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----P43proved For Release 2001/0c861iFiARRE77-00432R000100360062-6 NEWS, VIEWS and ISSUES INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. No. 10 16 MAY 1975 GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS GENERAL WEST EUROPE AFRICA EAST ASIA LATIN AMERICA 25X1A 1 28 30 31 32 50 Destroy after backgrounder has served its purpose or within 60 days. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100380002-8 THE NEW YORK TIMES, SATURDAY, MAY 10, 1973: Chief Of C.I.A.'sLatinOperationsguits1 To Defend Agency Before the Public' By LINDA CFIARLTON Spettal to The New York Times . ' 'WASHINGTON, May 9?For! 25 years David A. Phillips hasi been, by trade, a spy, and, although he might protest the label?he would call himself a clandestine employe of the Central Intelligence Agency? he does not apologize for the occupation. "There's no question in my mind that I have spent the ast quarte; of a century being useful," he said in an interview. 134 there are questions in many other minds, questions raised by allegations that the agency has conducted domestic spying operations, proscribed by its charter, questions that have now spread to include the C.I.A.'s permitted function abroad. - And so David Phillips, 52 years old, chief of Latin-Ameri- can operations at the for the last two years and stat;on chief in several 'Latin- Ameriaan countries before that,. resigned yesterday -to start a' self-assigned job as defender of the agency. In his words, he wants 'to explain the C.I.A. and the intelligence establish- ment. and the role that it has in an American society." Group Organized To do this he has organized the Association of Retired In- telligence Officers, and says about 160 of the 400 persons he has sent letters to have already . joined, paying a $10 fee. Its role, he said, is to make speakers available, at no cost beyond expenses, to any- one who wants to listen. Mr. Phillips who says his income dropped from $36,000 to $16,000 at retirement, alrea- dy has a couple of speeches in New York City scheduled for next week. He seems likely to be a good speaker, for even in an informal interview over drinks he talked in what sounded at first almost like prepared statements, care- ful in syntax, excellent in dic- tion and inflection, the senten- ces complete. It turned out that he was once an actor?"an incompe- tent actor," he said firmly?be- fore a stint as a World War 11 bombardier and, briefly, as editor of an English-language paper:in Chile called The South Pacific Mail.. "It was there," he said, "that I. was. first approached by !Alit- I led States intelliaence to coop- ? ? lerate." By 1956, he said, he !was working fulltime for the [agency?but posing- either As a Foreign Service officer or a businessman. He, said he had chOsen Chile as a place to work from. an encyclopedia "because it said you could ski in the Andes, in the morning and swim ml the Pacific in the afternoon.' 1This is possible, but it- is ar- Icluous." ,-- He lived Chile .for more than six and a half years, and was running the agency's La- tin-American operations at the time that the' Marxist govern- !merit of President Salvador Al- lende Gossens was violently overthrown?allegedly with the active encouragement of the agency. ? Tomorrow Mr, Phillips plans a news conference to talk about what the C.I.A. actually did do in Chile, he said, as opposed to what it is rumored to have done. He would say nothing more until then, nothing be- yond a- statement that "we were indeed preserving some sectors of Chilean society." He would not explain. But the "freedom to talk" hbout it ds perhaps the basic reason for his resignation, he said. He says he wants to "help dispel the myth" that "the C.I.A. is composed of unprin- cipled people interfering in the private lives .of other people around the world." Mr. Phillips, who denied that ,he is receiving support other. than moral from the agency or any of his colleagues there, is obviously not planning to. dis- close anything that the agency wants kept secret. Besides, he said,. there are "good secrets, bad secrets and nonsecrets." There are also some entirely persdnal and domestic reasons for his decision to speak up for the C.I.A., beyond his con- viction that the agency is being defamed and, perhaps, de- stroyed, he said. There was, he recalled, the moment when he had to tell one of his teen-age children? he and his wife, both married before, have seven children be- tween them?that "father, after all, had not been a foreign service officer or a business- man but an intelligence offi- cer." 'But That's Dirty' Tiis was the fifth time he had done this, he said, and in the past it had been a "plea- sant experience." But, he said, "the reaction this time was, ,'But that's dirty!' My reaction to tiat was that it's just a part of the current misconcep- tion about C.I.A., period." He said his decision to get out of the agency to "defend and explain" it, also was based on a feeling that the agency was tie ,victim of a "time lag." "The activities that were deemed necessary and indeed were popular previously are no longer so," he explained. What sort of activities? "Such as sustaining democratic insti- tutions in Europe -in the post- war era." He would not elabor- ate, but gave another example: such as "helping friends to maintain themselves" during the time in the nineteen-sixties. when "Fidel Castro was spon- soring the export 01,,- violent revolution" in Latin America. Again, no details. Mr. Phillips believes that the agency will be found "not guil- ty of having established a pat- tern which threatens the civil liberties of Americans" when the Congressional investiga- tions of the C.I.A. are com- pleted, and for that reason he 'believes that Congress is "the absolute salvation . of the C.I.A."' ? ? Beyond that, there is another question being asked in some quarters these days: Should this country have such an agency? This is not a question for him to answer, Mr. Phillips said. But when he gave an answer: "The world has been a tough place from the beginning. I ,know, after spending my adult life abroad, that it continues- to be A tough place filled with? dark alleys. Some of the na- tion's work has had to be per- formed in these byways." What isi the nation's work, then? "Aaah"?a sign of ack- nowledgement. "An important part of this nation's work is to guarantee its survival." ? ? So it is survival that makes the C.I.A. necessary?- "Abso- lutely." ' Are there some things a na- tion should not do to survive? "You are asking me a question that others should answer.", Earlier, after internal turmoil- that was visible in his face, Mr. Phillips had agreed to let himself be quoted in acknow- ledging, "The question of whe- ther any -country needs. or. should have an intelligence or- ganization such as C.I.A. is a valid subject for argument." ? ? 1 LOS ANGELES TIMES 11 May 1975 CIA Kept Out Plot on Allen Ex-Agent Says BY RONALD J. OSTROW Tones Staff Writer WASHINGTON?The former Chief 'of Latin American operations for the. CIA said Saturday. that , the agency, breaking. its practice, twice instruct- ed its agents to sever contacts with. Chileans plottinab the overthrow of' President Salvador Allende. David A. P,billips, who retired Fri- day from his CIA post to. organize a defense of the embattled agency, said the unusual step had been taken be- cause CIA officials were convinced that the United States would be ac- ctised of helping overthrow the world's first popularly elected Marx- isVpresident. The assertion by Phillips, 52, who is formine, what he calls the Assn. of -Retired Intelligence,Officers, is fresh evidenbe in that continuing con- troversy over what role the United States may have played in Allende's overthrow -and subsequent death .in ,1973. ,." Government officials have testified ? at .congressional hearings that the : United States had reports that a coup %vas planned but had no way of veri- fying them. . . ? Phillips told a press conference that a major responsibility of CIA station ? chiefs' abroad was to advise the American ambassador and Washing- ton policymakers if an unexpected change of government was imminent. ? "If any group achieved the clout where they might actually carry out assassination, CIA is derelict if they do not have an agent in that group to forewarn our country," Phillips said. But in the Chilean case, he said, his office sent two cables?one on May :8, 1973. and the other 15 days later? instructing CIA operatives to termin- ate contacts with any coup plotters. Phillips said that the agents had protested after receiving the first ca- ble that they could?not do their job if they discontinued such involvement. ? Phillips recalled the second cable as saying: "This one is a little different. It looks like there is really going to be a Coup, and we certainly, will be accused, and consequently ,you are not to be in touch with the coup plot- ters . you are not to give them any encouragement." Asked whether, despite the break- off with the plotters, the CIA had known in advance Of the coup, Phil- lips said, "indeed we did. We knew it was 'going to take place about 30 times, in the 10,months before it took place--because 'that's the way coups. go." ? He added ? that "it is true that just .before the coup we had information that .indicated more 'strongly- than Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001003600012-8 probably would occu Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 when it did?and it did." . Phillips said, the CIA had not 'warned Allende because there was no way of -being sure the coup would - be carried out. "If we were to go in Chile?or al: post every other Latin country? and tell the local government every time we had heard information there was about to be a coup. they would stop talking to us in' about two months." he said, "because they're nearly always called off." ? Phillips aSserted that the CIA had not supported or encouraged the ? plotters arid said the overthrow of .Allende "was ,a tragic event." "It should never have happened," he .sairl. "Where you have your first elected Marxist president anywhere in the world, obviously the way that ? rnan should leave office is to be voted out of office, and that's- the only way. "We and the U.S. government .would have much preferred. for the coup not to have taken place so there. could have been elections." Phillips denied several times "that CIA was responsible for the death of Allende . CIA did not ? fund the 'strikes which led to the coup that de- posed Mr. Allende nor did we encour- age the plotters who planned and conducted the coup. o "Other activities we did undertake in Chile. to. preserve its democratic sectors until the 1976 elections could:, be held. It was our estimate that.' g- en the .absoltitrily disastrous in the Chilean economy during .Mr. Allende's presidency. he had little chance to win those elections if the ?democratic sectors could hold out WASHINGTON POST 11 May 1975 ? enies Agency Role in that long." . He did not elaborate on what steps the CIA had taken, but U.S. officials have acknowledged that SS millioi. was channeled into Chile during the Allende era to certain newspapers .and non-Communist ? political parties. -Officiais said the purpose- had been to. bolster ? Democratic ? institutions in Chilethat they 'contended were threatened by Allende's rule. If the CIA's information about the coup had been assessed as solid, the question of whether to advise AI-. lencie "would have been a decision readied at the highest levels of the US: Government?much higher than; the forum in which I sat." Phillips - Phillips' choice of words was inter- esting because Jack Kubisch. an: ? ? assistant secretary of state, told a, Senate foreigh relations subcommit- tee in 1973 that officials at "the high- est level" in Washington had decided not to intervene in the Chilean tur-s- moil,?although they had word of the. coup -10 to 16 hours before it oc- curred. Spokesmen for ?the Department of 'State and for the White House later denied that the _United States had known about the coup in advance, saying the information had been re- garded as false: .Phillips, commenting on Cuban Premier Fidel Castro's recent denial ;of reports that he had Somehow been ,rolved in the assassination of Pres- ident John F. Kennedy, said he :agreed completely with Castro. -"Based on all the information avail- able to me. which is considerable," Phillips said. he is convinced Lee' Harvey Oswald assassinated .Kenne-:, nti-Alleude Coup CIA Defend ,By Austin Scott : Washington Post Staff Writer ' The man who ran Central Intelligence Agency activities in Chile during the overthrow and death of President .Salva- dor Allende said yesterday that he sent out two cables or- dering CIA agents to "cut off contacts with people who are planning coups" nearly five months before Allende was toppled. ? ? David Atlee Phillips told a news conference he did so be- cause, as he noted in the first cable lie sent on May 8, 1973: "It, has begun to look as if there is more and ? more, chance for a coup. " ? Phillips .said some of the agents wired back to ask bow, Ay and "that he-did it alone." Phillips said he had been stationed in Mexico. City. watching the Cuban Embassy, when Oswald went there seeking permission to travel to Cuba: "It is my conviction that the Cu- bans in Mexico City rebuffed Lee Harvey Oswald* and sent him on his way." Phillips said. "They thought he was some sort of kook." ? 'As for reports of CIA involvement in plots to kill foreign leaders, Phil- lips said he had no personal knowl- _edge of such activity but added that, "there must be something there. There have been discussions." ? After saying he had talked with friends in the agency about 'any' CIA " involvement, Phillips added. "There's, no question that in those traumatic times something took place .which ,might have been termed discussions. Whether there were plans or not, I , 'don't:know . . . ."Where there's so much smoke, there must, be some fire," Phillips said. "However in 25 years as an in- telligence officer, I have learned that: where there.. is smoke, there are sometimes Small fires?and a great: big smoke-making machine." . ? Over the last two year, during -which Phillips has headed the CIA's Latin American and Caribbean oper- ations. there have been no agency discussions or planning of 'assassina- tions. he said. "and I am in a position to know that is true." . ? , Philripas asked for information on any CIA operatiOns with which he had disagreed, lie said he was saving. such- discussion for. a series- of lee-. .tures lie will begin Giving this week for $500 to $750 each r Ciies Chile Ca if they severed such ties, they were to carry out what Phil- lips said was a major 'intelli- gence task?giving the T.J.S. government advance warning of any major change in a for- eign government. Phillips said he replied in a May 23 cable: "This one is a little differ- ent, because it looks like there will be a coup. You are not to be in touch with the coup plot- ters." There were no CIA agents in the groups that overthrew Allende on Sept. 11, 1973, Phil- lips said. Asked if the CIA had advanced knowledge of the coup, he said: "We did. We knew it was go- ing to take place about 30 'times before it did take place." But despite the rumors that. were sweeping Santiago in the months before. the Al- lende overthrow, as the time for the successful. coup ap- proached, Phillips said, ". .. It is true that we had stronget information than ever before that it probably would have taken place, and it did." Asked if the CIA tried to warn Allende, Phillips said, "Now, we did not warn him, we didn't prevent it, because we had no way to be sure." Until recently, Phillips was the CIA's chief of Latin Amer, lean operations, with 25 years as a key spy behind him, most of it in Latin America and the Caribbean, including Cuba and the Dominican.Republic. 2 ? les Yesterday he called a newg conference to launch the first day of his newly chosen ca- reer, that of ,a1 defender of the CIA working outside the agency. Phillips said he re- signed from the CIA to form an association of retired in- telligence officers to try to "put the current controversy about CIA into reasonable I perspective." IAsked how people could be !sure his new role is not just ,another CIA operation, Phil- !lips said, "I sUppose the only !people who are really going :to know it's not an operation ;are my wife, those who know IBill Colby [CIA Director E. Colby] and those who Iknow me intimately." - -Approved-For-Relea8e-2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6- . ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 Sunday. May 4,197$ THE WASHINGTON. POST A Conimmunralie t 6 0 IMPS HEN TOM ;BRADEN'S recent ar- ticle, "CIA: Power and Arro- ,gance," appeared in Saturday Review, ;twits concerned about its basic line, bit I was not roused to reply, as have become somewhat inured to ad- ,Verse comment. Its reprinting in The, '-Washington Post, however, suggests, U1.0 through repetition it might ' ac- 'quire more cachet, to the extent that rieel I must challenge its accuracy ? and its -wisdom. ' ? fn it, Mr. Braden talks of a CIA he ;Maly have known some 10 and 20 years itgb? I have news for him. Things have, 'clanged. CIA is no longer a sacred ' establishment of insiders "different". from outsiders in commitment and in freedom from the rules that bind ordin- ary men. It may have some of the re- straints of American bureaucracy, and its,personnel may live in Fairfax rath- er than Georgetown, but I think 'we have a stronger intelligence structure today, rather than one whose "power is gone," whose "arrogance has turned to fear," and whiah "is divided and torn." Indeed, we now have a modern in- telligence system. Its engineers and its scientists produce marvels of technol- ogy which deliver to our nation-Mfor- motion about the world of which Mr. Braden could not have dreamed in his time. Its research and analysis staffs stand for independent and objective assessments, however much policy- makers might wish more pleasing ones, or whatever the reflection on depart-, mental budgets and program propos- als. Our clandestine operations are per-.' haps less exhilarating but are more productive than Mr. Braden's and my parachuting days together: The unfet- tered "power" which produced the "arrogance" he recalls has been re- placed by intensive supervision and public as well as closed-door account- ability. ? Mr. Braden cites our box score in the usual partial way, only the strikes, not the hits. I note, for example, that he omits his own contribution to pre- venting Communist monopoly of the cause of "peace" during the 1950s and ye 1960s. Had they achieved this, our own anti-war movement might have become a vehicle for penetration comparable- to .t.hat which produced the .Philbys out of the anti,Faseist cause, in the -1930s. His May, 1967, article in the Saturday Evening Post praised this :work ("I'm glad the CIA Is ?Immor- ,-al'"). I find it as strange to see him now repudiating that praise as I then questioned his violation of his .. secrecy agreement by wrongfully re- vealing the details of his operation without authorization: Most, serious is Mr. Braden's solu- tion to the "ridiculous myths" that ex- ist about CIA and intelligence. Instead- of undertaking to reveal the untold. story of modern intelligence in the best journalistic tradition, he would "shut it down" in abject retreat before its critics. Indeed, this would in my view lead precisely to James. Madif son's injunction which he cited that "A popular government without the means to popular information is a fark.e or a tragedy, perhaps both" in the world in which we live. ECAUSE our intelligence informa- tion today is popular information. Some of its sources and techniques must. be kept secret if they are to en- dure, but its substance is _made avail- able in many and proper ways to our "popular government." It is provided to the executive branch and used in its deliberations and its discussions with the press. Our intelligence goes to a number of our congressional commit- tees and members on a regular basis, where it is highly valued as a contri- bution to their role in American decision-making. And an increasing number of our colleagues of the press are finding that a visit to Langley can expose them to independent, intelli- gent and learned spokesmen on sub- jects of interest to them, from nuclear proliferation to economic trends with- in the Soviet Union. If our government ,really should "shut it down," I do fear the result could be "a farce or a trag-. edy, perhaps both." WASHINGTON POST 8 May 1975 Braden Replies to Colby In his letter published in Outlook' May 4, Director of Central Intel- lig,encd Will,am Colby states that I Mice violated a secrecy agreement. His reference is to -a magazine ar- ticle I wrote defending certain CIA operations. Every one of these opera-- tions had been "blown"; that is, each ? Tom Braden. - InenwilisidvereeFilait keleA6e2terost98 :\DIAIRIDA77-00432R000100360002-6 Mr. Braden's solution of turning the, overt intelligence function to the State ?Department flies in the face of the proven desirability of separating from that policy-oriented institution an in- dependent intelligence collection and assessment 'capability, a lesson learned in China In the 1910s and in Vietnam in the 1960s. I question even more seri- ously his reflection on the fine job the agency's paramilitary elements did in Lioi with a handful of American personnnel and. a miniscule budget compared to some' other experiences. "Paratroopers" like Mr: Braden and me have been replaced by a new gen- eration who understand that political- will is' at the" base -of successful para- military, work, arld'that parachutes and even helicopters play only a support- ing role in sucli situations. . I note Mr. Braden's formula for fu- ture clandestine work to be run "out at some obscure toolshed." I have no comment. on his name for the leader of such,an effort, but I question wheth- er such obscurity would not reestablish the "Inside.outside syndrome. so essen- tial to secrecy' . . making a mockery of representative ,government," which he wrongfully' ascribes to today's CIA. May I suggest that a better solution , is the serious review being undertaken by the Vice President's Commission and the Select Committees of the Con- gress, to determine how outdated "ri- diculous myths" about American intel- ligence can be replaced by a better understanding of the reality of mod- ern intelligence and how it should fit within our free society. In this process, we will indeed replace the unaccount- able power and the arrogance which Mr. BracWn, seems to remember from an earlier day by a new and American concept of responsible intelligence. And in the process, I believe that pub- lic understanding of the importance of our modern "means, to popular in- formation" will be increased so that we can strengthen them for the future rather than dwell' only on the 'past. W. E. COLBY Director, Central Intelligence Agency "-subject of expose, public debate and,. newspaper comment. If Mr. Colby 'is right in his assertion that we now have a modern, responsi- ble, accountable, objective and popular intelligence service, it ought not to be defended by a resort to the ad homi- nem particularly when the ad hominem is not true. Tuesday, May 6, 1975 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 The Washington Star a By Jeremiah O'Leary Washington Star Staff Writer The finality of Defense Secretary James R. Schles- inger's declaration that the CIA has never resorted to assassination could be con- strued as reinforcing the contention of administra- tion sources that the agency discussed and knew about political murder plots but never was involved in a suc- cessful one. Schlesinger made his statement late yesterday after testifying 'before the Rockefeller commission investigating illegal domes- tic activities of the CIA, He emerged from his closed-door appearance and, unlike some former CIA officials, appeared al- most eager to set the record straight. He said, "Let me make it very clear now that assassination has not been AlMaYSIS SMIXIIMPEOWCSIMICIIMMON user1 as a tool by -the CIA at any time, and I don't think that -a7:"es prospectively any more than it does retro- spectively.", THE FORMER CIA director was even more em- phatic in denying CIA in- volvement in the slaying of President John F. Kennedy. "The suggestion of any. LOS ANGELES TIMES 8 May 1975 Colby Defends Ned to Keep'. 'Family Secrets' CIA involvement is prepos- terous," Schlesinger said. "It is psychologically and intellectually impossible that the CIA could in any way be involved in the tragic event." He said any such sugges- tions could only emanate from sick imaginations. The agency's whole role, he said, has been to serve and protect the United States and its leaders. Schlesinger refused to comment directly on re- ports of CIA involvement in plots to assassinate foreign leaders, but he said appro- priate review bodies such as the Rockefeller commis- sion and the congressional committees will want to re- view those issues. THE SUM of Schlesing- er's declarations are strongly supportive of state- ments to The Star by White House and CIA officials that the agency knew of, and even discussed, political murder but never was in- volved in a successful one. This leaves open the implication that the CIA may have had direct in- volvement in plots for politi- BY PHILIP HAGER - Times Staff Writer ? SAN FRANCISCO?CIA Director William E. Colby defended Wednes- day the need to maintain "national family secrets" but suggested his agency's mission should be clarified by new laws and guidelines. - Speaking to more than 900 persons at a Commonwealth Club luncheon here, Colby declared: "I fully- support procedures to en- sure supervision, control and accoun- tability with respect to our intel- ligence. I only plead that these proce- dures take into consideration the unique and fragile character of our sensitive intelligence operations." Noting charges of illegal domestic operations and other recent criticisms of the CIA?and resulting govern-. cal murder that did not suc- ceed ? for example, perhaps plots against Fidel Castro, whose death was certainly desired by many Cubans. It is-even more suggestive that the -CIA knew of such plots but was not directly involved. Commission officials said yesterday that the group, appointed by President Ford and headed by Vice President Nels'on-A. Rocke- feller, is nearing the end of ?the labors it began last February. -The hearings ? will be completed Monday, and then the commission will begin writing its report and recommendations for the President. THE REPORT is to be handed to Ford on June 4 and will be released public- ly- soon after that. At that. stage, the Senate Intelli? gence Committee, headed by Sen. Frank Church, D- Idaho, will commence its hearings into the activities of all American intelligence, agencies. Its House coun- terpart is almost totally dormant. Also testifying yesterday was Secretary of State_ mental investigations of the agency.' ?Colby asked that the ". . laws and guidelines be clarified so that We in the intelligence profession are giv- en a clear expression of the mission. theAmerican people and govern- inent want us to undertake." _ "I ask also that necessary secrets of intelligence be preserved in the inter- est of our nation . . . We believe these secrets need better laws and especially we need to arrive at a con- sensus that We Americans do have some national family secrets which must be kept. "To make an open book of our in- telligence sources is to invite steps? many quite simple?to deny us infor- mation vital to our nation's welfare and safety." The director stressed the unusual nature of his appearance, .pointing out that in many countries the chief intelligence officer is not even known, let along out ? making speeches. "Most of us grew up with the image of intelligence drawn from Nathan. Hale, Mata Hari, James Bond and perhaps even Maxwell Smart. This image is no longer valid today," he said. 4 Henry A. Kissinger. He denied having any knowl- edge or involvement in ei- ther -alleged CIA domestic spying or foreign assassina- tion plots. "Since I have been in Washington, the National Security Council or the NSC staff, Or the assistant to the president for national se- curity affairs (Kissinger's other title) did not concern themselves with domestic intelligence; nor were they informed about domestic intelligence," Kissinger de- clared. 