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February 7, 1966
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ey,p~crua 1'I C /~ D Zi nnrrnnnr+nTnrr~r r~r.~nnr,r pr~t~*V/08/27 :7C-gaR000300450015-7 United States has an interest through the. The Operation Camelot affair in Chile. PROJECT SIMPATICO military assistance program. The types which caused considerable stir last year, Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, in my of military civic action projects-and was in the same general field except that capacity as chairman of the Subcommit- civilian communal action projects of It was to be a complete study of a single toe on Government Research, and as one other agencies of the Colombian Govern- i country-Chile--to work out a predic- who has recently traveled extensively in rent-being studied include medical tive type model of a Latin American South America, I wish to address myself care, road building, and water supply country, involving all the socioeconomic briefly to Project Simpatico, now in the services provided to rural villagers. factors, change, revolution, and so forth. news from Colombia. Their evaluation necessarily includes as- This research project was in the final The New York Times of Sunday, Fhb- sessing how development related motiva- planning stage at the time it became a Th a story, Sclatelined unday, Ho- tions and attitudes of the people have newspaper story,in Chile and was there- 8, New carried York ruary Th roar, Colombia, a story. been affected. Are the people more after dropped. ar7 d, beadiined, favorably inclined toward the changes As a result of the newspaper publicity "'Simpatico' Issue sun, Colombiaru." required for economic and social devel- on Operation Camelot, the President of with a subhead, "U.S. Study Project opment, and toward the government and the United States wisely Instituted new Arouses Criticism in Legislature." Sim- the military as change agents attempting procedures, and by letter, dated August ilar stories were carried in the Baltimore to assist that development? What are 23, 1965, ordered that "no government Sun and the Washington Star. the desired characteristics of change sponsorship of foreign area research Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- agents? I am further informed that in- should be undertaken which in the judg- sent to have printed at the conclusion of, terview questionnaires, designed to tap ment of the Secretary of State would my remarks an article published in the these factors, were concurred in by the adversely affect U.S. foreign relations." New York Times. United States and Colombian Govern- As a result of this directive from the There being no objection, the article ments before their field use. President, a Foreign Affairs Research was ordered to be printed in the RECORD. Initially Peru, Bolivia, and Guatemala Council was established, the Chairman (See exhibit 1.) had been tentatively suggested as typi- of which is the Director of Intelligence Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, the cal countries where field research might and Research in the State Department, essence of the stories was that a research be conducted. Honduras was also con- Mr. Thomas L. Hughes. The job of this project financed by the U.S. Defense De- sidered. Eventually, Colombia was se- organization as stated in a speech by partment had caused "widespread con- lected for the research field work. Mr. Hughes at Hamilton College, Octo- cern" and "parliamentary debate" and A specific research contract was let her 21, 1965, entitled, "Scholars and attacks on the United States in Colom- for this particular project to the Special Foreign Policy: Varieties of Research bia. The facts of this particular mat- Operations Research Office of American Experience," is to screen government- ter-and they are unclassified-raise University. The contract was in the sponsored research In foreign countries some very basic U.S. policy questions for amount of $180,000. The contract was for possible foreign policy damage be- which Congress should help find to run from March- 1965 through March fore the research work Is begun. answers. 1900. Mr. President, I ask unanimous con- Last year the U.S. Government spent Concurrence of the country team in sent that the entire text of that speech $32 million, which is an unclassified fig- Colombia was asked for and received.' be printed at the conclusion of my re- ure, In the field of social science and be- Through the Ambassador, concurrence marks. havioral science research in foreign of the Colombian Government was pro- The PRESIDING OFFICER. With- countries. The money was spent through posed and concurrence was given in June out objection, It 1s so ordered. the Defense Department, State Depart 1965. (See exhibit 2.) ment, and through the Agency for Inter- American University then entered into Mr. HARRIS. Mr. President, I com- national Development, with the highest' a contract on or about August 1, 1965, mend the President and the Secretary percentage having been spent through ? with a group called National Research of State for these new procedures. In the Defense Department. This figure of Colombia. This group was to be paid the instance of Project Simpatico, they does not include other U.S. agency $88,000 and was to be responsible for the at least made certain of the approval research in foreign countries nor in- collecting and translating of data gath- of the country team in Colombia and the house governmental expenditures to sup- ered In the field. It is my understand- concurrence of the local government was port the research contracts. ing that this local group was and is an. first obtained, both of which were sadly Project Simpatico grew out of studies existing marketing information research lacking in the Operation Camelot situa- being made for the U.S. Department of 'agency and does work for business orga-tion. the Army by the special operations re- relations generally. At the time of Camelot affair, there search office of American University, It is my further understanding that was a similar research project under- begun in fiscal year 1963-64 on the sub- before work was started and after con- way in another Latin American country ject of civic action of the local military currence of the Colombian Government, which was suspended at the request of organizations in Latin. American coun- contact was made with three Colombian the local government because of the tries. ministries, that an advisory committee Operation Camelot publicity and is now The impetus for the program came was formed in the country with the min- scheduled for possible future discussions from the United States and probably istries represented, and that all infor as to its renewal. This project was also jointly from the American University mation collected is to be furnished joint- on civic action of the local military or- group and the Department of the Army. ly to the Colombian Government and to ganization, particularly as to efforts by At the beginning, no field work in Latin the American University group. In Oc- them for resettlement of Indian people. American countries was done, but the tober of 1965 it dispute developed be-' This project was also being carried on work was principally in-house type of tween the research contractors and some: by the American University organi7ation research and study. of those hired to do research. As a re- and the contract figure was budgeted at The special operations research office sult of the dispute, two of the researchers; $121,000. of American University is a well known were discharged. Thereafter, other re- The facts surrounding -Project