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June 1, 1975
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Approved For Release 2001/IPt1~19FMe77-00432R00010036000t 7 INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. NO. 11 GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS EAST ASIA PAGE 1 Destroy after backgrounder has served its purpose or within 60 days, Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 :,CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 tf.' IlY ICJ Y>.1 a!:\t' .'?. aili: 1;1 a r~~ n :a ?"b ai(:`J t~,"'-"' f'a17. IIa' iiyl~ '. ""I' ?', ~~c.; 1?: '; V, a-: _ ^sseciel "arrangements" with big corpora- `' lions. All this is especially convenient for Kissinger, who controls the official agen- cies of the Intelligence Community as well as the State Department. Kissinger's secret practices have included wiretapping his closest aides to insure their personal !cyatty. and overthrowing "irresponsible" governments, even if they happen to be cemocratically elected. Kissinger resents having to answer for his actions to anyone, except-possibly--the president. This, then. raises the fundamental question of r oral-and probably legal-responsibility on the part of presidents of the United States and their National Security Advisers (this is the post that Kissinger holds along with that In McCarthy's case, the CIA was especial- W. Secretary of State) forthe resultant deaths ly interested in the private sources that fed of men in foreign lands. him the information to c n t i witch- Typic~Igplniwgd oir. E l e,2~}tli/616/08 :CIA T7eO9JeV QPd t ~ -Mke the these actions, although t:izc:i ,ger needs ii for the S25 billion a year it gives his intelli- Bence network- But even this huge amount cf money (about'S percon; ,f our overall. national budget) is a. ull;- hidden under innocent-sounding line itcrr.t. fn the federal budget. It is another of Henry Kissinger'; many secrets. The $25 biilicn figure may s=ound excessively high-most published estimates have set it at around $10 billion -but in calculating the real total one must take into account the huge sums spent 4c.-ouch military appropriations for the In- telligence Community's ever-growing technological requirements. Billions are s:e^ton satellite reconnaissance. (A recent examp;e of the Intelligence Community's expenditures is the nearly $600 million spent. with Kissinger's specific approval, on but:ding and operating a deep-sea salvage ship designed to recover secretly a Soviet submarine that sank in the Pacific in 1968.) After the publication of disclosures last December that the CIA had been heavily involved in domestic spying activities, Presi- tent Ford named a "blue-ribbon" panel i:eaded by Vice President Nelson Rockefel- er (until recently a presidential adviser on eign intelligence) to investigate. just what the agency had been doing at home. Under a broader mandate, covering overseas intel- ;iyerce operations as well, special Senate and House committees undertook parallel- .- -depth investigations of theirown. Senator F.-=_'^k Church of Idaho, chairman of the Sen- a:& s Select Committee on intellic nce AC- summed it all up in these words: "My o is-riding concern is the.growth of Big government in this country, and the c-c.-ct threat that this represents to the -eecom of the people." And later, when 1tii:,c circulated of possible CIA involve- Tyr--_ assassination plots. Church added, "in absence of war, no agency of the a- rent can have a license to murder: _'esldent can't be a 'Godfather. " ' -ere have been many disclosures in re- .,_ . '-oaths about spying by the CIA and FBI on American citizens suspected- grotesque reasons-of ties c' 'r:c;vements with Soviet, Cuban, North K:-_=_r:. and many other intelligence ser- vices. There have been endless well.-docu- mented stories of wiretaps. illegal break- ins, and the tens of thousands of political files kept, Gestapo-like, on American citi- zens by the CIA, the FBI, and the Army Coun- terintelligence Corps. The CIA has admitted keeping dossiers on New York's Democratic Congresswoman Bella Abzug and three other members of Congress. It refused to name these other congressmen, but Penthouse has learned that they are Wisconsin's Senator Joseph McCarthy and Oklahoma's Robert Kerr- both now deceased-and Senator Hubert H. Humphrey of Minnesota. According to authoritative sources, in the early 1950s the CIA engineered the burglarizing of McCarthy's and Kerr's offices to gain ac- cess to their files. The files were photo-. graphed or, the spot and, presumably, are Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 dea of Joe McCarthy knowing something at the CIA's chiefs didn't know. Senator Kerr was in his time one of the ost powerful and influential politicians in he U.S. The CIA was hungry for secret po- itical knowledge. Furtheimore. Kerr; a mil- ienaire, was highly active in worldwide oil .perations, particularly in the Middle East if intelligence was as crucial to the CIA enty, years ago as it is today. The CIA reportedly began its dossier on enator Humphrey just before he became ce president in 1965. Penthouse sources ~vere unable to say either why the CIA kept a ile on Humphrey or what it contained, ex- ept that the agency evidently wanted to ve as much confidential material as pos- ible-on the man who held our second-high st elective office. The disclosure that the CIA, which is le- ally only supposed to operate overseas, as been spying on Americans and their lected representatives is obviously dis-- uieting. However, the public testimony of IA Director William E. Colby before Con- ress raises more questions than it answers; nd it serves to cast doubt on all his denials f illegal CIA activity. - Let's look at the record: On January 15. 975, Colby denied'that the CIA engaged in embers of Congress. On February 20 he estified that "over the past eight years, our ounterintelligence program-holdings have ress." On March 5, Mrs. Abzug made pub- c conte.its of her CIA file, which went back the 1950s-thus contradicting Colby's laim that such surveillance went back only ight years. Moreover, on March 5, Colby stified that Mrs. Abzug was one of four group :vas infiltrated by government agents; embers of Congress on whom files were it is aiso possible that the CIA's own opera- ept as part of the agency's operations tion in Portugal was similarly infiltrated. The gainst Vietnam war protesters. He also presumed reason for this CIA activity was aid that one of the other congressmen was Kissir,ger's fear that the U.S. might lose its o longer alive. air-naval bases in the Azores if left-leaning Innumerable questions are raised by this Portuguesemilitary rulers remained in pow- stimony. Three of the more obvious are: Sr. (The Azores, of course. are considered ow many members of Congress have been - vital for refueling U.S. aircraft flying to Israel pied upon by the CIA since it was estab- shad in 1947? Colby testified that tiles ere kept on four members of Congress overthe past eightyears." But atleastthree I the congressmen we know of (McCarthy, err, and Abzug) have or had files, going ack to' the 1950s. Secondly. are the four eople we know of Vietnam war protesters? nd thirdly, Colby said that one of the con- ressmen was dead-but we know of two ho are deceased. The questions can go on nd on. Ron Ziegler clearly has to take a ackseat to Colby as the master of the "in- erved as president of the Malagasy Repub- ic for for only six days, was killed on February 11 by members of the Mobile Police Group, a special police unit; in a crisis that--ever, from the CIA's viewpoint had gotten out of hand. Ratsimandrava had replaced General Gabriel Ramanantsoa as a result of a coup carried out by the special police. However, Ratsimandrava was apparently unaccept- able to the Mobile Police Group, which is known to have CIA ties. American interest in Malagasy lay chiefly in the securing of mili- tary facilities at the former French naval base at Diego-Suarez to fit into the broader scheme of new U.S. bases in the Indian Ocean; most importantly at the entrance to the oil-rich Persian Gulf. This was the sec- ond known U.S.. attempt to obtain base rights from a reluctant Malagasy govern- ment. In January 1972 the American ambas- sador to Malagasy, Anthony D. Marshall, a career CIA officer elevated to ambassador by Nixon in 1969, was asked to leave amidst charges that he vias directing a plot against the government However, the government fell anyway four months later. Marshall. whose CIA cover was never blown publicly. is now ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago, a strategic Caribbean nation. - ? In both 1974 and 1975 the CIA was also deeply engaged in covert operations in Por- tugal, where the world's oldest dictatorship had just been thrown out of po.ver. There are easons to believe that the CIA was in close touch with the military group of General ~ntonio de Spinola. who led an abortive coup against the provisional government on March 11. The actual extent of direct CIA involvement is still unclear, but it is known that the coup failed because the oletters' in the- event of a new Arab-Israeli war.) Al- though there are experts who disagree with Kissinger on the absolute need to retain bases in the Azores, the administration felt so strongly about the Portugal operation that it gave the CIA the go-ahead to establish a worxing relationship with General Spinola. ? Notwithstanding an earlier window- dressing reduction in personnel, the Intelli- gence Community has continued to expand its g!obal operations, with emphasis on technological intelligence both at home and abroad. This accounts for its total yearly perative" statement. . budget of some S25 billion. This money in- Since Watergate, Americans have eludes immensely expensive research and earned of the Nixon plan for a massive do- development of science-fiction intelligence nestic intelligence apparatus-the nearest equipment. The funds are buried in the hing we've ever had in the U.S. to a blue- Pentagon:s budget. For example, the Air he above Colby, the Intelfi- for `,c-:d,ide satellite reconnaissance. ence Community has not reformed since ? Despite public disclosures, the Intel- ore of what Penthouse has learned of the ^ e:r Secret tiles on Americans although not a s been proved to be a foreign intelli- 'Community's" more-recent activities: one. c Despite the outcry over its intervention ;ence agent. (Ironically, the CIA announced 1; i h " t as stopped destroying files '~ that C n Chile, the CIA was involved