'Asked about allegations of CIA assassination plots, Kissinger said none of those allegations pertain to the period of his service in Washington from 1968 until the present. ANOTHER WITNESS yesterday, former CIA Director John A. McCene (1961-1965) said, "During my term of office; there was no, absolutely no assassina- tion plot against Castro or any other foreign leader. McCone said such plots were not consistent with the moral values of the United States or the CIA, He rioted that collecting intel- ligence now far more often involves a scholarly, intellectual process rath- er than clandestine, operations an4 that this process . was greatly en- hanced by- technological advances. "This now allows us to see, hear and sometimes even touch informa- tion previously totally inaccessible . and in quantities hitherto totally un- manageable," he said. CIA information now is often pro-. ----e vided to congressmen, ambassadork scholars and the press?in unclassi- fied, background sessions?in arida tion to its traditional recipients, such as generals and admirals, he said. Colby acknowledged that the agerie cy had made some "missteps" in its 27-year history but added that action had been taken to "correct them and. prevent their recurrence." As for the current investigations of secret., political or paramilitary CIA operations in recent years,. Colby as-, sertee: . _ . '1 am confident it will be demon-, strated that any such activities. in past years were conducted under le- gal authority then existing, reflecting the political climate of those times,, and were carried according to prop-. Approved_ForRel.ea_5e 2001/08/08 ; CIA7RD177-00432R000100360002-6 ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 erly constituted procedures. "I must point out that this changed world seems to .be changing again. Our country may again need the ca- -pability to provide -some quiet in- .fluence or assistance to friends abroad without engaging the formal _diplomatic or military might of the. U.S." In answering questions from the: audience, Colby said that -in the last- five years, "between 400 and 500". Americans overseas had been ap= proached to serve as agents for, foreign powers. WASHINGTON STAR 13 May 1975 an A hn May IratIzAh The CEA John D. Marks worked as an intelli- gence analyst for the State department before writing, with Victor Marchetti, "The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence" ? publication of which the CIA attempted to stop in court. Marks, now director of the CIA research .project being conducted by the Center for National Security Studies bus work- ed to get Congress to investigate intelli- gence agencies. He was interviewed by Washington Staff Writer Allan Frank. , Question: In what areas of ordi- nary life has the CIA been involved that you think will surprise or shock the American people if evidence comes out during the hearings about such activities? Marks: The CIA has been heavily involved in church activities, reli- gious activities. They've infiltrated the church and used the church or church groups as funding mechanisms. They solicit informa- tion from missionaries, try to hire missionaries. Things of that sort will shock a lot of people. They also had a contributory pension plan and the in- vestment programs were regularly run through the CIA's bank of com- puters at Langley, which are some of the most advanced computers in the world. This is a profit-making plan for private employes and government computers are not supposed to be ,used for that sort of thing. I think that will shock people. We also know that the CIA has made use of private investigating firms in this country to do some of its domestic operations. Again, I think this may shock the American people. Q: Have you read any stories late- ly about the CIA that surprised you? A: It's hard to be surprised by any- thing now, but I guess I have to say I was surprised when I found out that the CIA had gone to the Mafia to take an assassination contract out on Fidel Castro. I always thought that Maria. Maybe that's naive, but that surprised me. Q: Do you believe the stories that the CIA went to the Mafia? Or the stories about Howard Hughes' con- nection with the Soviet submarine and the CIA? A: Yes, I believe them. I've con- firmed them through my own sources. I knew that U.S. intelligence was doing an awful lot of underseas research and other kinds of activi- ties, but I didn't know that they had gone in specifically after a Soviet submarine. I do know in a general way that the CIA has been very ac- tively working with all kinds of American businesses and that they have working agreements with quite a few American companies, so this kind of thing with Hughes didn't sur- prise me. For example, one former CIA guy with 20 years in the agency told me about how, in one -Latin- American country the CIA had a deal with Pan American Airlines where the CIA was given access to all the baggage and mail that went through on Pan American planes. To facili- tate the CIA's access, Pan Am even supplied the CIA's men with Pan Am overalls, which would give them a better excuse to be rummaging around in the baggage compartments of Pan Am's planes. This kind of ar- rangement has existed all over the world with AmericiCii business. _ Q: Do you feel that U.S. intelli- gence efforts in that kin-' of operation will be hampered, particularly with ? regard to Pan Am, now that the Ira- nians are about to buy a major por- tion of Pan Am? ? A: No, in this ease because the Ira- nian government has very closely cooperated with, and was put in by,, the CIA. Iranian intelligence cooper- ates very closely with the CIA. I think some of the exposures that have come out recently of American business contacts and cooperation may have smile effect because I think foreign countries now are going to be putting much more pressure on American businesses operating in 'their countries not to be espionage operations. And (CIA director) Wil- barn Colby himself told the press last year that over 200 businessmen, or so-called businessmen overseas, were really CIA operatives. Now, the press didn't report that it was Wil- liam Colby ? it was a "high U.S. offi- cial," but I can tell you it was Colby. Q: But what will the exposures really mean? A: Exposures are going to limit. this kind of close cooperation be- tween American businesses and the CIA because the primary business of American business should -not be espionage. The companies are going to see that they are not going to be able to get away, with this kind- of close c000peration without anybody knowing it and they are going to have to be responsible for their acts. If .they want to own up to the fact that they're cooperating with the CIA, that's fine. But I have a feeling ? and some of the CIA supporters our government didn't GreppratediEor Vigraesee-2difft011108rkcENOIRDPis7W0 going to back off some of its close cooperation with the CIA because it doesn't want to get nationalized or have its public interest tarnished. I know for a fact that ITT (Internation- al Telephone and Telegraph), Pan Am and W.R. Grace Shipping Co. have all provided cover for the CIA overseas in the past. I don't think that's consistent with their proper roles. _ Q: How do you know that for a ? fact? - A: I've _talked to CIA people who have told me. I've said-it publicly in speeches and no one has challenged me. - Q: Will it hurt American busi- nesses not to be connected with the CIA? A: It may in some areas. American business cooperation with the CIA has been a two-way street. These businesses have done favors for the CIA and the CIA in return, either for- mally or informally, has passed information ? economic intelligence to the American businesses which has been very helpful to them. One longtime 'CIA operative ?in South America told me that while he had no official directive to help out Ameri- can businessmen 'overseas; he would pass on information that was helpful. Information, for instance, on which companies were about to be nationalized, which companies were in trouble with the local government. I behevecthis goes on on a broader scale. Q: Do you then agree with Me. Cal by' analysis that if the CIA is limited overseas, it will hurt the United States' economic position in the world? - A: No. I think it would be a much healthier situation if American busi- ness concentrated on being a good corporate citizen overseas and didn't make itself an extension of American intelligence operations. And I should emphasize that it's not all American business that is doing this. Q:, What to you is the most impor- tant lead the congressional investi- gating committees could pursue? For instande, do you have any proof that _ the CIA ever assassinated anybody? A: Do I have any .prof? I don't have any proof I could go into a court of law with. I know from my own sources and from things that have come out in major magazines and newspapers that the CIA has certain- ly been involved in assassination .plots. With the Trujillo assassination in the Dominican Republic, for in- stance, the CIA sent guns into the, group that did do the actual assassi- nation. Now it has never been proved whether those particular guns were used to shoot Trujillo, but the CIA seems to have been involved. Jeremi- ah O'Leary of the Washington Star wrote that story. Q: Do you believe, as some people do, that the CIA will be irreparably harmed by all these disclosures? A: Let's say that I hope the CIA is irreparably harmed by the disclo- sures on assassinatons, the disclo- sures on domestic survellianc.. In 432R10004601.3608024se activities are irreparably harmed, that the U.S Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 government just cuts theln out. I think that would be very useful. I don't think the legitimate parts of the CIA will be irreparably harmed. The intelligence analysts are not being called on the carpet at this point. It is not they who have done those improp- er things. They are the people who should be encouraged and whose functions should be strengthened. ? Q: Do you feel there is anything inherently evil about the CIA? A: I feel a lot of their activities in the past have been wrong, and ille- gal. And some of those activities, such as the surveillance of Ameri- cans in this county, are clearly gal. These kinds of activities present a danger to our own democratic insti- ton-ions. What we need is a return to ?resident Truman's original intent in setting up the CIA, and that was to have an agency to coordinate intelli- gence and enake the best possible evi- dence of what was happening in the world, etich has nothing to do with ?-?he dirty tricks of the CIA. I think we snould strengthen the good part of the CIA, the intelligence estimating nellet of the CIA, and we should elimi- nate the clandestine services, which have caused the country a good deal e q: Some CM officers argue that to be effective in intelligence, you have to be able to break into embassies to steal current codes. A: I'm sure you can slightly in- crea^e your effectiveness by break- ing knto embassies and stealing codes; hut I don't think that is any justificaton for breaking the law. Q: How do you answer the criticism that other intelligence agencies operate this way, and we're tying our own hands if the CIA is not allowed to operate in whatever fash- zon it deems necessary? ? _ ? A: The Soviet Union's intelligence -system operates a vast string of con- centration camps.- The Gulag Ar-, chipelago documented that. I don't think we need to emulate the Soviets bY setting up concentration camps. There are certain weapons the United States could use, such as bacteriological warfare, which we don't use because we feel they are below our minimi- um standards of decency of what we want to do in the world. I would maintain that the CIA's dirty tricks are also below our minimal standard of decency, and ,to be true to our ideals, we shouldn't be using these ? things. We don't have to emulate the ways of tyran- nical governments in order ? to protect our own society. Q: When has decency be- - come a factor. in intelli- gence operations? A: Never. It is not something that is factored into what the CIA people do. What is important to the CIA is what works. There is virtually no criminal activi- ty known to man that the CIA hasn't used at one time or another in the further- ance of its clandestine goals. That kind of moral- ity, or lack of morality, is something we don't need in officers of the United States government. That kind of morality is what brought down the Nixon administra- tion. That kind of morality is what brought us Water- gate, in fact, with a cast of characters partly supplied by the CIA. It seems to me we should be eliminating that kind of morality from our government, not prais- ing it, not saying it's neces- sary. Q: Do you feel that the CIA has any legitimate operational functions inside this country? For instance, Mr. Colby says that the CIA may have to spy on people at the United Nations? A: No, absolutely not. Q: Do you feel that is le- gitimate? ' A: The law says that the CIA will have no domestic police or internal security functions.. If there has to be spying at the U.N., why don't they use the FBI? Why does the CIA insist on breaking the law? I don't think our own government should be breaking our. laws. Q: The scuttlebutt is that the CIA does not get along with the FBI. Is that true? A: The CIA officers have little or no confidence in the FBI and vice versa. I don't think the solution to that problem is government agencies to break the law. If there is a problem with NEW YORK TIMES 3 May 1975 A.C.L.U. Critical on Intelligence Panel the FBI and their domestic surveillance or domestic counterespionage, let's im- prove the FBI. Move some of the geniuses from the CIA to the FBI so that it can be done legally. I'll give you a hypothetical example of this domestic security busi- ness. If a Russian spy is dis- covered in Washington, the first impulse of the FBI is to arrest him. The first im- pulse of the CIA is to manipulate him, and that is the basic difference be- tween the two organizations. The CIA is always looking for that clever way to turn things to their own advantage, whereas the FBI, certainly in the eyes of the CIA, tend to be gumshoes more con- cerned with internal securi- ty and things of that sort, which I think is perfectly proper. I'm Just giving you an idea of the perception of the mentalities of the two agencies. I wasn't using it as an example of anything proper or improper. Q: Do you agree . with with Mr. Colby when he says 'Well, we could publish all our -budget figures for one year but if we did it for three or four years, the op- position would be able to establish a trend and figure out how much we're spend- ina, and what we. 're doing. ? . I don't agree with that reasoning. When -you publish a budget figure like that of the CIA's, like $700 million, and then when you increase it to $800 million, then the Russians will know we have increased our intel- ligence operations slightly. I don't see where that gives them any access to knowl- edge of our secrets. I think the KGB knows a great deal more about U.S. intelli- gence operations than ei- ther the American public or the American Congress does. And a lot of that secrecy is aimed not so much at the Russians or the so-rnlled enemies as at the people here in this country, Just to give you my favorite example, the CIA for 10 or 12 years fought a secret war in Laos. That war was no secret to the people in Laos ? the enemy ? because they were being shot. They knew *there were Americans involved. They knew who was shooting them and who was bombing them. It was a secret from the Congress and the American people. I don't think there is any rea- son to have that kind of 5eCrecy. Q: Have any of the stories that have come out dealt with matters that have been deleted from your book under the court Order obtained by the CIA? not Sure I can say and remain within terms of the injunction. Now, you have quite a few reporters looking into what the intelli- gence agencies were doing so it's natural that some of these stories are coming out. I'm sure people would be shocked by some of the things in the book, but I -don't think there was any justification to censor our book. But because we are under court order, I can't really talk about it. We have at least a half- dozen front page stories in that book remaining under cen- sorship. By JOHN CREWDSON Special to The New YJni Times WASHINGTON, May 2?The American Civil Liberties Union called today upon Representa- tive Lucien N. Nedzi to affirm' .his intention to investigate the activities of American intelli-, gence-gathering organizations! or to reign the chairmanship' of a House select committee' set up for that purpose. In a letter to the Michigan; tor, and Char:es Morgan Jr., who heads its national office here, asserted that Mr. ,Nedzi's "failure to staff the committee raises grave doubts as to the ability "of the House of Repre- sentatives to oversee and in- vestigate the Central Intelli- gence Agency." A Senate select committee, set up three weeks earlier for the same purpose, has long since retained officials and staff investigators and is inter- Democrat and House 'Speakerlviewing, prospective witnesses Carl Albert, two A.C.L.U. offi-ifor the public hearings it plans cials pointed out that 71 days to begin in June. had passed since the House es- Mr. Nedzi, who also heads a tablished the panel that Mr. separate House subcommittee Nedzi heads and that no chief that acts, as a "watchdog" for counsel, staff director or staff ithe C.I.A., has reportedly been had been appointed. !unable to obtain a consensus The officials, Aryeh Neiedamong the Democratic and Re- the ACLU's executive direc-I publican members of his panel on a candidate for staff di- rector. ? Mr. Nedzi, who has not spoken with the press since he was named to the chairman- ship, is nonetheless known to believe that the director's post must be filled before the staff- selection process can begin. In their letter, Mr. Neier and Mr. Morgan asked that Mr. Nedzi advise them "and the public generally, of the plans, if any, you have to aggres- sively undertake the duties of yOur chairmanship. . "If you have no such plans or decline to reveal them," the letter concluded, "we suggest you resign your chairmanship to allow the appointment of a House member willing .to in- vestigate the C.I.A." 6 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 WASHINGTON POST 14 May 1975 7i CIA-Fs "By George Lardner Jr iTiashington PGs t Staff Writer ; A prominent critic of the Central Intelligence Agency charged yesterday that the CIA is trying to "subvert" the new freedom-of-informa- tion law by setting heavy fees for unearthing request- ed records. Former White House aide Morton* Halperin, who de- manded the records under the new law nearly three months ago, said the CIA is now in- sisting that it will cost "thousands of dollars" simply to find the documents. Halperin said he was baffled! by the CIA's stance because. he assumed that most of the docufnents had already been found in connection with the disclosures the CIA- has al- ready made about its domestic spying activities. , In a letter to Halperin this ? week, however, the CIA billed ,him $964 in "chargeable search NEW YORK TIMES 14 May 1975 iNew Law Is Dislodging C.I.A.'s costs" and said it would cost $640 a week for the agency to I keep looking from now on. Now affiliated with the non- profit Center for National Se- curity Studies, Halperin filed hi g freedom-of-information re- quest in February, asking for 44 categories of records sug- gested by' the public congres- sional testimony of CIA Direc- tor William E. Colby. In addition, Halperin said, Colby and the CIA made other, still-secret disclosures in reports to President Ford and the Rockefeller Commis- sion and in response to re- 'quests from the Senate com- mittee on intelligence opera- tions headed by Frank Church (D-Idaho). ' "What on earth did they look at [as the basis] for the * Colby report [to Pr esi den t! F o r d]?" Halperin demanded.i "Why haven't they found this: material? Either they're try- ing to subvert the Freedom of --Information Act with big fees r Reif/eosin for documents they've already located or they haven't sear- ched their files." Aside from the discomfiture posed for the CIA by the new legislation, Halperin said he suspected the agency has yet to check all the files that might bear on illegal or im- proper domestic spying opera- tions. ? CIA Director Colby, -in dis- closing what he described as a few "missteps" by the CIA over the past 27 years, told the House and Senate Appropria- tions committees that the agency had recruited or in- serted "about a _dozen individ- uals into American dissident circles ..." Halperin asked for "all files" pertaining to the ac- tivities of these 12 individuals. ? He said he has yet to get more than a few scattered CIA directives and memos in response to his requests, along with a 39-page report compiled in 1968 about worldwide stu- dent protests entitled "Restless Youth." By NICHOLAS M. HORROCK ' Special to The New York Tipes WASHINGTON, May ]3?Ap- plications under the Freedom I of Information 'Act are slowly! beginning to dislodge docu- ments, from the Central genceAgency, and tidbits from' the agency's secret files are; floating zit over Washington. Among the individuals and groups that have obtained for- merly secret documents is Morton Halperin, a former -de' to Secretary of State Kissin7er who is now with the Center for; National Security Studies. Mr. Halperin has obtained! the C.I.A.'s side of the original' agreement on responsibilities between' the CiliAi and Federal Bureau of Investigation. The C.I.A.. obtained the right to keep contact in? the United States with "individuals and groups of foreign nationali- ties." This was supposedly to permit the C.I.A. to ,recruit agents from among various e,migro within the 'United States: ? Lawyers for the Political Rights Defense Fund have ob- *tained part of a C.I.A. dossier on the Socialist Workers par- ty's Presidential candidate, Peter ,Camejo. Cables Surrendered The C.I.A. surrendered sev- eral heavily edited cables in which it instructed its offices in- Bogota, Colombia a..d Buenos Aires to keep track of Mr. Camejo while he was abroad. It also submitted sev- eral documents apparently: a Hi , Halperin had asked for al waiver of all search fees un- der a provision of the Free- dom of Information Act allow- ing this when release of the information would benefit the general public. The CIA de- nied the request. Halperin said he is appeal- ing that decision and will seek a review of the CIA's esti- mated fees for finding,the doc- uments. .Meanwhile, Halperin said he has asked the CIA to stop all document searches and to con- centrate on reviewing those al- ready found. In a reply to the agency dated yesterday, he emphasized that the Senate- House; conference - report on the new Freedom' of Informa- tion Act stated that "fees should not be used for the purpose of discouraging re. quests for information or as obstacles to disclosure of re- quested information." said that the hnreau aver- aged 113 F.O.I. requests a day ? in April, and that, though the :flow had tapered off somewhat, 'view that Mr. Camejo had over Havana Radio while he was in Cuba. _?..? Most significant in, Mr. Camejo's 'case .was ?that the agency said it had 81 other .documents that it did not have to release under provisions of the law. . John Marks. co-author of a' book on the C.I.A. and a former State Department officer, has ;obtained a secret study pre-: loared by the C.I.A. in Sentem- ber, 1968, called "Restless Youth." . ? . . It is an erudite, if conserva- tive, view of youthful militancy and radicalism around .the world. There is no question of impropriety in the ? acency's preparing such a document, and it has offered study 'papers throughout Government oni other subjects. - , The' paper contained an un- to-date analysis of Students' I for a. Democratic Society and [antiwar activities that sugj I gested that it had its own, sources of information. ? It offered the conclusion that "the Communists can take little comfort from any of this, even though Moscow and its allies .may exact fleeting advantage from the disruption sowed by' the dissidents." "In 'the long run, they, will. have to cope with young people who are alienated by the more oppressive, features of Soviet* life," it said. Richard Helms, former Direc- tor of the C.I.A., and other Government officials have said. that the C.I.A. began to gather intelligence on domestic dis- might be financed by. Soviet- :it still had- 101 employes as- intelligence agencies. -, ?signed to processing the .appli- ? The Socialist Workers .parly, ? -cations. The C.I.A. has a 50-man com- plement processing the - re- quests, and received 1,600 since Jan. 1. Each request must be) searched through the records, the material read and a deci- sion then made on whether the agency must release the document under the law. Under the amendment to the act, any citizen may apply to a Government agency to dis- cover .whether it has prepared il:dg a job that Carrollton Press, ? "a dossier or file,on him. Within Inc., which has several other certain ranges of time or na- library services, is now offering -"ti onal security, the agency must surrender the file. If it does not,, or withholds portions I file. If it does not, or withholds portions lof the file,. the citizen may appeal and ultimately get a ;court hearing. was kept under surveillance by the F.B.I. for three decades., It is not clear from the C.I.A. material released last week whether it was privy to the F..BI.'s files on Mr. Camejo. An amendment to the Free- dom of Information Act that! went into effect in February. has vastly increased the nurn-' ber of documents that are being, :declassified. Keeping track of: Ie material has become so a service that obtains,_ cata- logues and examines do- cuments released under various a9ects of the law. Both the C.I.A. and the F.B.I. have felt the full burden of the new law. An F.B.I. spokes- WASHINGTON STAR 1 MAY 1975 Glomar to Be Taxed LOS ANGELES ? The Los Angeles county assessor says he'll slap a tax assessment of more than $1 million on the secret salvage ship Glomar Explorer which, as , purported property of the federal government, has ' been tax exempt. Assessor Philip Watson said yesterday he believes the 618-foot ship ? used to raise part of a sunken Sovi- et submarine off Hawaii last year ? is the legal prop- erty of Howard Hughes' Summa Corp. and at an as- sessed value of $40 million should be taxable in the amount of $1.24 million. Watson said there is about $250 million worth of so- phisticated electronics equipment on the ship but suspects most of it is owned by the Central Intelligence Agency and is therefore tax exempt. ? 