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NO. 'Approved GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS GENERAL EAST EUROPE 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010037605-2 - CONFIDENTIAL NEWS, VIEWS and ISSUES INTERNAL USE ONLY This publication contains clippings from the domestic and foreign press for YOUR BACKGROUND INFORMATION. Further use of selected items would rarely be advisable. Destroy after backgrounder has served its purpose or within 60 days. 25 JULY 1975 PAGE 1 31 40 CONFIDENTIAL For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 " Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 THE NATIONAL OBSERVER 26 JULY 1975 Choose the Scouts as a areer' These CIA Alumni Now Try to Improve The Agency's Image By Daniel St. Albin Greene FROM WASHINGTON, D.C. DECEPTION was integral to their way of life. They went to work about the same time as most other Government employes- in this "one-industry town," but their neigh- bors didn't know where they went or what they did when they got there. When asked, they'd usually say vaguely that they worked someplace in the Fed- eral bureaucracy, where anonymity thrives. Sometimes two friends would 'discover that they were in the same trade and had been lying needlessly to each other for years. ? s- But for David Atlee Phillips, Sam- ..13.y1-1Crl Biddle, Jr., the daily intrigue is over. For many years they were in the busi- ness of espionage as officers of the Central of, Agency?and they . don't mind saying they're proud of it. . ? ? Such an admission is unusual enough in the midst of rampaging con- troversy that now engulfs the CIA and threatens to downgrade the Govern- ment's attitude toward peacetime es- pionage in 'general. But in addition these and other onetime intelligence agents. have mounted the first public- relations :campaign in history to "ex- plain" what the murky world of Amer- ican spying is all about. ' .'What It Is Not' . s ? . We didn't choose the Boy Scouts as a career," says Dave Phillips, who resigned as chief of. the CIA's Latin American operations three months ago. "But it is also true that these things come in cycles. Many of the things we are getting our lumps for these days are. things that U.S. Presi- dents thought were pretty remarkable." This irony is at the heart of the message that Phillips and his previ- ously secretive colleagues want to get across to the American public. In a letter to former CIA employes an- nouncing the formation, of the Asso- -dation of Retired Intelligence Officers (ARIO)', Phillips said he had resigned , from ? the agency "to help clear, up some rof the erroneous Impressions and sensationalism surrounding us, by ex- plaining what CIA is and, more im- portant. probably; what it Is rs" More specifically, ARIO members can be expected to use all the propa- ganda skills they developed in foreign Intrigue to counteract damaging dis- closures by the press, the Rockefeller Commission, Sen. Frank Rill5F60ellif or ,1 ate Intelligence Committee, and expose hooks by former agents Victor Mar- chetti (The CIA and the Cult of Intel- ligence, written with John D. Marks) and Philip Agee [see _accompanying story). . The intelligence men who, as "John LeCarre readers put it, have come "in from the cold" don't deny that they've been involved in a lot of secret doings they still can't talk about. But those interviewed by The Observer main- tained that during their careers' they knew nothing about CIA people spy- ing on Americans in their own land, tampering with the public mail, spik- ing drinks with LSD, or any of the other misdeeds revealed by the Rocke- feller Commission. . Cables to Chile ? What about the most persistent and potentially damning charge of all: that the CIA plotted to have some foreign political leaders ?asaassinated, includ- ing*. Cuban Premier Fidel Castro and former Chilean President Salvador Al Phillips, who was a spy in Cuba both before and after the Castro revo- lution and who was directing Latin American operations when Allende was killed in 1973, denies the allegations. He says that a few months before the bloody overthrow of Allende, CIA head- quarters sent cables ordering agents in Chile to "cut off contacts with peo- ple who are planning coups" against the Marxist president. But Sam Halpern, who retired last December after 32 years in the intelli- gence business, adds a provocative qualifier: "Nobody in his right mind would think that the CIA would go off on its own to knock off a political leader in another country." Not even if the order came from the White House? "We might try to argue 'em out of it; but if the order was, 'Yeah, we heard you, but go ahead and do _it anyway.' we'd go do it. Congressional Control Whether ARIO members are driven by personal dedication, are erecting a propaganda front for their old agency, or have some other motive can't be es- tablished. Phillips acknowledges it Will take time for ARIO to earn credibility in an increasingly skeptical society. But whatever their motivations, four erstwhile crA men talked freely last week about their careers in that mys- terious institution. . "We are doing something now," oto-. served Phillips, "that we would not have dreamed of doing a year ago." Why now? "There's no question that some sort of congressional control is going to be implicit in whatever the ulti- mate solution is," he said. "And when congressional control is. Involved, it means the people are the final arbiters of what's going to happen. So_ sty& are RitgfeAres200400840antsiiinwEmeD ' mandsa fOr the first time in our his- tory, that a secret intelligence organi- zation must be publicly talked about." In 1946 President Truman establish- ed the Central Intelligeace Group (CIG) to carry on some of the functions of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the. nation's wartime intelligence or- ganization. Though skeptical that the new outfit would be dominated by un- regenerated militarists from the OSS, Hayden Estey and a few other dis- gruntled staffers left World Report mag- azine (now. U.S. News and World Re- port) to work_fpa the .CIG. The National Security Act of 1947 created the Na- tional Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency, replacing the CIG. Attracted Young Graduates ? 