early in 1975 P'' i i f gat ons o the Intelligence n an attempt to overthrow the government of 1 - ?nvest he Malagasy Republic (the Indian Ocean Ccr^.m iity are in progress.) These master make an American police state a real possi bility-should a new Nixon come along, or even i` one doesn't. The Intelligence Corn- r.unity. originally intended as an instrument for gathering foreign intelligence, has gown into such an immense and powerful burea.:cracy that, in effect. it vi rtual ly const*- :.;tes a federal police force-something we have a rays rejected as anathema. And. of course. we still have "national security" ,.vire:azs. ? The National Security Agency, the Pen-- :ago--inked electronic intelligenceorgani- za::c- :'at covers the world with its 125,00 a^r'c c ees and a S11 billion annual budget. S" Sc ec:ively monitors and transcribes :ay uncounted thousands of interna- :ic^a echone calls between the U.S. and. _~-2. ccir.ts. Considering that over sixty overseas calls-both incoming and c.:::_ -2-will have been made this year. - :i;jde of this eavesdropping opera- :rcr .; staggering. It violates. needless to sa; : e :vil rights of Americans using ir. :e--a: ra_I telephone communications for o? business matters (what spy in his r:cni: -.C would use an open phone line to discuss espionage or sabotage?). The NSA falls back on the lame excuse that this prac- tice is part of foreign intelligence protection for the U.S. It goes without saying that all international calls by foreign diplomats are monitored for intelligence-collection pur- poses. Transcripts of all monitored overseas calls-and, in many cases of intercepted radiograms and telegrams-are given to the CIA and the FB1 and, when requested, to Kissinger's National Security Council The NSA has also quietly encouraged il- legal break-ins by agents of other intelli- gence agencies of the foreign embassies in Washington to steal code books. Code- breaking is one of the NSA's chief functions. ? An obscure "private airline" with strong CIA ties, an outfit called Birdair (after its "owner," William H. Bird),-suddenly in Sep- tember 1974 became a major carrier of am- munition and food from Thailand to Cambo- dia aboard huge C-130 Air Force transports provided under a Pentagon contract. Birdair has a close relationship to the worldwide network of CIA-owned "airlines," the most notorious of which is Air America, Inc., op- erating in Indochina. When outraged Americans try to discover exactly what this vast Intelligence Commu-' nity is, what it does (and how and why), and whether it protects their security, rights, and liberties or threatens them, the official an- swer-and the answer usually accepted in the past by both a basically indifferent pub- lic and the blindly trusting and unquestion- ing congressional committees theoretically in charge of CIA "oversight"-is that U.S. Intelligence concerns itself with the collec- tion overseas of information vital to the na- tional security. This, of course, is only an. elegant phrase for espionage-and it is part of a tacit international "gentlemen's agree- ment" that everybody spies on everybody else: the CIA, the Soviet KGB, the British MI-6, the French SDT, the Israeli Ha-Mosad, the Cuban DGS, and so on. But more recently. U.S. Intelligence has admitted conducting-even if usually only when caught red-handed at it-a number of covert political and paramilitary operations el. Richard RatsimandA} ro d P dR 'Ali r i ~ at 2Yi' pa ti~n~21 i4~ ~~ 1a anctimoniously, the CIA ays justify themselves Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 on the grounds that their destruction of. Vietcong sympathizers in South Vietnam. At foreign governments, or attempts at it, is in the same time, police experts provided by the best interests of the cause of democracy the Agency for International Development in the affected countries. This was the ex- (supposedly the humanitarian supplier of cuse for doing away with leftist regimes in economic development funds) were busy Iran in 1953, in Guatemala in 1954, in the supervising President Nguyen Van Thieu's Congo in 1960, and in Chile in 1973. It was ."tiger-cage prisons for political opponents also the excuse for the abortive Bay of Pigs (the cages themselves were designed and invasion of Cuba in 1961. And, among many built by the U.S. Navy in California under an others, the Congo's Patrice Lumumba, AID contract). In Greece. ba ey-.leaders of_ Chile's Salvador Allende Gossens, and the now ousted "colonels' junta.- a singu- Colonel Ratsimandrava of the Malagasy ;_ry bru'ai d:c_a-^rshio. were actually on -___ Republic were killed in the process of de- = C=y~yilylri Boli,via, Ct- agents" mocracy being subverted by the CIA. The r.?'3rr~vO :3C,' in :lushirR9-0u an i irg the agency had also considered assassinating nap!ess C^e Guevara and his ill-advised Cuba's Premier Fidel Castro and Haiti's rer~ocda cc,: panions. In snort; wher- President Francois Duvalier-and it may ever;:-era is'aa '.natty-dictat6 liip in power, well have had a hand in the 1961 murder of cu can de cef:ain of finding CIA represen- the Dominican Republic's dictator, Rafael :_:Ives in cad with the local executioners Trujillo. The CIA had no ideological prob- and priscr.-rnas,,ars, many of whom were )ems with Duvalier and Trujillo, but they :rained in tre United States by the CIA and .academies were apparently "getting out of control." In ''er4i PC[;-!:' connection with these murder plans, the CIA In the Uni:ed States all the crisscrossing !developed a cozy relationship with the 'ltelligence operations are supposedly Mafia. ccnduucted for the purpose of counterespio- foreign politicians of lesser renown-to say nothing of various American and foreign in- telligence agents and quite innocent peo- pie who just found themselves caught in the midst of some CIA operation-lost either their lives or their freedom in the last quar- er-century as a consequence of our govern- ment's meddling in the affairs of other na- tions. And nobody knows just how many for- eign politicians, military officials, labor and student leaders, and the like were bought, suborned. and corrupted by the CIA as it insouciantly went about weaving networks of secret agents. When earlier this year congressional committees began probing into the activi- ties of the Intelligence Community, Presi- dent Ford expressed private concern that if carried too far the investigations could un- earth political assassinations abroad autho- rized by his predecessors. Subsequently Ford said that he would personally look into : assassination charges, and he added that he "condemned" such operations. The un- written law is that the president of the United States must personally approve the order for the political murder of an important foreign figure by American agents. If an assassina- tion "contract" is given a CIA-employed for- eigner, however, the agency can act on its own. While these would be "selective" as- sassinations, the agency has been indirect- ly responsible for thousands of deaths in such foreign operations as the war waged by its' "Clandestine Army" in Laos, 'the Phoenix program in Vietnam (see below), the 1954 Guatemala Civil War, the Bay of Pigs, the secret air operations in the Congo in the 1960s, and supporting the Indonesian rebellion in 1965. Additionally, the CIA has trained right- wing Cambodian and Ugand-n guerrillas at secret bases in Greece and Tibetan guerril- las in the mountains of Colorado. The question the CIA and other members of the intelligence Community never an- swered was why, in the light of their demo- cratic protestations, they have always allied themselves with the most repressive and reactionary regimes in the world. In Viet- nam, for example, the CIA pioneered the infamous "Operation Phoenix," which was nothing less than a wholesale program fo- .. kilt; F u, a, lu u,a at at the inception of t assassinating over 20.0009k0~VUJaeFWRe99er,2 4./fi8/" :itCk9, WPGT7tQ R oa t was General Cushm Nobody knows exactly how many other rage-in o her words, to intercept foreign spies and -oiittcal operatives. (Oneshou!d.note in passing, however, the )double s ..dard implicit in this whole con- cept we consider it criminal for foreign agents to oceratz covertly in the U.S., and rightly so. b::t the CIA and its confreres think nothing of subverting the governments of oJercountries. Although there is no Ameri- can law against it, such subversion clearly violates international law. It is a form of ag- --a_sion prohibited by the UN Charter which the United States helped to draft.) fn, any e` =_nk. wnat u,e iiitelligence'Co~Ti- muniy has teen doing domestically-and continues to do-far exceeds counteres- pionage re c-s. And this is where the dan- cer of a colice state comes in: In the aid-:960s (no. Nixon wasn't the original ,:nett; al:r:c_gh he raised domestic snoop `.rg to tine !eveii of an art), the Intelligence n' ^c{ it upon itself to police any form of dissent against the Establishment. 