'based on newspaper clippings, and a transcript of an Anter- sidents because of concern by 7-7=0Apprbviedfrott' Riebasatet 201:14108108 7? CtA=1k13t3- 0432R000100360002-6 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 WASHMGTON POST 13 May 1975 R.ockefaler ana Ends CM Pmbe . By George ? Washington Po The Rockefeller commission Completed its investigation of the Central Intelligence Agen. ,cy's domestic activities yester- day except for the finishing !touches required for a report -to President Ford. The commission's vice chair- pan, C. Douglas Dillon, told reporters that "we didn't dig up anything" surprising be.1 yond the allegations and dis- closures already made public in the press. The inquiry ranged from a covert CIA program of inter- cepting first-class mail to re- ports of CIA involvement in ' assassination schemes against foreign leaders such as Cuban Premier Fidel Castro. Headed by Vice President Rockefeller, the commission heard 48 witnesses at closed, once-a-week hearings that started Jan. 13. Its staff took 'depositions from scores of oth- Lardner jr. St Staff Writer mony that the agency engage : in Surveillance of American, journalists and political dise senters, opened first-class mail, over .a 20-year period between the United States and Commu- nist countries, planted inform- ers inside domestic protest groups, assembled files on more than 10,000 Americans, and kept counterintelligence flies on at least four members of Congress. Dillon said he would not characterize what the CIA did as "massive" domestic spying. "The allegation is that the agency was devoting a large part of its time on domestic --areas when it was supposed to be operating abroad," he said. "I don't think this was the case." The commission was origi- nally scheduled to report to the President in March. but it was granted an extension af- ter Mr. Ford asked it to ex-, ! plore any violations of domes- tic law arising out of the CIA's alleged involvement in eeseesheat;ne eNlets. againse Castro and others. Dillon said yesterday he has "no knowledge" that President Kennedy was kilted in retalia- tion for CIA plotting against Castro, as one persistent ru- mor has it. But he was more reserved about the commission's in- quiry into assassination plots against foreign leaders. With: out characterizing the find- ings, he said the investigationt of these allegations _involved "largely .Castro" although others conCerned the late Ra- fael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic. . The commission ? also checked into claims by activist Dick Gregery and associates that a photograph of several shabbily dressed men picked up in Dallas shortly after the November, 1963, assassination of President Kennedy showed two persons resembling Watergate burglars E. Howard Hunt and Frank Sturgis, both fOrmer CIA operatives. ? ' ? -, The FBI, which loOked into the same claims last year and found no substance to them, dispatched a photographic ex- pert to Dallas recently tore- view its. findings and appar- ently came up with the same results. Hunt and Sturgis have de' flied beine in Dallas the day the President was killed. The final two witnesses be- fore the commission yesterday were retired Navy Adm. George B. Anderson, chairman of the PreSident's Foreign In- ers. ? ' The -eight-member panel will now embark on an accel- erated round of private ses- sions to edit a draft report for Mr. Ford that already covers at least 600' pages. Spokesmen said staff lawyers and investi- gators are still doing some wrap-up work and several sec- tions of the draft report re- main incomplete. Dillon, however, said he felt that "with one or two major exceptions, everything that was done was rather periph- eral and was connected in one way or another to the legiti- mate work of the agency." He did not spell out what he would regard as the "major exceptions" to that conclusion. The deadline for the report io Mr. Ford is June 6. It is be- ing written with the expecta- tion that it will be made pub- lic, but the President will make the final decision after. he has reviewed it. Commission spokesmen :were unclear about how de- tailed the report would be in 'recounting various episodes, -although one said "certainly the names of top officials will be used." The transcripts of testimony taken by the commission and its staff Will be kept secret, he added. ? President Ford created the commission on Jani 5 to hives- tieate chaff:es that the CI-A spied on Americans in the United States in violation of its charter. ?CIA Director William E.. Colby subsequently acknowle Rdged in 'congressional testi,, NEW YORK TIMES 8 May 1975 Ass ssin ti n Denials of C.I.A. Termed 'incomplete' by Church By NICHALOS M. HORROCK - ? Special to The New York Time WASHINGTON, May 7?Sen- ator Frank Church. said today that he had information in his possession indicating that the published denials of any com- plicity of the Central Intelli- gence Agency in assassination plots were "incomplete." Mr. Church, 'Idaho Democrat who is chairman of the Senate Select Committee on Intelli- gence, cited statements in the press by a Tormer Director of Central Intelligence, Richard Helms, and the current director, William E. Colby, and others. He pledged that his committee would look into? the matters "very thoroughly" and would later decide whether to make its findings public. Under questioning by report- ers, after meeting with Vice President Rockefeller, Mr. Church also said that the evi- dence his committee was seek- ing from such diverse agencies as the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the C.I.A., was being "funneled" through the White House and that this was delaying the Senate coin.: ? mittee inquiry. Mr. Church and, the commit-' tee vice chairman, Senator John G. Tower, Republican of Texas, met briefly with ? Mr. Rockefeller today to make a formal request for all the tran- scripts. evidence and "raw data" that the Rockefeller Commission has gathered on the C.I.A.. Mr. Church said that the Vice President had told him that since the commission had been created and appointed by President Ford it was up to the President to decide whether Congressional investigating committees could have the ma- terial. Mr. Rockefeller, Mr. Church sadi, had no objection to the material going to the Senate committee. ? - ' No White House Denial Both Mr: Church and Mr. Tower said that no White House official had yet flatly re- fused to provide any piece of evidence sought by the com- mittee and that there had been no objection yet to turning over the material to the Rockefeller! Commission. It was during this question! period that Mr. Church re-,' sponded to a query of whetherd after reviewing the evidence' he now had, he could "en-1 dorse" statements by Mr. Helms and Mr. Colby that said there, had been no planning of assas-I sinations within the C.I.A. Mr. Church said that 'based upon information in my posses- sion, those statements that ap- peared in the press by Mr. Colby and Mr. Helms and oth- ers have been correct but not complete." Presumably, Mr. Church was referring to recent statements by several senior former C.I.A. officials, including Mr. Helms, that there was never an "authorized" plot to assassinate a foreign leader or C.I.A. in- volvement. in several assassina- tions over the last two decades. But Mr. Church refused to ex- pand on his first answer to the question. Church Lacks Evidence Under . questioning, Senator Tower said he had "meevidence to convince me" that any of- the statements were "incorrect" but he did riot contradict Mr. Church's statement. The entire matter of whether the C.I.A. has been involved in assassination plots of for- eign leaders or actually com- mitted assassinations has swirled through the city for nearly two months with little lard data to clear the air. On. another matter Mr. Church ',said that his commit- tee 'felt that evidence from in- dividual government agencies' should not have to be reviewed by the White House before it was turned over. -"We think a good deal of this material could be delivered directly but the White House takes a different view. So far we have been un- able to cut that particular knot." Mr. Church said that this funnel system was delaying the Senate committee's inquiry. He said that in the interests of erepediting thd investigation, the committee had agreed to- tell the White House which pieces of evidence it, thought were most important and which should be delivered first. telligence Advisory Board, and chief U. S. Postal Inspector William J. Cotter, who told of his repeated and finally suc- cessful efforts to get the CIA to abandon its illegal mail-in- terception program. ? SUNDAY TELEGRAPH., London 4 March 1975 C.I.A. 6 tried to kill Philby By Our Staff Correspondent in Washington The Central Intelligence Agency planned to eesassinate Kim Philby in 1963 in Beirut, according to -Jack Anderson, the :syndi cat ed col um nist. At that time, he wrote yester- day "The C.I.A. was 100 per cent. certain that Phan/ was a Russian spy. Fed up with British dilly-dallying, the CIA. decided to murder him. But as the .' torpedoes ' closed in the elusive Philby skipped off to the Soviets." 8 -Approved-For Release_2001/08/.08 : CIA-RDP77700432R000100360002-6 ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 WASHINGTON STAR 7 May 1975 Mail Op ed 431 Mlles On avrants , United Press International The chief U.S. Postal Service inspector has testi- fied that there have been 431 cases during the past two years in which an indi- vidual's mail was opened after issuance of a search warrant. --- William J. Cotter also indicated yesterday that the CIA may have been involv- ed in mail openings beyond the 431 authorized by court orders, but he refused to comment publicly on the number. Appearing before a House subcommittee on postal fa- cilities and mail, Cotter gave further information on CIA mail opening activities to lawmakers in executive session. When committee mem- bers asked Cotter about how extensive past CIA mail opening practices had been, he replied, ".I would feel much freer to dis- cuss this if we , were in executive session." He re- fused to publicly reveal any details of the CIA mail openings, including what criteria is used in allowing the agency to engage in such activities. During the public part of the hearing, Cotter review- ed current practices on mail openings and mail covers as well as a CIA "20- year project" during which mail to and from the Soviet Union was opened. Cotter, a former CIA agent, said a mail cover in- volves recording informa- tion from the outside of the envelope, but not actual opening of letters. A cover may be instituted to assist in locating a fugitive, to ob- tain evidence on the commission or attempted commission of a crime and to "protect the nationaPse- curity," he said. ? At present there are 353 mail covers in place around the country, but during a year there might be 1,000 covers, be said. Cover au- thority is issued for a 30-day period, but can be renewed. Only the chief postal in- srPctor can authorize na- tional security category covers, Cotter said, and 95 percent of those requests comelrom the FBI. NEW YORK TIMES 4 May 1975 ssassinaticn Is a That JustWon't By DANIEL SCHORR WASINGTON?Four months, ago, -topic "A" in investigations of The Central Intelligence Agency was "domestic surveillance." Now it is "assassina- tions," foreign and/or domestic, plotted and/or committed: The subject has become a preoccupation of the Presidential commission headed by Vice Presi- dent Rockefeller despite its primary mandate, an inquiry into allegations that the C.I.A. paid consider- able attention, improperly and perhaps illegally; to the activities of thousands of Americans. The shift in attention is a development that Presi- dent Ford had hoped to avoid, but unwittinglyhelped to bring about. Meeting with the President on Jan. 3 for a confidential briefing after filing a written report responding to Seymour Hersh's revelations in The New York Times about domestic surveillance C.I.A. Director William Colby described other matters potentially much more troublesome if exposed. Whethet by deliberate design or not, a course was followed that would keep the skeletons safely locked in the closet. The surveillance issue, where little more damage was expected, would be addressed by appointment of a Presidential commission, but it would work within guidelines carefully framed and its members. would be carefully chosen to avoid. more perilous areas. Unfortunately for the success of that approach, lite candid President talked about his concern to, subordinates, and even at a luncheon with executives' ?of The New York Times. To illustrate his worries about an uninhibited inquiry he mentioned "assassi- natj:pns" without being specific about what he had in mind. . Though The Times executives respected Mr. Ford's confidence, word eventually leaked, and the Presi- dent's worry was reported by CBS News on Feb. 28. Senator Stuart Symington, because he shared re- sponsibility for overseeing C.I.A.' activities immedi- ately called Mr: Colby to ask if the C.I.A. had killed anybody, and quoted the director's initial response as "not in this country." Asked if anyone had been killed anywhere, Mr. Colby replied negatively, Mr. Syming- ton said, but,added the matter was'complicated." President Ford inferentially confirmed an "assassi- nation" problem at his March 7 .news conference, saying, in reply to a question on assassinations, that he had received "a full report from Mr. Colby on the operations that have been alluded to in the news, media in the last week on so, really involving such actions that might have taken place beginning back in the 1960's." _ ? The issue, once publicly raised, had to be dealt with. It was tossed to the Rockefeller Commission, whose staff had become interested on its own. The Vice President was left to explain the new concern. The best he could do was, "We see the possibility of a situation which we didn't antici- pate." Part of the "situation" was the revival of public interest in revisionist theories about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. The staff conducted dozens of interviews and made an exten- sive review of documents, including the Kennedy autopsy report. Richard Bissell, who had retired as the C.I.A.'s' Deputy Director for Plans (clandestine operations) in 1962, before domestic surveillance had starteu, was asked what he knew about the unnatural deaths of foreign personalities, such as Patrice Lumumba of the Congo and ,Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Re- public. Mr. Bissell disclaimed direct C.I.A. involve- ment?What became apparent was that the standard pattern of covert activity was to support opposition groups, and hope they would do what the C.I.A. wanted done. . An exception was Fidel Castro: The commission staff 'found evidence that the C.I.A. was more di- rectly involved?at times in concert with American underworld figures?in a series of attempts on Mr. Castro's life that started before the abortive Bay of Pigs invasion and continued as late as 1963. Mr. Bissell had been succeeded in 1962 is deputy di- rector of plans by Richard Helms. -- ? Mr. 'Helms was recalled from his post as Ambassa- dor to Iran for a third round of testimony?two arduous days with the staff, almost four hours before the full commission. He was described by commis- sion sources as .a "not very helpful" witness, with frequent lapses? of memory. He emerged, agitated, to tell newsmen, "I don't know of any foreign,leader that was ever assassinated by the C.I.A." But he would not be drawn into discussion of indirect in- volvement or abortive conspiracies. The Castro issue took on a special significance for the commission staff. David Belin, the staff director, had been chosen by President Ford, with whom he served on the Warren Commission to investigate the Kennedy assassination. They agreed, as Mr. Ford expressed it'on April 4, that there was no doubt that Lee Harvey Oswald was the sole assassin, hut there could be a "problem" about the conclusion that there was no evidence of a conspiracy. Mr. Ford meant that -any indications of others influencing Os- wald Could technically be taken as evidence that he was part of a conspiratorial undertaking. The Castro Factor The "problem" can never be resolved because Os- wald is dead, and only he could describe his motives with ?certainty. The Warren Commission had re- ported his activity in the Fair Play for Cuba Com- mittee and his visit to the Cuban Embassy in Mexico City, but the commission conceded Oswald's Cuba connection was murky. The commission knew noth- ing about the plots on Castro's life. , President Lyndon Johnson learned about them ac- cidentally, when'J. Edgar Hoover made a bureacrat's complaint. He told Mr. Johnson that F.B.I. agents had trapped a major underworld figure,' only to find that the criminal was working for the C.I.A. in one of .its attempts on Premier Castro's life. Presumably, that information led to speculation by Mr. Johnson, recently disclosed, that Oswald may have been "in- fluenced or directed" by the Castro Government to murder Mr. Kennedy in retaliation. The,C.I.A. designs on Mr. Castro occurred only months before Mr. Ken- nedy was killed. What Mr. Johnson considered a possible connection was also obvious to the Rocke- feller Commission. - The commission's report is scheduled to be given to Mr. Ford by June 6 and is expected to be made public shortly thereafter. Its main subject will be domestic surveillance, but the matter of assassina- tions cannot now be avoided: Mr. Ford's original wishes notwithstanding. He and everyone else will then find out whether the public is reassured or horrified about some of the things the Central Intelli- gence Agency has contemplated or done, here and abroad. Daniel Schorr is a Washington correspondent for C.B.S. News. . Approved For Release 2001/03/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 LOS ANGELES TIMES 11 May 1975 " Kennedy Conspiracy Ise tunte .? BY W. DAVID SLAWSON " and RICHARD M. MOSK ? There v'ere always those who be- lieved there was a conspiracy. to as- sassinate President Kennedy, and many of these persons brushed aside the report of the Warren Commis- sion, which found no evidence to sup- -port the conspiracy theory and con- cluded that Lee Harvey Oswald act- ed alone. ? Recently .talk of plots to assassin- ate Joreign leaders, and investiga- tions into what role, if any, the David Slawstm is a professor of law at USC, Richard Mosk is a Los An- geles attorney. Roth were attorneys on, the staff of the Warren Commission. American CIA ma Y have had in such plots, has revived speculation over the Kennedy assassination. . The conspiracy theory persists partly because some persons find it difficult to beliirve that such a momentous act could be done so ca- priciously. and by such .an insignifi; cant, hapless man as Lee Harvey Os-' ? .'Few persons not familiar with the Warren Report realize the large number of chance occurrences under- lying the assassination. It is very un- likely that Oswald would ever have killed Kennedy had the President not gone to Dallas when he -did and ? passed the building in which Oswald was working. At the time Oswald .took his job, there was no way of ,knowing that the presidential parade 'route would go right by the building in which he worked, or that there would be a presidential parade at all 'in the foreseeable future in Dallas. The night before the assassination, Oswald hitched a ride with a friend out to a suburb to see his wife, Mari- na, from whom he was then separat- ed. He begged her to come back and .live with him. He offered to rent an 'apartment in Dallas for the two of them the next day: She refused. The next morning Oswald left his wed...- ding ring and almost all his money bn the dresser, and departed with the Isame friend for work, with the rifle dismantled and concealed in a pack- :!age. Kennedy might be alive today had Marina relented. * Allegations concerning CIA activi- ties in the late 1950s and the release have created added doubts, ?because The CIA assisted the commission in its investigation. However, the CIA was, Only one such outside source of assis- tance, and it was not the most impor- tant one. (The most important was' the FBI.) Moreover, the commission double-checked and cross-checked all Fig,rtificant information among a va- riety of sources?governmental and private. The principal reason for the criti? cisms and conspiracy theories, however, is the breadth of the War- en Report. The published materials' comprise 27 volumes. The National Archives contain additional material, 'which has for the most part been made public. Critics of the report, by selective and inaccurate citations, have turned this vast amount of ? material against the commission. The commission took testimony from over 300 people. Thousands more were interviewed or gave affi- davits. The FBI alone conducted ap- ? proximately 25,000 interviews. As is true with even the simplest accident ease, some people's reactions, memo- ries, observations and actions were imperfect. For example, critics have claimed - that. one of the doctors who worked to save the President's life said the wound on the President's throat was an entry wound, which if true .would prove that there was a second gun- man since Oswald was behind the. President. What these critics fail to disclose is that the doctor, at a raucous news conference right after the President died, said that it was possible that a . bullet had entered the throat. PP la- ter testified that at the time he made the remark, he had not seen ? the wounds on the back of the President. Although the throat wound could not thereafter be definitely analyzed, be- cause of a tracheotomy which this doctor, among others, had performed, other doctors later said the wound probably was an exit wound. The commission, on the basis of this . and other expert testimony, fiber analysis of the clothes, the location of ' bullets and other evidence concluded that the hole in the. throat Was an exit wound, which would demon- strate that the bullet came from the rear where Oswald was located. , Quite apart from eyewitnesses,' the evidence supporting Oswald's guilt is overwhelming. Ballistics evidence de- monstrated that Oswald's rifle was the murder weapon; Oswald's prints were on the rifle; handwriting analye, ,sis of-order forms and pictures of Os- 'weld with the rifle demonstrated that the rifle was his; the rifle was found .in the building where Oswald worked ,and where Oswald was seen shortly 'before the shooting; his prints were located in the part of the room where :the rifle and spent cartridges were 'found and from which witnesses saw- the rifle Protruding at the time of the \assassination; X ,ray's, photngraphs .and the autopsy show that the bullet came from the area where Oswald was located; after the shooting, Os- wald promptly left: the prod-uses and resisted apprehension by killing a po- liceman. Finally, he lied about a ? number of facts during his interroga- tion. Thus, the claims that the rifle was inaccurate, that the shot was diffi- 10 cult, that Oswald was a poor shot and that stress analysis tests of Oswald's voice allegedly show him to have been telling the truth when he de- nied his guilt are all unpersuasive in light of so much uncontroverted evidence. These claims, even in isola- tion, are misleading: Oswald was a former Marine and hunter. He prac- ticed with the rifle when he was a ci- vilian. Tests showed that his rifle was sufficiently accurate. The shot was not particularly difficult. It was from a stable, prepared position at a target moving 11 m.p.h.. almost straight away at a range of 177 to 266 feet. The rifle had a telescopic sight. The voice stress analysis has not achieved general acceptance as a reliable lie detector test. Most critical commentaries focus on suggestions that there had to be at least two gunmen. -One of the oldest. claims is that Os- wald could not have fired three shots in the time he had and have two of them hit the President. The commis- sion utilized the film of the event by. Abraham Zapruder to determine_ that the interval between the two hits was between 4.8 and 5.6 seconds (the exact time is not determinablesince the first shot hit the President while a road sign was between him and. Zapruder's camera). Some have said that 4.8 to 5.6 sec: onds is too short a time for three shc s to? be fired and two of them to hit. But the' time interval isbetween two shots?the two that- hit?not. three. The commission found the evidence iheonclusive as to whether, of the 'three shots fired, it was the first, 'second or third that missed. Since the time' interval is that be- tween the two shots which hit, Os- wald had all the time he needed to fire the first shot. A period of 4.8 to 5.6 seconds is ample time for aiming and firing one shot?the second one, that hit.. . The evidence concerning the wounds conclusively dispels the idea of shots from the front, another part .of the .e,onspiracy theory. The wounds bah slanted downward from _Xennedy's back. This is clear beyond doubt from the autopsy and from. the' photographs and X rays of the body. ,The photographs and X raYs are still, not open to public view, because of'. Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis' wishes; but to doubt the evidence of the wounds is to label as liars the doctors who examined the body,' the pictures and the X rays for the commission.. .The inward pointing of the threads of the back of Kennedy's clothing and the outward pointing of the threads. in the front of his clothing demon- strate that the bullet which first hit_ him entered from the rear and exited from the front. Since the car was in a low underpass, a bullet from any di- rection would have to have been going downward, and would have. hit ?the car after leaving Kennedy. All the bullet damage to the car was in front of Kennedy, which is consistent with a bullet entering from the rear. ? A great deal of publicity has been given recently to the claim-that Ken- nedy must have been hit from the, __Appto_v_e_d ForRete_a5e2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 a ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 front because the Zapruder film shows his head jerking back. ? ? In fact, the head jerks back not when the bullet hits it but slightly la- ter. Actually, at the time of the hit, the President's head appears to move slightly ? forward and the sprayed flesh ago moves forward. The jerk, therefore, cannot have been a momentum reaction. It must have been a neural or muscular reaction caused by either bullet or by a reac-, tion to some other stimulus.? , Many critices have pointed to a: -rough sketch of the location of the neck wound and to the location of, the bullet hole in the President's shirt and suit jacket .as proving that the rear wound was lower on the Pres- ident's body than the wound in front. From this it follows, supposedly, that some other gunman must have been firing in a downward direction from the front. But the best evidence of the. wound's location are the autopsy rec- ords and the photos and X-rays of 'the ,body itself. These unambiguously show the rear wounds higher than The: Wound at the front. The rough sketch was just that: rough. The -holes in the shirt and jacket seem to ,indicate a low wound on the body only because the clothing, when pho- ? tographed, was laid flat and because; presumably, when the President was sitting in the car his clothing was 'slightly bunched up his back. Critics have . criticized the "single- ' bullet theory," which is the commis- 'don's Conclusion that the first-bullet passed through the President and ?also hit, and eventually came to a stop in, Gov. Connally. Why anyone should think it unlikely that a rifle .bullet should go through one man and hit another, when the men were sitting close together, escapes us. Of course, it was difficult for the :commission to reconstruct exactly what the path through both men -was, but a reconstruction proved pos.: sible, and the conclusion that it was a single bullet which hit both men ? -makes, by far: the most sense in- the -context of all the other evidence.' No -bullet was left inside the President; the nature of the President's wound shows that the bullet that made it was hardly slowed down and so must have been stopped by something else, ,but there was no appreciable damage BALTIMORE SUN 4 May 1975 Cult of the Secret Agent to 'the car in front of the President; the films show Connally to have been hit at or near the same time as the President; the nature of Connally's wounds show that he, too, was hit from the rear. The fact that the recovered bullet that apparently went through both Kennedy and Connally was not greatly distorted itself actually sup- ports the single-bullet theory. In or- der that a bullet be recovered with-. out being greatly distorted, it must. be brought to a slow and gentle stop. By going through two men, and by tumbling end over end through 'flesh and muscle and by glancing off, rath- er than penetrating, large bones, the bullet was brought to a slow and* gentle stop and so Was able to emerge in a relatively unscathed con- dition. ? The photographs supposedly show- . ing shadowy outlines of gunmen in the bushes or trees actually show this only to someone with a wild ima- gination. What they really show are only shadows such as can be seen on almost any photograph taken from a distance of trees or shrubbery. There has been spectilation recent- ly that various people masqueraded before the -assassination as Oswald and, thus, there must have been a conspiracy. ? - ?Just as thousands of people claim to -have seen Patty Hearst in various places at the same time, many people_ reported seeing Oswald. The Oswald. "identifications" were even more doubtful because many of them alle- gedly took place months and years. before before the assassination. If there was' a conspiracy, what possible purpose would have been served by sending fake "Oswalds" around the country? The recent surge in speculation about purported CIA or PBI connec- tions with, or coverup of, the assas- sination is not a result of any newly , discovered link between those agen- cies and the assassination. It is a re- sult of the revelations of alleged un-. savory practices in other matters by these agencies. In October, 1963, the CIA's Mexican' department sent a message and a photograph to the FBI saying, in ef- fect, that the man in the photograph was thought to be Lee Harvey Os- wald. The photograph was not of Os-, 'wald, but it was .not until shortly af-. ' The man who 'touched off the greatest political scandal in our entire national existence?the former CIA officer, ex-White House consultant and onnvicted Watergate conspirator E. Howard Hunt?has by now dwindled to a relatively secondary figure in the drama... . . The conspiratorial dream world Hunt lived in was clearly built on his identification with We romanticized and idealized image of the secret agent, one of the most characteristic projections of Twen- tieth-Century mass culture. This glamorous figure has served as the herb of countless films, plays, comic strips, pulp-magazine stories and novels. ... James Bond. the steel-thewed sexual athlete, jet-set name dropper, and bureaucra- tized killer invented by the late Ian 'Fleming is prob. Approved For Release 2001/08/08: ter the assassination that this fact, was established. These events have led to the speculation that either the man in the photograph was a CIA agent masquerading as Oswald or ? that Oswald was a CIA agent. This happened because the CIA had several secret sources of information operating in Mexico and,- as is fre- quently the case in this kind of work, the central headquarters had difficul- ty in putting the bits of information from the different sources together properly. One source reported that a -than calling himself Oswald had visit- ed the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City. Another source obtained a pho- tograph of a man who probably visit- ed the same embassy about the same time. No source was able to get a photograph of Oswald in Mexico City, and no source was able to obtain the .name of the man in the photograph who visited the Embassy. Someone in the CIA who was responsible for put- ting bits of information together guessed, mistakenly it turned out, that the two men were the same. ? ? With all. of 'this confusion, the time has come for_ everything on the as- sassination in the National'Archives to be made available to the public, Unless its disclosure can be shown to be definitely detrimental to the2fti- *tional security. We do not believe that a reopening: of. the 'inquiry, in the sense of estab= ..L.shitig a new commission to carry on its own investigation or to hear ar- gument from private investigators, would :serve: any -useful purpose, ' ,The legitimate interest of the American people in knowing as sure-, ly as possible that they have found out the whole truth can be served; we think, by the creation of special.: 'limited new investigations if and. when a need for one of them arises.. Currently, for example, the news me-r dia has ? reported that the White House Commission on the CIA is in-. vestigating the allegation that the CIA may not have fully 'disclosed all relevant, information to. the Warren. Commission in an effort to cover.up -its own involvement with an assasi' sination attempt on Castro. 