Sim- and well respected research organization searchers resigned. patico, and the $32 million expenditure which, according to its published bul- None of this information had caused, last year-with similae expenditures this amentaly disturbance in untColombiail now. year-in. research in the behavioral and letin, carries on research "to support liany Army missions which Involve relation- scheduled for March. social sciences in foreign countries by ships between U.S. personnel and indig- After the discharge and resignation of this Government raise several rather serious enous persons of other cultures, or which local researchers, another group of 14 now be answered, cannot ns answered b , some of which answers from the which an Congress involve U.S. military efforts to influence were employed for this purpose by the' should now be forthcoming the attitudes and behavior of indigenous local research contractor, and research and the for r persons, or the form and characteristics was started in December, still to be fin- and the administration. of their military and related social, eco- !shed in March. I think we can profit from Project nomic, and political system." Simpatico by giving serious study to some am informed that the scientific p? 'The U.S. Army apparently has an , basic policy questions. I open-end contract with the Special Op-. - First, is the large expenditure for be- po am Isdetermine erations Research Office of the American. havioral and social science research In Ineffective-the atico is scientific pose effective--or Project Simpatico service-civic ac qqpp-~ e~cvtive~ecis`defic pur- ur h public t University and have for some time been foreign countries justified? 1ombl p rye alv9btd~I SaO$1e41(o`i~~ ~e with a recent statement of State Dan Rusk when he he the lot of the villagers In furled the bt rot It Is working. - , - _. +rth~~ eliad Page 2 Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00149R000300450015-7 (. I told io consressional committee that "re- search has become indispensable to the intelligent formulation and implementa- tion of foreign policy." Secretary Rusk has rightly acknowledged the contribu- tion that the social and behavioral sci- ences can make to foreign policy and has welcomed the increased interest of other governmental departments in social and political research and foreign affairs. However, even with the newly established Foreignl Affairs Research Council, it is evident that there is no institutionalized procedures for checking on and deter- mining the justification for individual projects. The Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Research Council, Mr. Thomas L. Hughes, who is also the Director of Intelligence and Research in the State Department, recently so stated. In a speech at Hamilton College on October 21, 1965, Mr. Hughes pointed out that there are limitations upon the authority of his new function as follows: Third, the procedures will clearly state the belief that the sponsoring agency is the best judge of a project related to its mission., We have no intention of second-guessing any other Government agency. Its views as to the value of a study will be taken fully into account. Our review will not mean State Department endorsement of a project; rather the purpose is limited to the avoid- ance of damage to our foreign rela- tions. ? ? ? 'Sixth, and most important, the responsibility for the wise expenditure of research funds remains in each agency under the authority of the President and the Con- gress. The State Department has not be- cone, and does not wish to be, the controller for Government foreign affairs research. Mr. Hughes also points out that his office distinguishes between two kinds of research. He points out that proposed research supported by the Foreign Af- fairs, Defense, and Intelligence agencies requires screening and prior approval, while all other Government agencies, such as the major domestic departments or the basic research agencies, need only inform his office of proposed research projects, and no prior approval is re- quired. He makes further distinction in grants other cshould be under civilian toria commanded Tennyson to write com- oher ity and countries i control. memorating both the telegraph and the 111- ness of the Prince of Wales: Senator BAYIS and I talked in each "Across the wires the electric message came; country and city with the President, He Is no better; he is much the same." principal cabinet officers, parliamentary leaders, U.S. State Department, Peace r suspect that It was In that same philos- Corps and AID personnel, student lead- ophy class that I was first, made aware of ers, opposition party leaders and average some of the dimensions of the problem set citizens. I came away from Latin Amer- for discussion tonight. I learned that in 404 B.C. energetic Ica immensely depressed, because I felt over the e young men took government of Athens. Several of that the lunge of the United States held them had been students at a local academy by the average person in the countries of political science. The Idea occurred to I visited was an erroneous and damaging them to appoint a distlnfvlshed professor one. A great percentage of the people of politics to omce. He accepted. His name in those countries mistakenly feel that was Plato. The government-that of Crttlas American policies are dominated by the and the Thirty Tyrants- was one of the Pentagon. Many feel that, while we worst Athens has had, before or since. The profess to be interested in democratic raged cif lasted onl a months. booted theego errnmentA utuof governments and democratic institu- omce. Ever since there hr+a been a certain tions, we actually feel a closer affinity for magnetic tension between scholars and military organizations and dictatorships. statesmen-a tension Int., the midst of This is obviously an erroneous impres-. which, to my surprise. I have lately found sion. But, when I sought to correct it, myself inadvertently propelled. I found, over and over again, that I was And so It came to pass that your committee confronted with the Operation Camelot and I compromised on "Scholars and Foreign Policy: Varieties of Research Experience,, as type of argument. Now, it seems to me, a title for that with Project Simpatico, we have I had been tempted by others such this others lecture. as "The ateievance of Re- not helped to correct that erroneous im- search," "The Researches and the Re- pression or clear up that mistaken image searched." "Research In Search of an Audi- of our country in Latin America, but ence," or again, aiming In the direction of my have added to the arguments of those erstwhile philosophy professor, the more who seek to propagate that mistaken be- whimsical question: "Laocoon: Research or lief in the minds of the people of Latin Foreign Policy?" America. At any rate you can see that I was deter- mined to talk about the significant but ob- I feel there is no reason why the bulk scure topic of research and foreign policy, of the $32 million we spent last year in rather than opt for some other, obviously other countries In this field-or similar more glamorous, crisis that could readily expenditures this year-should be from come to mind. I had mixed motives: partly the Department of Defense budget. because two famous sons of Hamilton Col- Such foreign research expenditures-by lege-Elihu Root and Philip Jessup-blended direct appropriation or by transfer of, statecraft and scholarship et their rarest and must be placed under institu- best; partly because yours was the most re- funds-must civilian control. spectable academic audlem.e available when the need arose to speak ak to o this