'Everything-from the antiwar movement to civil rights campaigns-was suspect. The late J. Edgar Hoover assembled im- mense files on just about everybody in pub- lic life, from congressmen (fourteen of them) to actors and newspaper scribes. His FBI wiretapped such civil rights leaders as Dr. Martin Luther King. The paranoid notion be- hind it all was that American dissenters simply must be under sinister foreign influ- ences; why else would they object to Ameri- can policy? (But Attorney General Edward Levi also testified in February that the FBI had been repeatedly "misused" by past presidents for political purposes.) More recently, Army counterintelligence agents, who legally have no business spy- ing on civilians, built a computerized data bark, reportedly containing around 100,000 names, at their Fort Holabird, Maryland, headquarters. The Air Force's Office of Spe- cial Investigations (OSI), which theoreti- cally is responsible for the physical security of installations, launched a program to iden- tify and weed out Black Panthers from among the ranks of airmen. Internal OSI documents depicted perilous Blade Panther conspiracies in the Air Force. Then the CIA, whose charter clearly restricts it to intelli- gence operations abroad, entered the do- agents to penetrate peace groups and ra cal movements. Not to be left behind by tt, FBI and the Pentagon, the CIA put toget its own secret lists. which include at le the four congressmen. Because of its e mous manpower, financial, and technolo cal resources, the CIA proceeded secm to train domestic police forces--most n bly in Washington. New York, and Chi go-in complex intelligence crafts so th local cops could better anticipate, monitc and control antiwar demonstrations ether civil disturbances. The Washingt police department has officially admitt 1940s and that they were "intensified" 1969-the year Nixon took office. Inasm as the 1947 law that created the CIA spec this friendly effort was a flagrant violation the statute. Returning the favor, selec police departments began providing C agents with local police credentials to faci fate their undercover work at home. When the CIA's involvement in domes political espionage was publicly disclo late in 1974, the agency, in the midst of gathering scandal, rather incredibly to reasons to suspect that such radical grou _ as the Black Panthers were trained in Aig CIA kept insisting on this, even though presidential commission which includ agency representatives had concluded far back as 1968 that there were no ti between antiwar activists and other mi tants and foreign intelligence services. Another explanation offered the co gressmen was that, because of Hoover's rationality. the FBI dropped its counter pionage functions-and the CIA simply h to fill the vacuum. When. for example, to eign agents were known to be traveling the United States-their movements abro were tracked by the agency's counterint ligence staff--the CIA, according to this a gument. had no choice but to assign its o men to establish surveillance over th upon their arrival here. This may well be tru and quite reasonable in the CIA's eyes, b the agency violates the law for presumab valid reasons, there is simply no tel ling wh the next "one-time exception" is going to b The temptation to keep increasing domest operations is just too great. in fact, these temptations were clang ously increased when Nixon, one of t CIA's best friends from his vice-president days, assumed office in 1969 and realiz the extraordinary possibilities that the gro ing domestic intelligence apparatus offer him politically. Nixon was the chief Whi House executive officer in the planning the Bay of Pigs operation. He was one of t few people outside the Intelligence Co munity to receive what the CIA calls " shit" briefings-that is, the whole unva nished truth about covert operations-d ing his tenure as vice president. and one his first acts as president was to appoint h old friend. Marine Corps General Robert Cushman. Jr., as Deputy Director of Centr Intelligence and Deputy CIA Director. :his appointment. Nixon gained a priva Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 rrt.'~er tnan helms (conveniently out of town recent years. Under Eisenhower, foreign Loring international telephone and cabt- ?~at day) wf;3 received E. Howard Hunt, the Policy was controlled by Secretary of State communicatic . The NSA's authority?1o W bite House "plumber." to arrange for CIA John Foster Dulles and his brother Allen W. this kind of domestic monitoring is at bps logistics support for the planned break-ins. Dulles. the Director of-Central Intelligence. murky. Privately. officials say that the aged: At tie Justice Department (where the In- Under Nixon, and now under Ford, Kissin- cy currently derives its authority from ti,- -.3r-al Security Division performs an intelli- ger alone controls both these strands of for- 1968 wiretap law providing that nothing it gents function alongside the FBI). Nixon eign policymaking. Since coherent policy it "shall limit the Constitutional power o was represented by his close friend Attor- cannot be formulated without the input of the President to take such ,measures as nzyGeneral Jchn Mitchell. Thiswas particu- intelligence, Kissinger acts both as the pro- deems necessary to. protect the natio 'arty crucial for Nixon's gradual takeover of ducer of intelligence and its principal can. against actual or potential or ether hostif whole domestic intelligence apparatus sumer. This is one.of the main sources of his acts by foreign powers. to obtain fore irv Luring the period before Hoover's death in extraordinary power. intelligence information deemed essentia May 1972. Despite Hoover's strenuous ob- Kissinger is also the chairman of the top- to the security of the United States, or t sections. Nixon succeeded in July 1970 in secret "Forty Committee" of the National protect nationsl security information again setting up the Interagency Committee on Security Council, the five-man body in foreign activities." The question that results. Intelligence-the members were the CIA. charge of major covert intelligence opera- however, is whether the president must o the FBI. the National Security Agency, and tions abroad. In this context, Kissinger re- fain an across-the-board court order a .ha Defense Intelligence Agency-to ex- ports only to the president (one likes to as- thorizing the massive surveillance repre- and domestic intelligence activities. This surne that he does so in every case). Colby sented by the NSA's monitoring of private concept emerged from a "For Eyes Only" is Kissinger's subordinate in the Forty Com- international communications, or whathe memorandum drafted for Nixon by his aide, mit:ee (t to name is derived from the number separate court orders are needed in each Tom Charles Huston, which proposed that of the NSC document that set up this group case. This is a point on which the Supreme 'present procedures should be changed to in 1969, replacing similar past committees Court must rule. permit intensification of coverage of indi- with other numerical designations), which In the meantime, the NSA claims that it ::duals and groups in the United States .who further. strengthens Kissi,tiger's hold- over derives its authority from the president, and rose a major threat to the internal security." U.S. Intelligence. lrraddition, Kissinger runs that---given the volume of overseas phone Huston. admitting in his memo that much of: the NSC7ntelligenceCommitteeand.the_Net calls it monitors-it would simply be im- Vdhat he was recommending was.unlawfut, Assessments-Group. practical to seek individual court orders. bserved that "present restrictions on legal The members of the USIB are the CIA What we do not know, however, is whether overage should be relaxed on selective (making- Colby both the chairman and a President Ford has moved for a blanket argots of priority foreign intelligence and constituent member), the National Security court order, or whether he has authorized internal security interest.... Covert cover- Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency, the NSA (as evidently his predecessor age- is illegal and there are serious risks the State Department's small but excellent have done) to eavesdrop on international involved. However, the advantages-to be Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR), communications on the basis of his inherent derived from its use outweigh the risks: This, the FBI, and,, most recently, the Treasury powers. technique is particularly valuable in identi- Department.. The Treasury was added be= In any event, it appears that the NSA f fying espionage agents and other contacts cause?of its participation in the antinarcotics doing its monitoring from the seven loca- of foreign intelligence services." program (the CIA is also working on nar- tions in the United States where the Amer'r- GivenNixon'sturn ofmind, itshould.come cotics.though, ironically, its agents often can Telephone and Telegraph Comps as .. +t, a t ?ti. f , + with + ooerates international phone exchanges .a surprise that ha enthusiastically en- collaborate With heroin ti. nigglers in ind& dorsed Huston's reasoning and forced -the _ china) and because of the fact that it runs the -New York City; White Plains, N.Y., Spring Intelligence Community to go along with it. expanded-Secret Service: The Atomic En- field, Mass.; Jacksonville, Fla.; Pittsburgh, After all. Nixon had a "police"'mentality. ergy.Commission was a USIB member until Pa.; Oakland, Calif.; and Denver, Colo. Few people may know it, but his first ambi- it was absorbed in early 1975:into the new AT&T officials insist that if the NSA is listen- tion on graduating from law, school was -to Energy Research and-Development Admin- ing to its international traffic, it is being done become an FBI agent--Nixon himself told. istration: The Foreign Intelligence Advisory without the company's official knowledge this story to the FBI National Academy in Board (which until recently had Vice Pres- or cooperation. Technicians say, however, May 1969 as he received from Hoover an' ident Rockefeller as a member) theoreti- that the NSA surreptitiously plugs its own honorary membership., in the FBi.. He re- tally advises the- president, but it plays monitoring lines s into the seven AT&T ex- called applying to the FBI in 1937 and,being' no effective role. In the Nixon-years. an infor- changes while the company conveniently approved as an-agent But he never made it. mat Intelligence Evaluation Committee, de- looks the other way. "It's a case of seeing no This was because; as Nixon put it,."the Con- signed for domestic intelligence, also met evil and hearing no evil," an expert said. gress did not appropriate the necessary at the White House. Insofar as about 2 percent of all interna- funds requested for the Bureau in the year The Intelligence Community is a formida- tional phone calls go annually through U.S. 1937." And, typically, he added: "I just want bfe. empire both in terms of money and per- exchanges (roughly 1.2 million classified as to say in Mr. Hoover's presence and in Mr. sonnel. This-is how it breaks down: the NSA A gets the the extra bonus Asia) Mitchell's presence,that will never happen (1) The National Security Agency. Estab- the N gra onus of f picking up these conversations, too, without having to again. lished in 1952 by the 'Joint Chiefs of Staff, it go through the trouble of secretly listening is the biggest and richest and most secret of to them from overseas points. Typically, an And now for a look at the Intelligence Com them all. Its annual budget of $11 billion "interconnect" call may be between London munity as it exists today. Its "board of direc-- includes the special funds for research and c tors" is the United States Intelligence Board and Peking, o and Tokyo. overhead reconnaissance; and it employs Several years s ago, this reporter was (USIB). USIB's chairman is the Director of 25,000 U.S. military and civilian personnel shown at the State Department the transcript Central Intelligence, currently Colby--a