instantly to the pagoda, and that I was not to bring my interpreter as this was to be "top secret." At the pagoda I passed rows of politely bowing monks in saffron robes and was Then, as was routine, Thick Due Nghiep ushered into the innermost inner sanctum- handed out mimeographed sheets of new a small cosily furnished room in the resi- allegations about Government repressions dential wing of the Xa Loi. against Buddhists. Almost as an after- There sat Thich Due Nghiep and an older, thought, the monk remarked that it would alert-looking monk. This one was in grayish be very interesting" for the journalist to go blue robes. He was lavishly introduced by to Hue 4 hours flying time from Saigon) the young pagoda spokesman as "one of our "right away." ? most important leaders and one who ordi- "Is it another barbecue?" blurted out a narily never sees correspondents but since photographer with typical irreverence. you represent the White House." "Ahhh (drawing the word way out) I can- The light dawned. not say," responded Thich Due Nghiep. "But THE MESSAGE TO KENNEDY I recommend going to Hue and it would- I dug into my purse, got out the White- mitted to a correspondent, the five demands be a good idea to take your cameras." House press card which I had used earlier no longer represent their aim. - As he turned to go, the monk tossed back that day at the pagoda as identification, and "No matter what the Government may do, over his shoulder the admonition "You ought said to the monks, "You don't understand. the leaders will find a new matter for com- to try and be in Hue by 8 o'clock in the I am a reporter. I am only accredited to the plaint. Only the fall of the Government will morning." White House." satisfy them." "Precisely," answered Thich Due Nghiep, triumphantly taking the White House card and showing it proudly to Thich Trf Quang, one of the leaders from Hue. "You are ac- credited to the White House, and we have-a message for President Kennedy." Argument got me nowhere. Two -and a half hours later, after the stores were closed and the slacks irretrievable, I emerged with the message to President Kennedy which boiled down to this: - "We the Buddhists have good information that President Kennedy sympathizes with our anti-Diem efforts and he no doubt had to maintain a certain public posture. But his last press conference wasmuch too favor- able to Diem. The time is coming when President Kennedy will have to be more out- spoken because it would be hard to get rid- of Diem without explicit American support." In response to my rather astonished ques- tions (I had only been there 2 days) Thich Tri Quang indicated that the Buddhistsfelt Mr. Diem would be inhibited by American pressure from cracking down on them. So they thought they had a good chance of con- tinuing their agitation to the point where the Americans would be embarrassed into with- drawing their support of Mr. Diem or getting rid of him. And the Buddhists had no ap- parent doubt that "getting rid of Mr. Diem" would be Washington's choice. What did the Buddhists want? Diem's head-and not on a silver platter but en- veloped in an American flag. It was Buddhist strategy, as a number of their leaders openly told me, to keep agita- tion-and publicity about it-at a high level until Washington finally ordered new Ambassador Lodge somehow to remove the Diem family from power. A number of the now jailed Buddhist leaders, in fact, asked me point blank: "How much will it take to force the United States to act against Mr. Diem?" Although they insisted that they had no special candidate for the Presidency, the Buddhists clearly expected that the power and influence of their leaders would be en- hanced under any successor to Mr. Diem. - The political nature of the Buddhist aims was evident to Westerners in Saigon despite the worldwide acceptance of Buddhist claims of religious persecution. The Buddhist lead- ers are being persecuted all right-but for daring to challenge Mr. Diem, not for their religion. Former Ambassador Frederick Nolting, Jr., is one among many diplomats who believe that the Buddhist leaders deliberately ex- panded some perfectly legitimate local griev- ances about flying flags and property rights into a misleading picture ofreligious strife for political ends. Father Patrick O'Connor-an Irishman, not an American-wrote from the scene an arti- cle thatappeared August 9 in the Catholic Standard, stating: . "The Buddhists in South Vietnam have been selling the American public a bill of goods. They sold it first to some of the for- eign correspondents in Saigon. * * * 'The militant intersect committee for the defense of Buddhism has listed five demands. For these five demands, the Buddhist association is prepared to throw the country into dis- order and defy the government in the mid- dle of its life and death struggle with communism." THE POLITICAL ENDS "For these it is prepared to let bonzes (monks) burn to death-if the foreign press Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 1964 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE Although Pope Paul VI has personally in- teroedea with an appeal for tolerance in South Vietnam, the Vatican has also taken a position that the conflict is not a religious dispute, but a political o\ie. The Vatican newspaper L'Osservatoie Romano, in a front- page article last week, said that the cause of the crisis was "the political judgment of the Government-whether justified or not-as to the ability of the Buddhist community to re- sist and defend against communism." How do the political aims of the Buddhist leaders in Saigon square with five tragic ,suicides by fire of monks and nuns? In every case the suicides left notes indicating that their act was done in the belief that Buddhism was being persecuted as a re- ligion-a religion that In some interpreta- tions approves self-sacrifice., It is a fact that monks i2n pagodas and some Buddhist laymen would tend to accept as correct the claims of persecution put out by'Buddhist leaders in Saigon whether they themselves or any one around them had ever experienced religious persecution. A _ MOTIVE And outside Vietnam, the American pub- lic-which has a hard time avoiding the temptation of applying Western logic to oriental situations-tends almost automati- cally to assume that the tragic suicides are proof in themselves of religious persecution. Wi y would anyone, the Westerner reasons, choose sueh a horrible death unless lie or she had irrgfutable,proof that the Diem govern- ment Was doing terrible things to Buddhists. The unnecessary savagery of the Viet- namese Army in smashing the pagodas can- not help but deeply. tarnish Mr. Diem's re- gime.. But police brutality, which had also occtlrred'before the imposition of martial law, was not the cause of the tragic spate of suicides,, Pox' example: At Phan Thiet the coastal town where a 20-year-old Buddhist monk burnt himself at high noon alone in the me- morial park, the Buddhists were unable to give this reporter any specific example of their grievances except that they had been compelled on Buddha's birthday to fly the Vietnamese national flag alongside the 'Buddhist flag. This reporter remarked that this hardly seemed a grievance warranting suicide. Agreeing, the Buddhist spokesman finally said; "But whatever is the case here, we know there is persecution because our lead- ers in Saigon have told us so." 14 talking to monks in the smaller towns, I found them kindly, credulous, and discon- nected from reality. Most.had not had more then a grammar school education, The eifort 9f sorting out the facts in the maze of charges and denials between the Buddhist Association and the Government was beyohd any desire of theirs. If the venerable elder monks in Saigon's pagodas said Buddhism wag, being persecuted-then it must be so. No one will ever know, of course, just how much the. suicides were.. influenced by the emotional, powerfully written tracts sent out from Xa LOi. Among the slogans lettered on huge banners draped over the pagoda's outer wall. were these; "We are, ready to sacrifice ourselves for Vietnamese youth." * * * "Resolutely in the footsteps of Quang Due" (the first suicide).. In the stormy seas of charge and counter- charge, there are only a few steadfast islands of incontrovertible truth.. The Diem government has had a history of religious tolerance. or many years President Diem's two clos- est" advisers were ,members of the Jewish faith: Volt. inky, land reform expert, and Dr .sV(tesley shel, head of the Michigan n te. V'niverslty advisory group to Vietnam. Teo, 65 THE ISLANDS OF TRUTH There is no record of the phrase "religious issue" ever being used in South Vietnam until after the May 8 incident. ..Catholics. Confucianists, and others have joined the protest against the government and in fact have faced punishment as the result of their stand; among them, the Cath- olic rector of Sue University, who was dis- missed for his backing of demonstrations. A U,S. military mission fact sheet prepared in November 1962 had this to say: "The religious atmosphere of Vietnam is characterized by tolerance and acceptance of various religious beliefs. Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, and Christianity are prevailing religions. To the Vietnamese there is nothing wrong with holding several religious beliefs at once." It is also true that the Buddhists in the weeks before the imposition of martial law had become increasingly militant in their anti-Diem propaganda. They were clearly courting arrests by staging demonstrations of larger and larger proportions even though these are illegal under local ordinances which apply equally to dat louts, students, or any organized group. President Diem, in a statement to this re- porter, insisted that the recent action against the Buddhists was not because of their re- ligion, but because they turned their pago- das into "hives of antigovernment political activity." AN ANGER "Why do the American correspondents in- sist on calling my government 'Diem's Catho- lic regime'?" President Diem once flung out angrily. "I notice they never say 'Kennedy's 11 Catholic regime.' When this reporter interviewed Mr. Diem, the President was clearly torn by his desire to please the Americans and his inner con- viction that the Buddhists were determined to keep things stirred up and topple him. And even to please the Americans, Mr. Diem was not aboflt to take steps he felt might weaken his personal power and so be- gin the liquidation of his regime. In this reporter's judgment, the Buddhists overplayed them hand in thinking that the Americans could indefinitely stay Mr. Diem from reacting in the face 'of the rising tide of demonstrations, suicides, and Thich Duc Nghiep's open predictions of "much more ex- citement when Lodge gets here." And the Buddhist capacity.to keep things stirred up stemmed directly from their pub- lic relations skill. But while this skill sky- rocketed the Buddhist cause to world atten- tion, it was also part of the reason for their current plight, including arrests during the brutal police raid on the Xa Loi and other pagodas. In equal measure to Mr. Diem's fury at the Buddhist political agitation was his fury at the world's attention it received. For instance, a couple of Mondays ago at 10 p.m. on a rainy night in Saigon, an 18- year-old girl was found on the steps of the Xa Loi pagoda, her right arm bleeding pro- fusely from her unsuccessful attempt to chop it off at the wrist. (In some Buddhist circles, detachment of limbs is an acceptable religious gesture.) THE DIEM DICHOTOMY Within 10 to 20 minutes of the discovery, American photographers and reporters were at the macabre scene. They had been sum- moned there by spokesman Thich Due Nghlep, who rushed to pagoda phones that kept in close touch with the American and other .foreign correspondents. The Xa Loi monks, made the, blend-drenched girl avail- able for at least 40 minutes to photographers and the press, for whom she tape recorded a statement,, Only then was she finally taken to the hospital. 