subject; partly As a result of the publicity over Proj- because new procedures setting the first ect Simpatico, once again we must re- guidelines for U.S. Government behavior in mind ourselves of the potential damag- the foreign area research field were being ing result of foreign research financed by readied for release In Washington; and partly the United States In the behavioral and because the State Department, only fitfully. social sciences. adjusting to its reputation as a "bowl of jelly" We must understand the pressing need filled with "Irrevocably conventional minds," has simultaneously been attacked for too in Latin America to correct our nlilita- 1 vigorously disdaining research. ristic image. And, we must understand I do have a bona fide claim to speak. The how easy it is for Latin Americans to bureau which I head traces Its lineage at least associate U.S. Government research by a back to the time when Elihu Root as Secre- tion. military agency 'r.ith intervention and tary of State first modernized the Depart- militarism. lit i'rro?leously such ment's archaic filing system in use since Therefore, it seems to me that Con- association 1789. In our presumption we like to think gress should take an interest in estab- mouth College cafous se ppll sl to our bureaurof lishing institutionalized administrative , l';x,ucrr 2 procedures for independent review and ]From the Dep:niInent of state Bulletin, determination of the value and justiflca- Nov. 9, 19061 tion of each foreign research project and , SCHOLARS AND FOREIGN POLICY-VARIETIES O} for continuing surveillance of the opera- RESEARCII EXPERIENCE tion of the research being conducted, its (By Thomas L. Hughes, Director of Intelli- management and administration. gence and Research)' Second, it seems. to me that Congress President McEwen, members of the Root-' should provide for "civilianizing" all Jessup Public Affairs Council. ladles and' types of contract research being done in gentlemen, 20 years ago I was introduced foreign countries. to the history of philosophy in a class taught Speaking to this last point, just last by the then Prof. Robert McEwen, of Carleton fall, in the company of the distinguished College, Minnesota. Since then our paths Senator from Indiana [Mr. BAYH], I have separated, although I have reason to believe that our basic philosophies have not, made extensive travels to and studies of At any rate, when this opportunity came four Latin American countries--Chile, to confront him again after a score of years, Peru, Argentina, and Brazil. In each I accepted your Invitation with appropriate of these countries, I found a great need trepidation, worried that his retrospective civilize the' entire American image in judgment tomorrow morning might be rather Latin America. As a result of my study like that absurd couplet which Queen VIo- of these countries last year and of Proj- 1 goof-Jessup lecture, made at Hamilton ect Simpatico most recently, I am of the ' College, Clinton, N.Y., on Oct. 211 (pews IS. opinion that social science research in lease DO). research scholars just as It applies to Hamil- ton: "It Is a small college, but there are those who love It." We are a proud, happy, spirited little band of 350, and we think of things that would astonish you. For instance, already this week we have corporately encompassed about 120 old nations, discovered 2 new ones, esti- mated 3 elections, cast beta on the composi- tion of 2 cabinets, fretted over 1 unilateral declaration of Independence and another mutiny, noted the decline of 2 new emerg- Ing forces and the resurgence of 1 old established force, and discounted 3 abortive plots erroneously attributed to the CIA. We have done our part to sharpen un er- standing on a variety of standard Issues: e.g., which juntas are good ones and which juntas are bad; where reunification Is a hope and where It Is a hindrance, when the case for counterinsurgency outweighs the case for Insurgency, and vice versa; how a coup d'etat may be preferable to a coup de grace; when confrontation is called for and when It gets In the way; how to deescalate un- wanted escalations, and how to escalate wanted ones. when rellgio;u fervor Is a help FEB 7,joved For Release 2000/08/27: CIA-RDP75-00149R0Q0300450015-7 Oofltfnued Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00149R000300450015-7 and nhcn It is a headache; where building Yet the statistics have continued to rise. best poaeible patrons, that they have a good bridges ninkes sense and where blowing them Today there are reputedly 6,000 academics record of not Imposing conditions which up makes more sense; when sett-determtna- In the Cambridge area alone who are con- would Infringe on his freedom of inquiry, Lion is morally Indispensable and when it is eulte.nte to the Government. Sixty-five per- and that any Department of State censor- not; why it is sometimes so difficult for both cent of the total research and development sides to engage at the some time in negotia- expenditure of this country comes from the ship constitutes unwarranted control over tions from strength. Federal Government, 92 percent of that go- this freedom. Not that we are consulted on every foreign Ing for defense research. One way or an- The skeptical scholar looks on scademie- policy problem or Indeed on every move that other, parts of the Government Itself have government relations as at best a trial mar- the State Department makes. For Instance, now had experience In dealing with subetan- riage on both sides-or even a highly big- despite its relevance to research, we were not tlaUy the whole range of human endeavor in amous relationship replets with conflicting consulted In advance about Yale Univer- most parts of the world-and this fact Itself sets of loyalties and new obligations disturb- elty's Columbus Day publication of the pro- has become both a stimulus and a magnet ingly Imposed on old, established proprieties. Columblap map which so reassured Scan- .for He doubts his and his colleagues' ability to dinavia and offended the Mediterranean. greater academic Involvement. F`e would disagree with Harold Lass- official Influence on their thinking and The reaction of a monarchist newspaper in - believes that Government-oriented research- Madrid rivaled the kind of protests we have well's s description of of the problem: era inevitably become more responders than The continuing crisis of national security creators. He believes that when scholars be- been receiving on Government research prof- In which we live calls for the most efficient come contractors or consultants to the Gov- ects abroad: Yale's action, it said, was "an use of the manpower, facilities, and resources ernment, they tend to find themselves sup- incredibly -belligerent plan, prepared care- of the American people. Highly trained tal- porters of Government policy and do not fully for some time, to pulverize the glory ent is always scarce and costly. Hence the ordinarily feel free to make basic criticism off Spain In the discovery of the New World' crisis poses the problem of utilizing our In- or to suggest alternatives outside the general by Christopher Columbus." The paper tellectual resources with the wisest economy. dIrectlon of official policy. Some of the added with a kind of deductive logic only If our policy needs are to be served, what skeptical scholars would draw their per- appreciated In New Haven that "if the dis- topics of research are most worthy of pur- sonal permissible limit of involvement at covery of America had been left to the suit? What manpower and facilities should the Peace Corps; others would go so far as Vikings, there would be no Yale University