at its headquarters at Fort George G. Meade of a monitored conversation between Haiti's thin-tipped, cold-eyed CIA clandestine ser- in Maryland, and 100,000 more Americans president, Jean-Claude Duvalier, in Port- vices career official. His greatest notoriety all over the world. In addition, the NSA em-' au-Prince.' and his mother, the widow of derives from "Operation Phoenix," the Viet- ploys between 10,000 and 15,000 foreign Francois Duvalier, in Miami. Because Mme. nam assassination program which he su- personnel abroad, mainly for the physical Duvalier was then acting as an adviser to pervised from Saigon before being recalled protection of its facilities. The'NSA's present her young son. the U.S. government was to the agency's headquarters at Langley, director is Lt. Gen. Lew Allen, Jr., who has interested in the conversation. The transcript Virginia. just outside Washington. . ' worked both for the CIA and the Defense was a translation from the Cr?3!e dialect in As USIB's chairman, Colby is directly re- Intelligence Agency. Obviously, the USIB which the Duva!iers spoke, but the official sponsible to the National Security Council agencies cross-fertilize. who was reading it commented that "She and, through it, to President Ford. In prac- 'The NSA's general operation is known as certainly sounds like a Jewish mother .. . tice, however, Colbys real boss is Henry SIGINT (signal intelligence). It runs over- worrying about him and his safety." Thou- Kissinger (in his separate incar,:ation as head satellite and SR-71 spy aircraft recon- sands of such conversations are picked up Special Assistant to the President for Na- naissance, COMINT (communications intel- by the NSA every month. tional Security Affairs and thus manager of ligence). and ELINT (electronic intelli- In almost every case, the calls are re- the National Security Council). Kissinger- gence). It specializes in code-making and corded for immediate transcription--and as we've noted-has virtually taken over the code-breaking, and in all forms of cryptog- translation and anal' sis. if required. If con- workings of the Intel ligencA~i -fdr@I~aan2 V=08ldrr'h4R1D 7a~sWA3,2RvQQQ%@RPW i -Yn English or a foreign 4 Approved For Release 2001108/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 language, are in code, then NSA experts are there are several thousand foreign agents summoned to break the code. In principle, controlled by CIA case officers. Abroad. the monitoring is selective-it would prob- U.S. officials belonging to the agency work ably be beyond anybody's capacity 'to out cf CIA stations attached to every Ameri- transcribe sixty million conversations annu- can embassy and CIA bases in American ally, but even so. these telephone transcrip- consulates. They have an official State De- tions account for a large part of the hundred partment cover, but CIA stations operate tons of paper the NSA uses up each day at their own communications and do not al- its headquarters. The transcriptions are ways see eye to eye with the embassies. stored in huge computers for instant re- Other CIA officials work overseas under trieval. The computers-in the case of. "deep covers," and even local CIA stations stored telephone conversations as well as of are often unaware of them. For operational other monitored communications and radio purposes the world is divided into regional broadcasts-can immediately identify "commands" that report to their respective voices'through "voice prints." An NSA offi- geographic divisions at the headquarters. cial can, for example, ask the computer to No major operation is possible withoutclear- produce everything said in the voice of a ance from the home office. particular person. Harry Howe Ransom, an Broadly speaking, the CIA is divided into intelligence expert who teaches at Vander- two principal areas: intelligence-gathering bilt University, has said, "I have developed and covert operations under the Directorate a disturbing fear that NSA, like the CIA, may of Operations (DDO) and intelligence and have been engaged in electronic surveil- evaluation under the Directorate of Intelli- lance on American citizens." gence (Del). These two function separately COMINT, which includes the eavesdrop- and indeed the whole CIA structure is based ping on international telephone conversa- on compartmentalization. Even senior offi- tions, is the NSA's largest single activity, cers know only what they are supposed to andthisexplainswhytheNSArequiressuch know for their work-and no more. Only an enormous budget and work force. Most Colby and a few top associates in the NSA money goes for research and de- seventh-floor executive suite (also known as velopment of its fantastically complex tech- the `Tower") at the.CiA's modernistic head- nological intelligence-and, also, of quarters in Langley are familiar with all cp- course, for its huge payroll. In overhead re- erations. Because of growing technological connaissance, the NSA works closely with requirements, the CIA is investing more and the Air Force's top-secret National Recon- more money and manpower in the tech- naissance Office, which launches the nology of intelligence; it now has a separate Samos satellites and the SR-71 planes and Office of Science and Technology. has an annual budget around S1.5 billion The CIA's controversial domestic opera- from separate Defense Department funds. tions come under the Directorate of Opera- The CIA is its other partner in "spy-in-the- tions (usually known informally as Clandes- sky" operations: it concentrates on planning tine Services). The agency's involvement in d^.moStt^. S^ti^na is in the hails of fha these rnissions and interpreting the over- ,? head photography that is characterized by DDO's Foreign Resources Division (known its incredibly high degree of resolution. A unti11972 as the Domestic Operations Divi- Samos camera can spot a golf ball from sion), with offices in eight U.S. cities, and 100,000 feet or more. the elusive Counterintelligence Staff, Os- SIGINT is designed to track the move- tensibly, the division's mission is the col lec- ments of foreign warplanes, warships, and tion of intelligence from foreigners in the troops everywhere in the world, as well as U.S. and counterespionage cooperation monitoring just about everybody's military with the FBI. But even Colby has admitted communications traffic right down to, say, that the Domestic Division had been doing air chatter between pilots of Bulgarian MIG quite a bit more than just that (he confirmed, jet fighters. Should an ELINT unit spot a in effect, the CIA's political spying at home). hostile military move---the launching of nu- Then there, is the Domestic Collection Divi- clear missiles or bombers-its CRITICflash sion with offices in thirty-six American message would instantly roar over U.S. cities, which supposedly interviews citizens communications facilities to alert the North who may possess information of intelli- American defense network and prepare to gence value to the CIA. The Office of Train- set a retaliatory strike in motion. - ing is in charge of training CIA personnel at NSA surveillance is conducted from se- special schools, the most important of cret installations in the U.S., the Aleutians, which, "The Farm," is in southern Virginia. Iceland, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, the But the Office of Training had also been Indian Himalayas, Ethiopia, Turkey, Moroc- working with local police departments and, co, and a score of other locations. There are until recently, with the Law Enforcement As- some 2,000 secret "intercept positions" sistance Administration. The LEAA is heavi- around the world. They are supplemented ly staffed with ex-CIA personnel. The Office by ELINT ships and planes-such as the of Security, with eight field offices in the; Liberty. mistakenly sunk by the Israelis in U.S., conducts security investigations of 1967, the Pueblo, captured by the North prospective agency employees-and, ob- Koreans in 1967, and the EC-1 21 plane shot viously, of others as well-and is responsi- down off North Korea in 1969. NSA teams in We for the protection of intelligence sources Vietnam and Cambodia helped to direct air and methods. The Recruitment Division has strikes by everything from B-52 bombers to twelve domestic offices. Much of its work is helicopter gunships, but by and large the done on campuses, but this division also North' Vietnamese outsmarted NSA's elec- recruits businessmen, scier;ists, and who- tronic devices along the trails. ever else is willing and capable of perform- (2) The Central Intelligence Agency. In ex- ing full-time or part-time for "The Company," isten, a since 1947, the agency has become as the CIA is known among initiates. Tho synonymous with American intelligence Cover and Commercial Staff directs the operations in the eyes of Americans and CIA's corporate empire---the so-called pro- foreigners alike. The CIA's annual budget is prietary activities-and arranges cover for corporations would be a Who's Who c: American business and industry. Americas businessmen are instinctive ideological al lies of the CIA-and there are reasons to think that the agency often reciprocates wi economic information that the corporations could not otherwise obtain. But the CIA is also into a varietyof esoter c activities. It has an Operational Medicir branch, in the Office of Medical Services, that specializes in psychological conditio,-;r, ing of officers entrusted with unusual mis- sions. And among the agency's "propriety ies" there are companies secretly and illy gaily working on psychological profiles American citizens. Interestingly, CIA stmt psychologists have been shying away fr; this particular kind of work. (3) The Defense Intelligence Agency. '- was created by the Pentagon in 1962 to ce--- tralize the intelligence work performed the separate intelligence staffs of the three armed services. In the last thirteen years, t has grown to a force of 50,000 military intr.