335 And that is how the United States learned of the incident within hours even though, ironically, the villages of Vietnam would probably not hear of it for months, and in some cases years. [From the New York Herald Tribune, Aug. 28, 1963] FACT AND FICTION-No. 3-VIETNAM BATTLE IN THE FIELD AND THE GOVERNMENT (American Death No. 106 in South Vietnam came Monday-an Army reconnaissance pilot, his plane shot down by Communist fire. It was another tragedy of the lonely war in which the United States has staked the lives of 14,000 soldiers and more than $1 billion in aid, with the goal of defeating the Communist Victconn guerrillas. ? President Kennedy has pledged the United States will stay in South Vietnam "until we win." The Herald Tribune's Pulitzer Prize-winning correspondent, Marguerite Higgins, touring the Vietnamese countryside, reports today on how close the West is to success in this crucial cold war battleground.) (By Marguerite Higgins) SAIGON.-"The Vietcong are losing be- cause we are steadily decreasing their areas of maneuver and the terrain over which they can move at will." This judgment was rendered by U.S. four- star Gen. Paul D. Harkins shortly before President Ngo Dinh Diem instituted martial law through South Vietnam. A tall blunt soldier, General Harkins has been in charge here since U.S. military advisory units began to swing into action against the Communist Vietcong guerrillas. Big-scale American efforts got underway in February 1962. General Harkins continued: "The fortified villages are cutting the Vietcong lifeline to the little people whom they used to tax to get their piastres and their rice. It is harder for them to get into the fortified areas to kidnap youngsters and turn them into re- cruits. Slowly, I grant you, but surely, the Vietcong will find that there is no place to hide." The general's words reflected. the some- what favorable turn the war had taken- despite the Buddhist dispute with the Gov- ernment-during the spring and summer. How will the imposition of martial law affect all this? It simply too early to tell. The Diem regime has declared that there will be no substantial diversion of troops from the war zone. Whether this promise can be kept obviously depends on the state of law and order. -But as of this moment, General Harkins and his staff flatly contradict published re- ports that South Vietnam's U.S.-backed fight against the Communists--particularly in the rice-rich delta-is "deteriorating" and that a Vietcong buildup is taking place to the point where the Communists will be able to conduct mobile warfare with battalions as well equipped as the Government's. "What is mobility?" interjected one of the general's corps advisers. "Mobility means vehicles and aircraft. You have seen the way our Vietnamese units are armed- 60 radios, 30 or 40 vehicles, rockets, mortars, and airplanes. The Vietcong have no vehi- clesand no airplanes, How can they be mobile? "Further," the American officer continued "there has been no evidence of any increase in the number of Vietcong units in the delta even though we expected there would be because our strategy is to sweep them steadily southward and finally corner them. As to weapons loss, a year ago our side was losing 20 percent of its weapons. Now the average for our side is 5 percent. Further, the delta area under our control Is increas- ing, not spectacularly, but steadily." Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R00030017002376 336 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD -SENATE January 14 General Harkins frequently has been taken to task by the resident American press corps for overoptimism, but such criticism has left him unmoved. BREAKTHROUGH The general and the key members of his staff commanding 14,000 Americans, are con- vinced that a military breakthrough has be- gun this summer. At last they can see their laborious preparations paying off as the Vietnamese emerge in imposing numbers from the training camps and the intelligence and communications systems start function- ing as they should. Most gratifying of all, the peasants have abondoned their historic and fear-enforced neutrality and have in- creasingly come to the Vietnamese and Americans to tip them off on Vietcong whereabouts. But it is when talk turns to the fortified villages (the strategic hamlet program) that the glint of anticipated victory-not this year but not too many years away--really comes to the eyes not only of General Harkins but of most of the American and other dip- lomatic missions here. Unless something goes wrong unexpected- ly, it is in the strategic hamlets that the American taxpayer will get his $1-million- a-day worth. There is no question but that this pro- gram-although it has a long way to go- already has changed for the better the secu- rity and-even more important-the psy- chology of huge areas of South Vietnam. The strategic hamlet plan wasdeveloped by United States and Vietnamese leaders as a bold, revolutionary method to halt Vietcong control of the countryside. Under the plan, peasants-who make up 851percent of Vietnam's 14 million people- were grouped in rebuilt, fortified commu- nities. Previously, Vietcong harassment had re- sulted in whole villages paying tribute to the Communists to avoid extinction. But in a strategic hamlet, the peasant is backed up by a village militia and, if necessary, by the regular army or militia from other vil- lages, which maintain close communication. Since February 5, 1962, 8,500 hamlets have been established, In which 8 million Viet- namese live. This means that more than half of the nation has a measure of security from Vietcong pressure that has never be- fore been available. The most convincing report of the suc- cess of the strategic hamlet program comes from those who should know best-the Com- munists munists themselves. In the amnesty camp near Quang Nai in the northern coastal regions, a 28-year-old master sergeant who defected told his story. "I gave up because I was hungry and I heard about the government's amnesty pro- gram. It used to be easy to go into the villages and obtain a bottleful of rice a day from the people. Some were willing to give it. Others we had to force. But after the villagers were given guns and barricades It became risky to try to go in even at night. So life in the mountains became very hard." sscnRrrv Maj. John Kelly, the U.S. sector adviser at Quang Nai said the reasons advanced by the Communist sergeant were similar to those given by nearly all of the 800 Vietcong defectors who had come through the camp since the amnesty program was launched in the spring of 1963. The strategic hamlets look like the stock- ades the American pioneers built to defend themselves against the Indians, except that the Vietnamese use bamboo instead of logs. Most peasants have not been physically moved from their old homes. Rather, defense works-bamboo and barbed wire fences and sometimes moats-are erected around a group of closely situated villages. Under President Diem's concept that democracy can best be learned at the . rice paddy roots, hamlets are not declared a part of the national network-which would qual- ify them for a number of special health and educational benefits-until after elections have been held for the hamlet chief. The hamlet program has gotten off the ground despite an unfortunate psychologi- cal start. The Vietnamese Army announced the opening of the program in such a way that it sounded as if hundreds of thousands of families were going to be moved into the fortified villages whether they liked it or not. In actuality only those who volunteered were moved. The strategic hamlets are not completely immune from attack. In American judg- ment, the Diem regime has moved too quickly in some areas in setting up strategic hamlets and arming the village militia before the surrounding area is sufficiently cleared of Vietcong. This reported visited in July the village of Van Vien, which had been held for 30 hours by the Vietcong. Although the village had called for help when attacked, the regular military forces normally stationed at the province capital of nearby Mytho had been diverted at the time to a major military op- eration in another province. In August, the Vietcong attacked and burned a strategic hamlet only 20 miles from Saigon. But occasional attacks on a few strategic hamlets do not materially change the picture of increased security for those in the 8,500 -hamlets already established. The majority of these, of course, are not suc- cessfully overrun. Deep in the Mekong delta, a few miles from Ap Bac, where bloody battles have been fought with the Vietcong, this reporter talked with villagers whose huts had literally been put aboard army trucks and transported to a new strategic hamlet. The land around the house seemed strangely bare because the rice had been planted late. And the villagers were not without their complaints. One of the elders-greatly respected be- cause he could read and write and had a slight command of French-stalked frankly as we sat on his tiny front porch. Under- foot were muddy and naked children. Cur- ious neighbors hurried over to stare at the strangers. And a stone's throw away, a water buffalo lumbered by guided by a tiny boy astride its broad back. "This village," said the elderly