'Estey's early 'skepticism proved groundless. "The morale and dedication was so high in the early days," he re- calls, "that most people worked seven days a week." That spirit sustained him for the next 23 years, until he retired , in 1970. ? s 1 - "Many young college graduates," adds Phillips, "chose the CIA because it was known as a place where there was intellectual stimulation, ferment of ideas; and room for dissent." His own gravitation to the world of espionage, however, was far more cir- cuitous. After high school, the handsome young Texan followed his older brother, an aspiring novelist, to New York City to pursue an acting career. His brother, James Atlee Phillips, went on to become a prolific writer of spy novels (James' sons Shawn, is a folk-rock balladeer). But after the war, part of which he spent in a German prisoner-of-war camp, David Phillips gradually decided that he would never be a very good actor; so he, too, turned his attention to writing. A producer bought an option on a comedic play. Phillips wrote about a POW camp. It was never staged, but the monthly income from the option en- abled Phillips to go to Chile to write and attend college. When the owner of a struggling English language weekly died, he took. it over by assuming its debts. Then, to increase the paper's chances of survival, he bought a local printing plant?and that's how Dave Phillips became a spy. Served as a 'Dangle' = "The day. I bought the printing , plant," he reminisces, "a CIA Man call-1 . ed to ask if Uwould Collaborate with them. That was the beginning of the Cold War, and the combination of a ,'clearable' American and a printing press was irresistible." ? . ? For $50 a month, Phillips secretIT printed propaganda and served as at "dangle." Word was spread that the young publisher was really the chief 04 44/011414 ;Liin ChIle. "I ? ? Ogiecet people who Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 would try, to cultivate me, which is just What the local Soviet KGB man did." ? ? ? ? Dangling led' to full-time employ- znent as a contract spy in Guatemala, then Cuba, where he posed as an Ameri- can businessman. He was in Cuba when Castro came out of the mountains. He kept the same kind of cover as a spy in Lebanon, which he left the night be- fore the Marines landed in 1958. ?. . "I had become a specialist in propa- ganda and political action," Phillips ex- plains.- "During.the Cold War, my mis- sions were to do things to make peo- ple overseas think better of the United fltes than they did 'of the Soviet Union. of my.job was to see that certain Massages got Iti,tertain-people, to culti-7 -tate -.th?e of .friends that' a triVent= 'meat needs hi any country." ? . . Virtuous Compartments Sometimes spying, by any name, 'can be a risky business. While Phillips Was in Cuba in the late 1950s, another American agent masquerading as a businessman was arrested? and execut- ed ? : After a decade of spying under con- tract, Phillips' was given civil-service status as a $16,000-a-year intelligence officer stationed at CIA headquarters In Langley,. Va., where he worked on the ill-fated Bay of Pigs project. That was followed by stints in several Latin American countries. . Phillips disclaims Knowleage or me nefarious deeds attributed to the CIA during the years he was rising in the -hierarchy: "You mustn't be surprised to find out that some people don't know thingq in nn inteliirfence organization where' secrecy and compartmentation are considered virtues. It used to be that everyone within the 'system de- pended on the assumption that orders came from the top and that the right people who needed to know were doing THE PHILADELPHIA INQUIRER 22 JULY 1975 things they should do. Now we have found out that over this long period of time, some of those people were doing things that were wrong. Obviously, these things might not have happened u more people had known about them.: But it is equally obvious that without secrecy we wouldn't have had the best intelligence service in the world." Phillips was not a typical CIA man. Most intelligence officers are engaged in the overt aspects of the business, such as research, analysis, and eval- uation of intelligence. Even those in- volved in covert operations- generally function as "agent handlers.," recruit- ing foreign spies and directing their clandestine activities. Phillips esti- mates that no more- than 5 per cent of those actively engaged in spying? as he was before becoming a staff in- telligence officer?are Americans. '! 'A Burn Idea'. More representative, 'perhaps, is Sam Halpern, whose long and varied in- telligence career never included spying in the traditional sense of the word. ? At 53, Halpern is a trim, genial man who wears thick glasses and keeps his steel-gray hair cropped military style He's also a man who speaks his mind, bluntly and without hesitation. _ On political assassination: "I don't see any difference, in terms of national policy, between a Bay-of Pigs opera- tion, in which a lot of people get killed on both sides, and the killing of one guy. The only difference is, in the one case you don't know who's going to die, and in the other case you do Mow who's going to die. But from c"" pc'^t, of view, assassination is a bum iaea.