= ligence specialists and support personne. and an annual $3 billion budget. The DIA. headed by Lt. Gen. Daniel 0. Graham--a military intellectual, overhead reconnais- sance expert, and CIA alumnus-is chiePv interested in classical military intelli- gence-both in gathering and evaluati.. The Defense Department's policies are often based on DIA assessments of foreic military capabilities and presumed intee- tions. The DIA also has covert operators around the world, in addition to the Defense, Army, Air Force, and Navy attaches serving at American embassies. (4) The Federal Bureau of Investigation. Its functions are overwhelmingly domestic (al- tough it has represents ives abroad wha serve in American embassies as "legal attaches") and, broadly speaking, are di- vided between fighting crime-with err phasis on organized crime-and on court terespionage. The FBI spends roughly S2 billion annually and there are some 6,00 agents currently serving under FBI Director Clarence M. Kelley, formerly the police chief of Kansas City. Counterespionage is such an elusive concept and the preocc pation with the infiltration of dissenting an radical groups by foreign intelligence ses- vices is so great that, in the end, the FBI has become the principal arm of the governmer in domestic political spying. ironica!iy. E__ Director Kelley put it, the detente w:tr.:r= Soviet Union; China. and Eastern Europe-- countries has led to so many visits from -,-= Communist world that the FBI now was more agents to keep track of the visitors. working assumption in the FBI is that mc_:. not all, visitors from Communist count- are likely to be intelligence agents-an as- sumption which smacks of a KGB-type :- security and makes a mockery of Kiss:-_ ger's policy of detente. (5) State Department Bureau of Into . - gence and Research (INR). All it does analyze foreign intelligence. Censider!".^c that it employs less than 500 persons a-=- spends only around S5 million annually. tra INR does an amazingly good job of evalua- tion-in fact, frequently superior to t'-. CIA's. Its present director is William Hs land, a specialist in Soviet affairs who has served in the CIA and on Kissinger's Na- tional Security Council staff. (6) The Treasury Department. It has re- cently formed its own National Security At. estimated at $6 billion and its U.S. staff the agency's operatives in bona fide U.S. fairs Office and it advises the Intelligence stands at some 8,000 7qAu- A[y07p2 fflgM 5rf?asingly important fina". .passport applications. It may seem that the Intelligence Communi- ty, and particularly the CIA, is "destabi- lized" these days in the midst of all the in- vestigations set off by disclosures of domes- tic spying and such foreign crimes as the Chilean intervention. In fact, CIA Director Colby thinks that the efficacy of the agency has already been seriously impaired and that this poses a danger to national security. But the CIA will be-and has been-only what the rulers of this country want it to be. It is a common error to think of either the CIA, or the whole Intelligence Community as an independent and irresponsible body-run- In a hideaway office where his visi- (ors can't be noted by the curious, .Sen. Frank Church (D-Ida.) is hard at work investigating his country's in- #elligenee, services. It's not the mis- es of the-past that most concern .his-normally lighthearted and friend- ly man. It's concern for the future. , trusts him and his investigation, and he is determined that. there will be no security breaches, which might give Kissinger just cause to complain. He also knows that the Ford admin- istration will try to make the Rocke- feller commission's investigation the "A wise preacher once told me. to be future. V "The Congress," he says con. jearefut now I selected an nemy. fidently, "will wait to hear from us." ibnce you begin to spend time think Sitting in his hideaway office under ~n g about your enemy,' he told me, the portrait of predecessor William E: 'vou become like him."' Borah, Frank Church does not look 4aprened to the CIA. It became so pbsessed with the power, the brilli- ance, the deeds. and the deceptions Of the Russian KGB that it became the mirror image of the KGB. If the KGB opposed a military regime, the % CIA supported it; if the KGB set up F Communist front, the CIA set up its opposite; if the KGB supported a can- didate, the CIA supported' that candi- (date's opponent. Was the regime or ;the front or the candidate worth sup- porting? That didn't matter. Opposing the KGB was what mattered. , History suggests that there is a lot ,of sense to this analysis, and Frank Church is a sensible man. He is quite like a man who could be very much ~ted i n.spics and -bagmen, dirty tricks and as a-. tions. It could.not. be learned low often penetration inside the three-mile limit was made,' nor . could it be learned whether YUCK penetration needed special clearance. All the sources agreed, however, that Holys tone missions had repeatedly violated the territorial waters of the Soviet Union and other ?cations. o one source said that the sub-' marines were able to plug into Soviet land communication tables strewn across the ocean bottom and thus were able to 'itercept high-level military messages and other communi- cations considered too impor- ant'to be sent by radio or other less secure means. As outlined by the sources, Holystone was authorized 1n tie early nineteen-sixties, and its reconnaissance operations were placed by Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara under the direct control of the Chief of Naval operations, the 'four-star admiral who heads the Navy. At various times during the Vietnam war, officials in Wash- 'iiigton reportedly delegated re- sponsibility for missions to the Navy admiral in charge of Pa- cific operations. Pueblo Seizure ' Control over the program was apparently tightened after North Korea seized the United States spy ship Pueblo in 1968, sources said, and the schedule. of Holystone missions now have to he approved every, month by the 40 Committee, tie High-level intelligence re- view panel headed by Secretary of State Kissinger. _th 's zbmarines' of the Sturgeon, or 637 Class, and simply added more electronic gear and a spe- cial unit from the National Se- curity Agency to turn the at- tack submarine into a recon- naissance vessel. The National Security Aaen- ac .., with headquarters at Fort eade, Md., near Washington, srves as, the major source for intelligence and interception cpmmunications. It also is in charge of developing unbreak-' 'able codes for electronic trans- nission and breaking the codes of other nations. A highly se-' t,ret- N.S.A. unit was aboard the Pueblo when it was cap- tured. < Inside the Navy, the Holy- tjne. patrols are considered a source of pride; Pentagon offi- cials recalled that the Mavy guarded clearances for the operation ? -'and that official knowledge of it outside the service was limited to a few high-ranking civilians. No Sign of Office ,The program still is under the direct control of the naval intelligence command and is known as OPPO 099U inside the Navy. There is no sign ot.! that office in the published Pntagon telephone directory, nar is its chief operational offi- cek, Capt. Jack B. Richard, list- ed.- Frhe sensitivity of the pro- gram is dramatized by the fact that the Navy has set up a separate channel for recruiti g the seamen for the Holystone' missions, according to men in voIved in the recruiting. . , he recruiting, much of which i?4 reportedly carried out at c4erseas Navy bases, is consid- ered so sensitive that the can- didates are not permitted to know exactly what they are beifig asked to do. Special tests are administered, including ex- tensive psychiatric testing, be- fore a seaman is judged quali- fied, sources said. As of a few years ago, an intelligence summary of the program was made available every Thursday in the Chief of Naval operations' briefing theater on the fourth floor of the Pentagon. One participant recalled that the Holystone mis- sions were discussed after the regular intelligence briefing. for high-ranking admirals and the top Navy civilian officials. The lights were dimmed and slides were utilized to show where the missions were on station, the source said. Photographs Shown The participant recalled see- ing close-up photographs of So- viet submarines that had been taken by a Holystone vessel. At that meeting, which took place in the early seventies, the Navy officially briefed the program as if the Soviet Union had not detected any of its Holystor t missions, the source said. ' In numerous interviews, howe', er, many Government of- ficia ;'described that belief as inco.tceivabie, particularly in view of the known accidents. involving Holystone vessels and Soviet submarines. One former Goverment offi-i cial recalled that the Navy once C,1AeR13 7i7 0i~4t3* 2R069m003 mendation that the Holystone operation be publicly disclosed. The argument was that the Navy had nothing to lose be- cause the program was well- known to high officials in the United States and Soviet Union, and because some Government lawyers said that it was at least arguable that the opera-1 tion was in accord with inter- national law and thus was le- gal. The Navv declined the sug- gestion, the official said, in what was interpreted to be an admission that not all the Holystone operations could stand up to public scrutiny.; Briefing Recalled One former Government in-? telligence official recalled a Hollystone briefing in the mid- sixties in which he and others were shown photographs of the underside of an E-Class Soviet submarine that appeared to be (taken inside Vladisvostok har- bor, a main Soviet submarines port. "On that same mission," the; official recalled, "the Holy- stonel submarine scraped the bottom of one of the E-Class' submarines and knocked off some of. its equipment." He recalled that someone asked during the briefing wheth- er that had been the only such incident, and was told "No. It's happened at least two other times." On March 31, 1971, according to a copy of ? C.I.A. mer.:orali- dum made available to The New York Times, another Holystone collision involving a Soviet submarine took place. The, memo, sent on April I to Richard C. Helms, then the Director of Central Intel- ligence, said that "the collision is reported to have occurred about 17 nautical miles off- shore-beyond the 12-mile ter- ritorial limit claimed by the U.S.S.R. No Soviet reaction has been noted." Eighteen months earlier, a Holystone submarine was beached for about two hours off the Soviet coast, a former Government aide recalled. The incident created concern inside the National Security Council, the aide said, because of the possibility that a major interna- tional incident would develop if the ship was discovered. Another former Government official recalled being briefed in the late sixties about the collision of a Holystone vessel with a North Vietnamese' minesweeper in the Gulf of Tonkin, The North Vietnamese vessel, which apparently had been provided to the Vietna- I mese by the Soviet