Vietnamese, "is 5 kilometers (about 3 miles) from my rice paddies. So I must bicycle and walk many miles every day. The Government gave us a thousand piastres with which to rebuild this house. But it really is not-good-enough to make the chicken roosts and pig -stye and things for the animals as good as they were In Ap Bac. "When I go back to my old rice paddies, I pass the Vietcong every morning, and they are very polite to me and I am polite to them. They do not bother old men. But before, when my hut was at Ap Bac, the Vietcong taxed me 200 piastres (about two and a half dollars) and one bag of rice a year. Now that we are In the strategic hamlet, the Vietcong no longer collect taxes, and that is good. But it is hard for an old man to travel so far each day." The old Vietnamese was asked whether, if he had it to do over again, he would have stayed in his old village at Ap Bac. "No," he replied, "from the point of view of security it is better here. Security Is es- pecially important for the younger men. The Vietcong do not dare to come this far to kidnap them. The young people are very frightened * * * for they know that the Vietcong will cut their throats if they not do what they say. In Ap Bac we all had to believe in the Vietcong because they were the strongest. Here we have a choice." It was only in the fall of 1962 that the Viet- namese Army, its buildup completed, was ready to seize the initiative. During the pre- ceding 0 months, the American advisory staff of 700 had been expanded to 12,000, the stra- tegic hamlets had been launched, 375 civil guard companies totaling 100,000 men had been formed and armed, and a village self- defense corps numbering 60,000 had been created. Additionally, General Harkins likes to cite these changes since the summer of 1962. A year ago, the Vietnamese Air Force was flying about 100 sorties a month and is now flying about 1,000 monthly. The Vietnamese Navy, which plays an important role patroling the delta, was virtually nonexistent a year ago. Now it has a junk fleet, a river force and patrol ships at sea. - Although the exact figure is classified, the prevailing estimate of Vietnamese Army strength is about 230,000 men. But most signficant of all in the American view are the figures concerning Vietcong at- tacks. In the summer of 1962, these Com- munist-initiated actions (including am- bushes, kidnapings, terrorism, and propa- ganda) totaled from 500 to 600 a week. They now are down to somewhere between 200 and 250 a week. - CASUALTIES Vietnamese Army losses in dead and in- jured have been running at the rate of 14,- 000 a year, which, as a top American officer observed, "is testimony to the fact that this Army is not holding back but fighting very hard indeed." The Vietcong losses in dead and wounded are estimated at about 30,000 a year. And in the week since martial law, the losses on both sides were running close to the weekly average. More than 100 U.S. officers and men have lost their lives, about half of these in com- bat, the others- in accidents of various sorts. One of the most stunning-and frankly somewhat unexpected successes-was the clearance of most of the Quong Nai area in the northern part of the country. This area had always been revolutionary in spirit and until recently rather pro-Communist. The progress in the highlands near Pleicu, where the Montagnards prevail, has also come quicker than any one had dared hope. It is in the Mekong Delta that both the war and the_ strategic hamlet programs are meeting the most difficulty. The reason for this, paradoxically, is that the delta is the richest area. Because of the delta, and despite all the war and turbulence, Vietnam, a deficit rice area in 1962, will export 300: 000 tons this year. In the northern areas it is possible to cut off the Vietcong from food supplies from the peasants in the strategic foraging the delta, even if he can't always get rice, a guerrilla can pick coconuts or pineapple off the trees. Still, as one officer put it, "the important thing is that village after village is being taken from the Vietcong and they are neither able to take them back nor take any geogrhphy from our side. Roads are un- safe but not as unsafe as last year." This fact was confirmed by this reporter, who drove 100 miles through the delta on roads that last year were considered im- passable because of Vietcong terrorists. LODGE SEES DIEM AND NHU TheDiem government tightened authori- tarian rule in troubled South Vietnam yes- terday, postponing indefinitely the National Assembly election scheduled for Saturday. The action came as new U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge continued conferences with top Government leaders. Mr. Lodge, who met twice with President Ngo Dinh Diem Monday, conferred at length with the President's brother and chief adviser, Ngo Dinh Nhu, yesterday, in what was described by diplomatic sources as a "very frank" session. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 1964 CONGRESSIONAL .RECORD -.SENATE 337 Mr. Nhu, who requested the meeting, is next to the Xa Lot pagoda when it Was raid- half-starving. We had to import rice, from believed to have directed the savage crack- ed last Wednesday. the delta." down on Buddhists, which brought mass ax- The Ambassador discussed the turn of But then the U.S.group went to work. rests and martial law throughout the nation events with Mr: Diem in their second meet- "We started a rat-eradication program and last week. Some sources assert that the ing Monday, after a brief ceremonial session a fertilizer program. The U.S. operational President's brother-Who controls the police earlier In the day. The State Department mission came in and showed them how to and several other paramilitary organiza- in Washington said the two men, in a 2- use the fertilizer," Major Kelly said. tlons-has taken over action command of hour meeting, "reviewed In some detail the the Government. Mr. Nhu denies this, but sERTILIZE his meeting with Mr. Lodge hardly lacks in situation currently prevailing in South Viet- "We built pigsties and brought in pigs his meeting nam," but declined to spell out details of the and lent them out for breeding. We showed Mi Lodge task is crucial because of the conversation. them how to, make compost out of pig high Lodge's ssakI (crucial men, $1 of million There was no indication of what was said manure so they could make their own fer-14, a day) in South Vietnam's war against the between Mr. Lodge and Mr. Nhu yesterday. tilizer. Pretty soon, they will be close to Communist Vietcong guerrillas. This war Meanwhile, the Saigon government re- self-sufficient in fertilizer and will be export- was brought home grimly again yesterday ceived a not-unexpected blow from its neigh- ing pigs. And just take a look at those with a report of the death of a U.S. Army bor, Cambodia, which cut off diplomatic beautiful green, thick, high stalks of rice." pilot, the 106th American to die in Viet- relations. There has been longstanding . The major's arm pointed, toward the jade nam. border frictiohbetween the ,two nations, and green fields where fragile. Vietnamese girls U.S. policymakers are faced with the prob- addition,. largely Buddhist Cambodia con- in their straw bonnets were carrying buckets the apparent implication that if the military (War In South Vietnam oringa quickly to Major Kelly, a holder of combat ribbons ousted these responsible Mr. Nhu and jot Mr, mind the torturous campaigns against the for Korea and the New Guinea and Luzon Diem-the United States would not be un- elusive Vietcong Communist guerrillas. But campaigns of World War II, was not alone. happy, the war being fought there also is against There are more than 100 other advisers at- Yesterday the U.S. foreign aid chief, David an older enemy: Poverty and the ignorance tached to this 25th Vietnamese Division area. Bell, in a Washington interview, said the that nourishes it. Anew breed of Americans In addition, American agricultural, experts United States desires to .Continue aiding Is helping the Vietnamese peasant to fight are doing a herculean job of helping to build "the free people of Vietnam"against the both battles, which go hand-in-hand. Mar- the strategic hamlets that are increasingly Communists, but added: guerite Higgins, Pulitzer Prize winner, takes giving the peasants protection from Viet- "We don't support repression in any coon- a long look at how the wars are going in this cong harassment. try," 4th article in her series.) ..The, lowest. rAn)iing advisers here are cap- There 1s the further crucial. problem of (By Marguerite Higgins) tains, who are at the battalion level, All how. tim iuartial law will affect the Vietcong QUANG NGAI, VIETNAM.-Here in the palm- these soldiers, including Major Kelly, go out #ight, although the Diem government has dotted northern coastal plains you can tell on combat operations and are authorized to Contended that the war , effort remains.un- where Americans are welcome-and the shoat if necessary to prevent their own death egged, and in fact announced that 49 Viet- Viet Cong are absent-by the sight of the The or ceyure, cong have been killed in the past week: . children who rush to the side of the road fighting y a do. war, not feel since that they no exactly Nox}ethe,less, there were..uncRnilrmed re- and shout over and over, "Hello! OKI" they have no right of t ports_.that-Vietnamese Ranger units in three after the passing jeep. Wide smiles and Life But direct these over the often troops. towns were fighting among themselves over Savers have been the GI's Passport But y t oen in combat the recent actions. popularity. to because they accompany hisi ns into coon action laresident Diem called pfr the legislative And so far in this northern province, only bets that the Vietnamewill se a available. election yesterday in an official. decree issued once did the Life Saver gambit boomerang. so that their advice where available. through the Government-controlled Vietnam This was when a local farmer took Down in the lt,ta, the war d slowr- Dress Agency. The statement gave no details translation of the trade name on the wrap- leand ans whore difficult, hl y impatient with the in- on m on the reason for the postponement or when per lit So one day he stormed p- icons o were highly l eir advice wwa the ed, asked. the vote would be rescheduled. The one- to a group oup of American advisers, up There frequecy with cwhich omplaints that the Vietnamese house . 