'Such air issue should be investigated and, apt ?parently it is. ably the most tardotis of these synthetic modern heroes.... Fictional depictions of the secret agent as hero are validated by an almost equally' abundant flow of nonfictional accounts. . In all secret service literature, fiction and nonfic- tion alike, there is an ambiguous and extremely corn- plex relationship between myth and reality Such a relationship exists, indeed, within the covert organi- zations themselves. . The writer of spy thrillers or, romanticized secret service history and the real-life covert operator are dialectical partners. The former, by glamorizing the secret agent, creates an archetype . ?: upon which the latter tends to model his professional behavior, and he in turn authenticates the writer's fantasy. ? ' ?Edmond Taylor in Horizon magazine CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 NEW YORK Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 REVIEW 3 April 1975 Th YIA mad, Lamm 17112? 771ac. Not, Osumi Bernard Fensterwald and George O'Toole Six weeks before the assassination of President Kennedy on November 22, 1963, the Central Intelligence Agency sent the following teletype message to the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Departments of State and the Navy: Subject: Lee Henry OSWALD 1. On 1 October 1963 a reliable and sensitive source in Mexico reported that an American male, who identified himself as Lee OSWALD, contacted the Soviet Embassy in Mexico City inquiring whether the Embassy had received any news concerning a telegram which had been. sent to Washing- ton. The American Was described aS' approximately 35 years old, ? with an .athletic build, about six feet tall, with a receding hairline. 2. It is believed that OSWALD may be identical to Lee Henry OSWALD, born on 18 October 1939 in New Orleans, Louisiana. A -former U.S. Marine who defected- to the Soviet Union in October ? 1959 and later made arrangement through the -United States Ern- ' bassy in Moscow to return to the United States with his Russian-.-, born wife, Marina Nikolaevna Pusakova, and their child. 3. The information in paragraph one is being disseminated to your : representatives in Mexico City. Any further' information received ? on this .subject will be furnished you. This information is being made available to the Immigration and Nattralization Service.' Was the Lee Henry Oswald of the CIA message Lee Harvey Oswald? Yes, according to Richard Helms; then chief of the Agency's Clandestine Services. In a March 1964 memorandum to J. Lee Rankin, general counsel to the Warren Commission, Helms explained that "OSWALD'S middle name was erroneously given as lienrY' in the subject line and in paragraph two of the dissemination.... The maiden sur- name of Mrs. OSWALD was mistakenly listed as `PUSAKOVA.' But *Lee Harvey Oswald was not "approximately 35 years old, with an athletic build"; he was twenty-three years-'old and slender.3 Apparently the 'Warren Commission Document 631, Ile National Archives, Washington, DC. ?2Ibid. Her correct maiden name was Prusakova. .3Report of the President's Cominission on the Assassination of President Ken- nedy (US Government Printing Office, 1964), p. 144. (Hereafter, Report.) CIA was concerned about the dis- crepancy, for on October 23 it sent the following message to the Depart- ment of the Navy: Subject: Lee Henry OSWALD Reference is made to CIA Out Teletype No. ?74673 [the earlier ? message], dated 10 October 1963, - regarding 'possible presence of sub- ject in Mexico City. It is requested that you forward to this office as soon as possible two copies of the most recent photograph you have of subject. We will forward them to our representative in Mexico, who will attempt to determine if the Lee OSWALD in Mexico -City and subject are the same individ- tia1.4 Since Oswald had served in the Marine Corps, which comes under the administration of the Navy, his person- nel records would have included his photograph. W.hat the Agency did not say in this cable ,is that it had in its possession a photograph of the. man who- .had apparently "identified himself" as Os- wald. The man in the CIA photo was not Lee Harvey Oswald; he was, just as the Agency's "reliable and sensitive source" had described him, approxi- mately thirty-five years- old, with an athletic build and a receding hairline. According to a memorandum by Helms, the CIA never received the Navy's- pictures of Oswald 'and only concluded after the assassination that two different people were involved.5 Meanwhile, the photograph was deliv- ered to the FBI on November 22, 1963,6 One can -only guess at, the confusion caused by the picture. The FBI needed no Navy photograph to establish that 'the mystery man was not Oswald-Lee Harvey Oswald was sitting handcuffed in a third-floor office of the Dallas police headquarters. The next day Special Agent Bardwell D. Odum was dispatched with the photograph to the motel where Oswald's wife and mother were hidden. He showed the picture to Mrs.Marguerite Oswald, mother of the accused assassin. Mrs. Oswald looked at the .photo and told Odum she didn't recognize the man.7 The following day, however, shortly after her son was murdered in the basement of Dallas City Hall, Mrs. Oswald erroneously identified the mystery man. She told 4Commission Document 631, op cit. 5Ibid. 6Hearings Before the President's Com- mission on the Assassination of Presi- dent Kennedy (US Government Print- ing Office, 1964), Vol. 11, p. 469 (hereafter, Hearings). p. 468. ? the press the FBI had shown her a picture of Jack Ruby the night before._ Mrs. Oswald's mistake was under- standable-the mystery man bore a superficial resemblance to Jack Ruby, .and in her .recollection of a brief glance at the photograph, two faces became one. But the misidentification made it necessary for the Warren 'Commission to refer, however oblique- ly to the affair of the mystery man. In _the twenty-six volumes of published testimony and evidence supplementary .to the Warren Report, the Commission printed the picture that was shown to Mrs.' Oswald.8 The Warren Report contains a very' brief account of the incident. . According to the Report, the CIA had provided the FBI with a photo- ? graph of "a man who, it was thought at the time, might have been associated with?Oswald."9 The Report quoted an affidavit by Richard- Helms that "the original photograph had -been taken by the CIA outside of the United States sometime between July I,. 1963 and November 22, 1963."I? The Commission's explanation is both inaccurate and misleading. The ? implication that the CIA thought the mystery man was "associated with Oswald" 'Only masks the. true situation. On the basis. of its own evidence, the Agency mist have concluded either that the .mystery man was imperson- ? ating? Oswald or that an unlikely chain of errors had accidentally linked both the man in the photograph and, the man who "contacted" the Soviet Em- bassy to Lee Harvey Oswald. - The truth was further obscured by the Report's reference to the Helms affidavit, which described the circum- stances in which the mystery man was photographed only in the most vague and general terms. The affidavit was dated August 7, 1964.1' However, the Commision never mentioned in its Report or in its twenty-six supplementa- ry volumes that it had 'obtained an earlier affidavit from Helms on July 22, 1964 in which he was much more specific.' 2 "The original photograph," Helms testified, "was taken in Mexico City on October '4, 1963."I3 (This earlier Helms affidavit was released in 1967 through the efforts of Paul Hoch, a private researcher.). - There is no available record that Richard Helms ever told the Warren Commission exactly where in Mexico City the- 'mystery man was photo- graphed, . but the circumstances in which the photograph was given to the 8Ibid., Odom Exhibit 1. .,9Rep.ort, p. 364. ?Ibid., pp. 364-365. ''Hearings, Vol. 11, p. 469: "Commission Document 1287, The National Archives, Washington, DC. 13 Ibid. 1 Approved For Release 2001/08/08: CIA-RDI77-00432R000100360002-6 ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 Commission offer a- very plausible suggestion. The CIA required the FBI to sr,op out the background in the photo before handing it over to the Commission." The obvious conclusion is that the photograph was taken by a hidden surveillance camera, and the CIA- wished to avoid disclosing its location. Accbrding, to knowledgeable former employees of the CIA, the Soviet and Cuban - embassies, among others in Mexico City, were under -constant photographic surveillance at the-time. It seems likely then that the man who, according to the CIA:. "identified himself as Lee Oswald" was photographed leaving the Mexico City embassy of the Soviet -Union or of: some other communist country. The first public hint that the mys- tery man may have been impersonating Oswald came in .1966, with the publi- cation of Edward Jay Epstein's In- quest, a scholarly study of the Warren Commission.' s Epstein interviewed one of the Commission's legal staff who recalled the incident. He said he had asked Raymond G. Rocca, the ' Agency's liaison with the Commis- ,- sion,? about the photograph. The law- yer later received word from the Agency* that the mystery man was thought to be Oswald at the time the photograph was given to the FBI. Why, he asked, did the Agency mistake someone so dis- similar in appearance for Lee Harvey Oswald? The CIA said they would check further and call him back. The lawyer told Epstein that they never called him back and the Warren Report, contains no -explanation of the Agen- cy's mistake.' 7 ? .. Another piece of the puzzle fell into: place early in 1971, when the National Archives released a previously classified memorandum about the mystery man from Richard Helms to the Commis- sion's general counsel, J. Lee Rank! in.18 Dated March 24, ? 1964, the,. memo informed Rankin: On 22 and 23 November, im- mediately following the assassi- nation of President Kennedy, three cabled reports were received from- - [deleted] in Mexico City relative to photographs of an unidentified man who visited the Cuban and Soviet Embassies in that city dur- ing October and November 14Hearings, Vol, 11, 'p. 469. .1 5 Edward Jay Epstein, Inquest:. The Warren Commission and the Evablish-' ment of Truth (Viking, 1966). '6 Mr. Rocca; deputy chief of the .CIA's Counterintelligence Staff, was one of the four senior Agency officials .who resigned last December in the wake of The New York Times's revela-- tions of illegal domestic operations by the CIA's Clandestine Services. I 7 Epstein, Inquest, p. 94. Commission DocumlinrWed National Archives, Washi gion, DC. ' 1963....19 On the basis of these cables, Helms went on to' say, the CIA had sent several reports to the Secret Service. Attached to the Helms memorandum were paraphrases of these reports.2? Two dealt with the mystery man: Message to the Protective Re- search Staff, The Secret Service, delivered by hand on 23 Novem- ber 1963, at 1030 hours. - , Through sources available to -it, the CIA [deleted] had come into possession of a photograph of an unidentified person thought to have visited the Cuban Embassy in mid-October. This individual, it was believed at the time, might be identical with Lee Harvey. OS- , WA LD.2 I and,. Message to the Protective Re- search Staff, The Secret Service, delivered by hand on 23 Novem-, ber 1963, at 1030 hours. , CIA Headquarters was informed [deleted] on 23 November that several photographs of a person known to frequent the " Soviet Embassy in Mexico City, and who might be identical with Lee Har- vey OSWALD, had been forwarded to Washington by the hand of a United States official returning to this country.2 2 Helms's covering memorandum af- 'firmed that "the subject of the photo: graphs mentioned in these reports is not Lee Harvey OSWALD."23 Several photographs, then, of a -mysterious stranger who kept being confused with Lee Harvey Oswald, and who had visited both the Soviet and Cuban embassies. Was' it the same mystery man whose picture had been shown to Mrs. Oswald? Or was it yet ? another Oswald Doppelganger? Firm evidence of the existence of additional photographs of the unidenti- fied man mentioned in the Warren -Report .was turned up by Robert Smith, a private researcher. In 1972 Smith, then research director for the Commission to Investigate Assassina- tions, was poring over some recently declassified Warren Commission docu- ments when he found reference to the mystery photo and two other vieWS of the same person." Smith calla his discovery to the attention of one of the authors, Bernard Fensteiwald, who 1 9 Ibid. 2?Ibid. 21Ibid. 221bid. 2 4 Commission Document 566, The Release i AID 110M11,: CIAAPEI7 TAW 2 13 instituted a 'suit under the Freedom of Information Act for release of the two plctures. The government yielded and turned over the photographs to Fen- sterwald and *Smith. They are pub- lished here for the first time. The two new views of the mystery man were taken at a different time 'from the first. picture. In the first picture, the one published in the ?Warren ,Commission volumes, he, is ?wearing a long-sleeved dark shirt and appears empty-handed; in the two new photos he is wearing a short-sleeved white shirt and is Carrying some kind. of bag or pouch., The new photos also show him holding a small, passport- sized booklet and what appears to be a Wallet. As in the first photograph, the backgrounds of the two new, photos have been cropped out. Whoever he was, he managed to be photographed, 'apparently by ''the CIA's hidden sur- veillance cameras,' on at least two separate occasions. And neither of the , new photographs reveals- any _tesem- blance between the mystery man and Lee Harvey Oswald. The Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had been in Mexico in late September and early October 1963.' Records of Mexican Customs and Im- migration, bus lines, and a Mexico City hotel ,indicate that Oswald ,entered Mexico. At Nuevo Laredo on the US border on September 26, traveled by bus to Mexico City, arriving there the next morning, and returned to the United States on October 3.25 Passen-, Ors- on the bus to Mexico City remembered Oswald, but there is al- most no eyewitness testimony to sup- port the 'Commission's reconstruction of Oswald's movements after he arrived in that city.26 The Commission's find- ing that Oswald made repeated visits to both the Soviet and Cuban embassies rests heavily upon the affidavit of one witness, ?a Mexican woman who worked at the Cuban Embassy." Silvia' Tirado de Duran was secretary to the Cuban Consul in Mexico City. In a sworn statement28 she gave to the 2s Report, p. 299. - 26Ibid., pp. 733-736. "Ibid., p. 734. Two other witnesses told the FBI" they saw Ostvald at the Cuban Embassy. A Mexican private detective who had visited the embassy on October 1, 1963; identified Oswald from newspaper photographs as some- one he had seen leaving the embassy on that date in the company of a Cuban. The detective was shown other photos of Oswald and failed to iden- tify him, and the FBI seems to have concluded that he was mistaken (Com- mission Doculnent 566). The Warren _Report does not 'offer, the detective's 'testimony as 'evidence of Osv,ald's visit. Another witness who claimed to have seen Oswald at the Cuban Embassy retracted his testimony after failing to pass a polygraph examination (Report, R006940260007-6 ? 28Commission Document 776a, The National Archives, Washington, DC. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432W1036Q0.0276. twrs.0tvub Dant .3,1975 deputy director of- Mexican Federal Security on November 23, 1963, she! said that Oswald had visited the Cuban Embassy in late September to apply for a visa to visit Cuba during a planned trip to the Soviet Union. Mrs. Duran recalled a heated exchange be- tween Oswald and the Consul when the Cuban official told him his request could not be granted immediately. She remembered making a "semiofficial" phone- call to the Soviet Embassy to try to speed? up action on Oswald's application. She identified the Lee Harvey Oswald who visited the Cuban Embassy as the accused assassin whose photograph appeared in the Mexican newspapers on November 23.29 Apparently the Warren Commission staff did not interview Silvia Duran, but instead relied solely on her affi- davit. Whether any attempt to talk to her was made is not recorded in any available document. However, accord- ing to the Commission filesea Mexican 'newspaper reporter tried to interview her in April 1964, Her husband would not permit the man to speak with her, saying "she had suffered. a nervous breakdown following her interrogation by the? Mexican authorities and had been? prohibited by her .physician from discussing the ' Oswald matter further."30 If this report is correct, the interrogation of Silvia Duran may have, been a more, emotional interview than one would. conclude from the report forwarded by the Mexican po- lice. The report gives the impression that the police were routinely collect- ing information about Oswald's Mexi- can trip for the -American authorities. One question that arises is whether Duran's statement was given volun- tarily, and, if not, whether her identi- fication of Oswald as the visitor to the embassy is valid. The Warren Commission may have omitted a _full exploration of this question because it had collateral evi- dence of Oswald's visit to the Cuban Embassy. There were, for example, Oswald's application for a Cuban visa, bearing his photograph and signa- ture,3I and a letter reportedly written by Oswald to the Soviet Embassy in Washington, referring to his Visit to the Cuban Embassy.32 The address book found among Oswald's possessions, moreover, contained Duran's name and telephone number. But the only cred- ible 'eyewitness testimony that Oswald in fact visited the embassy is the statement of Silvia Duran. When viewed in the light of the, recently disclosed evidence suggesting that someone might have visited the embassy impersonating Oswald, the Conimission's failure to settle com- pletely the question of the three. 29Ibid., p. '5. 30Commission Document .963, The National Archives, Washington, DC, p. 16. 3lHearings, Commission Exhibit 2564. 14 321bid., Commission Exhibit 15. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 misidentified photos seems extraor- dinary. It is probable that the CIA did in fact supply an explanation of the photographs that was enough to satisfy the Commission at the time. If so, that explanation remains a part of the classified Warren Commission docu- ments not available to. the public. Raymond Rocca (who,- until his recent resignation, was the Agency's action officer for all post-Warren Re- port inquiries about the matter) told one of the authors that the CIA could not identify the mystery man. If this is so, we may wonder how the Agency_ could have -offered a satisfactory ex- planation of the incident to the Coin- mission. Until additional documents bearing on this matter are declassified, the conclusion that Oswald really visit-. ,ed the Cuban Embassy must remain in. some doubt. But even if he did, the question whether someone was never- theless trying to impersonate him re- mains a crucial one. If someone posing as Oswald visited. the Soviet and Cuban embassies in the early autumn of 1963, what implica- tions might be drawn from this dis- covery? One obvious interpretation is that someone sought to counterfeit -a fresh connection between the man who was soon to become the accused presidential assassin and the govern- ments of those two communist coun- tries. But it, is not necessary to speculate further. If someone were'- trying to impersonate Oswald eight weeks -before the assassination, the Warren Commission's theory of a lone assassin, unconnected with any con- spiracy, is seriously undermined and the case should be reopened. There could be, of course, an innocent explanation of; how the CIA came to misidentify the mystery man as Lee Harvey Oswald: Oswald may actually have visited the. Cuban and Soviet embassies. If this were the case, then somewhere in the CIA's files there should be' photographs of the real Lee Harvey Oswald departing from the Soviet and. Cuban embassies in Mexico City. If those photographs exist, their publication would help to settle the question. If they don't, the CIA should now explain-why not. In either case, it should also disclose what it knows about the man it wrongly identified as Oswald on two separate occasions. It should explain why it believes that this man was not imper- ? ionating Oswald. All these matters should be clarified both by the CIA itself and by the congressional com- mittees that are about to investigate its. activities. 0 ? CIA Who killed Kennedy? Washington, DC Currents of doubt about the findings of the Warren commission on the assassination of President . Kennedy at Dallas in 1963 have never quite ceased to swirl. The films of the event are open to different interpretations. 'A disparate group of self-appointed examiners has chewed over, in books, articles and pamphlets, the forensic evidence, which in any event is in- ,complete. Some possible, if fanciful, leads to the former associations of the presumed assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, were not followed up. The important question is whether Oswald was the sole assassin acting of his own motion, as the Warren commission concluded, or whether he had controllers or associates. If it were shown that he was not acting on his own, then the question might arise whether any con- nection existed between the killing of President Kennedy and some other notable American assassinations of the period. The most recent hypothesis is that the president may have been killed in retaliation for attempts on the life of Mr Fidel Castro, and this ,has arisen in connection with the recently cir- culating suggestions that the Central Ir:elligence Agency had something to do with plans for, or discussions about, the assassination of various foreign rulers, Mr Castro -among them. Step .by steP the, Rockefeller commission, apiSointed by President Ford in January to look into allegations of domestic spying by the Central Intelligence Agency, has found itself casting its net wider. This week it recalled for prolonged questioning two witnesses previously heard: Mr William Colby, the present director of the CIA, and Mr.Richard Helms, the former director, now ambassador in Iran. Mr Helms had already been questioned at length by the fommittee staff on, two days last week: - ? After his appearance before the coin- - mission Mr Helms denied, once again that, so far as he knew, the CIA had ever assassinated any 'foreign leader. Unfortunately he showed signs of being overwrought, calling one reporter who questioned him (Mr Daniel Schorr, who first aired, the allegations about foreign assassinations by the CIA on Columbia Broadcasting System) "killer Schorr" and obscene names. On,-the following day, there was Mr Schorr on the CBS news questioning a retired air force officer formerly in the Office of Special Operations at the Defence Department, Colonel Fleycher Prouty, one of whose duties was liaison with the CIA. Colonel Prouty wrote a book about his experiences, "The Secret Team". Watching his television set on Monday, he became incensed at seeing Mr Schorr abused by Mr Helms, and volunteered his recollection that there was indeed a plot to kill Mr Castro in 1959 or 1960, and that in the course of his duties he had helped to supply the CIA with a specially equipped small CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001.00360002-6 WASHINGTON POST 11 MAY 1975 elE Soy' iet Security Vetoed His Return in '63 By Daniel Schorr Soeetal to The Washlowton Post - On Feb. 4, 1964, ten weeks after President Kennedy's assassination, U. CpL Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko of the KGB (Soviet state security) defected to the United States. in Geneva. He said, among other things, that he had handled the file on Lee ?Harvey Oswald since the ex- Marine's arrival in Moscow In 1959." ? ? Brought to :the United States by the Central Intel- ligence Agenc y, Nosenko was..turned over to the FBI: on 'Feb. 26, 1964, for ;ev- eral days of interrogation -about Oswald, who the War- ren _Consmission said acted . alone.- in assassinating- Ken- nedy in. Dallas on.-Nov. -1963. The ' in terrogationssre- 'port--Tart _of the Warren ?:Commission's seer et fite,,_ but never, ? cited in testi- mony or-in conelusions?has been- declassified.. This ac- dountis taken from,Nosen, Nosenko painted a pie-ture of Soviet Isecurity officers: So :leery .of ? Oswald, who..., they --considered- ,mentally-; unstable n d--! -i,tleeper' American -agent, that they ;tried to get him Out of the Country and veto- ed his return when he ap- plied in Mexicci City in ?Sep- ternber, 1963. ? The security officer said that an inspection of the Soviets' file after the Dal- las murder started a Krem- lin flap that reached as high as Premier Nikita S. Ithrusli- I chev when a notation was I found indicating that a KGB ! officer in Minsk, in violation', of instructions, might have ! tried to recruit Oswald be- fore his return to the United States. . According to Nosenko, it ; was with relief that it was I -finally concluded that the : entry was a self-serving lie ! by a bureaucrat, who was ig- norant of the implications. Nosenko's offer to testify ! in secret before the Warren : Commission was declined. , John McCune, then director ? of the CIA, told this re- porter that his counterintel- _ . ligence officers suspected Nosenko-might be a plant to exonerate the Soviets . of conspiracy. . ? . ? When McCone appeared. before the Warren Commis- sion with his deputy, Rich?;[. ard Helms, in June, 1964, they said that there was "no evidence" of a Soviet con- spiracy in Kennedy's assassi- nation. But they did not say they might have evidence to the contrary. ? . r! Rep.. Gerald R. Ford, a member of the Warren Corn- mission, asked, "Is the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency continuing any investigation into this area?" McCene replied, "No, be- cause at the-present time-we have-- no- infornsatiernsin- cur files that have-- not elc,* haustiveir investigated and disposed of to our. satisfack? 