Union, sank within minutes. In January, 1974, Laurence Stern reported in The Washing- ton Post 'the existence of the underwater intelligence oper- .ation and its code name, but. details about the missions, iia-J eluding their extent and the' difficulties they encountered.l have never been previously dis-1 closed. The dispatch drew no official reaction either from the Soviet Union or the United States. a,Qri-1ource said that there ' o significant modification: 'Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7` of the Holystone operations of-1 ter the Post article, which an gered the Pentagon, although! the Russians now seem to be increasing their counter-detec- tion efforts against the recon- naissance missions. Much of the Soviet effort` and similar detection efforts! by the, Chinese utilize radarl in an attempt to track the periscopes of the Holystone jsubmarines, the source said. On occasion, Holystone subma- rines have been subjected to intensive hunts by Soviet de- stroyers and aircraft, thet source added. , The combination of the vari- ous misfortunes, the increased Soviet and Chinese detection efforts, and the apparent unwill- ingness of the Navy or the 40 Committee to monitor the operations closely have con- vinced many former Govern- ment officials that Holystone's risks now outweigh the ac- knowledged value of the intel-, ligence collected. "It provided useful stuff all right," one former high-level intelligence analyst said, "but it was a risky kind of busi- ness." A former high-level C.I.A. official suggested that Holy- stone was symptomatic of many of the current Pentagon intel- ligence collection -and recon- naissance programs. He specifi- cally referred to a high-level; briefing during which Navy in- telligence officials showed close .ip photographs of, an abandoned Soviett nuclear-pow j Bred -vessel, the apparent victim of an on-board accident. Kissinger Role Seen Similarly, a former White House official recalled that Mr. Kissinger was known to be a strong supporter and close observer of the Holystone oper- ations. Mr. Kissinger attended briefings on the project, the former aide said, in the early days of the Nixon Administra- tion. . Despite the emphasis on pho- tographs, most of those inter- viewed agreed that photogra- phy was the least significant aspect of the Holystone mis- sions. Far more important, they said, was the information ob- tained through the N.S.A.'s electronic means about Soviet long and short range submarine- launched ballistic missiles. Since the Russians normally test-fire many of their sea- based .missiles inland to avoid close United States observa- tion, the Holystone missions often penetrated close to the Soviet shores to observe the missile launchings. The missions were able to get what one official termed a "voice autograph" of various Soviet submarines. These were described as detailed tape re- cordings of the noises made by submarine engines and other equipment. Such ' recordings were care- fully maintained, the official said, and jNaik- technicians` have been 'able to perfect a method for identifying specific Soviet submarines, even those tracked, at long range under "We can follow boats through their life `cycle," the expert said, meaning that technicians : are able to keep track of a Soviet submarine from her launching until she is decom- missioned. The Russians are believed to be far behind in this kind: of underwater intelligence, the source said. A number of sources de- scribed the Holystone informa- tion as being important to the United' States-Soviet Strategic Arms Limitations Talks that led in 1972 to an interim five- year accord. The accord, among other things, placed certain lim- its on the number of land- based and submarine-launched. offensive ballistic missiles both sides could maintain. "One of the reasons we can- have a SALT. agreement is be- cause we know. what the So- viets are doing," one official said, "and Holystone is an im- portant part of what we know about the Soviet submarine { force." - This official, who was in4 volved in some aspects of thg arms talks, described the. sub- marine reconnaissance program as "the kind - of intelligence operation that has a high pay- off and whose risks seem to be minimal." . But another official, who told of other important intelligence information that was obtained. from- Holystone, said that the project seemed to "very provoc- ative" and was inadequately supervised. In this official's. view, the most significant information provided by Holystone was a readout of the various comput- er calculations and signals that the Russians put into ef- fect before firing their long and short range submarine mis- siles. The reconnaissance boats were also invaluable, he said, in followirfg the flight and eventual crash of the Soviet missiles, providing constant in- fgrmation on guidance and electronic systems. "What bothers me," the offi- cial said, "is the fact that -the Soviets know we're there. This l isn't like overhead [satellite]' intelligence. This is provoca- .tive." None of the issues raised by the Holystone program is, known to have been seriously considered by any Congression-l al committee. - A member of the Senate Se- lect Committee on Intelligence acknowledged this week that" the committee had yet to focus, on such reconnaissance opera- tions. "I suppose we'll hit it '.at, some point," the official said.' `This committee will look into, all allegations." , 'WASHINGTON POST 21 May 1976 CIA Loses ail r By George Lardner Jr. Washington Post Staff Writer Postmaster General Benja- min F. Bailar has issued or- ders prohibiting the Central intelligence Agency from ac- cess to "any kind of mail in the custody of the Postal Serv- ice." Ballar notified CIA Director William E. Colby of the re- strictions in a March 5 letter prompted by the CIA's disclo- sures earlier this year of unau- thorited mail-intercepts over a 20-year period. According to congressional testimony by postal authori- ties and other information that has since come to light, the CIA obtained approval to conduct various "mail covers" -which are limited td the rec- ?ordirig of information on out- side wrappings and envelopes -and then surreptitiously be- gan opening selected mail without the knowledge of postal officials. Thousands of first-class let- ters between the United States and the Soviet Union and hundreds of incoming air- mail letters from China were intercepted by CIA agents be- fore the CIA finally halted the projects in February, 1973. The practice, however, re- mained a closely held secret until Colby alluded to. it in congressional testimony in January and February. Bailar, who became Post- ccess t ary, said in his letter to Colby that the disclosures had givers him "most serioucs concern." "Consequently," Bailar wrote, "I have instructed thei Postal Inspection Service toy make sure that. Central Intelli-1 Bence Agency. personnel are' not permitted to have access, to any'-kind of mail in the cus- tody of the Postal Service, whether by way of cooperative conducted by postal officials who handle the mail them- selves and then supply, the re-}'quested information, such ast the names and addresses oft the senders, to the law en-i agencies requesting it. However, CIA agents them- selves were permitted to proc-3 ess the Soviet and Chinese mail. dently designed to prevent that from happening again, al- though presumably postal offi- cials might be willing to con- duct mail covers on behalf of the CIA. Postal officials released they correspondence, including Col- by's March 13 reply, without comment. ` In his reply, Colby said he shared the Postmaster Gener- al's concern over protecting the integrity of the mail and said the CIA had "no inten- opening program. ' d Bailar had asked for Colby's assurance that "no such opera- tions are presently active -or planned, and that in the fu- ture the Central Intelligence Agency will refrain from any undertaking that might draw the integrity of the mailsiinto question." Washington Whispers On the lecture circuit, it appears, de- nouncing the Central Intelligence Agency is far more profitable than defending it. David Phillips made that discovery after he resigned as CIA chief of operations for Latin America so he could speak out publicly in be- half of the Agency. When he tried to arrange a lecture tour, his agent told him he could expect to earn $5,000 to $10,000 a year if he defended the CIA, between $50,000 and'$100,000 if he arracked it. - Approved For Release 2001/08/08 211A-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 Approved For Release'2001/08/08,: CIA-RDP77-00432R000.100360001-7 LOS ANGELES TIMES 18 May 1975 -?:. awful as `S" /, . .. . . . . n, p Jstce ' t. Says But,kdrninistratidn Stand on Warrantless Searches - Y-iRQNALD J. DSTB01 : Times Staff Writer -- WASHINGTON-The Ford r1d= per," Ruth said in his brief opposing ministration has asserted that federal' Ehrlichman's appeal. agents have the right to break into a Ehrlichman, G. Gordon Liddy; Ber- citizen's home without 'a warrant to; nard L. Barker and Eugenio R. Mar- search for items in foreign espionage, tinez were convicted last July of con- 'or intelligence cases. spiring to violate the civil rights of Watergate special prosecutor Hen Dr. Lewis J. Fielding, a Beverly Hills ry S. Ruth Jr., splitting with the Jus- psychiatrist, in a 1971 search of his ?tice Department on the issue, said in office for material on Daniel Ellsberg; a legal brief that-such power would one of his patients. It was Ellsberg conflict with 200 years of American who leaked the Pentagon Papers to constitutional history. the, press. The controversy over the extent of During the .Ehrlichman trial last the Executive Branch's power in na- iily, U.S. Dist. Judge Gerhard A. Ge-, tional security matters is reminiscent of the debate that raged but was never settled in the final, tumultuous year of the Nixon administration. ? The dispute surfaced in a publicly unnoticed, two-page letter that the Justice Department filed with the U.S. Court of Appeals here in the ap- peal of former Nixon aide John_ D.. 