123-member National Assembly a is a badly broken arm before their horrified dangled Them ware comivints that the Vietnameso aomin regimental and division commanders had, to ally the legislative branch of the Re- eyes, and denounced the "American magic" refer too often to higher headquarters-cm- public-but has little authority. The present as phony because he had swallowed a Life plaints that have threaded. through the early assembly was elected in August 1959. Saver and It had obviously not healed his phases of the war for Vietnam. . Despite certain outward signs of a relaxa- wounds. tion of tension yesterday (easing of Saigon's But even in the delta, an American colonel curfew, removal of some barbed wire barri- REWARDING remarked: "Part of the problem is that it Lades, shifts of censorship from military To Maj. Robert J. Kelly, 39, of Allegan, simply takes time to establish acrapport be- to civilian authority) , emclear Mich., a veteran of 20 years in the U.S. tween the Vietnamese and Americans. Judg- to civil Government, th ) events ve brook made 0 ar An, the job of adviser to the province ments are proved or disproved in the test of zit hion. pp chief of Quang Ngal is "the most rewarding, operational decisions. Things used to be a Among the developments; exciting end eye-opening experience that I bit sticky. But now, when we really get Into Brig. Gen. Ton That Dinh, Saigon's mili- have ever had." a fight, I am not at all surprised to have the tary governor, ordered security forces to Major Kelly is one of the thousands of a Vietnamese commander turn to me and ask: shoot into "any group' of troublemakers who brandnew breed of military that is get- 'OK, what do we do now?' " violate the state of martial law." He'also ting on-the-job training in a new kind of CIVIC ACTION banned any labor strikes. struggle. In this war, winning the minds, In this connection, this reporter was mildly Vu Van Mau, Vietnam's longtime Foreign hearts and trust of little people has equal surprised to hear quite a few officers remark Minister until he resigned last week in pro- priority with winning military battles. that 1 test against the Buddhist crackdown, appar- year's tour is duty was not, really just In addition to such orthodox matters as enough, because "it is time to go home juently was under arrest, Mr. Diem had asked flanking maneuvers, firepower and keeping when things are getting organized." Mr. Mau to take a vacation instead of quit- your carbine clean, the new breed must think Throughout South Vietnam, Americans -ting, but the Foreign Minister vanished about pigsties, rat eradication and. psycho- of the new breed are taught to think in terms shortly before he was supposed to take a logical warfare, of "civic action"-a dry-sounding term plane to India over the weekend. "The reason this job gets a hold on you" which, however, means warm, human, easily More than ,10,000 Government troops re- said Major Kelly, "is that you can see things understood acts of helpfulness by the soldiers mined in Saigon alone. All school, pagodas, getting better before your very eyes. You to show the people that they are their friends movie houses, and parks were closed. More can feel the Vietnamese trusting you more and protectors. than. 2,000 students were arrested Sunday, each day. And you know you are really In this spirit, several small groups of'Sea- and their whereabouts remained uncertain, doing all right when the start begging you Bees and Army engineers. are traveling from There were some, reports the students were to extend. (The ordinary tour is 1 year.) village to village, and on a tiny budget of being drafted,intg the army. Thousands of "When I first came here 8 months ago, $20,000 are performing what the Vietnamese others have been- detained by police. the rice was yellow and sickly," he said, regard as small miracles. It was reported that. Mr. Lodge has unoon- "There was only one crop a year. The rats There is a small village north of My 'rho in ditio~llally rejected a deaiarid that the United were so fierce that they ate up 80 percent of the. delta, that will forever remember the States turn over, two .Buddhist monks who the rice before it could be harvested. The Americans for building a wooden bridge over took' refuge in the American aid mission people here were scared,and desperate and the canal that, so lgngasanyone could re- f eIn oY now to justify continued American emned the Diem crackdown. of-, precious water. from the canal to the presence here in the face of the Govern- crops. ment's repressive tactics. [From the New York Herald Tribune, Aug. And looking at those shimmering green On Monday, the State Department indi- 29, . 1963) fields that were indeed beautiful, it was caled that it absolved the Vietnamese mlli- impossible not to share Major Kelly's sense VIETNAM: THE WAR ON Pn-- Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 338 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD - SENATE January 1.4 member, had separated half the inhabitants guerrilla. Who tells her why he rejected the from the others. Communists.) It all began when the Americans asked the (By Marguerite Higgins) hamlet chief to list three priority needs of r QUANG NGAI, VtrrNAM.-"T'here they are- the village and then take a vote to see which real genuine bonaflde, 18-carat Communist one the majority wanted to have done. After Vietcong." the bridge was voted, three American engi- The U.B. Army captain waved his hand in neers appeared, hired local labor to do the the direction of a schoolhouse where 60 de- work (at 40 piastres or about 65 cents a day- serters from Vietcong were sitting in prim high for the area) under their direction. rows, singing a patriotic Vietnamese song MONEY that required rhythmic clapping. They This brought in extra money to the corn looked amazingly young, fresh faced-and munity and lots of extra excitement. Under bored. the adoring eyes of hundreds of Life Saver- Thees Vietcong were among 800 who had bloated ragamuffins, the engineers showed passed through this amnesty camp since the Vietnamese how to pour concrete pilings April 1963 when President Ngo Dinh Diem and other such mysteriesof bridge building. proclaimed a policy of forgiveness and reha- The whole project probably cost only a few bilitation for those Communists who gave hundred dollars, but it will surely be a high themselves up. Throughout the country, point in the history of that village. the Chu Hoi (amnesty program) has brought The Americans are seeking by example and in more than 10,000 Vietcong, far exceed- prodding to encourage the Vietnamese Army ing expectations. MESSAGE to join the civic action movement. The idea has now progressed to the point where every Here in Quang Ngai, the Vietnamese and Vietnamese division "adopts" a strategic American psychological warfare officers have hamlet and devotes some labor and materials worked out an ingenious program to take to completing its defenses. the amnesty message to the many Vietcong Quang Ngai had the highest morale of any battalions known to be hiding both in the area I visited, and with good reason: the nearby foothills and in the forested high- American advisers, the brand new Vietnam- lands of Vietnam's northwest frontier. ese 25th Division (commanded by a Budd- Each morning light planes equipped with hist) and the peasants defending the ham- loudspeakers fly low to broadcast the Gov- lets had shared a rousing and genuine victory ernment's invitation. The broadcasts are in over the Vietcong. Vietnamese and in the different dialects of It happened on April 15 of this year, when the Montagnards (mountain people of non- an entire Vietcong battalion attacked 12 Vietnamese origin). Each day thousands strategic hamlets. When the 4-day battle and thousands of pamphlets are dropped in- was over, the Vietcong had left 226 dead in to the foothills and mountains. These the rice fields. The 2-weeks-old 25th Divi- amount to safe-conduct passes for any Viet- sion had few casualties. ' tong who retrieves one. "It was after that victory,". recalled Major In the Quang Ngai area, where food is Kelly, "that everybody's self-confidence hard to come by, nearly every Vietcong has seemed to return. The villagers, instead of being neutral, started coming to us with in- formation about the Communists. People started flooding back into the province capi- tal and, before you knew it, we were in the middle of a building boom. The Buddhist crisis In the cities seemed from Quang Ngai, with its sanity and sense of purpose, to be a terrible nightmare. Per- haps the Government crackdown can affect the morale of future Americans coming to Vietnam if they believe that they are mak- ried with us Chinese and Czech weapons that are modified in North Vietnamese factories so that they can fire ammunition manufac- tured in Hanoi." Why did Sergeant Iriem desert? "I learned very gradually that the Hanoi government was one that denied freedom," said the sergeant, "but in any case, I had been unsure of my loyalty to the Commu- nists for some titne before I came South. In the North they told us that the Communist system would bring a better life to the peo- ple. They told us that the Russians and the Chinese were coming to our country to help raise the standard of living. But everybody could see with their own eyes that in the North that standard of living is going down and the people are suffering." RUSSIANS The sergeant was asked whether the peo- ple of North Vietnam preferred to get their 'assistance" from the Russians or the Chinese: "As a rule the Vietnamese don't like for- eigners of any kind," said Sergeant Liem. "But if they have to have them, they prefer the Russians because they are more skillful and prosperous than the Chinese. Every- body knows that the Russians have succeeded and the Chinese have failed. Everybody in Hanoi follows very closely the situation in China and knows all about the- terrible suf- " fering of the Chinese peasants." The sergeant was asked to describe the life and activities of his battalion in the moun- tains. "The first few months were spent," he said, "in getting organized in the matter of food and water and establishing liaison with the other battalions. At first the Montagnards gave us a bottleful of rice a day willingly. Later we had to force them. We planted some crops of our own (corn). In the fall we had our first success. We attacked a Vietnamese Army convoy near Khontum, and we captured three cannons and lots of other ammunition. But we had difficulty fulfilling our assignment to capture and Indoctrinate young men from the villages to fill our ranks and fight on our side. By winter the village defenses had been built up so that it was risky, to go into them even at night to get food." The sergeant continued: "Life in the mountains became very hard. Through at- trition and battle losses my battalion lost 100 men in 1 year. We did not