'don." ? - Today; McCone say's that Nosenko's bona fides "sub- -sequently were proven And that "it is today the pos- ition of the:CU.:that the-in-9 formation-: -given- by:, No-J, -senko was correct." Withir the agency; it is understood,,! that is still a subject of din: : Whether--? . e. port - port would have affected' the conclusions of the War- ren Commission is hard to judge. Some former staff members said the conclu- sion that there was "no evi- dence" of a conspiracy might have been more strongly worded.. Not only did Nosenko deny any Soviet conspiracy, but he said he knew of "no , Cuban involvement in the assassination." The account contained in three interrogations of No- senko by the FBI can be summarized as follows: As deputy chief of a KGB counterintelligence section dealing with American and British tourists, Nosenko re- ceived a report from an In- tourist guide. after Oswald's arrival in Moscow, saying , Oswald wanted to stay per- manently and become a So.! viet citizen. Deciding that Oswald "of no interest to the KGB" and "somewhat abnormal," Nosenko had the Intourist guide advise Oswald that he would have to- leave when his tourist visa. expired. After slashing his wrist in 2 Moscow hotel, Oswald was taken to a hospital, where aircraft to land the assassins, two Cuban exiles, in Cuba. They failed, and were captured. Denials and counter-denials abound, but the CIA investigation is making a new inquiry into the death of President Kennedy more likely. ? Approved For Release 2001/0810% : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 an evaluation of "mental in- stability" was made. Despite _ Oswald's threat to try sui- cide again if he had to leave the, country, the KGB ad- vised his expulsion, but later learned that some other au- thority?the foreign minis- try or the Red Cross?per- mitted him to stay in the So- viet Union and-sent him to Minsk. ? - The KGB's file en Oswald ,vras- transferred- to- Minsk with a cover letter contain- ing instructions that the if.G11 there- "take -no action_ concerning Oswald except to' 'passively' observe-his activi, ties to make sure he was not a United States intelligence ,agent temporarily dormant:- , - -The-next- time- Sosenkot heard o f Oswald was in Sep- tember, 1963, when Oswald applied for a re-entry visa at the Soviet embassy in Men- ico City. An ekthange of me- mos between the foreign in- telligence and domestic in- telligence directorates of the KGB resulted in a deci- sion that Oswald "not be granted permission to re- turn to the Soviet Union." Two hours after Kenne- dy's assassination, Nosenko was called into a KGB office and asked about Oswald. He telephoned Minsk for a sum- mary of Oswald's file. The summary contained a .nota- tion that the KGB in Mipsk had tried to "influence Os- wald in the right direction." That Stirred further inves- tigation, and the entire file was flown to Moscow by mil- itary plane. Vladimir Semi- chastny, chairman of the KGB, was obliged to report to the party central commit- tee and to Khrushchev. ". The Investigation con- cluded that the KGB "had no personal contact with Os- wald and had not attempted to utilize him in any man- ner." The entry about trying to "influence Oswald" was attributed to the KGB in Minsk, "unaware of the in- ternational significance of Oswald's activities . . . re- porting their endeavors to influence Oswald as a self- serving effort to impress the KGB center." Nosenko said "the Oswald affair was a source of great concern for KGB headquar- ters, where a large Staff was assembleciand records were ? reviewed "to make: certain that the KGB had not uti- lized. Oswald as.= agent"..':-.7-- Schorrz-is -a- CBS liretes.:, : :eorrespondent."--- NEWSWEEK 12 May 1975 ' , CIA Controversy I agree- wholeheartedly with A.J. Lang- guth when he says "Abolish the CIA!" (MY ' TURN, April 7). We should dismiss this secretive elitist cult of agents and adminis- trators for all the reasons put forward by Langguth, and as a matter of retribution on behalf of the contribution the CIA has made to the countless thousands of war dead in Southeast Asia, for the victimized peoples of other Third World countries, for those oppressed or tor:lured or even mur- dered as a result of CIA interference, for the people 'of our own country whose constitutional liberties lie trampled under secretive CIA "expedience" and on behalf of all the untold victims of -other CIA "horror stories" still to be uncovered. iLM BLICKENSTAFF Concord, Calif. ? . ? ^ The CIA has done more good for the U.S. - than Mr. Langguth's narrow-minded arti- cle has done for NEWSWEEK. As long as we 'face Communists, who want world domin- _ ation, let us not abolish any agencies for preserving freedom for Americans. PAUL KANTOR Fairport Harbor, Ohio ? Let's abolish A.J. Langguth--at least from the pages of NEWS WEEK!,. HURLEY M. MULKEY Durham, N.C. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 THE NEW YORK TIMES, SUNDAY, MAY II, is C.I.A. Covert ActivitiesAbroadShieldedby The following article, was .written by John M. Crewdson based on reporting by him and Nicholas M. liorroch. ' spc?ctet to The Neve York Times 1 'C.I.A. operative and convicted Watergate burglar, that he him- self is a former C.I.A. agent: Mr. Fodor declined comment, however, on Mr. Hunt's asser- tion that Fodor's had provided operating covers for American intelligence agents abroad. ? Officials of the Sumrna Cor:. pOration, Mr. Hughes's umbrella organization, has said privately that the reclusive billionaire received no remuneration for allowing the C.I.A. to place his imprimateur on the Hughes Glomar Explorer, the salvage ship that, disguised as a deep- sea mining vessel, raised part of. a Soviet submarine from the. floor of the Pacific last sum- mer. There are, nevertheless, indi- cations that Mr. Hughes ? may have reaped some long-term rewards for his operation, and many of the other companies that have entered into com- mercial cover arrangements, ac- cording to the intelligence source, have 'received various forms of compensation in re- turn. The source said that some had formed the C.I.A. to "pay through the teeth" for the use of their names. Maintaining 'Cover' ? The source gave this descrip- tion of how the arrangement works: To maintain their "cover," the C.I.A. operatives working under such agreements must spend e certainport lot' of their time on legitimate business ac- tivities. In most instances, these activities produce income that is shared by the C.I.A. and the covering company. _ The operative's salary is paid by the C.I.A., which also under- writes the expenses incurred if an overseas "business" office must be enlarged or opened to accommodate the agency's pur- poses. The company then bene- fits by gaining a ? corporate presence in an area where it otherwise would have none. , On some occasions, the source went on, companies hav- ing commercial cover agree- ments with the C.I.A. have at- tempted to take advantage of their' special relationships by approaching the agency to seek some official favor from the Government. But he said that, to his knowledge, they had in- variably been turned away. The corporations involved in these relationships may belie- fit in yet another, way.. Al- though most agents operating under commercial cover allot the minimum time possible to corporate matters, the reverse is sometimes true. Some clandestine agents; an- other intelligence source has said, have given the C.I.A. "a pain in the neck" and company sales an, unexpected lift by spending "only 10 minutes a day" gathering intelligence and devoting the remainder of their time to business dealings. Other agents have proved to be such talented businessmen that they reportedly have even- tually been hired away from their intelligence positions as full-time executives by the companies that provided theiri WASHINGTON, May 10?The Central Intelligence AgenCy's use of the Howard R. Hughes organization to disguise its re- covery of a sunken Soviet sub- marine is but the most recent example of a long-standing practice in which dozens, per- haps scores, of American com- panies have lent their names and reputations?usually for a price?to shield covert C.I.A. According to one intelligence, source thoroughly familiar with the practice, these relationships between the C.I.A. and Ameri- can-based multinational corpo- rations, known as "commerciial cover agreements," have re- sulted in the placing of career C.I.A. officers in- the overseas offices of legitimate companies that range from some of the laregst in the world to others unknown to the general public. The source named more than 20 American companies that he said had entered into such agreements with the C.I.A. over the last 15 years. The, list, which reads like a: "Who's Who" of business and finance, includes such diverse fields as petroleum, rubber] produete, heavy manufacturing,; ;banking, consumer productsi land services, travel, advertis-I 'ing, publishing, public relationsl and the import-export trade. - A C.I.A. official said that the agency would remain silent on the details of its cover ar- rangements with American businesses, but other officials have previously conceded that operatives posed as journalists and businessmen while work- ing abroad. Spokesmen for most of the corporations identified by the intelligence source said, after checking, that they had been unable to find any evidence of a relationship between their organizations and the C.I.A.: Some of the companies de- clined to comment, and others said that they had been asked by the C.I.A. to enter into such. relationships but had rebuffed the agency.. There have been recent pub-', lished assertions, however,. that Fodor's Travel ,Guides, Inc., has, provided operating cover for intelligence agents abroad, and an article in the Feb. 3, 1975, issue" of Advertis- ing Age suggested that the J. Walter Thompson Company, the nation's largest advertising 'agency, had performed a simi- lar function for the C.I.A. Assertion Denied The Thompson organization has 'denied.the assertion,. but a spokesman did confirm that two individuals named by the source as C.I.A. agents who had op- erated under Thompson cover were employed at one time in the company's offices in Paris and Tokyo. Eugene Fodor, the head of the Travel Publishing Company, has denied allegations by E. Howard Hunt Jr., the retired Major U.S. Cornpanie,s covers. Although there are no pub- lished estimates of how many C.I.A. agents are working under commercial cover, the number. is believed to be around 200, ? according to the intelligence source. Similarly, no' one out- side the C.I.A., and few within, know precisely how many com- mercial cover arrangements are in force at any one time, the source said. . . Nor is the existence of such arrangements broadly -known within the participating corpo- rations, the source said, where, typically, only one or two top executives are made "witting" ?the C.I.A. 'Term for one who is knowledgeable?of the cover operator's true affiliation. ? For this reason, smaller com- panies, or large ones with small overseas offices, are reportedly !preferred by the C.I.A. For such !relationships. Since virtually all :the agent's business colleagues !are left unwitting, the source said, it is far easier for! hhirn ,to carry out his intelligence 'work if- he is not ? required to maintain the- appearance of a corporate executive in front of a large number of genuine businessmen. Corporations that are wholly owned by a Single individdal; closely held,- or headed by a dominant and aggressive chief executive officer are likewise more attractive to the, agency, the source said, although several with broad Public ownership allgedly have been used for cover purposes as well. Not surprisingly, Mr. Hughes"s various entities reportedly have, proved particularly useful tol the C.I.A.. as "front" organiza- tions. The intelligence sourced who said that the agency had emplOyed Mr. Hughes for Other! covers before he became in- volved in the submarine salvage !project, recalled that members of the C.I.A.'s central cover'' staff, which oversees such ar- rangements, "always. referred to him as 'the stockholder.": ? Mr. Hughes, whose Summa Corporation is wholly owned by him, was "ideal for certain projects," the source said, "be-, cause once he comes down ?nd' says, 'do a certain thing,' you do it." The source recalled one in- !stance in which the C.I.A. needed to arrange quickly for an agent to attend an interna- tional air exposition in Paris at which the Soviet Union's TU-144 Supersonic transport was scheduled to perform. The Hughes organization, the source said, Was able on *short notice to slip a C.I.A. agent onto the show grounds disguised as an employe of the Hughes Aircraft Corporation, which reportedly has under- taken a number of highly sen- sitive projects for the-agency in past years. A spokesman for the Summa Corporation said that he had "no knowledge of that inci- dent", 16 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 The tax problem generated, by C.I.A. agents who lead dou- ble lives as businessmen, the ; source said, are handled by a secret "tax committee" within the agency that works closely with the Internal Revenue Serv- ice. ' Two Returns Filed Each year, he said; the' 200 or so businessmen-spies file two Federal income-tax returns ? and "overt" return that lists the salary ostensibly paid by ,the covering company, and a! "covert" return that shows the true Government salary. The "covert" return, he said,i although inspected by thet I.R.S., never finds its way out- 'side theC.I.A.'s modernistic! marble headquarters building; across the Potomac River fromt Washington. There are about 6,000 em- ployes of the C.I.A.'s Divisioni of Crandestine Services, the! "cloak and dagger" branch of the agency that sends intel- ligence operatives abroad un-1 der a Variety of covers. Theset include "official" covers, in which the agent is passed off as an economic or political offi- cer attached to an American Embassy 'or foreign aid mission. ; It is, however, the clandes- tine services'. "deep cover"% agents, like the bogus business- men, who are the elite of thei 'C.I.A.; the source said They are the nearest thing in the! American intelligence commu- nity to the secret agent, he; said, the men who work most, often with such paraphernalia; as physical disguises, tale pass-1 ports and disappearing inks. ? , They are; in most cases, i,highly individualistic and_Le-i : sourceful types, he said, whce prefer to work overseas and oni their own, frequently in dan-J gerous circumstances, rather ati C.I.A. headquarters or in Amer- ican Embassies. Since their extended absencesi from Washington deny most of: them the contacts necessary; for promotion within the C.I.A., they are generally menl with little :ambition for ad- vancement, the source contin- ued. Their only tangible re- ward is a 10 per cent salary bonus awarded annually for working under dangerous con- ditions, he said.. The nature of their work de: nies them both security and genuine friendships. If a deep-- cover agent should be exposed: and captured, the source said,i he cannot depend on the. C.I.A. to secure his return, and; the agency, in fact, may be forced to deny knowledge ofl him. Moreover, while he is , place," or on assignment underl cover, -the source said, thei agent continually presents at fabricated identity to his us.- sociat es and acquaintances.1 fending off the ones who at-; tetept to come too close. Eve& other deep-cover agents with) whom he may work off and on Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : for years years are likely to know him only 'by his "funny," or cover, name. The- deep-cover agent's true vocation, the source said, is carefully hidden at the-outset of his caereer from most of his colleagues in other branches of the : C.I.A. One, such former agent described how, near the end, of- his espionage training at Camp Peary, a C.I.A. facility in southeast Virginia, he and a handful of classmates were taken aside and asked about their interest in deep-cover work. Those who aegreed to join that branch of the agency, he said, then became the principal actors in an attempt to con- Vince their fellow trainees, by their casual comments, that they had become disillusioned With the C.I.A. 1 Their efforts, the source said, accompanied 1.)3T asides from their professors that cast doubt on their potential for espionage work, culminated in their "res- ignations" from the six-month training program. Fellow trainees who had un- successfully urged such friends to stay on perhaps then re- ceived letters or telephone. calls from a departed colleague reporting that he had' taken a 'job as an overseas executivr*. Sales representative for a known corporation, the sciu.,r0 Said. Regrets were exchanged, and there were promises .10. keep in touch, he deep-cover agent place." :The' -agentworking uncliV,A. commercial cover abroad has the: primary responsibility .;,to create and reinforce his second Identity, the source said. He A- portedly .receives periodic help. from the C.I.A., but is left largely to rely on his own re- sources, in .convincing business associaes and others that !lie is what he is not. In supporting a .deep-cover identity, an operative sofile times finds it necessary to vt:o- late Federal laws. ' One ag,it who reportedly posed as a busi- nessman in Western Europe, for example, accepted the lead- ership of an organization of ,Re- publican party members living abroad.. .'. . The The man's -political 4rk may have helped allay &as- picion about his .true identity, 'according to the source. -Bet it, also amounted to a vinla- tion of the Hatch Act, which prohibits Federal emplciYes from taking part in partisan, political activity. ? WASHINGTON POST 111- May 1975 ? Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, two Ameri- can-financed stations that broadcast to F astern Europe and the Soviet Union, will reduce their staffs by about 300 persons this year, man- agement spokesmen in mu- nich said. 17 Approved WASHINGTON STAB 1 MAY 1975 GARRY WILLS AWord for Warren Commission It is time to say a word for the Warren Commission. Even those who believe that Oswald was the sole assassin of President Kennedy are beginning to grant that the Warren Commission did a bad job. They say we should "reopen the case," if for no other reason, just to resolve doubts caused by sloppy detec- tive work. But most doubts are caused by two classes of men ? those who have not really read what the Warren Commission said and those whose doubts would not be resolved by the Sec-. ond Coming (which they would treat as a CIA plot). The attacks on the Warren Commis- sion come from three main directions: . 1. Some think the commission was part of the plot itself. These people are at least consistent. If one could mobilize all the resources most conspiratorial theories demand, then controlling the commission should have been no prob- lem .at all. But this, like most such theories, proves too much. If one can "control" a chief justice, a future presi- dent, a bunch of prominent lawyers on the make, an attorney general who hap-: pens to be the assassinated man's broth- er, then one controls everything, and there is no longer any need to hide ? i.e., to be a conspiracy. . 2. Others think the CIA and/or the FBI bamboozled the commission ? which is a rather touching exercise in credulity. Even if those agencies were efficient, they would have to tread care- fully where so many other factions and rival interests were at play ? and where the results were going to be pub- lished in 26 volumes. But, of course, the record of both the FBI and the CIA is enough to make any criticism of the commission look like praise. lithe con- spiracy depended on the FBI and the NEW YORK 12 May C.I.A. SAID TO EASE BUSINESS SPY ROLE Agency Reported, Reducing Companies That It Uses WASHINGTON, May 11 -- The Central Intelligence Agency is cutting back on the size and number of companies that it owns and has used in past clan- destine activities, but it appears to retain the power to revive them if needed, Newsweek ma- gazine said today. The agency's Washington- based Pacific Corporation, with 11,200 employes in 1970?com- pared with 16,500 in the agency itself?is down to little more than 1,100, the magazine said. Other companies are being sold, Newsweek said, some pos- sibly in the manner that the Fewatvic6 iarh CIA, then Howard Hunt's whole career tells us what would have happened to it. 3. Others, by far the most numerous, think the commission just fumbled the job outof haste, incompetence or uncon- scious prejudices. Most of the evidence for this is the citing of "leads" that the commission did not track down. In fact, ._ many of these were tracked down, or .were patently false leads from the start. A fair example is Mark Lane's use of testimony by Nancy Perrin Rich. He de- voted a whole chapter. of this book to this woman's bizarre tale. He neglected to tell the readers that the same woman appeared two other times, in two differ- .ent, places, to volunteer evidence to the commission. The investigators listened politely, though she told three totally different stories. At one of these appear- ances, deliberately omitted from Lane's chapter, she took .(and flunked) a poly- graph test. . Ovid Demaris and I, back in thes'60s, took Lane's advice and followed up this woman's testimony. We found that she was an unstable woman, had been in and out of psychiatric care and police stations, that she loved to "testify" about all her famous friends in mob trials and other celebrated crimes. We also found that Lane knew all this, that he told the woman's husband he would not be able to make anything of her testimony. But he made an entire ten- dentious Chapter out of one third of that testimony. Here is a simple rule of thumb for dealing with conspiratorialists: If they question the integrity of the Warren Commission yet quote Mark Lane with approval, they are 'intellectually very ill-equipped or intellectually dishonest. sold at a "bargain rate" to the} man man who operated it for the agency for a decade.. The agency operates and maintains a number of contin- gency funds in connection with the compaies it owns, includ- ing a $26-million insurance fund, the magazine said. Much of that money is reportedly in- vested in stocks and securities ckosen by C.I.A. economists in 'Langley, Va., partly on the bas- is of classified information not available to ordinary investors. In addition, the magazine said, an "old-boy" network of, former C.I.A. agents, officials and cooperative private busi- nessmen was found to include connections with 16 banks and investmeat houses, including New York's Manufacturers Hanover Bank and the Chemi- cal Bank. Connections also lead to two dozed :major '.;.;,rporations, Newsweek said, ;including I.T. &T., United Aircraft and W. R. Grace & Co., as well as some prestigious law firms, in- cluding Boston's Hale & Dorr, A-Ft?IR7M04332R000.1003600 NEW YORK TIMES 6 May 1975 Chief of U.S.I.A. Opposes'; Abolition of His Agency WASHINGTON, May 5 (AP) ? James Keogh, director of the United States Information Agency, said today that he op- posed the recommendation of a panel that the agency be abolished and its *functions re- organized. The 21-member panel had proposed that the advodacy of United States foreign policy be transfered to the State Depart- ment, that a new cultural af- fairs agency be established for long-range portrayal of Ameri- can society overseas, and that t.2..te Voice of America be placed under an independent five-mem- ber board of directors. ? ?Our informaticn and cultar- al programs should be coordi- nated with U.S. policy, and th agency which runs them should have close and cooperative re 9,4941s with the White Hous 'the Department of State,' Mr. Keogh told the Senate For- eign Relations Committee. _ NEWSWEEK 19 MAY 1975 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 _ tbegan as a blend of patriotism and old Li school spirit. Back in 1961, an Arling- ? tons Va., lawyer named L. Lee Bean was contacted by a former- classmate at the University of Virginia. The old chum had an intriguing proposition: would Bean .help the U.S. Governmentset up several companies to *do special. work ,in the interest of national security? With the approval of his partners, Bean agreed. Next he was directed to a promi- nent Boston lawyer, Paul Hellmuth at -the firm of Hale and Dorm, who provided the actual instructions on incorporation and operation. In short order, Bean's firm was a rnailing address for two newly minted concerns: Anderson Security .Consultants and Zenith Technical En- terprises. Anderson provided security services for various other U.S. firms (destroying classified documents, inves- tigating employees) while-Zenith, head- quartered in a deserted blimp base on the campus of the University of Miami, conducted a variety of anti-Castro propa- ganda and paramilitary operations. What both companies had in common?be- sides Bean?was that they were wholly owned domestic subsidiaries of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. .Bean's case is just one example of how the CIA over the years built a multimillion-dollar commercial empire of diverse and deftly disguised "propri- etary" companies?owned by the agency ? itself?to help carry out and cover up many of its most clandestine operations. In recent years, as embarrassing public- ity about the proprietaries has spread and scientific intelligence techniques have 'become More effective, there has been a drastic cutback in the proprietary network; significantly, NEWSWEEK has learned that the CIA's biggest single company, the Washington-based Pacific Corp., has trimmed 90 per cent outs staff .since 1970. But given the CIA's power and proclivities, there is no reason why the network couldn't expand again if it seemed useful. And in any case, the proprietaries are a fertile field for the multiple investigations of the agency's activities now gaining momentum on Capitol Hill. DESCENDANTS OF TIGERS In their heyday, the agency's proprie- taries helped bomb villages in the Con- go, fly mercenaries and supplies into Laos and train Tibetan guerrillas for. sneak attacks on China. They also pub- lished books, broadcast propaganda and provided "cover" for CIA agents in their own news agencies and free-wheeling public-relations firms in the U.S. and around the world. Even with the current cutbacks, a hard core of proprietaries remains?including, NEWSWEEK has learned, a small news service in Europe, a cornPany supplying technical services in the Middle East, and Fairways Corp., a small Washington airline. And agency veterans suggest that the phasing out is a sign that the CIA is shifting to tectics that avoid the long-term costs of large pro- prietaries. One example of the new style may be the recently revealed sub-raising 'efforts by the mystery ship Glomar Ex- plorer?operated for the CIA by Howard Hughes. ? z n ? b The history of CIA proprietaries goes back almost as far as the agency's original division into intelligence-gathering and "special operations" branches. It was in the summer of 1948 that National Securi- ty Council Order 10/2 created an Office of Policy Coordination to conduct small and "plausibly deniable" spying, sub- version and secret propaganda activities. That office quickly attached itself to the recently created Central Intelligence Agency, where it was known officially as the Plans Division and unofficially as the "Department of Dirty Tricks." Over the next two years, the agency took increasing control of an unusual Far East airline?Civil Air Transport? which had been formed by seasoned veterans of Air Force Gen. Claire Chen- naules daredevil Flying Tigers. CAT's risky missions to harass mainland Com- munists were financed at first by the Chinese Nationalists, then by the Ameri- can Airdale Corp. Airdale soon meta- morphosed?in the corporate records of Delaware?into the Pacific Corp., subse- quently revealed as a linchpin of CIA proprietaries. Soon other proprietaries came under the umbrella of Pacific Corp., including a number of ostensibly independent firms whose role as