be allocated to official agencies and to private to Include State. today." institutions for the prosecution of research? The skeptical scholar Its for "freedom of Nor were we consulted last week when art What are the most promising methods of thought" and whatever self-interest that imitated life a little too closely and 9 of 27 gathering facts and Interpreting their Sig- protects. He worries about the abuses of paintings by a surrealist Belgian Embassy nifl'ance for policy? How can facts and in- research. He is suspicious of Government wife were taken away from a special show- terpretations be made effective In the do- influence on the allocation of research ef- tng In the State Department's exhibition cisionmaking process itself? forts. He notes that proponents of cornpet- hall for dealing too frankly with the human These are the right questions, but at best Ing policy positions inside Government ate anatomy. we have made uneven progress in answering tack and counterattack, wielding their own Unfortunately this whole episode compii- them. And along with the progress have corroding the social science cates my life even further. The State De- come new sets of problems. Especially dui- concept of objective researches ve Tesearch in and n the e process. partment's art critics and custodians are-- Ing the past few months, some of our leading He may be deeply co research about the effects and hopefully will remain--anonymous., scholars have outdone one another in de- of may careless research s not only be- But the Department's research work, re- scribing the growing predicament of schol- cause se It de e US. Government cently augmented by a new assignment of arty research and foreign policy, "American and the dembarrasses academic cs be- certain quasi-Judicial functions to the Gov- social science is In a crisis of ethics," Says one d the e U.B community but also be-to foreign ernment research field at large, has publicly distinguished critic. "Its motives, tech- cause contacts It dries reduces his own own access acceptability been bestowed upon me. Indeed these niques, and practitioners are falling Into die- overseas. A An nd as a final affront, abroad h- duties have now become so insistent that the repute" "The scholar and the policymaker finds himself suspected being In the e Gov- only h time I have for art is en route from have become somewhat interundistinguish- spected of G s employ anyway, , despite all my office to the office of the Secretary of able,- says another. A third speaks of the his protestations s secret of State. From an artistic point of view, that "Jun lar quality of academic relations with his administrator Innocence. an eminently sobering experience. You The e university own. "In general has a per- Is 'Integrity of the "corrosion of scholarly spective all his owne. "In general the govov- will be glad to know that it largely consists integrity and indeed Identify in the gov- erning need in American academic life Is of a compulsory viewing first thing every ernment-research-unlversity relationship." for more reading and research, not less,' morning of your own benefactor and favorite Still another stresses: "It Is in the area of for- said Dean McGeorge Bundy In September son, For as the Secretary's private elevator eign affairs where the academic community 1960, in his waning months at Harvard. halts at the seventh floor, Its steel doors and the government attract and repel one "Our best universities - ? ? have never automatically open, and there, unavoidably another with the most vigor." Gov- confronting the passenger, In rich oils and Let me set no for you a series of hypo- had a better patron tha'n' he Federal l soft lighting, Is the Honorable Ellhu Root- o thetlcal characters to dramatize the atmus- ernment at Its best. Certainly all waistcoat and all-a triumph of propriety herica currentl sarroundin scholars as' large-scale financial support creste8 dangers all artistic waywardness. p y g against which universltl,~s must be alert, over y they conduct foreign. area research. These But what evidence is there. ? ? ? that the THE CAST or CHARACTERS ? fictional vignettes themselves will serve to Federal Government Is intrinsically more Consider Ellhu Root's description of his suggest some of the current varieties of re- dangerous than other backers? ?' ? ? yearn Ann policy. Let us consider the varying per- ContinuedI are dangerously influenced by the f p,o esso s ..e,e s,oo Washington, and from the foreign capital by men build foolish empires; some spread goes, but they had a wealth that money can- the willing scholar, the skeptical scholar, the not create. They loved their subjects and themselves too thin in conferences and con- nwere happy in their work. They subjects rejoiced in university administrator, the eager bureau- sultations; some are Indeed remittance men the exercise of their work. They Thwere crat, the reluctant bureaucrat, the Congres- , abroad. Few If any universities have yet plea filled man, the American ambassador, the overre- made the right place In their communities ! the ent ent with content foreigner, the foreign minister, the for the members of large-scale research in- he atmosphere simple for learning about and them pleasures. with They filled literature. They'' foreign scholar, and the foreign press. stallations." sought for truth as one who strives in a The willing scholar is deeply convinced He went on to speak of "danger of a weak- game. They never talked or thought about ? that what the Government needs most Is' ening, particularly among younger scion- money or investments or profits. They took creative research and that what he needs. tiara and social scientists, of the great tradi- little heed of all those things for which men most is funds. He can bring to foreign poi tion of research and teaching as a single are striving and wearing out their lives In icy councils the best that the academic world way of life," and he mentioned "the occa- the marketplaces of a materialistic civiliza- can offer to inform the decialonmaking proc- atonal but real problem which is created ilea ?" ess with better data, systematic analysis, and when too much money chases too little Neither the euphoria of secret balanced assessment of probabilities and' talent." secrecy nor the options. He can help rescue polfcymakers o "These are problems enough the con- temptations of affluence were operating In frbm misinformation, bias, intuition, and eluded) but there Is not one which cannot this pastoral scene, There was no security hunch. be dealt with intelligently, and not one which curtain dividing faculty meetings then be- , This willing scholar glories in his relation- outweighs the general and overriding fact tween the "cleared and the great uncleared." ship with policy and action. Perhaps he has that American academic men, few of them It was long before the coming of ago of been asked and decided not to join the Gov- affluent and none of them saints, are, on the "social science." let alone "applied" social ernment. In any case he is happy to stay whole, growing In quality and In effective science; long before professors wanted to outside and help. He has an active deolre service of all sorts, year by year." make a difference in the hard, political for the best of both worlds and feels secure, world; long before "policy orientatlon'1 in preserving his integrity, He may or may Most. university leader's probably agree, pulled academic advisers Into Important na- not be caught up in intramural contentious-Conscious of the ever-increasing oontribu- tlonal events; long before the three-way ml- lions of research to ,policy, aware of the ness among