'Ehrlichman and three others of their convictions in the Ellsberg break-in case. The letter, signed by John C. Keen- ey, acting assistant attorney general for the department's criminal divi sion, was dated May 9. A legal: source, familiar with its contents and . import, called it to the attention of, The Times. A department spokesman said Sat--, urday that. the position had been= cleared by Atty. Gen. Edward H.' Levi and Solicitor Gen. Robert H.. Bork, the department's chief advo- cate before the Supreme Court. It thus represents Administration poli- cy. Such searches without a judge'si prior approval "must be very careful-, ly controlled,", Keeney said. "There must be solid reason to believe that foreign espionage or intelligence is involved." - ; Before agents can conduct a war- rantless search. the operation must be personally authorized by the Pres ident er the attorney general, Keen- ey said. "The intrusion into any zone of ex petted privacy must be kept to the. minimum," he said. At the heart of the dispute is the Constitution's' Fourth Amendment, which protects citizens from "unrea sonable searches and seizures." t 'The history of. the Fourth Amend ?- ment and the 200 years of precedent: interpreting and shaping the Fourth; Aineiidinent do iiot'cast any doubt iii. the principle that a warrant must be obtained in all cases for the physical search of a citizen's home or office and the seizure of his confidential pa- P1l. in his instruction to the jury, re- D' as a defense in the search of Field fig's office. . ' Concern for preventing leaks of na-?. tonal security . material "would not' -live justified a warrantless search of . Fielding's office without his per- iission," Gesell said. :."'There ,s` no 'evidence that the, :P . :President authorized such a search,' `tnd as a matter of law neither he nor thy- official nor any agency such as, Jie FBI or the CIA had the authority p order it" Gesell said- Normally an answer to the defen- Sants' appeal would be left to the pecial prosecutor's office. But the: Justice Department letter by Keeney was submitted because of Ruth's ar-' gument that such, searches were "a core violation of the Fourth Amend- ment-a physical break-in by the,. government to rummage through an, individual's papers and effects." Ruth's position "raises questions which, in our view, are not presented by this case," Keeney said. . The break-in at Fielding's office .was "plainly unlawful," Keeney said:. "The-search was not controlled as we have suggested it must be, there was no proper authorization, there was' no" delegation to a proper officer and there was no sufficient predicate for the choice of the particular premises invaded." - But the Justice Department likened a physical search of a citizen's prop erty without a warrant to wiretap-' ping without. a warrant when. foreigtY espionage or intelligence was in- volved. The Supreme Court and Congress-. "have not resolved' the question of .whether the government can wiretap without a warrant in cases involving 'foreign espionage, or intelligence.. However, the high court, has 'ruled ,that the government cannot place wiretaps without court sanction to 'obtain information involving "the domestic aspects of national securi- ty." - "The department does not be-' 'lieve there is a constitutional differ- ence between searches conducted by wiretapping and those involving phy- sical entries into private premises," Keeney wrote. . . "It is and has long been the depart- ment's view that warrantless searches involving physical entries into private premises are justified un- der the proper circumstances when related to foreign espionage or intel- ligence." Ruth disagreed. asserting that "in- vasion of a person's home or office to seize his papers always has been treated as far more serious than tap- ping into the wires of a public utility.: or other eavesdropping." ' The special prosecutor conceded .that attorneys general in the past had permitted "a technical trespass" -but only for the purpose of placing an electronic. bug and not for a physi- cal search. - . . It was learned that Solicitor Gener- al Bork had conferred with Ruth be- fore the special prosecutor had filed his brief, seeking to persuade him not to press the issue. Ruth, in an interview Saturday, re- fused to say whether such a discus-_ lion had taken place and would say only: "As in the past, I'll say that the Justice Department has not inter- fered in our operations or tried to' prevent us from doing anything." In his brief, Ruth cited the words of the late Justice Felix Frankfurter in a -1949 search-and-seizure case, and said they were "as unquestionably binding today as then in describing what has historically been the cen- tral evil against which the FourtB Amendment protects." Frankfurter had said: "The security of one's privacy against arbitrary in- trusion by the police-which is at the-core of the Fourth Amendment -is basic to a free society. "The knock at the door, whether by day or by night as a prelude to a search, without authority of law but solely on the authority of the police, did not need the commentary of re- cent history-to be condemned as in- consistent with the conception of hu- man rights enshrined in the history and the basic constitutional doc- uments of English-speaking peoples" 22 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 Vlspued by Watergate Special Prosecutor Ruth Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 NEW YORK TIMES 25 May 1975 ..-This I Conventional wisdom to the con-. 'trary, the Clandestine-Service is not a' glamorous, public-service refuge for the scions of the East Coast, Ivy League Establishment. A composite of the average officer shows that he or (more frequently now) she is probably 33 years of age, married and with per- h two children He holds a raduate s g About (shh) P By David Atlee Phillips degree from a state university, speaks at least one foreign language and has BETHESDA, Md.-With all the speculation these days about Central Intelligence ? Agency dabblings in derring-do, domestic spying, assassina- tion, political subversion and God knows what else, one could easily visualize a C.I.A. payroll swollen by a- zealous, ubiquitous cloak-and-dagger corps impervious to good judgment and outside influence. In fact, the majority of the C.I.A's; employes are assigned to the Wash- ington, D. C. area and involved with the preparation of intelligence esti-. mates and reports, scientific and tech- nical activities, and administration. ' The problem area has always been with the members of the Clandestine Service, the covert employes who wont A road and who must hide their affili-, ation if they are to function and, in- deed, survive in. many overseas areas- ' Almost inevitably though, public, questions about that shadowy world and what it has been up to have been raised, multiplied and . have festered. The result is the review now being. cptducted, essentially of the Clandes-. -sine Service, by a Presidential commis- sion and two Congressional committees, t;m approach that should satisfy even -oar harshest critics. For the record,, t$s .certainly represents no problem, fo'r` me so long as it. is responsibly' bandied. - . worked in at least two foreign coun- tries. Abroad he often performs two functions, his cover job and, when that work day ends, his clandestine work.. He claims no pay for overtime, whether working in headquarters or in. the field, and contributes 15 per cent more time to the job than the ordinary 9 to 5 worker. Since his salary is about $20,000 a year, the Government gets an additional $4,500 of uncompensated overtime from him ' annually. In his cover role he is always ' ranked below his peers, but he recognizes that he must accomplish tasks other Govern- ment components should not 'be asked to do. He'is an intellectual marine. Perhaps-soon the C.I.A. can fade back into, the position of somewhat less prominence and interest to the news media, with which we have had and undoubtedly will continue to have .our unique problems. Responsible, fac- tual -stories we can endure stoically, even though we find painfully gratui- tous the exposure of active operations or agents. Egregious, sensationalist ries we can also endure because the ridiculous is patently short-lived. The type that really bothers us is the hybrid (fact-and-fallacy) story that re- fuses to die or be straightened out, and sinks into the public subconscious as THE WASHINGTON POST Wednesday,'fay 21, l975 By .!Clay Harris LONDON, May 20 - When Britain's newest tour of 't stately homes" b e g a n ,earlier this week, the house- rfiolder at the only stop on ; he first day's tour wasn't ,.,at home to his guests. ', -So, the 60 or so partic- ipants stood a curbside vigil 'across the street fromthe 'Belgravia home of Cord Meyer Jr.,' chief of the U.S. embassy's political liaison .section and widely reputed to be the Central intelli- gence Agency's station chief in Britain. r If Meyer had answered the door, he would have been ,presented with a mock his- torical plaque like those ithat adorn the houses of ,the famous. Iiis,was a blue ,growing campaign against' the presence'of CIA agents in Britain. A group of Labor mem- bers of Parliament is ex- pected to call soon for the expulsion of as many as 50' U.S. embassy employees. ,Names, and in some cases seven home addresses, of embassy officials reputed to be CIA agents have been ,printed in publications rang- ing from London Times to the leftish weekly, Time Out. The tours have been or- ganized by the Concerned`, .Americans Abroad, a grQyP of American residents in London which was originally formed in 1968 to protest tbbc Vie' n-am ' war. ' frisbee with the lettering: The group commissioned "CIA - 1970-? the Father Xmas Union The invitation to "see how under the d i. r e e t i o n of ,the underhand live" marked American Ed 13 e r in a n to the introduction of trect present, the ,`Guided Toyr theater as a tactic ,1pij-covedf Ft ReIeaA& 00 tI Bi08 e o do 't Americans in.