CIA covers was later blown by a series of journal istic exposes and books such as former agent Philip Agee's "CIA Diary" and "The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence" by John Marks and CIA alumnus Victor Marchetti. Among the first proprietaries: so Air America, which grew from CAT'S Asian operations, became a major airline with 165 planes and about 5,000 employ- ees. Its CIA missions included parachut- ing Meo tribesmen as guerrillas into Laos, dropping rice to refugees in the Vietnamese highlands, carrying payrolls for CIA mercenaries and transporting prisoners for the Saigon government. In the course of all this, the airline has also been accused of playing a role in the massive Southeast Asian narcotics trade. But most of its activities are open com- mercial contracts to transport U.S. serv- icemeri and, government personnel; it even Played a major part in the recent evacuation of Saigon. The airline"former- ly ran a large maintenance base at Udorn, Thailand, providing the airfield with weather and communications systems, tactical air control and even fire- protection services. to Air Asia Co., Ltd.' based on Taiwan, until recently ran the largest aircraft maintenance-and-repair facility in southeast Asia. Operated as an Air Amer- ica subsidiary with nearly 6,000 workers and pilots at its peak payroll, Air Asia serviced craft not only for Air America but for the U.S. military as well. Accord- ing to one former intelligence officer, it could actually build entire aircraft from prototypes (to the sputtering dismay of some U.S. manufacturera)e - a Pacific Engineering Co., an operating division of Air America, provided super- vising engineers for local work teams assigned to build airstrips for Vietnam and the- "secret war" in Laos. Hugh L. Grundy, the division's president, says these were mainly "up-country, moun- taintop strip. . . in primitive areas." _ Outside the Pacific Corp. framework, Approved3F8or Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 dness' the CIA set 'up dozens of other propri- etary companies around the world_ These ranged from tiny one- or two-man offices ("singletons" and "doubletons," in agency parlance) to larger operations such as Anderson Security, Zenith Tech- nical Enterprises and the major interna- tional broadcasting stations Radio Lib- erty and Radio Free Europe. Originally created to provide logistical support for CIA undercover operations, many of the proprietaries themselves soon became involved in intelligence gathering and moved on to more active operations. A CIA-owned print shop in Latin America, for example, might first have been set-up merely to provide cover for a CIA agent in the area. But it would soon seek to gain influence with a local political party or labor group by printing their propaganda, providing jobs for movement leaders or offering office space for political meetings. "When the agency was deeply involved in political activities, proprietaries made a lot of sense," says one former CIA employee. "To have a handle on a foreign labor union was important." . As with lawyer Bean, many prominent Americans were recruited to give the proprietaries credibility. "Anybody who looked closely would know that most of the people actually running the company were having a hard time meeting their own mortgages," says one close observer of the erneecs The big names were signer; up to suggest solid sources of private capital- When the CIA acquired the Miami-based Southern Air Transport in the early 1960s, it apparently persuad- ed former U.S. budget director Percival Brundage, a consultant to the prestigious Price, Waterhouse ik Company, and for- mer Assistant Defense Secretary Perkins McGuire, a board member in various corporations, to hold most of the airline's stock in name only. In practice, the proprietaries were used as needed to cover CIA operations. A fleet of twelve to fifteen B-26 bombers from the Korean War, for example, passed back and forth among the agency and it, companies in the course of being used in the Indonesian war, the Conga rebellion, the Bay. of Pigs invasion and Vietnam. Sometimes the planes required no cover at all, but at other times they were flown by pilots working for suck CIA proprietaries as the Double-Chek Corp. and Caramar?die Caribbean Aero Marine Corp. Between assignments, the planes were frequently ferried back to the U.S. by Air America pilots and then stored by Intermountain Aviation, an- other proprietary that has recently been spun off to a private buyer. The operations of the proprietaries have raised larger questions about the CIA's barely glimpsed finances. At best estimates, the agency receives about $750 million from Congress each year; it also has large amounts of cash available on short notice for covert projects ($3 million was channeled to anti-Allende forces in Chile from 1970 to 1973) and sizable sums were set aside in contin- gency funds for the insurance and fringe- benefit needs of its proprietaries, pan ticularly the airlines. The insurance funds totaled more than $26 million be 1971, NEWSWEEK has learned. Rather than collect dust, says one former CIA Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100380002-6 employee, much of that money was reinvested in choice stocks and securi- ties chosen by economists in CIA head- quarters at Langley, Va.?partly on the basis of classified information not avail- able to ordinary investors. A COVER IS BLOWN . A clandestine service with independ- ent income? The potential for mischief is clear, and Wisconsin Sen. William Prox- mire recently introduced legislation that would require stricter audits? of CIA investments and other finances. "Do profits go into the CIA budget?" Prox- mire asked. "Does the director of the CIA have a special 'Director's Fund' which can be used without justification to any other person?" The CIA, for its part, has declined to answer a series of similar questions from NEWSWEEK, re- plying to a written request: "Please excuse us from answering ... We are in full compliance with the law." Most CIA proprietaries, of course, have been too small to make much profit on their own; indeed, agency policy is generally to avoid doing too well in the world of private enterprise. But the charade still requires two or three sets of records to keep track of private and government funds, as well as complicat- ed intercessions with other arms of gov- ernment such as the Federal Aviation Agency and the Internal Revenue Serv- ice. One temptation is to slip several agents into the same proprietary, but while that might save on bookkeeping, it makes all the agents vulnerable if the cover of any one of them is blown. This was the undoing of the Washington-based Robert R. Mullen & Co., a public-relations firm which, while not owned by the CIA, had agreed in ? provide slots for several of its overseas operatives. When the CIA learned that a forthcoming book would disclose that Mullen had provided cover for an agent in Mexico City, Mullen fronts in Am- sterdam and Singapore had to be closed?and the cover man in Singapore disappeared. Mullen itself expired of embarrassment in 1974, though its for- mer president, Robert R. Bennett, is still in the PR trade. The policy of not doing too well in business also takes a psychic toll. -You look like a horse's ass," one former agent now complains to friends. "Even your kids think you're a loser." Some opera- tives even begin straining to super- charge their little firms, often at the expense of their cloak-and-daggering. "They'd start trying to make the god- damn airline run better," grumbles an agency veteran. "That's not the purpose of the drill. Pretty soon they'd become more businessman than an intelligence officer." DROPOUTS AND OLD BOYS A few agents actually quit "the company"?as the CIA is known? to join real companies for which their work in the proprietaries had provided on-the-job training. Oth- er agents are not quite so well prepared, however. In fact, NEWS- WEEK reporters fca nd.surprisingly widespread complaints that CIA case officers and contract workers whose commercial covers were blown often found themselves ab- ruptly dropped by the agency? and unable to parlay their past experience into straight-world jobs. "Say you're working _for the X- Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : t9A-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 Corp. or some such, and you make a mistake or someone else does and you are out on your ear," explains one veteran of commercial-cover assignments. "When you try to find another job they ask, 'What does X- Corp. do?' Well, you stutter around?a Man 40 or 45 is sup- posed to have a reputation for something, but there's not much for them to go on. You can't say, ?I worked for the CIA"." More and more agents may be experiencing such hardships as the CIA trims back its proprietary program. The Pacific Corp., for example, has shrunk from 11,200 employees in 1970 (com- pared with 16,500 for the CIA itself) to little more than 1,100 today. Other firms have been sold off or shut down., But one former CIA employee suggests that the agency may be trying to sell the proprie- taries "in such a way that they might be recalled someday"?and such suspi- cions have been bolstered by some re- cent transactions. Southern Air Trans- port, a$5 million operation at its peak, was sold not long ago?at a bargain rate? to the man who managed it for the CIA for more than a decade. The sale of Air Asia to E-Systems, Inc., puts the firm in the hands of a company whose board of directors includes retired Adm. William F. Raborn, a former CIA director. The same sort of "old boy" network of former CIA agents, officials and cooper- ative businessmen has grown to include influential corporate leaders, lawyers and foundation executives. : Through them, NEwSwEEK has traced connec- tions of one sort or another with at least six een banks and investment houses (Manufacturers Hanover, Chemical Bank, Fiduciary Trust), several major law firms (including Boston's Hale and Dorr and the equally prestigious Ropes & Gray), more than two dozen large corporations (ITT, United Aircraft, E- Systems, W.R. Grace & Co.) and several dozen associations and foundations, in- cluding the highly respected Council on Foreign Relations. Evidence that the old boys do errands for the CIA is intriguing but largely circumstantial. Boston lawyer Hellmuth, who concedes that he helped set up Anderson Security as a CLA proprietary, is also head of two charitable organiza- tions (the Independence Foundation and the J. Frederick Brown Foundation) which, he admits, have been used to ? channel CIA funds. Former CIA director Reborn is a consultant to Aerojet- General Corp., while another former boss of the agency, John NIcCone, serves as a board member of ITT, Standard Oil of California, Pacific Mutual Life Insur- ance Co., United California Bank and Western Bancorporation. Whether through the nehvork or not, multinational companies have often done favors for the CIA. The agency said last year it had 200 agents abroad posing as corporate employees. For years, NEWavaEpc learned, some com- panies have served as conduits for CIA -funds, including money Used as bribes and campaign contributions to foreign officials. * . ? Were the favors repaid? When a con- duit company had its taxes audited, says a former U.S. official, the internal Rev- enue Service would sometimes "get a call from the CIA . saying, 'Get your people off their backs'." A former agency case officer recalled one company with investments in pre-Castro Cuba that was "extremely appreciative" of information that then CIA director Allen Dulles ? ? provided just before the. revolution. "It saved them a lot of money," said the former case officer. And John McCone, the record shows, was, quite willing to. trade on his old agency connec- tions in behalf of ITT when he offered the CIA $1 million to help . prevent the election of Marxist President Salvador Allende in ? Chile?where nrr had holdings worth nearly $150 million. ? THE NEW LOOK Such corporate connections are harder to make these days; after the ? recent publicity, many companies are refusing to provide cover slots ? for CIA agents. "In fact," says a Congressional investigator, "you can almost hear them bouncing on the steps after they've been thrown out." But he adds, "I dciubt they're getting totally out. Don't forget, the best cover is for everyone to be- lieve that they can't get any cover." Thus there is still pressure in Con- ?- gresS for a law that would prohibit what Idaho Sen." Frank Church c.allsthis incestuous relationship between government and private corporations." Are the CIA's proprietaries a dying breed? There are those who think that authority for almost all of the CIA's covert operations should be shifted to the Defense Depart- ment, leaving the CIA to concen- trate on its original mission: the collection of intelligence. Others believe the reformers may be content with better Congressional control and review of the agency's current activities; one step in that direction is the new legislation that requires the Administra- tion to brief both the House and Senate Foreign Relations Committees on CIA cover operations overseas. But as long as there is a CIA, it will surely resist the idea of forswearing any tactics at the risk of letting other coun- tries gain advantage. The idea that there are "rigid rules- in the intelligence business is nonsense, says a veteran of the U.S. intelligence establishment. f I don't need a man in a white suit poking around somewhere today. I won't put him there. But I'm not saying I won't put him there tomorrow.' M. ALPE RN with ANTHONY MARRO. EVERT MARX and HENRY McGEE in Washington Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 PUBLISHER'S WEMY 5 MAY 1975 THE WEEK Editor: Daisy Maryles SVLGie To Pub ish Agee's Ex se E Th cEA "INSIDE THE COMPANY: CIA Diary," one of the "hottest" book prop- erties in recent years, has finally been signed by an American publisher, Stone- bill Publishing Company who, unlike many large corporate firms, decided to grab the "hot potato" instead of passing it on. In this expose of the CIA, former agent Philip Agee describes in complete detail his 12 years (1957-1969) with "The Company" in Ecuador, Uruguay, Mex- "leo and Washington. According to pub- kised reports, his book names every CIA officer and agent whom he encountered and describes every operation that he took part in. The book gives an account of the author's disillusion, both with CIA methods and United States foreign pol- icy. Among the figures listed as CIA col- laborators by Agee are the current presi- dent of Mexico and his two predecessors, a former vice-president of Ecuador, rank- ing Communist Party members and scores of politicians, high military and police officials. Agee, who wanted to avoid the prob- lems encountered by fellow agents like Marchetti, decided to publish his book outside the country. Penguin released the book in London on January 2 and it ,be- came an instant best seller. In mid-1974 when Penguin offered the U.S. publica- tions rights to the Agee book to Ameri- can houses, the advance offers were re- puted to be high. There was a report that one major publisher offered $250,000. However, when Penguin made it clear that they would not honor the warranty clause in any contract signed with an 'American publisher, publishers began to back down. With the CIA-Knopf action on Marchetti's "Cult of Intelligence" go- ing from court to higher court and in- volving huge legal costs on the part of the publisher, interest quickly waned. Except for the United States, the book has been available, since early January, in all English-speaking countries, includ- ing Canada. "Inside the Company" has been widely and favorably reviewed in the English and Canadian press. There was even one review in an American paper?the Washington Post on Febru- ary 23. The Post departed from its usual practice of reviewing only books avail- able to the US. because of "the unusual interest the book has generated and be- cause df the relevance to the current investigation of the aims and methods of the CIA." Among other comments, the. review said that "Agee has provided the most complete description yet of what the CIA does abroad. In entry after numbing entry, U.S. foreign policy is pictured as a web of deceit, hypocrisy and corruption." The book was available for a -few days in a few bookstores in Washington, D.C. (Discount and Sydney Kramer Book Store) and in New York (Classics Book Store). Copies sold out almost im- mediately., However, since then U.S. Customs officials have interceded and all copies (a few at the stores, the rest at the docks) have been seized. About six months ago, for a $12,000 advance, Straight Arrow Books had an oral agreement with Penguin to publish the Agee book. The West Coast pub- lisher dealt first with Penguin, then with the author and finally with the Scott Meredith Agency. A conflict over what rights were agreed on arose. Straight Ar- row claimed that it had bought both hardcover and mass market rights from Penguin; the English publisher denied this. Straight Arrow, aware that the Meredith agency was offering the book to other publishers, stated that it was not interested in the hardcover rights without the paperback rights. But in the interim the book was listed in the Straight Arrow catalogue as the lead spring title. Simon and Schuster, the firm's distributor, was taking orders for it. Charles Williams, PHILIP AGEE r-71 20 S&S sales manager, said that 15,000 orders have been logged in for the hook. The Meredith agency, according to Jack Scovill, who handled the deal, of- fered the book to about 25 American publishing houses including the majot paperback firms. The best offer came from Warner Publishing Company for $60,000. That deal also fell through when Warner's insurance company refused to cover the risks involved. Scott Meredith came back to Straight Arrow,- this time with an agreement that also included pa- perback rights. However, the firm at that point was curtailing operations and hon- oring only contracts already signed. Scovill told PW that "he was aston- ished that publishers were running so scared of the CIA." This sentiment was echoed by Melvin Wulf, legal director of the American Civil Liberties Union, who told PW that he had made it clear in pub- lishing circles that the ACLU was willing to represent them if there were any at- tempt on the part of the government to suppress the publication of the book. However, it was not until April 22 when Stonehill's president, Jeffrey Stein- berg, signed an agreement to publish the book in the United States that the picture changed. Steinberg, who was a founder with his father of Chelsea House, launched his Stonehilt firm in 1971 and recently successfully published (good re- views, strong hardcover sales and a sub- stantial paperback reprint sale) Sigmund Freud's "Cocaine Papers." Steinberg is very excited about his newest book which will have "heavy national publicity." He told PW that the first printing of 25,000 will be off the presses and shipped to bookstores in mid-June. A second print- ing will be available a few weeks later. Stonehill's distributor, George Braziller, will be handling book orders. Arrange- ments are, being made with S&S for . their order's. The ACLU has promised to represent Stonehill "in the event that the U.S. seeks in any way to interfere with publi- cation of the book." Steinberg's counsel is Greenbaum, Wolff & Ernst. Priced at S9.95, "Inside the Company" will be serialized prior to publication in both Rolling Stone and the Washington Post. Agee will be interviewed in the August Playboy: articles by and about him are scheduled to appear in the com- ing months in Esquire, Oui, the Wash- ington Post, Village Voice and others. For the time being. Stonehill has no plans to sell paperback rights. "We will wait until we have a better legal back- ground and can offer the paperback pub- lisher some protection," Steinberg said. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 ? BALTIMORE SUN 13 May 1975 By ISAAC REHERT Now that the Rockefeller Commis- sion investigating the activities of the Central Intelligence Agency is taking another look at some aspects of the Ken- nedy assassination, Henry Wegrocki feels vindicated. He has been saying for months that the Warren Commission was wrong, that the time is ripe now for an official rein- vestigatiobof that murder. ? ? ? Henry is only 18, a senior at McDon- ogh School ? he concedes he is no old and practiced hand at accomplished sleuthing. But the facts, he insists, speak for themselves; it is not a question of the youth or age of the person pointing the finger. ? Henry 'believes that in the light of -present-day events, the conclusion of the Warren Commission would never stand up against the facts. He thinks that the commission's report was molded in part by the political climate of the day. But that climate has changed, Henry says. and a new look will expose the sin- gle-assassin, no-conspiracy interpreta- tion of that crime as untenable. Henry has been taking such a new look. During the past 16 months, he has read dozens of books on the subject, vis- ited the National Archives in Washing- tOT) where the evidence is kept and stud- ied the Warren Report. The nature of the wounds that were inflicted, the films showing the actions of President Kennedy and former Texas Gov. John Connally in the open limou- sine, Governor Connally's own eye-wit- ness testimony, the recovered bullets and the rifle, which is. supposed to have been the only weapon used ? all this ev- idence does not point, Henry believes, to a solitary and emotionally distraught 'Lee Harvey Oswald planning and doing the deed all alone. ? Henry beleves there had to be more than one sharpshooter. Someone else had to be firing from another spot besides the top floor of the Texas Book Deposito- ry where Oswald had been. There was a conspiracy, Henry be- lieves, and adding what we know today to the information the Warren Commis- sion had then suggests a conspiracy in- volving officials in the government. Henry thinks that the Warren Com- mission eliminated the possibility of conspiracy because at the time there U. S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT 12 MAY 1975 e young 9 think researci,er seemed to be no motive for one and it was unthinkable then that high Ameri- can officials might be involved in such a thing. But, he says, we are a lot better in- formed today, a lot wiser about some of the sinister capabilities of men in high office. Since the Warren Report, we have lived through My Lai, the Agnew resignation, Watergate and now the most recent revelations about some of the muddy activities of the CIA. Today, Henry believes, the nation. would be more ready to face the truth about what happened in Dallas. Henry began his study in November, 1973, after watching a television pro- gram on the 10th anniversary of the as- sassination. He borrowed his father's car and drove to the Archives in Washington to study the evidence. First of all, he decided, it couldn't have happened as the Warren Commis- sion explained it. The commission said that three shots were fired, all of them by Lee Harvey Oswald, hitting the Ken- nedy car from above and behind. One if the bullets is supposed to hive passed through Kennedy's shoulder and then to have struck Governor Connally. A second missed, the third hit Kennedy in the head. \ ? Impossible, says Henry Wegrocki. He has looked at the bullet; it is hardly at all deformed. He has looked at the rifle, an Italian Mannlicher-Carcano bolt-ac- tion weapon of 1940 vintage. No one could possibly fire the thing as fast as the actual shots rang out that day. Re looked at the films. While Presi- dent Kennedy was being hit the first time, Governor Connally was still sitting in comfort. His own testimony was that there was an interval between the mo- ment he heard the first shot ring out and when he himself was hit. And the shot that struck the Presi- dent's head could not have come from the rear, for parts of the flying debris struck police officers on motorcycles be- hind. It had to come from up front. So Oswald could not have been the only person doing the shooting. There was more than one assassin, Henry be- lieves; there was a group, and the brains behind the group, in his opinion, was the CIA. The CIA had a motive, for President Kennedy had enpreereed disapproval of the worst of their cloak-and-dagger ac- ""1 12:7i72 ',./inisparse tivities. It would suit them for him to be out of the way. And there is evidence, too, that Lee Harvey Oswald himself had links to the CIA. ? It was the CIA that had mastermind- ed the invasion of the Bay of Pigs and a short time later, President Kennedy is known to have demurred from a pro- posed CIA plot to assassinate Fidel Cas- tro. Nevertheless, in spite of this disapa proval, a CIA-backed team was pcitecl .up in Havana intent on just such an zest of political murder. This is whet the Rockefeller Commission recently has been concerned about. As for Oswald, Henry's research raised a lot of unanswered questions that suggest he may have ? worked for the CIA. ? - When in Russia in the early 1960's, was he spying on the Soviet development of a U-2 spy plane? As an insignificant Marine private at Atsugi Air Force Base in Japan, he was given a high security clearance. Why? And the Dallas police maintained that Oswald had a CIA number, 110669. Is there any verification? ' Unfortunately, unless there is a change in policy, the American public cannot find out until the year 2038, for many documents relating to the assassi- nation have been consigned unopened in- to the National Archives for 75 years. Lyndon Johnson believed there might have been a conspiracy ? perhaps by the CIA, perhaps by Castro, in retalia- tion for the attempts made on his life. And Senator Richard Russell of Georgia, who was a member of the Warren Com- mission, dissented from its final explan- ation. But back in 1964, Henry -believes, agencies such as the CIA were too sacra- sanCt even for the Warren Commission to take on. That is all changed now. No agency of government is beyond suspicion today. ? Henry believes that the time is ripe to reopen the matter of the assassination and when the Rockefeller Commission's report is delivered next month, he hopes it will spark public demand for a. new and more thorough investigation. ? Henry will lecture on his own private studies at McDonogh's Cultural Fair Fri- day. The CIA is having trouble getting Secretary Kissinger to rcad ks assess- ments of world trouble spots, particu- . lady those dealing with Asia and the ? Middle East. The CIA complaints that he prefers to rely on information pro- tiOroirectamPlatlefirtiepall0108108. : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 vided bA 21 analysts. ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 LEBANON DAILY NEWS 15 APRIL 1975 By TED GRESS ? Euecutive Editor, , Lebanon Daily New? o First of Three Nathan Hale, one of our earliest national heroes, was an fritelligmce agent. Probably our first. Remoolier him? He was a U.S. Army officer who ellsguisal himself as a Dutch schoolmatter and sought intelligence in forma tioa- behind the British line on Long island in 1776. He was captured and ban Before h e iitel he made a state meat that nearly every school Child has heard in history dam. It was: "I regret that I have but ane life to give for my country." He was an early practitioner of a service which ultimately would become the Central In- telligence Agency. (CIA). ' The agency has come a long way in trainirg of American intelligence officers and agents since the time Nathae reale re sceivet a one-day briefing and was told to put his reports in his shoe. The depth of today's training would amaze you. I'll touch on -it "later. In another article I will give you a full report on a private interview I had in Washington with William E. Colby, CIA director. It lasted nearly an hour. Colby was frank in discussing problems facing the agency. He also told me what he thought about his future. First I'd like to tell you about 'some of the problems con- fronting-the CIA. They really started when the New York Times came out in December ? of 1974 with charges that the CIA directly violated its charter and conducted massive illegal domestic intelligence operations during the Nixon administration against the . anti-war movement and other dissident groups in the United States. There have been almost Continuous assaults on it ever since; mostly by the leftist- liberal news media. The New York Times leads the way; the others follow. Letitre cite a few einiinpie-s-:- Dick Cavett, well known talk-show host, was the roaster. of 'ceremonies on a big TV special featuring Barbra Streisand ? One of his "witticisms" was: "I knowa way to speed upmad delivery and that is to give set eels (-se rrea -Iiiesonlit'e speed-reading lessons to the CIA." Mt By (Cartoon Another was an editorial cartoon sent out by McNaught's, one of the major newspaper syndicates in the, country. Based in New York it is a highly respected or: ganization. The earthen shows an office dour on whish is lettered: "Central ? Intelligence Agency." in the corner of the glass panel in small letters is "The Godfathers.". The implication, of course, links the CIA with the maf ia. In fairness to McNaughts it should be mentioned that the following week it distributed a cartoon showing a man from the CIA in boxing trunks. He is wearing a boxing glove on one hand. The other is tied behind his back. He is blindfolded and his feet shackled. His opponent is wearing big brass knackle and a mask on which b the emblem of the Soviet Union. The referee is telling the CIA man: "And you fight fair. No icks." An article in New York magazine (not The New Yorker) was written by Aaron Latham. It deals with James J. Angelton, who was let go by the CIA. It is based largely on supposition. It discussed the fact that "maybe" it was Kissinger who initiated the action which led to Angelton's firing. It is loaded with statimenta Me "The CIA gave the impression"?' "Now it looks as though " and "it is likely." I ? Fiction Approach The same magazine followed I in a later issue with an article! by the same author. Only this; time, believe it or not, it is a' 'fictionalized account of CIA operations. Aaron Latham claims this is the only way he can deal with the story. Treating it as fiction certainly give him a wide latitude in dealing with facts. It's a rather obvious bit of character assassination. Readers, unless they are aware dee-hat actually is going on, will be inclined to believe it all despite Latham's disclaimer. Seldom does a week go by that the CIA is not the subject to an a ttack. It may be a cartoon such as appeared in the respected Na- tional Observer, which showed a cutaway section of a mailbox. Inside a man labeled CIA is reading letters. A woman is approaching with a handful of letters. Her briefcase indicates 6e is Congressman Bella Abrug. She's the lady who is carrying on a feud with the intelligence ? agency for opening her maiL Or it may be a TV episode of "Cannon" which was aired March 12. In it a murder. suspect was identified as hi-Ong I with the CIA: -Later it was revealed that the suspect, a rather easty fellow, didn't week for CIA but the damage already had been done. The CIA also comes tinder assault in a recent issue of the Saturday Review by a former Cf A executive, Tom Braden. The ex-official is unhappy with the organization and charges it with :laving an excess of power. He would do away with it completely. Recalls Rumors However, he recounts the myths about the agency that have collected through the greari-and labels them as false.: Such as the rumors that the CIA killed John Kennedy; that it shot George Wallace; that it was responsible for an airplane crash and that it pulled off a big gold heist. These he admits were not true. The rumors continue to grow as is to be expected when an organization operates under the veil of secrecy as it must. Now let's talk about the articles and derogatory reference which often appear in Parade magazine, a Sunday supplement with a circulation of over a million. Among these were a long article and also a question and answer interview with Philip Agee, former agent who left the service, and now has written a book about it. The book was published recently in England, where the author cannot be stopped from publishing CIA secrets'. He. names names. He lists his former CIA associates so as to "neutralize" them, according to Parade. The magazine reports that Agee, when asked if be didn't feel any obligatioe to protect other CIA men in the field, ? replied: "Why should I be delicate with them? These people are promoting fascism around the wrx1d." Agee now lives in Cornwall, Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001 en icias England, with a , Brazilian beauty he says was tortured in her own country by the secret police. He has since become an ardent socialist, Parade reports. "Why did Agee turn against the CIA? One reason was that he cculdn't tolerate the brutal tortures which the various Latin American police practice on their political enemies. The thought that he was in part responsible for such cruelty turned him off his work." Now let's look at the other side of the coin. This in- ? formation was taken from my long interview with Colby. I asked the director about the Agee case. Here is what he said: - "Agee left theCountry and wrote the bock -abroad. Because he was out of the country he was not 'subject to the kind of injunction which we did get against another former agent to force him to abide by his secrecy agreement. "This a eement says that secrets that he learned here he leaves here. We have enforced thee because revealing names and things like that could be most harmful. "Mr. Agee went abroad where we couldn't posshly get an injunction and he has published a bock using every name he can possibly remember. The book which _ was published in England has been spread around but it has not been published here." 17. There are. amusing . . amusing may not be the right word . . . overtones to the ? situation as Colby explains: "When Agee left here, he ; wrote a letter in which he said he thought this was a great institution and he appreciated all we had done for him to help him with his problems. "He said he had the highest opinion of the importance and the security needs of the agency and then he went and did that." "What do you think happened?" I esked. Thank.s Corn man is t s "I think he got into bad circles," Colby replied. "He makes a point in his book of thanking the Communist Party of Cuba for its help in his research. I think you can judge from that what has happened to him." The director went en to explain he has asked for certain legislation that would 00360002-6 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 . give firmer control over the disclose of official, secre in- formation. He pointed out this is jeopardizing the lives of agents . and jeopardizing millions of dollars worth of technical machinery which the other side can turn eft' if it knows it is there. "We have laws that make a crime," he said, "of the unauthorized exposure of your income and income tax by Internal Revenue Service or your census returns by Census Bureau workers or of certain ? statistics by an agricultural de- partment employe." 41 can't see .why we?Caift have criminal penalties fordis- closure of an agent's name ora secret of this nature. I do believe that it has to meet the demands of the First Aratedinent. I believe in- the First Amendment. (The First Amendment is the one which guarantee Freedom of the Press.k - "So this restriction could- only apply to us who asturre- the chligatica to keep a secret:. It ? should not apply to is: journalist who may pick upi! idarmation:.? -.7 j Takes Secrecy Oath-t: When a man joins, the ,Cent.'.11 Intelligente Agency be takes' an oath of secrecy. He knows what he is doing. This is part of the price of joining one of the most important insti- tutions in our government.. Nathan Hale didn't have to Lake such, a pledge but the intelligence service has cornea i long way since then. It has ; grown and expanded. It, is. Important that it be nourished and supported so this nation can survive ? NEW YORK TIMES 4 May 1975 'EXPOSE OF C.I.A. WINS THE HILLMAN AWARD Seymour M. Hersh of the New York Times, who uncov- ;ered Central Intelligence ,Agency surveillance in the United States, was among six recipients of Sidney Hillman Foundation awards yesterday at the Commodore Hotel. Other winners were CBS for ."The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman"; Noel Mostert for his book, "Supership"; The Boston Globe for its coverage of Boston school integration; Richard Barnet and Ronald Muller for ther book "Global Reach,"- and a special award to WNET/Channel 13 television ,.*for "outstanding program- )ining." The award consists oft $750 and a scroll. Mr. Hersh, a Washington- based correspondent for The a NEW YORK TIMES 8 May 1975 On U.S. Intelligence ? By Hanson W. Baldwin ROXBURY, Conn. ? There is not much doubt that the K.G.B., the Soviet secret police, is gloating in Moscow. . In the last few months, exaggerated, inaccurate or irresponsible press ac- counts and self-serving politicians have greatly damaged United States intelligence organizations. Some? crippling restrictions already imposed are now being followed by extensive and numerous investiga- tions into every facet of intelligence ? and counterintelligence, which may re- sult in new and dangerous exposure of organizations, methods and personnel. One of the most damaging and ir- responsible leaks in United States ? intelligence history?the widely pub- lished accounts of the salvaging of the sunken Soviet' submarine?already has occurred, with the media, in the name of freedom damaging the defense of freedom. ? Nor is it encouraging that The New York Times allowed the columnist Jack . Anderson to trigger its own actions. The consequent publication by The Times and ' all other media of a fantastic technological feat and _ an- intelligence coup still incomplete could cause immense potential damage. One need only recall the broken codes of World War II, and, in?recent history,' ...the nasty surprises new Soviet weap- ons provided in Vietnam and in the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. The current investigations, therefore 7?unless they are to be of great aid and comfort to those who 'would destroy the systemof political freedom that makes such investigations possi- ? ble?must concentrate on the con- structive, not the destructive; on the future, not past. They must avoid, at all costs, any more public exposure of secret intel- ligence methods, technology or person- No intelligence organization, even in a democracy, can be a completely 'open. book if it is to be worth its cost. But there are some key questions that require _reassessment. Are there, for instance, too many semi-independent intelligence agencies, each vying for power? Or . does each have its important specialized role and does each act as check-rein on the others? Should the director of Central Intel- ligence be given more power?to knock heads together, to merge, to allocate tasks? Or would this continue and expand an already dangerous centralization of power? Intelligence and counterintelligence are tw:ns. What, particularly, should in the week for the same series easing C.I.A. activity. Murray H Finley, president of the 340,00-member Amalga- mated Clothing Workers Un- ion, which set up the Sidney Times, was named winner of F the George Polk a warAppeintd I Rebleiligrakneffftl: Cl be the relationships between the Central Intelligence Agency and Fed- eral Bureau of Investigation, and who should do what in counterespionage and countersubversion? ? It is easy to dismiss the Communist and radical and ,terrorist threats as bogeymen; yet the capability of Puerto Rican 'nationalists and radical Weather.' men to bomb public places repeatedly without detection and the ability of so well-known a figure as Patty Hearst to remain hidden, in an American un- . derground speaks badly, indeed for present and recent attempts of our intelligence services to combat espio- nage, subversion or "even simple anarchy. How does one define the thin line between freedom and license, security -and repression, the "right to know" and irresponsibility? The political ex- tremists and fanatics, in pursuit of revolution, believe that the ends literally-justify any means. ? United States intelligence agencies can never embrace such a concept, without ultimately aiding the hidden enemy, The adoption of such a policy ?the ends justifying any' means? would subvert our own institutions. Yet there is a nagging problem here; a threat -exists and it cannot be met' by mouthing shibboleths. ? How should authority over our intel:. `- ligence servi6es' at the top level .be exercised? intelligence is a tool of government; as such it can be turned by those who control it to- good or, evil purposes.. Who should be the guardians of the good, who the monitors? The more people that get into the act the less secrecy. Congress Is noted for its blabbermouth pro- clivities i if there is to be ,any secret intelligence it is clear that only a handful of Congressmen, picked for ability, judgment and discretion and devotion to the common good, can be kept fully informed. Intelligence?facts,- secrets, our own and the opposition's?means today and for the future, security?the difference between the life and death of a nation. Granted the need, how then do you keep intelligence apolitical, freed from the ambivalent pressures of domestic politics, in a milieu such as Washing- ton, which is highly partisan? And, ultimately, the larger question ?the unresolved residue of Watergate ? ?how do you curb executive power i without crippling t, and how do you - operate a democratic government, or for that matter, any government, without secrecy? Hanson W. Baldwin, now retired, was military affairs editor of The New York Times. Praised Mr. Hersh for his 1 , . . "skill at finding wrongdoing" in military and law-enforce- ment agencies at a time when these sectors "seem to be growing almost beyond the c_ 7,7 26041116MM 0 0002-6 23 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 LEBANON DAILY NEWS 17 APRIL 1975 a By TEDGRESS Eiterethe Editor laetaoon Daily News z: (Second of Theee) What kind of a man is William E. Colby. head of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)? deHis name is in the headlines a great deal as the spotlight-of a Congressional tnvestigation plays upon the once :completely secret agency, an 'agency responsible for scanting and evaluating :intelligence information from !around the World., ee The information plays a vital Tart in- shaping the foreign :policies of this country. It. enables us to know what' :friendly- and not-so-friendly JSriliS are thinking and :doing and planning for the fu- It's easy task and its niroblernS are now compounded ,by a vicious attack from the leftist-liberal conundnity. I've .dealt with that subject in detail in a previous article. e Now I want to turn to a tloseup look at Colby. His plc- -tire has appeared in numerous ; publications. It shows a i serious-faced middle-aged man 'wearing light-colored glasses. When you.walk into his office you find a man wearing a I conservative grey suit, white I shirt with button-down collate 'and a blue and gold striped tie. I. He could easily pass for a banker. Not Bea Man Colby is not a big man. later I learned he is five feet eight inches tall anti weighs 160 pounds. His hair, well tinged with ' Trey, is start,' to recede; itghtly. His voile is 'soft but 'erige His handehake firm but :friendly. He acknowledees Angus MacClean Tle.:errner's 'explanation about my aanig the :.ape recorder fee tie! inter- ? Thuermer :s thr number .1.1'wo man in the agency:: d I set the recorder on-a table next to his chairbut beitedts up. tf he microphone arid le:aids it in, this hand througheut lite inter- t:?niew. < First I asked him about his ,personal background. Briefly; here it is. He was Urn in St. Paul, Minn., in 1920 And spent his early years on various army posts, including a Ihree-year stay in Tienstin, chinadHis father was an army officer. He became a Boy Scout when [le lived in .China and later avhen his own family was grow- ing. up, -he was active as a couter. He graduated from Princeton University in 1941, !roined the army and served in tun:9e with 'the Office of trategic Services. IAfter the war he got his law, egree from ,Columbia Law; chool and became a member ,gaf the New York State and U.S.. Supreme Court bars. .; After that were a SUCCESsion icif governmental posts includ- ing diplomatic service in Yietnam. He was deputy direc- jor of operations for the CIA When he was named, director jest year. Colby lives 'at Bethesda, 'eehich is only a hop, skip and 5'timp from his office. ' Starts Early His typical day starts at 6:30 vith exercises, including talisthenics and jogging., He's at his desk at eight and gets an update on. what is going on in the agency. Then a briefing from senior staff members at 9 o'clock. After that it is 'anything. It might be a meeting downtown. or testimony on the Hill or visits at his office with "some of our people." ? "I'm on the telephone a lot ,"' he said. "There are always meetings to attend: meetings; of intelligence experts on ? various subjects such as Viet- nam or the Middle East or! whatever. ? "Usually, I go home about ? seven. I take some work home but not too much. I've avoided the social circuit fairly suc- cessfully. I don't waste much time on that." The director said he leads a normal family life. "I guess you could say we are an average middle-class Ameri- can family." The Colbys live next to a Catholic clairch where they are ? regular attendants. Two sons have left home; one is a lawyer , and the other is in college. A son and a daughter remain at hnmp About once a month he visits Los Angeles, Chicago or New York speaking about the Central Intelligence- Agency. Monday of last week he ad- dressed the Associated Press meeting in New Orleans. . He takes a trip overseas about every six months to -"keep in touch with things:" I -atked what is the specific. role of the CIA: ea ? "Its wholes tpurpose'-". he .replied. "is to get in place. all the information and then subject it to some expert opnion and analysis." He's very proud of the quality of the people working for the agency. 24 I'm not going to quit. I serve of dF RI se 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 "We have more people with. doctor's and master's degrees and Ph.D's on anything from agricultural economics to nuclear* programs than you find in most universities. "They have access to all the fanciest forms of information collected through photography and electronics and from all normal kinds of regular report- ing and radio broadcasts. Information also that has beeni collected by agents byi clandestine means in somei '.;imited situations. . "If anyone likes to do pure: ;enearch this is the best place! in the world. to dielta The rawi material is fantastic. The free-. dom to make a decision un- affected by policy is here. And: it is on an important subject". He said it is important thatl the people have confidence in; the agency which he points out is important to this country's1 future. "Do you-have trouble get- ting recruits for the agency?" I: asked. "We have no trouble getting them," he replied. "We eat good people but don't recruit like we used to because We have gone down in Strength in the last five years." Budgetary limitations and inflation have taken their toll. It's been rather amusing, though, that since all the re- cent unfavorable publicity about the CIA, the number of applicants has increased. Normally they used to get about 600 every two weeks. The. first two weeks in January. Which ;was just after the New' York Times started scream- ing its head off about the agency, there were 1,700 re- ; quests for jobs. ? Colby is pleased with the type of people. applying for positions. They have tremendous academic- records from some of the best schools in the country. They have good work' experience and are very alive. "They are psychologically mature, intelligent people. They're great. Of course, we don't' hire them all by any I means, but that's a fine group: to be able to select from. -What about yourself?" I! inquired. "Have you ever been! tempted to quit this rat race,' particularly since all' this trouble has developed?" "No I haven't. We are deal- ing with something important. It's important to the country. It's important to the intelligence profession. "I've spent more than 30 years in this profession and course at the pleasure of the e?-? President and am at his-. disposal totally. And I'll stay.; as long as I think I'm useful." ? We turned then to what I re- guarded as -one of the most important questions of the I interview: "Do you see any! conflict between the peoples tight to know and the need for, secrecy in operating an agency; such as theCIA?" "This is one of the most diffie cult things in a way in Opel-? ating an intelligence agency in; our free society," he replied.. -"We are Americans. We like. our free society. We believe in. it. And yet if we are going to, protect it we have to have some intelligence work. Protect Ourselves "In. this country we are: sitting 30 minutes away from a nuclear missile aimed at us. If. we live in this kind of a world we obviously must have pro- tection and we must not only be able to protect ourselves but we have to be able to negotiate about that :kind of a problem, and that T'ind of a threat and be, - able to reduce it. "And that, I think, is wtiat. intelligence-can do. So I think. we have to define rather' sharply those things which are good secrets and need to be kept secret and keep them secret and those which are "bad" secrets and which do not .deserve to be kept secret. In. other words they are non., secrets and don't deserve to be' kept secrets." . ??? ? ? ? ? ? He pointed out that formerly' there was nor sign on the head- quarters building. "This is an awfully big build- ting and everybody knows-. .Where it is. All the -aircraft pilots used to point it out as they flew down the river, bed fore they had Watergate to point out. ? "As a result we were a non- secret. It's wrong to be obscure about things like that. But there are things that-need to be kept secret and I think. that now we have procedures . to clearly delineate which are secret and which aren't. "If there is supervision by Congress and the executive .branch, we can accept this. And the American people-will accept it. "Americans today have ac- cepted that grand jury pro- ceedings have to be kept secret. They accept that the Pentagon's plans are secret and also accepted the idea that Congress has to have execu- tive sessions, "They understand similarly, with respect to intelligence arxi I think they'll accept the need ' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 for some secrets." My next question was: Do you flinch at the . word "spying" instead of "intelli- gence?" "Well, I think in the old days it was synonymous, but today it he replied. "Intelli- gence a much bigger word. Intelligence involves the technical collection of information involving analytical work that I referred to, and to research;. all that LEBANON DAILY NEWS 21 APRIL 1975 CI sort of thing. "Spying and intelligence are not the same. We still have agents. We still collect material in the old fashioned way but we only do it when we have societies that are other- wise closed. . . . "A Russian attache can walk downtown in Washington and get a lot of information by buy- ing a magazine for a dollar. We have to spend millions of dollars and take enormous risks to obtain comparable ? informs tion." ? - He pointed out that spying is only a small portion of the entire intelligence operation. "We then discussed the per- sonal rewards of intelligence wort. ' ? ; 'you do your work iti4e is real satisfaction in it,' he explained. "When they come into intelligence work we tell our people they can't expect to get public recognitiaa. It's not Illte the military or the diplomatic service or polities. "The satisfaction you get in intelligence is the satisfaction of doing something important an.d doing it .wel I. ? ? important to yoar country, to the safety and to the ? welfare of ? this grmt nation. And it is a great nation. There is no question about that.. "If you understand that when you come in and if you stick: .with that understanding that's the reward." By TED GRESS Executive Editor, Lebanon Daily News (Last of Three) The Central . Intelligence Agency (CIA) now under Con- greisional investigation is making some changes of its ? own to. keep in step with the ?times. William E. Colby, CIA director., made this statement , -during an interview recently in his ;headquarters at Langley, Va." 1 ? "The United States set up an intelligence system right after World War Two," he said, "which reflected the opionion ? of that time about intelli- gence. Intelligence was some- ' thing to be put under the table ? and never talked 'about and never looked at. ? "That's not good enough today. So we are relooking at the philosophical approach toward intelligence. What we are-saying is that now we have: to have a view of intelligence:. ? responsibility. ? "We must have some secretsi but We also ? have to be i reassured as to what its real ? function is. Philosophy Outdated "We are in the process of re-: evaluation: We are setting up ? ? the: structure here and under- ? standing, a philosophy if you: will. of intelligence in our free society which I think will go on; fort? to 20 years. Then I think it Will be relooked again." Colby pointed out the. original philosophy is nearly 4 years old and o-tdated. "-I think the changes being. ? made will bring us up to date and that peony will be' satisfied: that afterthey take a look at our intelligence .struc- ture they will find it a good structure; that it does a good job and an important job." said earlier at a hearing that there have been mistakes made in the past, ."There . have . been some ? transgressions in the past," he said, ."but today I'm pretty . sure we are clear. We've taken considerable steps around here to make sure that we stay.right within our charter. People here want to do the right thing. "If we have Jone anything wrong in the past, they have been very few things, very in- frequent things. They, were done in' the belief at that time that they were somehow justi- fied. . 'It's hard to apply the stand- ards of one time, to the 'situa- tions of another time. I'm sure that someone will come along in 1990 and be critical of what I did. Maybe they'd say I didn't do! enough or maybe that I did too much. I'm sure they will be critical because they will have a ; different perspective . or viewpoint." = Being Corrected He said he is leaning over backward to make certain that everything is being done correctly by the agency teday. The intelligence machine, he said, will either be "corrected or adjusted" to make sure it doesn't make any mistakes in the future. "Then public confi- dence will be re-established and we can go back to work," he added. . Some of the internal adjust- ments being made include the use of a system whereby any- one in the organization, can speak up if he thinks the director is wrong. This is a. remarkable thing in a. governmental operation where the lower echelon seldom can reach the top with their views. And we encourage this," Colby said. Colby also makes a point He also repeated whpVeCivECit Reieftenirapati /08C08 25 with a half-dozen junior CIA! employes in order 'to get a: feel about what they are doing and thinking and are con- cerned about." Encourages Differences A difference .of opinion is not only permitted but en- couraged. -This- -particularly applies to evaluation of intelli- gence material. Out. of this will come deci- sions which may govern future -actions of this country in dealing with critical situations in other parts of the i,vorld. I referred to charges the CIA' opened private mail . in this country. .I ??asked if this was true.. ? 