have enough to eat. There was no medicine. I had been thinking for some time of trying to get away, though I could not speak of it, for the Vietcong would have kiled me. Still I was- afraid of how the Government would treat me. Then I heard the broadcast from the plane about the amnesty camps. And I decided I would run away the first chance The Communists blame their troubles on the fortified village program, which has made it harder and harder to get into popu- lated areas and extort rice from the peasant. "Which' one do you want to speak with first?" asked the Vietnamese camp director as 60 pairs of eyes looked up expectantly, their owners clearly desiring to be liberated from the usual routines and indoctrination of the amnesty camp. A Vietcong master sergeant who was one of the most recent defectors was asked to oause. join this reporter and her interpreter, an But you couldn't tell Major Kelly that the American who speaks Vietnamese, in a far people who had fought so bravely on April corner of the school's grounds where we 15 and who had made the rice so tall and could talk without interruption. green were part of a cause not worth fight- The master sergeant, Vu Duy Liem, 28, was ing for. He would fight you first. clad in the cotton pajamas that many Viet- In point of fact, at the time of my visit, namese traditionally wear as outer garments. there had never been any trouble in Quang They find it amusing to think that Ameri- Ngai between Buddhists and the Govern- cans use them to sleep. in. The master ser- ment. geant was slim, wiry, with a mind razor- t t l d reac How did the Americans in the e o sharp. The peak infiltration of regular Vietcong the preoccupation at home with the Bud- BIOGRAPHY such as Sergeant Liem's battalion oc- dhists? There is a natural preference of His home was a village in the Quang Ngai units units according to American sources, dur- American soldiers to have hometown at- curred, area which has had a history of being very tention focus on the accomplishments of revolutionary. His family were peasants and ing the summer and fall of 1961 and con- which they, are so proud rather than on an tinued heavily through the spring and issue that is not yet real to them. ancestor worshipers, as were most of the peo- summer of 1962. As Major Kelly said, "When you can see pie in the village. He joined the Communist PRESIDENT Viet Minh armies in 1953 to fight the French. and feel every day how much has been done in 1954 the master sergeant was regrouped to As the U.S. military fact sheet on Vietnam to make life better and the rice greener, it Hanoi in North Vietnam under the terms of puts it: "By 1980 the Communists realized is a pretty good feeling in itself. But do you the Geneva agreement. that they had lost any chance to take over suppose anybody at home ever hears about In July 1962 Sergeant Liem was among south Vietnam by political and propaganda this sortof thing?" 450 men of the 80th Vietminh Battalion means alone." According to the fact sheet as th k [From the New York Herald Tribune, Aug. 30, 19631 A VIETCONG DESERTER SPEAKS (South Vietnam is a testing ground. The fate of southeast 'Asia is at stake, and that's why the United States is there in force. But in the Vietnamese countryside, great cold war issues come down to a bloody fight. Part of- that fight is to win over the enemy. In this fifth article, Pulitzer Prize-winner Marguerite Higgins interviews a Vietcong new ere w who completed an arduous journey south to the reason the Communists the mountains near Pleiku with the assign- no chance for political victory was that Presi- ment to join with other regular Viet'Minh dent Diem, who in 1954 had been given sur- units that were infiltrating at the time in ? vival chances of 6 months, had defied the peak numbers to "liberate South Vietnam." skeptics and in addition to establishing order "We came through Laos over' a mountain out of chaos had achieved major social, eco- pass that was so ste&p that one misstep nomic and, above all, agricultural gains. would cause you to tumble to death in the "The economic progress made by the Re- chasm below," said Sergeant Liem. "Fortu- public of Vietnam," " the fact sheet adds, "was nately, we had excellent guides. For the seriously embarrassing to the North. Ac- Communists, as you well know, prepare cordingly * * * the Communists launched everything thoroughly in advance. We car- what they surely hoped would be an all-out Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 Approved,For Relee~e`. 103 1 1 .. ti ~. 7, 304 0~030Y?170023.76. 6 CONGRESSIONAL RECQRJ T SEx drive tQ gyertu]p the pig government by echoed by the British advisory mission and ing level has been astonishingly immune to arni~ed.force ? ?.,,?." by most experienced foreign oservers with outside pressure up to and through the impo- The .V,t@tcm,Ag organization in South Viet- whom this reporter spoke not only in Saigon, sition of martial law. But now the high nam; is on three , -l$vels The _?olitical ma- but also at military headquarters in the field. officers are bewildered. You Americans have ehinery consists of regional, provincial, and And fears of a setback In the war, which lectured them ad infinitum about civilian district colnmjtt es that parallel the Gov- after many painful false starts is finally go- rule. Americans have lectured them ad in- ermi nea own adminlatral4ye units, These ing better, explains why the United States flnitum about getting on with the war. And committees operate secretly in areas con- has so long endured President Ngo Dinh they want to get on with the war. These trolled ,1y the Government and openly in Diem, for all his authoritarian ways, his Vietnamese officers are truly dedicated. those villages and districts still. held. by the stubbornness, and his failure to make his "But now the U.S. Government comes out Vietcong, the majority of which are in the position clear to the world. 'with what amounts to a suggestion that the Delta> U.S. policy has now wavered to the point Vienamese military try and take charge of Thew. duties .of, the Communist . political where the Government this week decided to the country as well as. the war. The mili- warriors are tQ disseminate Red propaganda, issue what amounted to an open invitation tary know that the jeeps they ride in, the spread false rumors about the Government, to the Vietnamese military to take over the planes they fly, the very bullets in their guns act as,iiirtelligence agents and informers for government in S i a gon the -if they could. come from the United States. What are regular military units, earmark govern- The, change of policy has stirred an in- they to do? Forget about civilian rule, and :rnen admiinstrators for assassination and terndl row in the U.S. Government, and the go the way of the Korean juntas? Are they exploit trouble, outcome is in doubt. to risk chaos by trying to throw out Diem Tile e u, military Vietcong units com- The proponents of getting rid of Diem ar- by force? So long as this uncertainty about would have 00 25,, 00sme f At present, This ghe tthhantchis political repression has reached American policy exists, Washington will be prise 2 , it has qu . - _. a e enough on its? hands fight- ''he Cgrntnuniei, military units have con- ing the Communist Viet Cong guerrillas, So far the Vietnamese army has on the ac- centr ze d a tacks past and C OM.- that one war at a time is enough. Finally, Cepting ulleresto Diem ponsibility the extent of law pay- g this group argues that the greatest threat regimental-size actions (combining two bat- to the soldier's morale is not Diem's au- and events in the pagodas. It is possible hat the Vietnamese talions that ordinarily operate independent- thoritarian approach but the confusion and the Diem family to accept this publicerespon- lly) are ucrative ndertak n e Thwhen us the t s em s dismay created by Washington's unsubtle sibility. But one thing is certain. Presi- g attempts to pit the army against his regime dent Diem and his family are not about to battalion. joined with the Vietcong 60th and the hints that U.S. aid may be curtailed. go quietly. Diem's head is not for the tak- Bg nion, to at aaSouth Vietnamese con-.. In light of this clash of views inside the ing. He is bound. to fight back. voy Ian addition toPthe, regular military there anKennedy adm ything can ihappenion Only thinnext, e Washington's current reappraisal port are est ted q [ze nore Wan 00,000 pp en. things are toward ward South Vietnam m are re in n t guer- clear: part rillas, who are arrrier .by day and soldiers by 1. The State Department's apparent at- thattivated Diem's anti Buddhist Image might rub night. They engage in terroristic actions tempt to set the Vietnamese army at the off on America and endanger relations with such a0, hrowing grenades blindly into a throat of the Diem regime in the middle of Buddhist nations. The irony here is that divlslol~, O?baikd post or a hospital or a a war will be the subject of bitter contro- Washington is perfectly well aware that movie ,theatgr, to.confuse ai_d_frighten the versy both inside this Government and Diem himself is not guilty of persecution populat ion They also stage ambushes, around the world for an unpredictable pe- of any religion, but rather pulled in the mine roads And, the like, riod of time. Actor pg to Sergeant Liem, "Quite a few 2. New U.S. Ambassador Henry Cabot reins harshly on the leaders of.the Buddhist more piny battalion will try and come to Lodge has been Association because they were waging an the annxlesty camp-lf they hear he broad- diplomatic position.t in a terribly difficult increasingly loud and effective political cam- cam- casts .,and .if the, Vietcong don't catch them And Mr. Lodge, it can be stated on good paign against his regime. trying to ,escape." authority, has protested at least some of the owho tsiwho to want Diem regime i llectu- What.,k"Tad Of ltfe,.did the. sergeant want the State Department's publicity tactics in le outs n In, the citified the after lea. jug the _,camp, which he will be the sharpest terms, me to the bureaucracy, -eq l the tthe allowed to do after a few months of observe- The most controversial train of events military, and-equally important ncestoConfu- tion a ic1 indoctrination? ms began last Sunday-before Mr. Lodge had shipers, Cagdaists' Taoists, ancestor wor- ' I would like tQ work, for tahe. Vietnamese even had a chance to present his credentials Buddhists Hoa Hao and Catholics as well as with er Vi co go for methin g meet ven n to Di m. (He Monday.) did so at 11:30 a.m. Saigon President Diem does not tolerate real politi- Liem, Sunday night, the Voice of America broad- stand a cal opposition chance of of the senses mily- that Theo lie added? proudly "I have already cast a news roundup which among other regime ushering h South on two misetons with the 25th Divi- g hated eetrap out of a dem. South elected s1on. , Ilea them fro our old outpost and we things said that the United States might has the trappings of a democracy, an elected captured three weapons, four Vietcong Vietnam unless Diem punished the special elections are to some degree fair. But the Biers.and g% pounds of documents, and we Vietnamese troops allegedly responsible for catch is that hardly anybody is ruled eligible destroyed two supply dumps. And next attacks on the pagodas and arrest of the for election unless he is acceptable to Presi- week I 7, 1r, 111 lead tlfem to the cornfields and Buddhists. The Voice broadcast also for the wi dent Diem and family. Diem is, by Western we ll destroy them, and that will make first time stated the American Government's standards, a dictator who holds the reins the Vietooig even hungrier ' ew.that the army was innocent of res onsi- P loosely when things are going well and can [From the}New Yoirk Iieral bilitp for. the pagoda raids. tighten them up cruelly when he feels Trill d , une,, Sept. The Voice based Its broadcast on a news threatened. 