branches pf social science. He status which recognized research brings to gration began from campus to congressional may be one of the behavioral scientists who their universities, and pleased with the funds committee to executive branch once and feel that the military services should not which often accompany prestige In research. back again--and hence even longer still be- sponsor behavioral science research under ors wtly~ Icy 1 e ~~ o[ W hateveT fore a member of the Cabinet would survey any circumstances. On the other hand, the Washington scene and demand that all ee tally if he Is devoted to large-scale re. Ph. D.'s haxle p"MI'MM@AS 82800/ hdDWidOWStOUM ISM00340'450015-7' PER P it*,# 0etltimsod Page !I Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00149R000300450015-7 C ethical paradoxes may attend their unlvcrst- tlee' glowing Involvement with government. Even for the trivial problem of tho un- wanted but tenure-holding faculty member which occatisionally vexes a university adndn- istration, foreign research may again provide an answer. From time to time there have been suggestions In the academic commu- nity that certain presidents are not averse to permitting certain of their faculty to go abroad on indefinitely extended sabbatical leave. This is a social situation not dissimilar from the famous New York meeting of Theo- dore Roosevelt, Charles Evans Hughes, and Ellhu Root on March 20, 1917. They were, full of war talk and had just led 600 Repub- licans at the Union League Club in a virtual. declaration of war on Germany ahead of the Government. They met In a cafe after the' meeting. Theodore Roosevelt was bubbling over with fighting zeal and the conviction' that he should have a military command' abroad. "You must see Wilson," he declared, turning to Root and Hughes, "and get his consent to let me go." Teddy's voice deep-.' ened with solemnity and emotion. "I must go," he said, "hut I will not come back. My sons will go too, and they will not come back." For a moment there was silence out' of respect for the former President's evident sincerity. Then Root spoke up: "Theodore, If you can make Wilson believe that you will not come back, he will let you go." Some- times, as we all understand, academic rela- tions are like that. The eager bureaucrat by definition needs no convincing of the desirability of research. He knows that research can help him to gen- erato and make available new data; discrim- inate between data so as to select out the trivial from the crucial; evaluate new data against already known facts and anticipate data not yet known; compare events between different societies and through different time periods; identify his alternative choices and assess their likely rcsultss anticipate the probable courses of action of others; and' perhaps most Important over the long rung order data into theoretical patterns that will; help him understand whole classes of events.' He knows that policy problems can be an important stimulation to research as well as a useful test of the utility of research. He may he In the Department of State, familiar with and Impressed with the many current uses of behavioral sciences by his depart- ment in recruitment, management, cohsul- tani~, lecturers In training programs, ; re- search contracts, professional meetings, and the coliaction and Indexing of Information as a public service on research projects. Or, on the contrary, he may be in another depart- ment of government which happens to have available funds-and his attitude toward the Department of State may best be summed up In the Biblical cadence, "They toll not, neither do they spin." He wishes thq State Department had the Initiative as well as the money to take the lead, but as things are, he is willing to do his bit where he is with. what he has. The reluctant bureaucrat wants freedom of action: He thinks of himself as a man who respects action above abstraction. He be- lieves in the sixth sense-only the inside professional can handle problems. He secel academic research as either an ivory tower' impediment or irrelevant. He is skeptical about the research p-oduct, even suspicious' of it. If he is a policymaker, his own self-' esteem may be involved. He is not abut to be deprived of all but the ceremonials ps in c,-rtifying policy, with Interpreters, and evaluators, shapers and policy-oriented ad- visers filling up the Interstices of the proce- dures of policymaking. He knows that the' .meanlrg of facts Is not self-evident. It must be construed-and that is big job. He has a strong feeling that while "factual research" may be useful, anything beyond that in a often deserve. Thus as one scholar with field highly questfoneblc residue from the over- experience in Latin America wrote recently: eagerness of social cNCntiste In selling them- "It Is not easy to glue Latin Americans a selves. In lilt. mind's ace he sees peripatetic satisfactory explanation of the role of the squnris of affluent professors and subsidized U.S. Government In the research activity, Investigators "cross-fertilizing" their foreign especially when the research Involved Is mlii- travels. Apart from Its incomprehensibility, tary and uses Inflammatory words like he questions the objectivity, currency, rele-' war ? ? ? and Insurgency In describing the vance, and excessive cast of the research .he research project. ? ? ? It is hard for Latin has seen. Fpr him research In "academic" In Americans to understand why the U.S. Gov- the most pejorative sense. ernment, especially a military agency of it, The Congressmen's view is as varied as the would support research in Latin America, if many-colored strands that make up the rich not for a military purpose." tapestry of congressional sentiment: the Then If something big and dramatic comes watchdog of the Treasury, the promoter of along, like the Army's $6 million unclassified liberal arts for the new all-purpose Amer- counterinsurgency study in Latin America, Ivan soldier, the champion of behavioral re- Project Camelot, the scholar looks like an search, the exposer of excessive governmental agent. Camelot crashed Into the headlines In secrecy, the traditionalist who finds It hard Chile soon after we had landed troops in to jettison the notion that foreign policy Santo Domingo, and it Immediately became should still be considered the proorgatlve of associated with interventionism and milita- the Department of State, and the traditional- rism. Camelot was seen as part of a carefully 1st who finds it hard not to ask day after planned policy. Then when It was discovered day, "Why Isn't something done about the . that our Embassy didn't know about the proj- State Department?" One of the latter ect, the whole episode became all the more recently became so upset about what he conspiratorial In impact, convincing more called "that huge unidentified army of un- critics than ever that our Latin American elected bureaucrats buried In the classified policy Is really being made In the Pentagon. civil service ranks at sub-Cabinet level ? ? ? The fact that such projects have been the career, sedentary, oddball, self-satisfied, planned without conspiratorial intent is im- empire-building bureaucrats infesting the material. A Chilean Assembly debate and State Department" that he has introduced committee Investigation followed, with an a bill to abolish the Department itself. official protest, a banishment, and indeter- The American ambassador naturally Is con- urinate effects on scholars and foreign policy cerned with avoiding embarrassment and alike. political risk, for good relations with foreign The foreign scholar Is not left unscathed nationals are central to