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December 27, 2016
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December 18, 2013
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December 8, 1965
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STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/12/18: CIA-RDP73-00475R000102100001-3 (Research Ripples . Government Farms Out ! More Studies; Some Reports Draw Criticism Outside Work Can Be Better, DEC 8 1965 . A companion trerrys sisn-accelerating: An accent on research in, the' social and related sciencies, from economics and soeiology to psychology and anthropology. although the physical sciences still take most. of the, Gov- ernment's research dollar. This new emphasis ' on social science research grows', lamely . out ? of the proliferation of Great, Society pro- grams. - civil rights or antipoverty or job retraining or education aid - that rely on research to lay their foundations A.? check on progress. "Demand for social research has grown out of programs designed lo meet so- cial needs," notes Herbert Striner, director of the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Cheaper, Officials 'Calm; I Research. Social Sciences Accented ?????Xemosmissin $95,000 for the Self-Evident ? By EDWARD A. BEHR By e WALL. STREET JOURNAL, Staff Reporter WASHINGTON - The Labor Department soon will hand out a $45,000 contract,, probably tcraThniVer-SilY, fora - "thorough study of pub- lic knowledge and attitudes toward unem- ployment. .insurance." An underling purpose, -qulte-franklY-Stated,-Is to develop ammunition to help rebut criticism of the program, includ- ing articles published in the Reader's Digest. ? . . . ?At-Pentegmt-reqtrest,. the private Bureau of Social Science Research here is embarked on a study project to determine how social science research (such as that done by the bureau) yi_12ging-tis.ed_tp,m:akingyentagon and ? foreign-policy decision2. ---Tt17t- first instance, it will be a year be- ifore results come in, and even then follow-up research may be proposed. But in the second case, the resarch into research, tentative conclusions are being reached: The reports ? themselves often make little?direct impression .? on defense and foreign policy-makers, some- times being dismissed as "garbage." The re- :searchers console themselves with the knowl- edge that the ideas broached do "percolate around" in official minds, with the help of news stories, and may pop up in all sorts of situations. "More Time to Think" These are ripples in a current Washington tide: "A trend toward farming_put,..more-of tha GoVannient's-resetirCh7s-itidy work to out- siders-notably to universities and noniiiiifit re?uibtitfita Uncla?Saitit'i dollar-re'searenheeds have grown so great, its said, that Federal ,personnel just can't' handle so much of the load; moreover,:an 01)- 0 jective outside analysis may often be needed ;for evaluation .of Government programs and determination of national needs. Farmedout research, officials say, can be faster, cheaper "Ind-better. Adds Labor Secretary Wins: "We are trying to ge,t the ideas of those who have Mpre,tifits.t0 thfhk_tha.we ? ? This demand' is naturally leading the Gov- :e14nment into far foggier research fields than the physical sciences. The social: sciesce projects undertaken may be more open to challenge, the results much less tangible. So 'far, officials do credit Government-sponsored !private studies with }laving helped In form: rlating the program to get dropouts b;u:k in and the U.S. drive for international monetary reform. But end-results of even :these efforts are still uncertain. ? Missiles to Window Glass . Outside research in some other fields has borne fruit of .undoubted usefulness. A 8.1.M, piing: Highly accurate guidance for intercon- tinental missiles; more ,realistic Army rifle training, featuring firing at pop?up targets; a simple .device for determining 'the thickness, and thus the wind resistance, of window glass in a high-rise apartment. ? For better or worse, the Government's total commitment of funds for research of all, kinds has been mounting fast. Since five years 'ago, it has roughly doubled, to an ex- pected $5.6 billion for the fiscal year begun last July. But in the same time the portion al- lotted to social and psychological sciences has more than tripled, to an expected $298 million this year. And of this year's $5.6. billion research total, over 70% is being "done "out-house," as Government slang puts it. As. recently as two years ago, when the total was $4.5 -bil- lion, the outside share was jittle more than 60%. More or less in step with the rise in out- side. social . science research, questions are arising about the need for some of the studies, the usefulness of the ;findings, and the .ade- quacy of Goyernment control and coordina- tion. One barb was hurled after the Commerce Department hired the accounting firm of . . . _ . Ernst and Ernst for $95,000 In study why shipping rates are lower on 'goods imported to the U.S. than on exports. Among the ex- planations produced: It's "more expensive to load and Plow cargo than .to unload it." In response to this disclostire at a House*appro- priations hearing, ? irascible Congressman John Rooney of Brooklyn snapped "And did you have to spend $95,000 to find' that ',out? Any, .hatch; hosei .1M .the 474430.10Y11 :rete.r/X9ftt could have given you the answer In that one without cost." Quite unsurprising, Also, Was a key von chision of a recent research report, "Nlaiiage merit. Decisions to Automate," produeed fl the Labor Department by Stanford 11f-scare] Institute. The major motive for automation it was found, appears to be cost reduction particularly reduction that result's from in creased productivity. There may he dangers, too, that some re search results won't come in till after theii potential usefulness Was evaporated. Just nov California's San Jose State C,oliege is study Ing unemployment and re-employment expe Helices of scientists and engineers laid of by aerospace and electrical companies in tht San Francisco Bay Ares during 1954. But corn pinion of the study 'Is not expected till ? tht fall of 19e6 land $o may come too late tc provide lessons helpful for other laid-off sclen tists and engineers. Already increased de tense and space work has given almost al of them jobs and further increases are in sight. ,An earlier study tot tmemploymenI in Erie. Pa., met ,such a fate: the problem had largely vanished before a' report was made. Some outside chores the Government itself might seen filled In undertake. The pov- erty-fighting Office of Economic Opportunity has paid Stanford Research Institute $87,000 to compile an index of over 170 Federal programs which help the poor; the project took four months. Not long ago, the National Aeronau- tics and Space Administration gave Michigan State University a $40,000 contract to prepare recommendations for NASA-sponsored research at colleges and universities, including Michi- gan State. ? Just because of their close tics with the Gov- ernment, some of the researchers heavily de- pendent on Uncle Sam may be less than com- pletely objective. .A Federal Aviation Agency official who supervises part of the FAA's re- search questions the 'value of studies done by "captive" nonprofit outfits like the RAND Corp. and the Institute for Defense Analyses, which work mostly or entirely for Uncle Sam. "When we use a captive, I don't know. who is the cap- tive-the. company or the Government," he says. Moreover; "the type . of work nor- mally asked of nonprofit companies requires the companies to know as much about the Gov- ernment as the Government itself. This im- plies a wasteful, and costly duplication of ef- fort." Ill-Fated Project Camelot Lack of intra -Government coordination WAS damagingly demonstrated last . summer with the sudden exposure of the Army-backed Proj- ect Camelot. This was an ambitious $6 million study of political motivations abroad and their relation to popular unrest that leads to guerrilla-style insurgency. Chile was to be an Interesting example of a place where the prob- lem did not exist. But ? news of the project leaked nui?there, arousing Chilean wrath and Ralph Dun. Continued Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/12/18: CIA-RDP73-00475R000102100001-3