1963] agency story from Washington. Roger Hile- Today's k'AC'r;,, AND.p7ox;or-A.MI;RIcAN Y's secret political e tion to the P man, Assistant Secretary of State for F P L y ar O ed.ICY D A TX-HE DIEM GQVFJrNM$NT, Eastern Affairs, told a Voice employee that Diems still appears splintered. It has no Pao AND CON the story was good known national following. Y guidance and that the South Still the rumors this summer of possible ( Vietnm s_ present crisis has .re- Voice could go ahead with the information, fam11 e Seut;af President of Togo Dinh Diem, And as Hilsman and the Department an- Scoup aigon ems have tbeen more peot one t than y ticipated, the part of the Voice broadcast 20 osin South There ' not one who has and h broths;,, No Dinh Nhu, were to o, generals th Vietnam's army who has g referring to the U.S. absolution of the Viet- not been reported to be a who would take over? The Herald. Tribune's namese military was Instantly interpreted in potential Diem strong s Pulitzer ePrize-win ,ing Marguerite Higgins, Saigon about to oust President Diem and his who he&, jus? returned from._Saigon, reports god as a sign that Washington was en- family. couraging the military-with its cleaned-up Why are so many Vietnamese intellectuals on the strepgth-and weaknesses-oaf the op- image-to take charge. position ato Mir Dim in tile. Seal article of disenchanted? One re i ason s that President ber, si art series he As to aid, it is certain, as the State Diem, although himself an intellectual, has a .a1 t-disGlisses the Depart- cirlryerit policy battle-in Washington and ment says, that no decision on future cuts nonetheless displayed an attitude of disin- tt , has been taken It is y Ar rite Hi warns a .ouch cuts are has given them a sense of being left out. r Higgins ) likely if he is not responsive to American The only real common denominator be- WASxrrroy'ore e "A successful coup d'etat wishes. a gainst Diexlr v~ouldbbl tweed thplite opoi proay set the ware snrpstion groups is a back i rir4.,a The Vietnamese military are in an agoniz- steady soaring hatred for the fiery Mme. Ngo ng dilemma. As a European diplomat in Dinh Nhu, the, President's sister-in-law, The speaker?was a top American diplomat Saigon put at in a message to this correspon- whose talk of "barbecued monks" revolted on the ecene,in. wagon. His estimate was dent "Tile snQraie A tli , army atthe fight-`w th$tq hl, -19.4 personal interview,,the beau- - ) ` Approved For Release 2003110/15: CIA=RDP67B00446R0003001700V23-6 339 Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 340 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD SENATE January 1.4 tiful Madame Nhu struck this reporter as a to provide for"increased participation by has not gone below 4 percent, the term woman of bad judgment in the sense of in= the United States in the Inter-American of repayment has averaged around 20 sensitivity to the rest of the world, and error- Development Bank, and for other pur- years, and a number of the loans are moos courage. And this quality of courage poses, upon which there is a limitation of repayable in hard currency. It should just. makes matters worse so far as Madame debate and a control of time. be noted, in addition, that the Bank in 's is NNhuless ,pact she concerned. If she had a bi s The Senate resumed the consideration another separate account has adminis- openly, , and of the bill (H.R. 7406) to provide for in- tered the social progress trust fund re- openly, less Insistently.. might s speak her mind less A close second in unpopularity is. her hue- creased participation by the, United sources on behalf of the United States; band, Ngo Dinh Nhu, who is feared because States In the Inter-American Develop- these are not involved at all in H.R. of the power he wields as close adviser to the ment Bank, and for other purposes. ' 7406. President. Counselor Nhu is also disliked in Mr. FULBRIGHT obtained the floor. I think we need not belabor the obvious large part because it is widely assumed that Mr. MANSFIELD. Madam President, point that the Bank is a central factor in Madame Nhu is merely stating what her hue- will the Senator yield, without his losing the provision of loans and guidance for band really thinks. his right to the floor? desperately needed economic and social There have been some suggestions in Mr. FULBRIGHT. I yield. development in Latin America. Nor do American circles that relations with South Vietnam would improve posthaste if Diem Mr. MANSFIELD. I suggest the ab- we have to argue that such activities are would only fire Nhu and silence Madame sense of a quorum. the hemisphere's best defense against Nhu. In this reporter's judgment, it is un- The PRESIDING OFFICER. How is thedangerous tendencies summed up in realistic to seek to split off Counselor Nhu the time to be charged? the word "Castroism." There are, on the from the President. President Dlem gave Mr. MANSFIELD. The time is to be other hand, two aspects of the Bank's this reporter the impression of trusting and charged on the bill. operations which may not have received needing his brother, indeed of being ex- The PRESIDING OFFICER. The adequate notice; namely, the Bank's role tremely proud of him for the strategic ham- clerk. will call the roll. as a catalyst in mobilizing other financial letprogram a program driving in force. which Counselor Nhu has The legislative clerk proceeded to call resources, and its vital educational func- Opponents of Diem usually claim that his the roll. tions. first count, it should be noted war and national reconstruction efforts Mr. MANSFIELD. Madam President, On the that the Bank, through should be noted would be carried onundej any successor, but I ask unanimous consent that the order August of 1963, more democratically. In intellectual circles, for the quorum call be rescinded. had used its own resources-including the there is the conviction that more civil social progress trust fund-for only about liberties would and could be offered if Diem The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- 40 percent of the total cost of over $1.9 were toppled. ' out objection, it is so ordered. billion for the projects in which it par- THE IRONY Mr. FULBRIGHT. Madam President, ticipated. Bank loans amounted to The tragic irony of South Vietnam today at this time I wish to make a second roughly $775 million, while more than is that its worldwide image is being tar- introductory statement in support of $1.1 billion was mobilized from other nished at a period when the war is going R. 7406, a bill to provide for increased sources-primarily domestic resources in better than ever. Its little people are more participation by the United States in Latin America. The record has been es- secure from Vietcong attack and better fed the inter-American Development Bank. pecially good with respect to the Bank's than at any time since the assault in 1961. While the proposed legislation was dis- ordinary operations: about $300 million leashed t any cruel military go going to jeopardize pardize ze cussed in_ this Chamber in mid-Decem- Is the United States of Bank funds have been accompanied by these real accomplishments in exchange for a ber, -I am sure my colleagues will almost $540 million of outside financing. coup d'etat and military dictatorship that appreciate having a brief summary of In this connection, the Bank has been may or may not supply the image that wash- the issues at stake in the bill. making special efforts to obtain greater in.gton desires? Is it already perhaps too The Inter-American Bank, established participation of European capital in late to put a halt to a train of unpredictable toward the end of 1959, has been con- Latin America. It has been forming co- and chaotic events? These are, the issues ducting its lending operations for a operative arrangements with the Devel-, that are being battled out behind the scenes period of 3 years. These activities for opment Assistance Committee of the le; rghington and Saigon we our top from policy y 1> leaddeers try to decide where eh go fohere the most part have been patterned after OECD and with the agencies of the in Vietnam. those of the highly successful World European Economic Community; in the Bank. There has been wide agreement private sector, an Atlantic Community ORDER OF BUSINESS on the vital need for such operations- Development Group for Latin America especially - in connection with the Alli- was established last April to form a The PRESIDING OFFICER. Is there ante for Progress-and little or no criti- multinational private corporation to en.