his job and repute- by events of this sort. Ideological-political tion. His position often highlights the short- Susceptibilities of Intellectuals and govern- run disadvantages over the longrun advan- went officials in host countries build upon tages of risky research. He must broker the one another and can speed the adverse re- research pressures from Washington against actions, The canons of academic openness needs as he sees them, factor In his own re- take on added importance. There is a quick- porting function, consider the desire of the ened interest In the foreign academic com- host government for some kinds of research munity In the revelation of sources of funds, and Its resistance to others, assist American premises of studies, nature of data, bases of researchers in approaching their foreign conclusions of all U.S. research. Moreover, tasks, and try to keep open his own lines to. no other country has anything quite like our all elements of the society around him. At special phenomena of academic mobility In minimum he will Insist on his right to be and out of Government; so this adds to every- Informed of all U.S. Government-sponsored one's ability to comprehend the fine dis- research In his area. If be Is an ambassador tinctions we make about auspices. A fun- to one of the newly developing nittions, espe- damental American national resource-the cially If he has an academic background him- credibility of the independence of private- self, he may be poignantly aware of the need research-tends to disappear and get lost In for research-and therefore of the Irony that a blurred impression of Governmental In- our consuming new interest in political de- terest. velopment is occurring at just the time when The environment also Includes, of course, doors are closing to sensitive foreign'ac~demic the generally large and available publicity Intervention. on "Invisible Government," with all of the The overreseerched foreigner, be he Af- lurid allegations of pernicious CIA activity. rican prime minister or Asian village chief, At minimum the foreign scholar will want Is beginning to tire of relating his tribal to protect himself from an overldentification antecedents to one eager American Ph, D. with American research; he will want to candidate after another. The number and diversify his contacts and hedge his bets. aggressiveness of our overlapping researchers, As Gabriel Almond has pointed out: the demands on the time and patience of the "This problem exists even for the more hosts, the frequent insensitivity to the sophisticated Indigenous scholar who In not nuances required by dignity and respect, are himself worried about Involvement with the adding up here and there to embarrassment, United States and U.B. sponsored research annoyance, and distaste for a new brand of but who has to worry about the way in "academic imperialism." The guinea-pig which his colleagues or his students will complex begins to fuel latent suspicions of view such involvement." end use. Sometimes It is a question of sim-? The foreign press affords a final perspec- ple quantitative saturation. Other times It tive. It is not only the Communist editor is a question Of ethics and judgment. - ? who waits for every morsel of anti-Amer- Foreign ministers, as our protocol officers at icanism to expollt across his front pages and home and abroad are coming to discover, are for whom the written words of heedlessly beginning to regard internal research in their drafted research projects are an extra countries like Internal Insurgency, as an ex- bonanza. Careless, ill-considered, ineptly tension of International politics. Some for- performed research abroad quickly activates eign governments welcome this development the press and politics of most of the world, and look upon American research as a new embarrassing our friends, delighting our foes, means of cementing their ties with Washing- and promoting both the broad-brush polem- ton. They see our research as a useful, lea of the professional anti-American as well mutually beneficial effort bringing extra as the satirical stilettos of punch. The let- political and economic benefits along with It. ter.' suscrlbera were recently treated to the Whether they favor or oppose It, however, a following replay of the Camelot affair: decision by the U.8. Government to study is "tbe V.S. Defense Department Is collating assumed by foreign governments to beacon- Intelligence on "the Internal conditions and sdoue political act. They .n sttr'lbnte ntotl prose cue Of Set In tortign countries in cam eaUoas and hatsntions to to wbleh we dat'1 Of elvll st Its whlos coWd laid to Ametlaan FEB 7 4 oved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00149R000300450015-7 Contra Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : dA1D'75-00149R000300450015-7 military Involvement..' The next probe could ment of the Secretary or State would ad- problem, the relativities of mtmbers, talents, be prartiatlly anywhere, versely affect United States foreign rein- gaps, strains, informal roles; of the uneven- "internal war potential (estimate) : This tions." Thcrrforc he commissioned my sec- ness of interests, needs, and attention to summary to be completed by senior agent in and remainin^ ch.Lractrr to establish effec- specific subjects at specific tunes, country concerned, and returned to depart- tive procedure:, -.;nd that character is the Our own daily experience has taught us something about work-impact: ratios and cost meat R Pentagon, ainehlagton, Secretary of Stain hi .t tale . ,,Country: Great Britain, The Secretary of State looked at this re- effectiveness. We know something too about or an audinnce which "Current relation to U.S. cline ally: No. fostered research both as of coa man who had writing llege professor Include fa spectrumoof re de?ship from d se may o class IV IY. Now reclassifled class III shading t "Current government: Democratic, mild and college dean, and as president of the officer to President. Our own Bureau Is living Socialist, weak. Rockefeller Foundation-a man who has testimony to the tolerance of the rest of the "Current opposition (If any) : Democratic, shown a positive and personal interest in the Department of State for a very vibrant, criti- mlld Socialist, ultraweak. research activities in his own Department. cal, independent group of scholars, writing "Potential strong man: NIl. Monty? Old Secretary Rusk stated his own belief in the in its very midst, fearless of policy control. and pro-Nino, but antlqueer. Ask Ike. value of research when he told a congres- We lay no claim to extrasensory perception "Potential junta: Choose from Gavin slonal committee recently that "research has about the relations about schotlars and forei g Astor,* Randolph Churchill,* Douglas Insole, become indispensable to the intelligent policy; or even all he f Lord Chandos, Enoch Powell,* Sir Cyril Os- formulation and implementation of for ien- varietiie are o, esearcnot patience. But what- borne, Edward Martell. Approach names policy." contribution that the social and, behav- We know something aboult the repertory -' starred tactfully. ues. .