'Yes, unfortunately' it is," he replied. "I've testified to that. We thought -we were doing the right thing. I don't think it was-the right thing and we've stopped it." - 'It was mail going to a corn-' munist ? country. We picked it out tO learn who was communi- cating with whom and with 'what organization back in that. ?country. . Sometimes we were' looking for the kinds of censor- ship that might Le used..;i me reason we did this Itia.A.,cause we would have an who might be sent to that country and have to write back to us. "We wanted to protect our agents and warn them so they, would not get caught. That Sort of technical inspection wasn t to study the Substance of the mail but nevertheless it was not. proper and we shouldn't have done it." One of the charges made in the investigations was that. CIA was exceeding the limits of its charter which desigh?Fted it to handle worldwide in-i-Iligence whereas the Federal Bureau of Investigation handlei - the intelligence within. the ',Jilted States. The charge was made that the CIA was involved in anti- : e iserligthelOgial been a lot of exaggeration about. the CIA operating some; domestic police function. This is not true. "itlIe made a few mistakes such as, some of our people were in contact with anti-war dissidents. These were made so that our people could get credentials with which they could work abroad. Some people tried to say we were working against Aineri- cans. This was not true. This was not the purpose. of this activity.' but unfortunately. it Was said to be a terrible thing. . "This bothered the morale of our people, they felt this was unfair. Some of them got out Of the . service. Some felt that it we ever did anything improper we should reveal everything and wear a hair shirt and so forth. Different Views "There are different views in the agency and this pulls and -.tugs a little. It's a natural ''reaction of both sides. It is my job. to try and keep them both together and not let them go off at 180 degrees apart." Then he turned to a sensitive subject, that of keeping .. secrets. - -"I must confess that we are having a great deal of concern about our ability .to keep secrets. Not so much .secrets as much as the impressions we are giving to some people abroad. Some of our friends abroad are worried that their names will come out. ? "Some foreign governments that are working quietly and secretly with us couldn't do it publicly. They are concerned and wondering if we can keep our secrets. Some of our people. some of our agents abroad, have resigned. They Say they can't take a chance anymore. Some governments have 13036,Geinet great concern about whether they should give us Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 LEBANON DAILY NEWS 17 APRIL 1975 their sensitive materials if we can't protect them. I think. we can. I think that the Cengres- sional investigations that will take place shortly will be a responsible inquiry. ."Both senators and eongressmen have given us every indication that they are going about this seriously and responsibly.. They are going to get-answers but if I have a good reason to keep a name secret I believe they will be convinced of the need for such secrecy." ? Earlier in the interview he pointed out that since the CIA has been in the limelight any reference to the agency immediately took a news story from an inside page and moved it out to the top of the front page. The CIA is required by law not ? to confirm or deny published reports, whether true or false, favorable or un- favorable to the agency or its personnel. CIA does not publicly discuss its organization, its budget .or its ? ? personnel.' Nor does it discuss its methods of opera- tion or its sources of informa- tion. ? It can't by the terms of its charter. It's a secret organi- zat;nn that is committed to protectine this country from ioteign influences. . . Get Blamed. As . As a result, the CIA often ? gets the blame for things it has. had no hand in. ? U.S. Sen. Stuart Symington, Missouri. did a great deal of the cross-examination . of witnesses when Colby anneared before a Senate com- mittee to be confirmed as director of the agency a year and a?half ago. At one point in the testi- mony Symington said that other government agencies have the- tendency to -dump any ill-fated operation on the CIA because they can't defend themselves." He cited one ineinent whet an enemy agent wee killed an the CIA was blamed Symington said he knew for . . fact - that. the CIA ? hal "recommended urgently" tha the agent no be killed. . ,- "I -know about .this case. ix cause I investigated it per sonally," the senatoi said. Yet the Central Intelligene Agency was blamed. . The CIA is accountabl directly to the President. What have some of ou leaders felt about the agency? Harry Truman once sent a! message to the CIA in which he, said: **The Central Intelli-! gce Agency is a necessity to the President of the United States. From one who knows." President Eisenhower added some thoughts of his own when they laid the cornerstone for Ted Gvess Plogeo From A .Nensinan's Note book WOULD YOU care to join me on my journey to Central Intelligence Agency head- quarters located in a densely eitioded area at Langley, Va., eight miles from the heart of . As you approach the area Tram the direction of McLean, Va., you s?-.!e a sign ahead. Yit is en'een CM white and says: "CIA- Turn Here." The road sweeps in a big arch to the left and leads to a high wire en dtzure. There's a gap in the fence which is set a large guard- house. It is manned by courteous verde who ask you' name. They quickly elm& iist end find my name on it. ?!.',That happens when your name is not on the list is simple: You don't get in. Maybe you'd like to know hem I got my nerne on the list. I had been corresponding. with Angus MacClean Ibuermer, assistant director. Then we exchanged telephone calls. He first doubted that I would be able to interview Colby who has a full schedule. So I was pleasantly surprised when I got a call that the Colby interview was on. - The guard gave me a- three- hour pass which I placed in the car window, then head into the giant compound. ? THE MAIN BUEI,DING. quickly came into view. It is seven storiee high with two the headquarters at Langley, Va.. when he said: No leek could be more importate. In the work of the intelligence, heroes are undecorated and unsung; often even among their . own `fraternity. Their inspiration is rooted in patriotism ? their reward can be little except their conviction that they are perf aeming a unique and bdispertsable service for their country, and the knowledge that America needs and appreciates their efforts. if: assure you this is true." Several presidents have repeated the phrase:. "the CIA , successes will never be I published and their failures will always be publicized." There are' many unanswered questions about the agency: ? Among them, what happened in Chile in the overthrow of the government. What about -Abe Soviet submarine which sank in the Pacific and was raised to the surface under a CIA con- tract Toth the Howard Hughes firm? _ There are many things which i the public would like to !mow hasenieet levels. It has over a million square feet of office space. Up to now this was classified information. The number of employes and the amount of the payroll still is classified. The building is surrounded Ly trees, flowere. 'and shrubbery. There is a gassy area out back which is us in the summer by employes who sit on rustic to eat d A seldom-used helicopter pad is locates neat' the ? . The parking esea in front of beilding is !Towne ze lbe QZPAvangle.." Ritr,V, now is is a Picture of quiet charm as a mireber? of tulip trees are in bloom. Was greeted by a leneacinets guard when I pulled up in front of the building. He noticed my press sign on the car and gave me a warm welcome. -"We want to take good care of the press" he assured me. ? He was as good as his word, for .he parked me in .the number one spot. I climbed out, tacked my dispatch case and tape recorder under my arm. Then I reached for my camera. - "Sorry," he said, "you can't take the camera into head- quarters." "Well," 1 replied, "I'll just. leave in on the front seat." WASHINGTON POST 10 May 1975 -adj (r_71,_T(0; V ? "Oh no, that's not good. Someone might steal it" I looked at him and then the high wire enclosure around the campus, as it 'is called. Later! was to learn that during the gas shortage gasoline had been stolen ? from cars parked on campus. The guard was doubtful about my tape recorder but remarked as I turned away, "They will probably take it from you when you get inside." They did, too, but when I met Thuermee he got it hack for Enz. He still wasn't sure that the director would permit me to use it during the interviews. However, it turned out all right. and there was no further que ion about it. Word had been sent upstairs and a well-built young man came down to meet us. He was quiet and courteous. He had to use a key to open the door to the elevator which took us to the seventh floor. Here we waited in a small room adjoining Colby's office. Finally came the word that he could see us and we strode into his office. It was a long room flanked on one side almost entirely bytall windows which looked out over the Potomac River. And So we settled down for nearly an hour of conversation about the Central Intelligence Agency. jio o- 1lLiRi. Fred Griffin, 58;? a former senioi- executive with the Cen- tral Intelligence Agency, died of a stroke Thursday at Subur- ban Hospital in Bethesda. He lived at 8901 Kensington Pkwy.. Chevy Chase. A native of Grapevine, Tex., Mr. Griffin attended schools there, and later graduated in 1936 from Texas Tech Univer- sity in Lubbock. with -a liberal arts degree. He taught English at the university and later served as its director of public relations. iI During World War II, Mr. but never wW because of the ? terms cc/ its charter which , seals its lips. What will happen after the Congressional investi- gation. only time will tell. Colby in a recent interview acknowledged he is aware of the presence of foreign spies in VV ILtir/Tt (L9ff , Griffin worked for the Army ! as a eryptanalyst. in that Ca- pacity he worked on breaking the Japanese code. After the war he came to Washington as a staff assist- ant to a Texas congressman. In 1946, he joined the War De- partment as a security expert. He joined the CIA in 1952 and ; remained there until his retire- ! ment. Mr. Griffin is survived by his wife, Lorna, of the home; and three childen, Lorna Lilly, ! of Stoneville, N.C.; Bryan of the I home; and Melanie, of Wash- ington. this country. He said "it's accepted that we au i engage in that clandestine gathering of ! Nobody gets emotional about it. It's been going on since Moses sent a man from each tribe to spy on the Laud of Canaan". Approved For Release 2001/08/08,: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 26 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 JAPAN TIMES 30 April 1975 FREE LA BOUR WORLD, Brussels March 1975 UNION BOOKSHELF Philip AGEE Inside the Company, a CIA Diary Penguin Books, 1975. This is a badly written and surpris- ingly boring book: One wonders how many of those- who buy it because the publisher's hullaballoo has whetted their appetite will manage to read it from cover to cover. This reviewer, at any rate, found the task impossible. But perhaps it was one of the author's Jntentions- to show bow dull and. dreary, :the- CM agent's. life- is., in describion-. 'at great length the way the CIA organ- isation is built up and functions, Agee lists countless names and abbreviations which no reader could possibly take In, let alone remember. ? all this obviously with the intention of proving the authenticity of his story. We are supposed to think that the author Gould not have made up so many details: hence .he must be a genuine agent. Actually, of course, this does not prove anything. But supposing that Agee really did work. for the CIA in Latin America and actively participated in many shady activities (to use no stron- ger term), he has done a very poor job In writing this book. He coisld not only have entertained a public which loves to read about bugging, spying, secret inks and codes, but he might have done some useful service in exposing the CIA machinations in that continent. However, he completely destroys his own credibility by drawing all kinds of reckless conclusions and referring to things of which he has no first hand experience or reliable information. In fact, the only startling thing in the book is the effrontery with which the author denounces persons and organis- ations as CIA agents without the slight- est concrete evidence. In many cases, his allegations are not merely unfound- ed, but can quite easily be proved to be untrue. But unless somebody takes the trouble to establish the facts in a court action, this rubbish will no doubt find enough gullible readers and will be used by others for their own political purposes. G.F. Governinent 'in the Open By Max Lerner GAINESVILLE, Fla. How open dare government be? How closed must it be? These were the- questions put at a' .University of Florida conference on openness .in govern-. ment, which used Florida's "sunshine law" as its kickoff' .point. It was the first. time. ,I have pitsted to. explore my thinking on the difficult limits of secrecy and openness,. the right to know and the* right of privacy. The two-day , :exchange of views with a number of legislators, private and public lobbyists, can professors and public officials , help all of us to reach some conclusionS. One is that it 'is healthy to let more sunshine into the'. dark places of governmental secrecy by opening as much as possible of the decision-making process to the public.: Although it is as old as Ponce de Leon's _early quest for: the fountain of youth, Florida is " ? along with California ? also one of the fastestzgrowing states, and in that Sense' one of youngest 'and -most rootless. When a whole culture is unrooted and wholly fluid, public officials are tempted .to be on the make. Covertness becomes their weapon, and, the "sunshine law" takes it away from. them. It is a vaguely drawn; embracing law. that leaves much to the courts to interpret. The trend has been to apply it to informal as well as formal meetings' of governmental boards and committees, and to preliminary, ones as well as to those at which decisions are announced. ? . ? ; If other states and the federal government adopted the 'Florida law, we .would' get a double flow between the gov- ernment and the people. One would be outward to the 'public that of letting the people know wha is happen- ing. The other would be inward into the government that of letting various interest groups 'and people's lobbies c.ompete 'with the private k lobbyistS who sd often have ar. inside, track into legislative committees and regulatory agen-', cies ? , This would create an equalizing situation between the: two sets of groups. By making 'government more acces-? sible to the . people it might heal some of the current feel-; ing of helplessness, especially of the young who see tics as a rigged game. ' If -this were all, would throw my hat in the air and cheer for total sunshine. But it isn't all. There are two major problems with the idea of total openness in government. .One is that there will always be areas where secrecy is. indispensable. The present hearings on the CIA oper- ations, both by the Rockefeller commission and the Sen- ate subcommittee, have to be held in closed session. This. is also true' of much of diplomacy. President Woodrow Wilson's idea of "open covenants, openly arrived at," was` a - dead pigeon even before he came' up with it. Consider, what chance there would be .for a Middle East peace if all negotiations had to be carried on in the open. The best we can hope for is open covenants, .arrived 'at, openly possible: and secretly if necessary. , There are processes of government ? in 'mediating la- bor disputes as well as in diplomacy ? where the crux of it lies in a compromise between publicly held positions.. There is also a second area where the deliberative pro-. cess cannot be' a public one without paralyzing whatever, creativeness government can still have, in an era where' many of the governmental processes are nonthitiking ones. , The arguments in a case before the U.S. Supreme Court are held in the open, but the discussion of the case by the judges is held in closed session. Similarly the convention which framed the U.S. Constitution had to be a closed one,. although we are now in James Madison's debt because he kept, notes about its deliberations. For the rest, there is still room for far more. sunshine' !in government than we have yet achieved. Yet I must add the .kind of warning that Theodore Loewi ..has sounded in' his strong book, "The End of Liberalism". ? about the ? fallacy of mu belief that whatever gives more scope to' pressure groups , makes government better.' A government' -of pressure groups may become a competition of group selfishness and rivalpes, and more access to committees and commissions may only . make their struggle. more ApproveceFor Release 200178M8 : CIA-FggRU-0243?Mg100360002-6 t , eles Times Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 TIME, MAY 5, 1S75 SOVIEV Ol Ali the Shi ? Around the world last week, ships of the Soviet navy were under full steam. Off the Azores, NATO spotter planes re- ported one of the 10,000-ton Kara-class two-year-old missile cruisers that West- ern naval experts rate among the world's best modern warships. In the Mediter- ranean, where the US. Sixth Fleet cus- tomarily roams while Soviet vessels lie in Syrian and North African ports?ex- cept for a few "tattletale" scouts dog- ging American carriers?the roles were reversed. The Soviet fleet was out in force and the Sixth Fleet was doing the tattling. Other Soviet task forces were sighted in the Pacific Ocean, in the Sea of Japan and off the Philippines. The global flurry of activity was no accident. At least 200 surface ships and 100 submarines, along with land-based aircraft, were involved in a massive na- . val exercise, the first such worldwide maneuvers that the Soviet navy has run in five years. The Soviets dubbed the ma- neuvers "Spring"; the West called them "Okean 1975," a reference to the Ok- ean (Russian for ocean) maneuvers that the Soviets held in 1970. The new ex- ereise was apparently scheduled for the same length of time as the last one ? ?about three weeks. Varied Aims. Far from screening the maneuvers, the Soviet navy took pains to advertise its muscle flexing. It passed routine naval orders over regu- larly monitored radio channels. Okea n's essential message was a now familiar one: under Soviet Admiral Sergei Gorsh- kov, the Soviet navy is no longer a coast- al force but an impressive blue-water global fleet. Said one U.S. officer last week as he busily monitored the Soviet fleet at sea: "What they've done in just ten years is absolutely fantastic. From almost nothing, they've built up a first- rate navy, and it's an imposing threat." What interested Western observers more than the disposition of the ships was the basic aims of Okean 1975. They appeared to be varied. Judging from groupings of Soviet merchant and hy- drographic ships off the Azores and Japan, convoy maneuvers were in- volved. But whether Russian warships were practicing convoy escort or pos- tulating the convoys as U.S. fleets?or U.S. tanker convoys?would await the same sort of computer analysis that the Pentagon carried out in connection with the first Okean. Even without comput- ers, however, it was obvious that the So- viets had also practiced air reconnais- sance and antisubmarine warfare, using not only ships but land-based aircraft, including the intercontinental-range nu- clear bomber "Backfire," and TU-95 "Bears" flying out from Cuba and Guinea. Most significant for a global fleet, Okean 1975 tested "command and con- 28 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 Pacifii'Ocean AUSTRALIA ? / _ k"Y ? Philippine Sea / -Serie/Japan-, ? ?????? viadivostolt ' 3 CI-IINA J97 'N Aroje ' ..------.;;Orean, ;Ls, '1;Aorth+ Pole : CANADA: ' ; I , 'Barents Sea '?5:7; ,,Severomarsk NINA As'oerath Havcina Kaliningrad 4, VBA CONVOY ' CONVOY , a.- J' Az-ores (4co I Atlantic *GUINEA Conakry ? Ocean " SOUTH AMERICA A IRAN .4.Wir Sea Sevastopol Berbera ? ?,Ifeditetraneara Sei AFRICA trol" communications networks employ- ing satellites and satellite relay. Using a mixture of very high and very low fre- quencies and linking even submerged submarines, the Russian navy apparent- ly achieved near-instant communica- tions. That would be a considerable asset in Gorshkov's "first salvo" concept, in which scattered Soviet fleets are sup- posed to undertake simultaneous attacks within a 90-second period. As in all such maneuvers, East or West, Okean 1975 had another aim as lag the exercise was "Seagull," observed it aboard a warship in the Barents Sea, along with Soviet Defense Minister An- drei Grechko. They obviously meant to impress the Politburo as well as the West with the capability arid reach of Soviet forces. One fallout from the first Okean exercise, for instance, was the decision to upgrade the Soviet carrier forces. Their third and most sophisticated car- rier, the 35,000-ton Kiev, is now outfit- ting in the Black Sea port of Nikolayev and will undergo sea trials this summer. well. Gorshkov, whose code name TJLc.' ijW kwK TIMES, MONDAY, APRIL"28., 1975 "Vast Soviet Nay .1 Exercise Raises Urgent i JV ? ? ore than 220 of the Soviet Navy's most powerful surface ships and perhaps half that many submarines reached home ports at the weekend after the largest and most extensive air and sea exercise the Soviet Union has ever stag.:(1, Defense Department analysts, studying preliminary reports from American and other un- invited observers, say that Ex- ercise Okean (Ocean) 1975? which for the first time em- ployed, convoys of merchant- men in an exercise?raised questions whose answers could be ? f the greatest significance . to the United States and its allies in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Woes this foreshadow the future use of Soviet sea power to escort a merchant fleet or an expeditionary force en route to a crisis area? c,Or do the convoys reflect ; greater emphasis in Sovict naval planning on the destruc- tion in war of allied ,nilitarv 'convoys loaded with troops and . . . .. ., supplies for Etiropt- and of merchantmen carrying oil and other vital materials to North America and Europe? tiWas this a demonstration 1 as much for the benefit of the Soviet Governmept as for the .West of what the new navy can do, a signal that the navy can no nonger be consiceren . 'merely na extension of the army but a force capable o implementing Russian policy at great distances? Secretary of the Navy S. William Middendorf 2d reported Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 ?in a speech to the Navy League that the Russians used the ex- ercise to evaluate command ;and control of naval forces worldwide, ocean surveillance, anticarrier, antisubmarine nad anticonvoy warfare operations and weapons and electronic systems. ? ! "In my view," he said, "this iSoviet naval exercise clearly demonstrates the fact that the 'Soviet Navy, ia capable of operating effectively in all the oceans of the world." Intensive analysis of Okean 1975 is expected to provide fur- ther details on the modern Soviet Navy. Enough is known now, defense analysts said, to depict the dimensions of the exercise and its chief tactical themes. Soviet squadrons exercised from the Sea of Japan to the Caribbean and from Norway's North Cape to the Azores Is- lands. A task force by two missile-armed cruisers conduct %d what were believed to be antiearrier operations in the .Tyrrhenian Sea area of the Mediterranean. There were four naval task groups in the West- ern Pacific and a heavy con- centration of, submarines and surface ships drawn from the northern, Baltic and Black Sea fleets, in the North Atlantic. ? The Soviet naval air force participated on a scale well be- yond its role in the last global exercise five 'years ago. 11-38 reconnaissance aircraft flew, over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Other 11-38's, based near Berbera in Somalia, worked with the Indian Ocean squadron. Tu-95's from Cien- fuegos in Cuba cooperated with surface ships and submarines In the Caribbean and other Tu-95's exercised off the coast of . Africa, presumably from -bases in Guinea. In the Indian Ocean exercise, squadrons of Tu-95's flew from bases in Soviet Central Asia over Iran to the Arabian Sea. ? Tankers a Factor The emphasis on the exercise in this area, where surface strength was higher than usual, indicates to analysts that the Soviet Union is as unaware as the West of the importance of the tanker traffic originating In the Persian Gulf. The important role played by the air force, analysts believe, symbolizes the attention given ,to _aritisubmarine warfare )11 ,,Okean 19754 The anti-submarine warfare phase was followed by what appeared to be simulated anti-, 'carrier attacks by surface ships ? and by a large number of TU-16 strike aircraft based in Eastern jEurope and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union has com- pleted one 40,000-ton aircraft I carrier and is authoritatively reported to be building a sec- ond. But neither the completed 'carrier, the Kiev, nor the two !helicopter carriers, the Moskva and Leningrad, were sighted in the maneuvers. New Role for Navy If they were employed, they may have ,been assigned to the extensive Black Sea fleet ma- neuvers about which relatively little is known. The presence of merchant ship convoys in the North At- lantic and east of Japan puz- zled Defense Department ana- lysts. ? Were the ? convoys sup- posed to be American or So- WASHINGTON POST 15 May 1975 roadcasfing to Closed Societies viet? The attacks on the con- voys by ships and aircraft might argue that they were considered American and that the exercise was intended to perfect operations against al. lied maritime communications. Some analysts point out that Soviet naval literature, espe-, ,dally the writings of the Com- mander in Chief, Adm. S. G. Gorshkov, recently has stressed the role the navy can play in carrying out Soviet overseas, policy. Such a role could in- volve the movement of 'ground Iforces in a convoy. ? ? - I "If .the use of convoys Sig- 'nifies changes either way," one analyst said, "it encourages the view that, Admiral Gorslikov has made his point that the navy can deal with 'military- politico matters." He added that there= is "a need to rethink our ideas on the uses of the Soviet Navy, there's clearly been a change." Despite the attention paid' to antisubmarine operations; espe- cially in the North Atlantic, analysts do not? believe 'that Soviet technology in this. field has reached the point , where Russian antisubmarine forces can be considered a "significant threat" to American submarines ;armed with ballistic missiles. ! - Analysts also reported great- er emphasis on the quality of new Soviet surface ships that are being commissioned hi the growing fleet. Mr. Middendorf noted 'the "disturbing fact" that the So- Viet Navy today "has twice the number of major surface, eem- batants and submarines as the United States Navy." ." " There are more to come, the analysts noted. The', Soviet Union, one reported, new has more ways for shipbuilding in one shipyard near Severomorsk in the Kola Peninsula than exist in the whole of the United States. ? .1' - ADIO4 FREE EUROPE, broadcasting to East Europe; It and Radio Liberty, broadcasting to the Soviet Union, have successfully weathered a difficult transition from CIA sponsorship to open operation under a public hoard, and-from cold-war programming to a more careful and ' responsible programming consistent with the changing international scene. Not being the official' voices of America, these stations have the independence to offer their large and attentive audiences unvarnished news? especially news of those domestic developments which the local governments customarily censor. The purpose of the stations is simply to satisfy a continued longing, in the closed societies to which they broadcast, for honest Communication and facts. Americans could, of course, join with the local Com- munist governments in a partnership to suppress the local news. But this would serve no useful or legitimate political purpose -and and it would be a crude violation ,? of our own values. There is no contradiction between the , existence of detente and the broadcasting of news. On the contrary, the real contradiction is between the exist- ence of detente and the suppression of news, which is ' what the Communist authorities try to do by jamming, Radio Liberty and Radio Free Europe. Americans have exactlY the same right to broadcast to the Russians that they have to broadcast to us. No one has to listen who doesn't so choose. In the last year, and at specific congressional bidding, substantial changes have been made in the organization and operation of the two stations in order to make them more efficient and economical. By informed conSensus, they are now better fit than ever to perform their essen- -Hal service of communication. It remains only for the Congress, as it weighs their budget requests in the cur- rent cycle,,to provide the small additional sums necessary to let them do their job.,' Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 29 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100360002-6 _ BALTIMORE SUN 12 May 1975 rf;,) st ? o o o r1:7H,,,' , , ) II.H .:P., ji! 7 (11 .,?'-',y..