- ? ? 'It Has Never Helped' - . On the CIA's problems: "I'M not try- ing to condone everything we've done. But don't blame the agency. Blame the a -secrets- are larna .. : ,....., ? ? :-..,.f-.1.- vi-; :?;.--:?:?i;?? I :- ? - .--*J-:' ? ? .t. ?:; ??:,?? - - ??????? - -_- - -? .- lied under oath alimit those activitiei. ... . - We aceept: the principle , that even - lid alse-learned that the chairman:of in. art., open ,SPoiety. like- -ours - the .gorV:" %. - tlieHobse. subcommittee: in? charge of ernment ls--entitled pn ?occasion . tO CIA::'tiVersight; Rep.:, Louis"-Ned4: of. lc:pep:son:le matters ?under :wraps: fn.' Michigan, had known-of at least .Soine die eenduct. of diplomacy,- in particu7- of -the things but had kept his know17i ..: Inot .everythingsan _be done in a: edge to himself.-" - . . Oldfish bowl.:11,1oreover,- we also go ...??-,, ? ? --- ' - - . - -' ' '-?-? ?-? ? ? . ? ? - ? .perstia'de House .. and S.enate_conr.nit--,,. ..iirou make an' agreement,-you ought to? - - . ------- -....._ ,.. .....,.........?._. . _ ,-,_ tees, on foreign. affairs to hold..hear-::' Iceep- it: .? - ?.- - ???? - ? ?-. I ' ' - ? . -. ?'???. ings. on . the matter,:- Mr. -Harrington' ;Simple enough.. Or is it? Consider .. - - last: ? summer revealed ...what ---,:he- . . ttie case of Rep. Michael Harrington: learned: He has...been in.:trouble-ever:, Somewhat over a year ago, the Masa- since.?:-.The--?HOuse Armed.-- Services - ctrisSetts- Democrat-was- given access: Cominittee chastised shim .-laSt month tii classified material bearing on ? oper=-: for breaking the rules, and. now, at-his. Akins of --the _ Central Intelligence- r.6-iflueSt, . the 'House..:: Coriiinittee7ori. Ayiency ..ia,Chile,. on condition that he Standards .of Official .Conductis.look- gree ? as :he did .-..L. 'not to reveal ? ..i. at he'lederied.:72:-:':?:`:4--:-.?"7 "?:-.?:-??7-r:7 F--.7:' ? --. tfong with'. the principle that ? when ;,;/%.fter having tried unst*essfully .0: What he learned: from_Secret..teSti-) *o_n_y_ of Director WaS-not only that-the had' .?tiolated -treaty commitments in the -rjA-,!s ..secret activities to .t!destabilize..n:r. -the former- Chilean government ? of: Salvadore Allende, but that top U.S.- -C-ozerfimen ff lease President?or the system of Govern- ment that makes the President supreme in foreign matters." Halpern says he's still proud of the agency, "despite the things I've found out that we shouldn't have done. ? . . I've got no.regrets." Eric Biddle, Jr., has, though. Since he left the agency in 1960. after more than eight years of service, his CIA background has been an occupational onus. "I 'still believe it was the most im- portant work I ever did," says Biddle. "I'm proud of it. But I regret having done it because I don't think this coun- try is sure that it wants a strategic in- telligence service. In every other major country in the world, to have been in the intelligence service means that you were a select and highly thought-of per- son. But here?it has never helped and It has frequently hurt me." Biddle talks about some Of the rea- sons he decided to leave the agency: "One was the great discipline you live under in that business?the great de- mands it makes on your private life. You have to assume, the whole time you're in, that your entire life may be observed, one way or another. Then when you get back here fin Washington, from overseas], you've got the problem of not being able to tell anybody where you work. You have to develop your own cover. So the people in the busines-1 become extremely inhibited, and tend to draw within themselves and into a small circle Of their own people. I'm a pretty outgoing person; I just didn't want to spend my life that way." Will tttf. C17% ever 1:147. .:0110 to redeem itself? Eric Biddle is pessimistic: "The only way to ensure the integrity of the intelligence system is to have Presi- dents of integrity. And. that's beyone the control of the intelligence people." into-the the ?responSibilititof-:-.- metriber-lwhO. discovers' in.: classifieft records -a ,-clear2 governthent....;has ..broken:rthe...1*?:'2. Rep...Harring:con- asks.. in:. a ,je.tter.. 1-1.ouse. Speaker Carl Albert '- We' think -Rep._ Harrington. made ? the right :decision: ,As-. we .say;:thetovern?:::i ment has a r.righf to 'keep,;:leoltimate; ? secrets, but the operating--word 'there; -iS":"legitiinate..?:-.Governmentr;Officials have no legitimate right td- break laws and .abuse :power: and lie..fabout--What: they've .done? and. then :put.1:atep.-.se- cret" classification on it ? ..._?? ?, .