-Military preparedness: 4,000 bearskins, I (oral sciences can make to foreign policy and of~eeearcn teellhaigresearch design when we TSR-2, best ceremonial cannon In Europe, has welcomed the increased interest of other Rudimentary navy, three unexploded H- Government departments in social and posit- seeVoenknow that some questions are funda- bombs (1950 vintage). Three new rival staff ical research on foreign affairs. cars at drawinboard stage. unresearchab have that rocket-Blue Something? ,t Chthe At the same eck sponsorship oftiresearch can he very sensi- m Wesunde stand that lit makes some differ- and report. tive in our relations with foreign countries, ence whether one sees research from within "Mood of populace: Apathetic. and that there are stages of sensitivity that or without. "Indications of Communist leanings:' turn first upon the auspices of the research We are well aware that the temptation in- Eagerness to trade with Red China (or any- and secondly on the subject matter. side the Government is to deal with the Im- body); notorious socialized medicine; hys- In his experience with a major founds- mediate and neglect the long term__ and terical press-inspired anti-Americanism over tion, Secretary Rusk learned years ago that fundamental. Cuba, Vietnam, Dominica, Rembrandt; fall sensitivity exists whenever nationals of one We know something about the problem of ure to distinguish between East and West country move Into another country to in- interacting bureaucracies. Germans as objects of distaste; fury over vestigate matters that are sensitive there. We know that there are varying margins American military buildup (especially arms He knows that some research that can be of influence for research, an for all other ac- sales successes); poor evangelical record; done on a purely private basis becomes' tive elements that affect the governmental adoption of Centigrade thermometer. Con- sensitive when any government becomes process. knows that know is, that disinteres cult psychological department re their mother; still eatdhighwh It. er He bf sensit vityt if re the alders just as t ere rarer disin erected out- love quotient. armed forces of a foreign country are in- eiders. . "Probable course of crisis: Deadlock of volved in the research. As he told the Con- We know that one of the problems is how reache II ca sing trust on among Government leftwing already gress, "the promised value of research under- to keep interested insiders fruitfully In touch acts especially flu one Frank Cousins (cur- taken to support our foreign policy must be with interested outsiders and still preserve all re ly neutralized on Cabinet post)balanced against the costs of doing it In concerned from the taints of special interest a t He may attempt y attemt coup bw the Ca snit , terms of possible damage to our foreign rela- and conflict of interest. do backing, stimulating m with maters trade tions." Clearly someone has to make that We know that Ideally there should be k lie landowners and business inecountercoup by initial judgment, better mix of research efforts within Govern- faction ce and bfo ante internal latter The Director of Intelligence and Research meat and between Government and the faction certain to ship (see appendix Sendix dfor is my remaining character. An chairman of scholarly world-a better balance between ree t history over leadership frsCip (see appendix 0 for a new Foreign Affairs Research Council, he research and operations, between depart- .compare our our def cuCoeservahve Party and has been given the responsibility by the Sec- mental in-house and external research, be- rec recent will give excuse t with Intervene and eon), as- but retary for making this judgment' It will tween Government and private research, be- Reds t Shock troops of. not surprise you to hear that I consider the tween basic and applied research. sume ms command o of f cos country. . Shock g' assignment a reasonable one. Like all intelligent men, we stop to ask so-called Intellectuals reported to be forming ourselves now and then: What Is objectivity? guerrilla groups in Hampstead, Islington, and THE BUREAU OF INTELLIGENCE AND RESEARCH We are aware that the needs of government most campuses. Since the end of World War II our bureau have led to some distortion of academic de- "Suggested military action by United has been the Department's research arm. velopment. For example, the "human rela- States Nil: Loss of GB unlikely to affect Our professional analysts are widely ac- teens area" files contain as many source pa- events in southeast Asia, might even simplify quainted with and respected by private pars on Vietnam as on all of taouth America" things. Anyway, it's a little country and a scholars specializing In foreign affairs, We We are as concerned as anyone else over long way away. Didn't someone say that were the first in Government to establish a the tendency of bad' research to drive out about some place, some time? Check with specific staff, the Office of External Re- good. records." search, based on our conviction that social We are all in favor of letting sleeping A FIRM NATIONAL POLICY and behavioral research outside Government dogmas lie. ' .? I emphasized earlier that most of these was making an essential contribution to We know that there has been in the past. Illustrations were hypothetictil. All the foreign policy. For 15 years this office has and undoubtedly is today, a cultural lag be- served as a bridge between Government re- tween scholarly discovery and the making of more char to acters, s, so, none of because wooIm ha are ve hypo- tyro- search needs and resources and the academic ellsy' the advent of the Sino-Soviet rift need do more char thetical. I take them In order of rank, , community concerned with foreign affairs. p being just one dramatic case in point. Thus o the daily work li our bureau many We know, as advanced social scientists starting with- have found ourselves 'dealing with of f have known right along, that Government, The President of the United States: The the varieties of research experieh manence which like society, needs a continuing refinement eyes partly Washington were publicity, this som we have just discussed. and clarification of its goals, a deliberate re- Inside the Government our direct experi- ordering of its priorities, a constant raising of the problems and issues mentioned above. ence with the potirs has provided a to the level of consciousness of Its categories The President quickly decided to establish a miniature distillation on of of s some of the overall of preferred events. firm national policy on the main new issue problems of the scholar and foreign policy. We are absolutely comtnetted to the propo- that concerned the Government-the posii- In principle the interest is enormous and the ninon that there .1s a greater need for re countries. adverse effect of Government activity market huge. But our scholars are more search and u h eratandlni; greater other countries. in research on foreign relations. He wrote a aware than most of the problems of research Indeed we may know, better than most, letter which recognizing this possible harm, consumption: of the congestion of material; what exciting opportunities in foreign af- specified that proposals for such research of the proliferation and confluence of exces- fats confront the research world. should be examined to Insure their propriety sive paper at the top of the Government; of We suspect that our future needs will be in this respect. In his letter the President; the absorption limits of even the most ball-. greater than our present ones. said : 1 "0 ? ? l am determined that no Gov leant policymakers; of the temptations to ernmenf ty nsorship of foreign area research take arms a convinced that reser all the values po against a sea of papers, and by are e acknowledged, the preservation of two should be undertaken which In the Judo' opposing, and them; of the quantity-quality perspectives, one governmental and one aca- ? For test, no aniletin of Ant, 'JS, 106S. P. demic, remains Indispensable, that homog- I For background, see ibid., Sept, 20.-.196S.