- further morning business? If not, morn- cism of the manner in which they have gage in operations of venture capital ing business Is closed. been conducted. Because the Latin investmennt in companies undertaking American countries together contribute important activities in Latin America. MSAGB P'ROM THE HOUSE over 50 percent of the resources avail- On the second count, the Bank has able to the Bank, they have an equal made available from its own resources A maessage from the House of Repre- interest with us in efficient management close to $16 million in technical assist- sentatives, by Mr. Hackney, one of its which carries out the developmental ance in less than a 3-year period, with reading clerks, announced that the purposes set forth in the Bank's char- the major aim of expanding the capacity House had disagreed to the amendments ter. - of member countries to absorb foreign of the Senate to the bill (H.R. 82) to Now even a brief description of the capital and to use investment funds more amend the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, Bank's activities to date first calls for efficiently. Feasibility studies and proj- in order to provide for the reimburse- differentiating between two distinct ects in the field of general planning ment of certain vessel' construction ex- types of operations. The ordinary op- have accounted for the major portion of penses; asked a conference with the Sen- orations, virtually identical with those the funds made available. But the value ate on the disagreeing votes of the two of the World Bank, are based upon of Bank training programs cannot be Houses thereon, and that Mr. BoNxeER, roughly 85 percent of the Inter-Amerl- measured in terms of money. The same Mr. AsnLxy, Mr. DowNING, Mr. ToLLEF- can Bank's resources; these are so-called is true of Bank assistance in establishing sox, and Mr. VAN PELT were appointed ,hard loans" administered on customary local development institutions through managers on the part of the House at banking terms. Only about 15 percent which to channel resources to meet the the conference. ' of the Bank's resources are devoted to needs of small private-enterprise con- the separate Fund for Special Opera-. terns. The Bank has also played a very INCREASED PARTICIPATION BY tions, which was established to provide significant role in cooperation with the THE UNITED STATES IN THE loans on more flexible terms for projects activities of United Nations and OAS I -AMERICAN TIEVELOPMEN"T with less immediate economic returns agencies, designed to help the Latin NTER than those financed with ordinary cap- American countries with their economic BANE ital. In fact, however, these special and social planning. Finally, It should The PRESIDING OFFICER. Under fund loans have only partially' taken the be pointed out that the Bank has the order of December 16,1963, the Chair form of what we are accustomed to con- financed its grant technical assistance lays before the Senate H.R. 7406, a bill sider as "soft loans": the interest rate from its own net earnings. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 1964 Approved For R Ji /I1 fX fL 790R 0170023-6 Slandering Congress Is Slandering Our System of Government EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. OLIN E. TEAGUE OF TEXAS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tueshai, December 24, 1963 Mr. TEAGUE of Texas, Mr. Speaker, perhaps the most widely played indoor game in the United States is that of slandering the Congress. It is not a new game. It has been played with great fervor and spirit ever since we became a nation. Usually, but not always, the tide of slander arises because Congress has re- fused to act as a rubberstamp for a popular President. The torrent of abuse that is being poured out against the Congress today Is not unprecedented, but it is serious and it is growing in its intensity. News- paper cartoonists delight in picturing Members of the legislative branch either as egocentric clowns or as mindless slug- gards. National columnists, ridicule the Congress unmercifully because we do not throw our, doubts and our convictions out the window and vote instantly for measures of which the columnists per- sonally approve. Since most newspaper- men are somewhat more liberal in their politics than the average American, their scorn usually falls heaviest on legisla- tors whom they consider to be conserva- tive. There is a dangerous tendency to judge a Congress merely by the amount of legislation it passes. Too many commen- tators are interested in quantity, not quality. If a Congress refuses to pass a flock of laws, regardless of their merit, it is inevitably tagged with the "do noth- ing" label, and the inference is that its leaders are weaklings and its Members timewasters. Such people confuse progress with mere motion. When a man spins around in a revolving door, Mr. Speaker, he is not making progress. Neither is he mak- ing progress when he falls down a flight of stairs. Because we have moved with delibera- tion in areas, of enormous importance to the Nation and to the fregworld we have been accused of weakness. Our procedures have been a sign, not of weakness, but of strength. The Con- gress is a continuing body with roots sunk deep in every corner of the land. The Members of Congress collectively know far better than anyone else what the people of the country think and what they want and what they are say- ing. It is my considered opinion that the average American citizen is less lib- eral in his thinking than most of the columnists and commentators would like him to be. And I am absolutely certain that the average American citizen does not want his Congress to plunge the Nation swiftly into vast and continuing programs as a result of hysterical snap decisions made at the behest of the ex- ecutive branch. As we all know, our Government was founded- on a system of checks and bal- ances. The executive branch some- times acts as a check on the impulsive- ness of the legislative branch, and vice versa. During the past 2 years the 88th Congress has been a wholesome and re- straining influence upon Executive ex- uberance. By acting with thoughtful delibera- tion we are making certain that human rights,.are being preserved; that prop- erty is being properly protected, and that individual liberty is not being im- periled by expediency. ,Over the centuries, Congress has built a structure of laws upon a foundation of precedence. Because we have built this structure with thoughtful delibera- tion, it is the soundest legislative struc- ture in the world today. Our critics, Mr. Speaker, make the claim that our refusal to act impulsively is proof that our legislative processes are not efficient. Although I deny the allegation, I also maintain that bloodless efficiency is not the sole aim, or even the principal aim, of Government. A rep- resentative democracy, such as ours, is not nearly as efficient according to your definition of efficient, as a Fascist or a Communist despotism, where the merest whims of the dictator have the iron ef- fect of law. But who would exchange the comparatively inefficient freedom of this land of ours for the prisonlike ef- ficiency of the slave state? I repeat, Mr. Speaker, that the value of a Congress should not be measured merely by the number of bills it passes. In many cases, as we all know, it takes harder work and a great deal more cour- age to resist legislation than it does to ride complacently with the tide. It also takes courage to insist upon the thoughtful shaping and refinement of legislation so that it will achieve the maximum good for the maximum num- ber of people, when the strident voices of the propagandists are demanding that we pass it instantly, without debate or deliberation. It takes courage, in short, "to keep one's head when all about are losing theirs, and blaming it on you." This is not the spectacular brand of courage, but it is something immensely valuable to the Nation. It is the brand of courage that the 88th Congress has exhibited in abundance. The fact that we have been able to do so, Mr. Speaker, is a tribute to your own firm and understanding leadership. I am proud of being a Member of the 88th Congress and I deeply resent the libels and slanders that the irrespon- sible propagandists for instant legisla- tion have been throwing at us. And, Mr. Speaker, it is heartening to know that there is a growing segment of the Nation's press that is beginning to appreciate the value of the 88th Con- gress. Under unanimous consent, I in- sert in the RECORD two recent examples of such constructive thinking: [From the Dallas (Tex.) . Morning News, Jan. 3, 1964] IN DEFENSE OF CONGRESS Barely 30 hours before the end of the old year, Congress adjourned-if that's what you can call it. 3t migh? be-inore correct to say A135 that Congress has recessed, since the 1st session of the 88th Congress set a peacetime longevity record and allowed only 8 days of vacation for the legislators before the 2d session is called to order January 7. There has been a tremendous amount of criticism leveled against Congress lately for being slow and failing to enact legislation. Most of this criticism is unfair. Americans for Democratic Action refers to Congress as the "iceberg on Capitol Hill," charging that it is run by a "reactionary- conservative" coalition. Roy Wilkins of the NAACP says Negroes are "disenchanted" with the whole legislative process. Walter Lippmann, in a recent column, goes so far as to charge that the "88th Congress has been paralyzed by * * * a conspiracy to suspend representative government." He adds, referring to efforts by Congress to prohibit credit guarantees for sale of wheat to Red nations, that the legislative branch has been attempting to usurp the Presi- dent's constitutional power to conduct our foreign relations." Such charges are not altogether valid. With respect to the wheat deal, as one of our readers pointed out in a letter on this page Wednesday, article I, section 8 of the Constitution grants Congress the power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations." How can Congress be engaged in "a con- spiracy to suspend representative govern- ment" when it is essentially the most repre- sentative branch of government? Congress is closer to the people than the President or the Court can ever be. The fact that Congress has refused to grant certain Presidential requests or failed to act on others does not mean that we have a "do- nothing" Congress, as frequently charged. It might, and often does, mean that Con- gress thinks some of these requests are not in the best interest of the Nation. Or it might mean simply there have been too many requests. Every year the President asks more of Congress, and in the last session the admin- istration kept coming back with the same requests for second and third tries after initial attempts to win congressional approv- al failed. Most of the people who attack the con- gressional seniority system, the power of committees and the rules of Congress have been extremely hypocritical. When seniority, committee power, and the rules are used to promote liberal legislation, the liberal critics are not loud with their complaints. They make noise usually when these factors work against legislation they would like to have passed. One thing is sure: The next session will be shorter. Though the number of requests in the President's program may be greater than ever before-with a civil rights bill and tax cut proposals left over, plus a revival