-..:The'llouse-ethics panel 'should prep.,. Ceed -withIts'inquiry into' 'Rep. Han: qington's. behavior, but:Congress Itself oughtto- be far more concerned :about the behavior that prompted 'WASHINGTON POST ' 18 July 1975 1i'-',3,,f- :Tlie Lagfys . Workers 1 ?....... _. liiion urged the Nigeria gov- ' .iliment to close down a radio ()tutoring station operated y the Foreign, Broadcast , , Information Service, a facil- i ity of the CIA, ' , , ? .._,: 2001/68/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010037.0005-2. trc.:visT 21 JULY 1975 The Casualty To his family, Frank R?Olson was a .warm, playful, easygoing man. To his colleagues at the Army's top-secret germ-warfare lab at Fort Detrick, Md., he was a top-flight research biochemist. But suddenly in the fall of 1953, while he was working on a special project for the -Central Intelligence Agency, Olson, then 43, seemed inexplicably to be going mad?and two days after Thanksgiving he killed himself by jumping from a tenth-story window in New York City. His death was officially attributed to a ,'work-related accident" so that his wid- ow, Alice, and their three children could :collect death benefits. But for the next 22 years the family was plagued by persist- ent and troubling questions about what psychic horror could possibly have driv- -en him to take his own life. Last week, the Olson family gathered! in the garden of their .Frederick, Md., .home to announce that they had discov- ered the tragic answer at last. Their clue had been a passing page or two in the -Rockefeller commission report on do- 'mestic CIA activities which was released ? last month?a terse no-names recounting of one agency project in which unwitting human subjects were given closes of the hallucinogen LSD. One of the CIA's guinea pigs, the commission reported, had developed "serious side effects" and had committed suicide. The dates and details meshed with Olson's death?and finally his onetime supervisor. at Fort Detrick, Vincent Pe,sse-t, admitted to the family what fie had withheld from them for more than hventy years. "Suddenly," the family said, "we learn that Alice :Olson's being left in early adulthood to- raise a family alone, we children left to :grow up without a father?we learn that :these deprivations were not necessary at all ... jThis discovery] marks a shift in our lives from thinking that our .father's :death was a suicide to knowing it was a CIA atrocity." - Olson had been part of the: Special Operations Division at Fort Detrick?an elite corps of 50 bacteriologists and :biochemists working under tight securi- ty . . with sonic of the deadliest micro- organisms known to man. Within SOD was another, smaller group under special contract to the CIA to study, among other things, potential offensive and defensive uses of LSD in war and for intelligence gathering. Periodical ly,:the CIA contract group retreated into the nearby Catoctin Mountains to discuss their progress in privacy?and it was after dinner during one three-clay retreat that Olson and : three other high-level scientists were : told by their CIA hosts that LSD had : been slipped into their Cointreau and : Triple Sec cordials. : What happened in Olson's mind that night may never be known; most of the : records of the LSD project were de- stroyed in 1973. But when he returned home, Alice Olson remembers, "he was an entirely different person. I didn't know what had happened. I just knew that something was terribly wrong. The entire weekend he was very melancholy and talked about a mistake he had_made. He said he was going to leave his job." Monday-morning reassurances from co- workers helped forestall his decision to quit, and he came home in better spirits that evening. But on Tuesday morning, Ruwet, who himself had been one of the subjects and experienced aftereffects of the drug for several weeks, decided that Olson needed psychiatric attention, and ? Olson went home to tell his wife he would be going to .New York for it. An SOD employee sped him to the Wash- ington airport, and Alice Olson never saw her husband again. Psychosis: Ruwet and a man named Robert Lashbrook accompanied Olson to . New York and arranged for him to see Dr. , Harold A. Abramson, a former psychiat- : ric consultant col-w;f1-? ^ 4-ep security clearance whose early research , into LSD was beginning to attract con- siderable professional interest. After several long sessions, including one that ran' for most of a day, Abramson diag- nosed Olson's problem as delusions and severe psychosis. On Thanksgiving Day, . Olson returned to Washington but decid- ed at the- last minute not to go home, fearing he might become irrational in front of his children. Instead, he went back to New York, where Abramson prepared to have, him admitted to a - Maryland sanitarium on Saturday. ? Friday evening, Olson called his wife from -the room at the Statler Hotel in midtown Manhattan where he and Lash- brook were staying. "1,Ve talked of his BALTIMORE SUN 17 July 1975 Drug agency hired CIA agent linked to researcher's LSD de th Washington Bureau of the Sun Washington?Sidney Got- tlieb, the Central Intelligence Agency operative allegedly present when LSD was given to an Army researcher who later killed himself, was later hired by the Drug Enforcement Ad- ministration, a DEA spokesman confirmed yesterday. Mr. Gottlieb, described by an official of the Senate Intel- ligence Cammittee as a long- time CIA agent, was hired as a 'consultant by John R. Bartels, Jr., former director of drug agency who was fired by the Attorney General, Edward H. Levi, in the course of the cur- rent probe into corruption at the drug fighting agency. Reportedly, Mr. Gottlieb wa:s hired in late 1973 as a con- sultant at DEA. assisting in or- ganizing the agency's office of science and technology. He worked for the dgency for abet five maths, his duties in- volving drug research and the development of hardware, ac- cording to a spokesman. , Mr. Gottlieb, who retired and went to Colorado, was re- ported to be on a round-the- world trip at present, and una- vailable for comment. The name of the former CIA agent emerged in the course oil the revelations stemming fromi the Rockefeller commission's report that Frank Olson, an Ar- my researcher, had been given LSD by intelligence operatives -at a time when the agency was bxperimenting with variousl c':rugs. Mr:- Olsen, -anawarc at the time that his liqueur con- tained the drug, committed sui- cide 10 days later. The Olson family is now suing the CIA. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-13IDP77-00432 coming home and entering the hospital," she remembers. It was in no way a farewell call." But only a few hours later, according, to the potice report, Lash- brook was startled awake by the sound of shattering glass?and Olson, who had thrown himself through the closed win- dow, lay lifeless on the Seventh Avenue pavement. The death benefits helped pay the bills, but did not answer the inevitable ? questions of neighbors and friends. "I used to say my father died of a nervous breakdown," said Olson's' married daughter, Lisa: Hayward, 29. "Then I heard. my brother Nils say he died of a concussion so I said that: too. That was difficult to deal with.' Just as hard was deal- ing with their own nagging. uncertainty. On learning the: truth, Mrs. Olson said, "I felt, tremendous relief and veryi deep sorrow. The grief was: overwhelming, almost like' the night he died. And I had a: feeling of futility?such a waste of his life, such a waste: of my life." Hope: The Olson children decided to file a multi- million-dollar suit against the agency. "Since 1953, we have struggled to understand my father's death as an inex- plicable 'suicide'," Lisa said. "Now, 22 years later, we learn that his death was the. result of CIA negligence and : illegality on a scale difficult to contemplate." Eric Olson, who was 9 years old when his father died and is now a research psychologist at Yale, emphasized that the suit was less for money than "full disclo- sure" sure" of the facts surrounding the sui- cide?but his larger,- unspoken hope was- that the suit might finally relieve his: family of a long-festering wound. "We cannot expect that everyone in this na- tion will be as -critical of the CIA as we have become," he said. "No other. family has been violated in quite the same way." ?JAMES FL GAINES with CANE WHITMORE in Wa..4iington NEW YORK TIMES 20 July 1975 Luck and the C.I.A. , ? Later this month, Joseph Okpaku's Third Press will publish a book, a year in preparation, by investigators ' Michael Canfield and Alan J. Weber- man. Called "Coup d'Etat in America, the C.I.A. and the Assassination of John F. Kennedy," the title alone has the ring of money, and Mr. Okpaku cheerfully admits that the fortuitous disclosures about the Central Intel- ligence Agency in recent months lend credence and saleability to the in- , vestigative work. The 300-page book, with 70,pagea of which are in the form of an ap- ? pendix of documents, purports to show that Lee Harvey Oswald was a "deep-cover" C.I.A. agent who acted . for the agency In killing the Presi- dent In November, 1963. R00010070005-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 THE NEW YORK TIMES, SATURIMY, TEILY 12, 1973 C.I.A. in the Early Nineteen-Fifties Was Among " By BOYCE RENSBERGER The Central Intelligence .gerley was one of the pioneers imstudying the drug LSD, hay- . ki.ng begun its research eight 1 years before Dr. Timothy Leary swallowed his first dose of t? he powerful mind-altering sub- ?stance: - 4 The C.LA., a review of the ? history of LSD research indi- 'eates, began its experiments 'With the drug at about the same time the Army and Navy began their studies of what :was then, in the early nineteen- "'Mies, a mysterious drug with ?extraordinary powers to modify 'perception, thought, emotion and behavior. 4 ..',L.SD's potential utility as a :Chemical warafre agent? was Obvious from its earliest days 'in, the laboratory in the late nineteen-forties. .4, Standard reference works on 'chemical warfare agents list LSD as one of a handful of "psychochemicals" under study by the chemical warfare re-` search laboratories once housed at Fort Detrick and at Edge- %,/ ood Arsenal, both in Mary- land. Chemical warfare re- search at these centers , has since been phased out. i'.unged to His Death ? ? Whop ir Frank R olson, the bacteriologist employed at Fort. Detrick who was given LSD by C.I.A. experimenters, plunged from a New York hotel ,window to his death 22 years ,ago, the drug had only been :made available to researchers in the United States a few months earlier by the Sandoz akesearch Laboratories of Switzerland, Various government agencies ,had .been working with the drug for several years, hoVing (obtained it privately. A fewi Pioneers in Research on LSD's Effects civilian researchers had also! begun work earlier, including, Dr. Howard A. Abramson, the; psychiatrist to whom the C.I.A.! took Dr. Olson when he beganI experiencing bad reactions to the drug. LSD, or lysergic acid diethy- lamide, was first synthesized in 1938 by Dr. Albert Hofmann, a Sandoz chemist in Basel. The chemical's effects on the mind were not discovered until 1943: when Dr. Hofmann accidentally; inhaled some LSD powder and experienced "a peculiar sensa- tion? in which "fantastic pic- tures of extraordinary plastici- ty and intensive color, seemed to surge toward me." In 1947 the first systematic study of the effects of the curious compound confirmed Dr. Hofmann's earlier conclu- sions and spurred other re- searchers to investigate. Dr.. Abramson began his exper- iments with LSD in 1951. Because of the drug's wide- ranging effects, it was studied as a possible treatment for mental illness and as a way of producing artificial and tem- porary psychoses for research. According to Dr. Sidney Co- hen of the University of Cali- fornia at Los Angeles, another pioneer in T i. the drug disrupts the brain's nor- mal ability to sort and code incoming information, thereby permitting