- eplzation and tendencies toward it are In- p. 496., herentiy undesirable: FEB 7 A,ved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00149R000300450015-7 Continued FEB Page 6 ApprovedIFlor~F ~oe,ps i2000a0862 oP Cthe IA~RDP75-001498000300450015-7 nos research conducted with the help of such search organizations inside Government PL??e n encies as the Office of Education or the us a special stake in the detachment. nt?d T,,,p,trt.m'nt of Agriculture. Moreover, we depth to which private research at it ht t ,i i?k the grants made by the National Set- ts conducive. To the degree that the i-v:, ,.,,ccr'oundation to American scholars dif- research community can exercise its un*rnt for substantially from contracts and grants Ineled good judgment, free from outsi,le made by other U.S. Government agencies pressures, any and all, real and imaginary,,- which are usually designed to produce an- private research can continue to generate the swers to questions of operational significance basic Intellectual capital on which we de- to the agencies. It does not seem to us de- pend. suable to impose tin private research proj- Because In the past the State Department ects supported by the NSF the review and has not supported empirical, quantitative clearance necessary for foreign affairs re- studies that require large resources, we have search funded by operating agencies. been charged with being intellectually con- In the first case-the overseas operating scrvative. The fact is that we have never agencies-we shall In general request them had the resources to be anything but con- to make no commitment until we have had scrvative in these matters. Nevertheless we an opportunity to review the proposal and recognize the need to find a new balance be- give them our clearance. We have told them tween private endowments and public sup- that they should expect our response with- port to assure the necessary sustenance of in 2 weeks. In the second case-all other social science research. Many of us are con- agencies, except the NSF-we shall ask them cerncd that the overall flow of Government to Inform us of their proposed projects. funds to social scientists studying foreign They will not need an explicit clearance from societies should net be.reduced, but aug- the State Department to go ahead. mented. Third, the procedures will clearly state the Hence, even as we assume our new role of: belief that the sponsoring agency is the best screening Government-sponsored research judge of a project related to its mission. We for possible foreign policy damage, we are have no. Intention of second-guessing any well aware that our major function is not other Government agency. Its views as to to stifle research but to encourage It. We ' the value of a study will be taken fully into have no Intention of deciding for other' account. Our review will not mean state Government agencies what research is or Is Department endorsement of a project; rather not important, how much they should spend - the purpose is limited to the avoidance of or whom they should hire, or what methods' damage to our foreign relations. their researchers should employ. The spon- , Fourth, our review does not extend to soring agency has been and will continue to grants to academic institutions for general be the best judge of the value of a research i purposes related to foreign affairs research. project in meeting its own needs. State De- : We are concerned with support of specific partment review Is solely for the purpose of research projects having the explicit approval safeguarding our foreign relations from pre- of 'other Government agencies. dictable harm. Fifth, we are concerned with the initiation THE NEW PROCEDURES of projects that could stir up sensitivities I know that there has been grave concern overseas, not with controlling the findings of over the procedures which will govern our Government-supported research. We will new clearance responsibilities. Those pro- not censor research reports or in any other cedures themselves will shortly be released. way attempt to influence the findings of In the Department we have set up machin_ scholars whose work enjoys Government ery to review the foreign affairs research pro- funding, posals of other agencies both thoroughly and Sixth, and most important, the responsi- expeditiously. This will be done by a Foreign bility for the wise expenditure of research Affairs Research Council, which r chair. The funds remains in each agency under the other members represent the Department's authority of the President and the Congress. Policy Planning and Politico-Military Affairs The State Department has not become, and Offices and our regional and functional bu- does not wish to be, the controller for Gov- reaus. Our Office of External Research will ernmcnt foreign affairs research. stmt! the Council, handling directly the bulk In these procedures we have made every of proposals which I am sure can be re- allowance for ease and speed so as to facil- viewed quickly and positively and will not state research. We hope these procedures require Council action, In addition to decid- will not prove cumbersome. Should they Ing difficult cases, the Council also has been become so In spite of our best judgment at charged by the Secretary with determining present, they can easily be modified. In fact Department needs for external research and we plan to review the procedures in 6 months setting our policy with regard to such re- in consultation with interested Government search, agencies and the Bureau of the Budget. Our review procedures, drawn up In con- Hence, to all of our farfiung and inter- sultation with the Bureau of the Budget, will ested audiences-on the campuses, in Wash. shortly be in the hands of 20 other Govern- ington, and abroad-let me conclude by say- ment agencies. Let me tell you what our' ing that we Intend to carry out the Presi- guidelines will be. First, we are concerned dent's mandate for the protection of our for- only with research projects in the social and. eign relations, and of Government and pri- behavloral sciences dealing with Interna- vate research, against some of the hazards tional relations, or with foreign areas and to which they have recently been exposed, peoples, conducted in the United States or But we do not intend to Inaugurate an age abroad, which are supported by Federal of procedural overkill. No one I know aspires agencies. We have no intention and no au-: to be a Lord High Executioner of foreign thority to review either private research of' policy research. None of us have "little lists" research conducted within an agency by. (of projects) that never would be missed. Government employees. If you as a scholar interested In foreign Second, we distinguish between two kinds policy research should ask me whether this of research: that supported by the foreign will be the winter of our discontent, I would affairs, defense, and Intelligence agencies; say no. And if you ask me how all the am- and that supported by all other Government. biguitles, uncertainties, and portentous Sol- agencies, such as the major domestic do onion's choices will be resolved. I can only partments or the basic research agencies, think of Velasquez, who, when asked how he To us this distinction is a very Important mixed his colors, replied, "With taste." We one. We see a substantial difference be- hope to clothe our judgments with wisdom, 1966 tween the foreign policy 'risks of research Inform our doubts with discretion, Imple- or the De- #all deliberate speed's ordet~-mad do It w1tL.. 7 1966 on of conducted the Departmentu of support partment of Defense, for instance, and the Approved For Release 2000/08/27 : CIA-RDP75-00149R000300450015-7