-London Offer. Toiivv of,'Sulle y durable myth. An example: The persistence of the allegation that the C.I.A. encouraged the Chilean plotters who toppled Pres- ident Salvador Allende Gossens and funded the strikes leading to the coup is just plain frustrating, after all, of C.I.A. Director William E. Colby's testi- mony on the subject. This myth seems to hang on Mr. Colby's purported use of the term "destabilization" in Con- gressional hearings to characterize our Chilean operations. But, Mr. Colby did not use any such word. ?I know. I was there with him. I also know the other allegations are not true because I was chief of Latin-American operations at the time Dr. Allende was deposed. I certainly do not want to leave the impression that the Clandestine Serv- ice considers itself without error and above criticism. We have made our quota of mistakes, some of which have been headlined for the world. Current investigations may assess us culpable of others related to loosely-defined areas of our basic charter such as co- vert action, or borderline cases involv- ing domestic operations against for- eign targets. Whatever the outcome, our hope is that a new consensus will emerge on ground rules for the Clan- destine Service that will satisfy re- sponsible critics and their concerns on the one hand and the C.I.A.'s critical responsibilities for the national se- curity on the other. David Atlee Phillips has retired early from his position as the C.I.A.'s chief of Latin-American operations to organ- ize ex-intelligence officers from all' services to explain intelligence in American society. ? Homes.". ' Each day this week, Ber- man and a supporting cast' from a London theater group lead `the curious, to the -home of an alleged CIA operative. The tour is light- hearted in tone, intended humorously to focus public- ity' on the, embassy person- trel claimed to work for the CIA. The tour begins in Sloane' Square, where on the first day two black-clad members of the company conspicu-, ously hid behind their cloaks as they perched oil a monu-, ment to Chelsea's war dead. Berman himself' was dressed in a Santa Claus suit. Berman's jokes, in most cases, were more music hall than, revolutionary, 'and much of his monologue kept tip. the pretense of a 'guided tour: This was cal-. culated? Berman revealed- as. the police began to make their inquiries, since bull- horns may be used without license if the occasion 'is , "commercial." CHICAGO TRIBUNE 16 MAY 1975 William Colby,- diet of the ;CIA, -win 'vroltpb1y leave his post at the end of the yew. The CIA"wants to get more of an adxiinistrative-typs 'person to straigbtear out CIA problems. Jane Fonda is reported to be furious about ex-husband Roger Vadim's autobiography "Memoirs of the Devil." The French filmmaker is said to treat Jane about as unkindly as the CIA did. CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7- Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360001-7 NEW YORK TIMES 30 May 1975 '61 MEMO 13 CITED ot C1I1A-MAFIA TIE Hoover Is Said to Have Told Robert Kennedy of Link to 2 Racket Figures By NICHOLAS M. HORROCK Special to The New York Times -WASHINGTON, May 29- Robert F. Kennedy knew as early as May 1, 1961, that the Central Intelligence Agency was secretly dealing with the Mafia, according to a Federal Bureau of Investigation memo- randum now in the hands of the Rockefeller commission and the Senate Select Commit- tee on Intelligence. The discovery of this new memorandum increases the mystery of whether senior members of the administration of President Kennedy, includ- ing his brother the Attorney General, ordered or approved an alleged C.I.A. plot to kill Cuban Premier Fidel Castro. It is part of a growing pat- tern of indications, mentioned in press reports over the last two weeks, that a plan to as- sassinate Mr. Castro was dis- cussed at the highest levels of the Government in the early nineteen sixties and that, with or without approval, the intelli- gence agency recruited two men-with organized crime con- nections to attempt one such operation. According to sources famil- iar with the investigation. J. Edgar Hoover, the- director of the F.B.I., wrote a detailed se- cret memorandum to Robert Kennedy in May, 1961, assert- ing that during an investigation of two racket figures, Sam Gi- ancana and John Roselli, agent' had turned up an apparent connection with the C.I.A. :No Word on Assassination The memorandum, one source said, went on to note that the F.B.I. requested and re- ceived a full . C.I.A. briefing about the agency's dealings with Mr. Giancana and Mr. Roselli. The memorandum, this source .. said, never mentioned the words "assassination" or "eliminate," a eupheiism for assassination often used in spy circles. But the source said Mr. Hoover characterized the reported C.I.A. activities with Mr. Giancana and Mr. Roselli as "dirty business." Tice memorandum is dated almost a year before Robert Kennedy was given a briefing by the intelligence agency on this same subject. In that briefing, covered in testimony before the Rockefel- ler commission and in do- cuments, according to reliable sources,- the Attorney General: appeared to learn of the C.I.A.'s dealings with the Mafia for the first time and admonished the agency official bridi4loV that the next time the C.I.A. wanted to deal with organized crime it should come to him first. As a result of this May, 1962; briefing, the Attorney Ge- neral gave Mr. Hoover further details on the C.I.A. operation and Mr. Hoover wrote a me- morandum that was kept in F:B.I. files. and was known only to select members of the top echelon of bureau for many years. Concern on Blackmail TBat memorandum, authori- tative sources disclosed last week, is also in the hands of the rockefeller commission, which is looking into intel- ligence operations. It reported- ly contained Mr. Hoover's con- cern that Mr. Giancana could "blackmail" the. Uetidn States Government. The Associated Press report- ed last week what appears to be another piece of this puzzle. It, quoted authoritative sources who said the Rockefeller com- mission had obtained the mi- nutes of 'a meeting on Aug. 10, 1962, attended by Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNama- ra, Secretary of State Dean Rusk, John A. McCone. then Director of Central Intelligence, and McGeorge Bundy, President Kennedy's adviser for national security affairs. The meeting,. the A.P. report said, included a "discussion" of killing Mr. Castro. One source told the A.P. that the matter was "immediately dismissed," but the wire service quoted two other sources who said that a memo was written two days later by Mr. McNama- ra directing the C.I.A. to pre- pare contingency plans for the "elimination" of Mr. Castro. Several highly placed sources within the C.I.A. and other. in- telligence circles of the early nineteen-sixties have said that after the Bay of Pigs invasion failed in April, 1961, there was a major effort to get rid of Mr. Castro. For instance, News- week magazine reported that a source described this as an "effort of the Kennedy Admi- nistration." Most intelligence sources of the period appear to be anxious to stress that no plan for either an assassination, kidnapping or coup d'etat would have been brought to an operational level without the authority of the Administration, but the public record is by no means clear.) For instance, one source said) that the top of the May, 1961,1 memorundum disclosed this week, a note had been jotted in what he said was Robrtl Kennedy's handwriting iaying,l "Have this followed up vigor-i ously, and that the memoran-) dum bore the handwritten ini tials "RFK.".AL The hand- written note had apparently been retyped by someone : in the same period as the memo was written, the source said,; ,apparently to make the note clear to readers. But there'' is no evidence yet public that it was "followed up vigorously" or what action was taken if , any. . "Any partial analysis of A o esman a evi gene is dangerous and d ?diaWt n 4 8N ti C4RirMi>~ 71 Q43 RO?0dw WASHINGTON POST 23 V AY 1975 Warren Report Foe. Heads - New Group1 By Richard M. Cohen . Washington Post Staff Writer dark Lane, an indefatigablet.ence with the Rockefeller critic of the Warren Commis.i commission in which he had;: Sion report, yesterday an-1 noimced the formation here oft Volunteered to appear as a the Citizens Commission of Ii-, witness. to discuss the Ken- quiry. an umbrella orgaitiza-;'nedy killing and the CIA. He tion designed to coordinate! was told by Belin to first sub-` the activitities of those who, mit a letter and responded by believe that Lee Harvey Os-: addressing one to Rockefeller Wald either did not kill Presi-i himself. (lent John F. Kennedy, or was: In -announcing the forma- not working alone. ; tion of his commission, Lane Lane, the dir,ector of the r released the names of its exec- newly formed, organization,. utive committee. It includes said its purpose would be tojRichard Barnet and Marcus generate "a nationwide organ-Raskin. both of the Institute izing project to urge Congress ifOr Policy Studies here; Mor- to investigate the assassina-iton Halperin. former deputy .ion of President John F. Ken.; assistant secretary of defense: nedy and the resultant cover., Linus Pauline. a Nobel Prize up of the facts by the FBI and laureate in chemistry: John the CIA." Marks. co-author of The CIA The organization, Lane said, and the Cult of Intelligence": would begin legal action for the Bernard Fensterwald Jr:. a release of evidence still kept lawyer whose Committee to secret by the government.He Investigate .assassinations was said some of the most impor- merged with Lane's organiza- tant evidence relating to Ken- Lion.: and. George O'Toole. a nedy's murder was never seen f o r m e r computer specialist by members of the commis- with the . CIA and the author sign headed by late Chief Jus- of a4azine articles saying the Os.vald's voice prints in- tice Earl Warren and charged by President Lyndon Johnson dicates hewas not lying when to investigate the assassins- he told officials he did not kill tion of Kennedy. Kennedy. The Warren Commission' Despite. a free-swinging at- was established by Johnson a. tack on the Warren Commis- week. after the Nov. 22, 1963. sion and federal police and in- assassination and turned in its;telligence agencies. Lane said; report a year later. Since then, 'he himself did not know who; its conclusion that Oswald was:=or who else-killed Ken Kennedy's sole killer and not nedy. part of a conspiracy has comet Lane's press conference was: under attack from critics such; the latest indication of a re-, as Lane. ( vival of interest in the Ken- I At his press conference,!nedy assassination, as well ass Lane took some swipes at the. the subsequent killings of commission headed by Vice' Robert F. Kennedy- and Mar-; President Rockefeller which is. tin Luther Kidg. Lane, whose, investigating the CIA, and at-'one-man lecture tour attacking tacked the commission's exec-'the Warren Commission criss-; uaive director. David IV. Be1in, crossed the country in the; who had been an assistant, early and mid-1960s. said yes- counsel for the Warren Com terday that he has , recently. mission. 'completed a national speaking: Lane exhibited correspond-tour of 35 colleges. i on whether the committee had any specific evidence. This has been the committee's general response. But the spoke: man went on to point out, ',,hat the panel felt that "thr,-,e leaks are outrageous" ~anrf. that the question of whe- ith-