an overflow sensa- tion and a loss of one's "sense of self." Visual and tactile hal- lucinations are common. . In the early days, Dr. Cohen said, LSD was of interest to military and intelligence agen- cies . because it was thought it might be a way of "breaking down a person's defenses" dur- ing interrogation. There was ;nterest in the drug's usefulness WASHINGTON POST 24 July 1975 ? .? Intelligence Role of Associated Press The director of the De- . fense Intelligence Agency says U.S. military attaches around the world are "the . most cost-effective intelli- gence collection operation we have in the government today." The director, . Lt. Gen. Daniel O. Graham. also said he expects to have a mili- tary attache in Peking by the end of next year.: "I don't think the Chinese will mind at all" having him there, Graham said. Military attaches are among the most visible members of the U.S. intelli. as such an agent and in finding an antidote to protect Ameri- can military and intelligence personnel. The drug would also have obvious value as a way of temporarily incapacitating indi- viduals. Because extremely small doses of the drug ' are effective, LSD is almost impos- sible to detect in body tissues. The drug was also studied by chemical warfare scientists for use in a gas or aerosol form to knock out enemy armies. Accounts of Dr. Olson's death have indicated that he ap- parently committed suicide more than a week after receiv- ing LSD. All trace of the drug is ordinarily broken down by the human body and excreted within 24 hours. For this rea- son, Dr. Cohen and other au- thorities said the suicide could hardly have been a direct result of the drug. Rather, Dr. Cohen suggested, the drug probably stirred up such a storm in 'Dr. Olson's mind that some long repressed memory or other information became conscious and had a depressing effect on Dr. Olson's mood. Dr. Olson's wife has said that after taking LSD he seemed "very melancholy" and talked of quitting his job be- nf cnme mistake he had made. Dr. Cohen suggested that al- though the immediate effects of LSD had long subsided. the depression they spawned deep- ened and Dr. Olson became suicidal. i Dr. Cohen said such reac- tions,' ?although uncommon, have occurred .in other circum- stances, particularly when the recipient of the LSD was not Under close psychiatric supervi- sign. 1 Dr. Jndd Marmor, president ditary gence community and their mission is rarely a secret. The Defense Intelligence Agency is the Pentagon's in telligence branch and spe- cializes in military informa-. tion. Graham and Maj. Gen. Willis D. Crittenberger jr., deputy DIA ? director. ? testi- fied June 11 before the De- fense Subcommittee of the House Appropriations Com- mittee. A heavily censored transcript of their remarks was released Tuesday. Crittenberger said there are 88 U.S. military attaches and they have to be high- ranking in order to get of the American Psychiatric As- sociation, issued a statement yesterday. Saying that giving LSD to a person without his full informed consent is unethi- cal, even if done in the purport- ed interest of "national securi- ty:" "Once yon, open that door," Dr. Marmor said, "you open the door to the potential for the -ruthless modification of I reople's minds on the grounds -of national security. ?I think that . . . would be a very dan- gerous thing from the stand- point of a democratic society." ? From 1953 to 1966 the Na- tional Institute of Mental Healh granted $7.5-million to fund 84 research projects stu- dying LSD. Some scientists exa- mined the drug's chemical :properties, some studied its ef- fects in animals and a few, gave it to human beings. The C.I.A.'s research on LSD is said to have continued from 1953 to 1963. From the early nineteen-six- ties on, it was increasingly apparent that quantities of LSD Were being diverted from legiti- mate research by such persons as Dr. Leary, who upon expul- sion from the Harvard faculty, went on to become a drug :cult hero. - In 1966, feeerl wtha grow- ing barrage of publicity aboutI drug abuse, Sandoz stopped production of LSD and the pace of research. on the drug de- clined. It has now virtually ceased, even though some sci- entists such as Dr. Cohen be- lieve LSD may still have a role .to play in psychotherapy. , Despite- Sandoz's move, il- licit sources of the drug, which is only moderately difficult to make under clandestine circum? stances, continues to supply, a: reduced number of recreationall .users of LSD. ttaches Lti "For an attache to lie able to gain access to a for- eign military regime, he can't be a second lieutenant. He has got to be a _flag offi- cer, or a colonel, to talk equally to the foreign peo- ple with whom he must deal to bring back the intelli- gence we need." .Crittenberger said the British have four adinirals and generals in Washington and the F'renc'h have three or four generals while the United States has only one officer that high in their countries, so "we are under strength 'compared to the. others." "The RuSsians are the: most rank-happy - people tin. the world," Graham said.. "The only way I could get a man over there to talk to those generals arid. marshals ? ? and get 'anything otit?:of them was to get a: genttal officer in there, so we did," The two DIA generals were testifying to support the agency's request for a $111 million budadt fot 'the 15 months beginning -LAY. I. That sum includes 825 mil- lion' for the attache pro- gram. he DIA *budget for the 12 months that ended. -June 30 totaled $80' million, including $18 million. for the attache program. - " - ' , ? Approved For Release 2001/08/4 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 -.Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370.005-2 raE NEW YORK TIMES, FRIDAY; JULY 18, 1975 Ex-CJ .A. Aide Says Scientist Who Died Knew About By. JOSEPH B. TREASTER A former employe of the Central Intelligence Agency said yesterday he believed that a scientist who plunged to his death from a Manhattan hotel window 22 years ago had knowingly participated in a C.I.A. experiment with LSD shortly before. The statement by Robert V. Lashbrook in a telephone inter- view appeared to contradict a report by the Rockefeller com- mission that the drug had been given to the scientist. Frank R. Olson, without his knowledge. In describing the LSD inci- dent, the Rockefeller paned did not identify the scientist who died, but a colleague later told his widow and children that the scientist was Mr. Olson. The family has announced its inten- tions to sue the C.I.A. for what it calls Mr. Olson's "wrongful death." ? Neither the family nor the police and officials of the medi- cal examiner's office who in- vestigated the death were aware of Mr. Olson's exposure to the potent mind-altering drug until the Rockefeller commis- sion's report was published last month. ? In the interview from his home in Ojai, Calif., Mr. Lash- brook, who has a Ph.D. in *Chemistry and worked for the C.I.A. for 12 years as a re- searcher, recalled attending al "technical meeting" in Novem-i ber, 1953, with three other! C.I.A. employes, 'Mr. Olson and? five other employes of the Spe- cial Operations Division at Fort Detrick, Md.. where the drug reportedly was given to four or five persons. Mr. Lashbrook said he had not been present when "every- one agreed", to take part in a test with LSD. but he said someone he felt was reliable had told him of the arrange- ment. - "It was my understanding that actually everyone there had agreed in advance that such a test would be conducted, that they were willing to be one of the subjects. The only thing was that the time was not spe- cified," Mr. Lashbrook said. Mr. Lashbrook said that he, had been asked whether he would be willing to be a sub- ject in the LSD tests during the meeting and that he had reluctantly agreed. He said he had been a "guinea pig" sev- eral tithes in LSD experiments and added, "Frankly, I didn't like it." In a section apparently re- ferring to Mr. Olson, the Rocke- feller report sr: "Prior to re- ceiving the LSD. the subiect stances on unsuspecting sub- jects was agreed to in principle.' "However," the report con- tinued, "this individual was nott aware that he had been given LSD until about 20 minutes af- ter it had been administered. He developed serious side ef- fects and was sent to New York with a C.I.A. escort for psychiatric treatment. Several days later he jumped from a 10th floor window of his room and died as a result." Experiment Not Noted According to New York city police reports, Mr. Lashbrook was one of two men who ac- companied Mr. Olsop to New York and was ? sharing room ,1018A at the Statler Hotel with Mr. Olson when Mr. Olson ? went out the window. ; Mr. Lashbrook, who said that ;he was a- "friend" and a "con- sultant chemist" employed by the "War Department," identi- fied Mr. Olson's body at the Medical Examiner's Office and gave the .police most of the in- formation in their report. He, did not mention the LSD ex- periment or his C.I.A. affilia- tion. Mr. Lashbrook said in the interview that lasted for more! had??????????+irsirson+nA than an hour that the police I where the testing of such t wouldn't have known about": sub- BALTIMORE SUN 22 July 1975 Ford apologizes to Maryland family of man killed in CIA's test of LSD Washington Bureau of The Sun Washington?President Ford apologized yesterday on behalf of the government to the family of Dr. Frank R. Olson, 1 the Frederick biochemist who I died in November, 1953, after being given a dose of LSD with- out his knowledge by Central Intelligence Agency operatives. Mr. Ford expressed the sym- pathy of the American people personally in a 17-minute meet- ing with Mr. Olson's widow, Al- ice, and their three children, Lisa Olson Hayward, Nils W. and Eric W. Olson. ? The family asked the Presi- dent to provide them with "all the facts" about Dr. Olson's death. Mr. Ford told them that .he would instruct the White House counsel's office "to make information available to them at the earliest possible Mr. Ford promised further that he has asked' Edward H. Levi, the Attorney General, to meet with their legal represent- atives about the claims they are to make against the CIA. , Ronald H. Nassau, the pres- idential press secretary, said the family was invited in for a talk because Mr. Ford "feels very strongly about this." The White House photographer, David Hume Kennerly, record- ed the meeting with the Mary- land family. Dr. Olson was a research scientist at Fort Detrick, near his Frederick home, in 1953. He has been identified as the indi- vidual referred to in the Rocke- feller commission report on CIA aciivities as an Army civil- ian administered LSD without his knowledge or consent. According to the commis- sion, the employee "had partici- pated in discussions where the testing of such substances on unsuspecting subjects was agreed to in principle." It add- ed, "however, this individual was. not made aware that he had been given LSD until about 20 minutes after it had been ad- ministered. 