of medi- care and other issues to come up-Congress- men from both parties, both liberals and conservatives, will be anxious to adjourn early to go home for the primaries, the con- ventions and the politicking for next No- vember. CONGRESS AND THE AID PROGRAM-PASSMAN'S BATTLES BELIEVED REFLECTIONS OF PUBLIC REACTION TO WASTE SPENDING (By Richard Wilson) OTTO ERNEST PASSMAN, 63, is a Congress- man from Louisiana. Annually, Mr. PASS- MAN gets into a fight with the White House over spending for foreign aid. He is chair- Titan of the House Appropriations Subcom- mittee which handles this troublesome item. It is usually said that Mr. PASSMAN is try- ing to superimpose his judgment on that of four Presidents of the United States and any number of other outstanding personalities. This devastating remark is supposed to crush Mr. PAssMAN and hold him up to public Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6 A136 `CONGRESSIONAL' RECORD - APPENDIX January 14 scorn as the wrecker of the foreign aid pro- gram. The truth seems to be, however, that Mr. PASSMAx knows more about the foreign aid program than any President has had an op- portunity to know for the simple reason that he has studied it longer and in more detail. He has handled the foreign aid appropria- tion for 9 consecutive years. Mr. PASSMAN is not a liberal; he is a conventional Lout- sianian, but with a flair for rather rakish at- tire and an endless patience in coping with one of the really big practical problems of modern government. It is only a slight exaggeration to say that officials of the foreign aid program would much prefer it if neither Congress nor the public knew much about its activities, ex- cept the puff Stories on its great achieve- ments which are not inconsiderable. The official attitude about foreign aid is that it is an instrument of foreign policy used by the President under his constitu- tional authority to direct this policy. What flows from that conception is that Congress should not, indeed cannot under the Con- stitution, interfere. This is an impractical concept, which Mr. PAsssAN annually demonstrates to be faulty. However, much of what is done under the foreign aid program is hidden from the pub- lic. There was a time when it was a secret how the money was divided up between vari- ous countries. Even now the secrecy label is so widely used that "it looks like a ticker tape parade when you see us lifting secret and classified stuff to the hearings." Every now and then a little something leaks out, like Lebanese bulls with nine stalls apiece or extra wives for Kenyan Govern- ment officials, or air-conditioned Cadillacs for Middle Eastern potentates. A suffering public has become more or less conditioned to this kind of thing and would not aban- don foreign aid for this alone. Nor is it likely that the public as a whole would end all foreign aid, however much annoyed it may become over waste and incomprehensible spending abroad when there is So much that needs improvement in this country. . But it is clear that a majority in Congress believes that the country wants to go slower on foreign aid, be more selective, be more certain that definite policy alms are being pursued toward a useful conclusion. Every year for 9 years the clamor has come from the White House and the Depart- ment of State that any cutback will wreck our foreign policy. And any time there is a cut our foreign policy never seems to be de- monstrably better or worse off. A ,few facts are usful in this connection. In the last 8 years Congress has reduced the 'White House budget requests by more than $6.5 billion. Yet every year more money was appropriated than foreign aid officials could use. The so-called pipeline funds from past years which are committed to continuing projects now amount to more than $7 billion. Foreign aid could go on for several years without another penny of appropriation. It is not uncommon for officials to make huge allocations of their funds in the last 2 or.3 days of a fiscal year so that they won't have any uncommitted money left, and can claim they are emptyhanded in meeting the world's challenges. Last year the White House, the State De- partment, and the Defense Department all said our foreign policy was being wrecked by a billion-dollar cut. Yet these `agencies finished the fiscal year with a total of $744 million of unobligated funds on their hands. Basically, the facts do not support any contention that Congress, has either wrecked the foreign aid program or really harmed it. Nor does the contention hold water any longer that the Russians are rushing in where We pull out. The Russians have had their own serious problems with foreign aid. This appears to be one case where instinc- tive public reactions are right; that we have been spending too much on foreign aid and not getting enough out of it. ` CIA Needs Watchdog Committee EXTENSION OF REMARKS HON. CLEMENT J. ZABLOCKI or WISCONSIN IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, January 14, 1964 Mr. ZABLOCKI. Mr. Speaker, day by day the evidence mounts that a con- gressional watchdog committee on the Central Intelligence Agency is needed; and day by day public support grows for the creation of such a committee. Created as a central agency to gather and analyze intelligence information, the CIA has, all too often, been guilty of formulating foreign policy. Recently, former President Truman, under whom the CIA was first organized, expressed his belief that the CIA had strayed off course and should be made to adhere to the original purpose for which it was created. I could not agree more. For the rea- sons set forth by President Truman and other constructive critics of the CIA, I have introduced legislation into every Congress since 1953 calling for the crea- tion of a Joint Congressional Committee on the CIA. My bill, House Concurrent Resolution 2, currently is pending before the House Rules Committee. I urge my colleagues on that committee to consider this res- olution and companion bills as soon as possible. Further, under permission granted, I include an editorial from the January 4 issue of the Milwaukee Journal calling on Congress to approve a committee such as that proposed in House Concur- rent Resolution 2. TRumAN: CIA OFF Tancx Former President Truman has added his doubts to many others about the operations of the Central Intelligence Agency. And he speaks with authority, for the CIA was or- ganized during his presidency to serve the needs of his office. As organized, Truman says, the CIA was to bring together intelligence information avail- able to all branches of Government, valuate and interpret it for the President. It was never meant, Truman says, to "be injected into peacetime cloak and dagger operations." It was never meant to make policy. CIA activities have frequently been em- barrassing to this country in the last decade. In numerous instances the Agency actually has worked counter to our foreign policy. Certainly we need no agency to work to sub- vert foreign governments-yet the record indicates that the CIA has done that very thing. Truman is quick to acknowledge the pa- triotism and the dedication of CIA officials. He just thinks they have been off the track. The Agency, he says, should return to its basic job of gathering and assessing intelli- gence for the use of the policymakers. In connection with this, the proposal that the CIA be audited by a special committee of Congress, just as the Atomic Energy Com- mission is, deserves congressional approval. The CIA is too much a law unto itself. For its own good, and the country's, it should be curbed and put under constant check. No Compromise on Canal EXTENSION OF REMARKS or HON. DONALD RUMSFELD Or ILLINOIS IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES Tuesday, January 14, 1964 Mr. RUMSFELD. Mr. Speaker, I wish to insert in the RECORD the following Chicago Daily News editorial of January 13, which briefly but concisely analyzes the background of the Panama crisis and recommends a firm stand by the United States: No COMPROMISE ON CANAL Facing the first international crisis of his administration, President Johnson was un- derstandably eager to fill the role of peace- maker in Panama. We have some qualms, however, that his eagerness led him to con- cessions he may regret. It was essential to seek an end to violence and bloodshed. It was also essential to deal with the political overtones that quickly came to the fore. But neither howling mobs nor demagogic politicians are likely to be deterred by weakness, and in Panama the United States has exhibited more weakness than strength. Why should we adopt an almost apologetic attitude either in the United Nations or in the organization of American States for try- ing to protect Americans from Panamanian attack? Nothing more than self-defense was involved, and the loss of American lives and the extensive destruction of U.S. property are ample evidence that we were more timid in exercising that right than the circum- stances justified. The mobs that stormed the U.S.-controlled Canal Zone were organized too well and too quickly to qualify as an accident. The Gov- ernment of Panama has aroused the people against Americans in the Canal Zone year after year, for its own political. benefit, and this is its harvest. There is good reason to believe that Castro-Communists joined the attacks, if they did not help instigate them in the first place. Panama's quick break in diplomatic rela- tions, and the immediate demand for control of the canal, seemed well rehearsed. And, as might have been predicted, the Soviet bloc plus the anti-American claque in the Latin republics joined in the howls against-Ameri- can "imperialism." It is clearly true that the history of the Panama Canal is somewhat checkered, and that conditions have changed since the United States engineered both the canal and the creation of the Republic of Panama. But it is also true that in recent years the United States has made many concessions to appease the Panamanians. If there are other negotiable grievances, they can be settled around the conference table when things quiet down again. But nothing should be conceded in an atmos- phere of bloodshed and blackmail, for to do so is to invite more of the same not only in Panama but elsewhere. In particular, U.S. ownership and control of the Panama Canal must not be regarded as negotiable. If it takes a show of strength to shut off the threats to the canal, let strength be shown. That, at least, is some- thing everybody understands-and it is more likely to win respect than a willingness to be everybody's doormat. Approved For Release 2003/10/15 : CIA-RDP67B00446R000300170023-6