7.:e developed serious side effects and was sent to New York with a CIA escort for psy- chiatric treatment. Several I.days later, he jumped out a window and died as a result. In a formal White House I news release, the following statement was issued on behalf of the family yesterday after the presidential meeting: "We deeply appreciate Pres- ident Ford's expression of sym- pathy and apology to our fami- ly. His concern and his invita- tion to meet with him are of great value to us. "Frank Olson's death was a tragic loss to his family, his friends and his scientific col- leagues. As previously unknown circumstances of his death have been revealed, the American people have been deeply U. S. NEWS & WORLD 28 JULY 1975 LSDTest LSD and that the- "qnestion never came up" in what he said was a brief talk with an official at the Medical Exami- ner's Office. The C.I.A. did some of the pioneer research with LSD; the drug did not receive wide publicity until well into the nineteen-sixties. "Any direct relationship be- tween [the drug and Mr. Olson's death] would be a little difficult to justify," Mr. Lashbrook said, because the body would havel eliminated any elements of! LSD within 24 hours and thet death occurred more than a; week after the experiment. "Possibly LSD had brougla 'up something in his past thlt was bothering him," Mr. Lash,- brook added. "Certainly at the time the LSD would appear 'to have been not directly. re- lated and it, would have raised a lot of questions that L. or no one else was prepared to answer." - When Mr. Lashbrook was asked why he did not mention the LSD to Mr. Olson's widow, he replied, "How would :you explain it. The name itself would not have meant anythjng to her. "At that time," he said, "everyone was very, very up- set. No one expected. ***Irwin& lik'e that. Everyone was quite beside themselves as to what Ito do." moved. We are heartened by this response and encouraged that this experience has provid- ed an impetus in our country for reflection on fundamental issues important to us all as a free people. "We are grateful that Presi- dent Ford has given us his sup- port for our effort to be fully in- formed about Frank Olson's death and to obtain a just reso- lution of this matter. We hope ' that this will be part of a con- tinuing effort to insure that the CIA Is accountable for its ac- tions and that people in all parts of the world are safe from abuses of power by Amer- ican Intelligence agencies." Asked if Mr. Ford ag with the last sentence of th statement Mr. Nessen said Mr. Ford wants "all governmen agencies to hide by the law." REPORT ashington Whisper_- - ? _ A witness who testified in the ? CIA probe complains that his interrogators were yozmg lawyers who showed little knowledge of and less interest in the ? broader aspects of the investigation. ? His comment: "They were interested only in the specifics of 'who did what to whom' and became visibly bored Approved For Release 2001/4/08 : CIA-RDP1410440214060943f47/000-2vhys of U.S. policy." Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 NEW YOP.KTIMES 11 July 1975 Frig- heaLe' Vel Baking' Cited hi C.I.A.Drug-LIntt Spying By NICHOLAS M. HORROCK ?Spedal to The New York Times , WASHINGTON, July 10? lThe Rockefeller commission' John N. Mitchell, the former At- Uriley General, and Richard' found that it violated the C.I.A.'s 1947 charter, which Helms, former Director of Can,' ,prohibits the agency from exer-. Icising police powers within the tral. Intelligence, authorized a secret program to infiltrate;the. !United States. And?army offi- 'cials believe that in its primary .Bureau of Narcotics and Dan- goal of stamping out corruption gerous Drugs with agents, a among Federal narcotics agents, program that the Rockefeller the program abrogated , the Commission later found illegal, agent's rights to due process of 'authortative sources reported law and privacy. 'John R. Bartels Jr., who re- today. cently resigned as head of the This report came as William Drug Enforcement Administra- E. Colby, the current Director tion, told the Jackson subcom- of Central hltelligence,i denied mittee today he did not con- as -"outrageous nonsense" a tinue the program under ? D A because "the philosophy report. indicating that a high- " ' ? of using this type of covert level member of the Nixon program seemed to me to be White House staff had given information to the C.I.A. Also today, the House Rules Committee moved to abolish the strife-torn House Select Committee on Intelligence and replace it with a larger p&nel that, would retain the same ;authority:" [Page 34.] According to the sources potentially damaging to the mo- rale of agents in the field and also at variance with my philo- sophy of according the same. type of constitutional protec- tions to agents as one accords to defendants in drug-related, cases." 1 The idea for the undercover' men was conceived by Mr. In-I gersoll in 1970 as a result of 'familiar. with the *Bureau of his growing concern about how to identify, and 'halt internal ?,h, ' ; cuirupiion II, the nar..-xtics ?gram.. was instituted at the request of John Ingersoll, then director of the narcotics bureau, and partly paid for out of "un- Vnuchered" funds available to the Attorney General. ' .,' Three Attorneys. General? Mr. Mitchell, Richard G. Klein- dienSt 'and Elliot L. Richaard- son7--knew about the program, but never questioned its'legal- ity, these sources said. ? James R. Schlesinger, former head of the C.I:A., may not have been briefed on the opera- `--tion during his short tenure at the agency, the sources said. .Mr. Colby _halted the operation In 1973; when the Drug En- forcement Administration ab- sorbed the narcotics bureau in a major reorganization. ' The agents allegedly used in ;the narcotic bureau were re- cruited and trained by the C.I.A. As the program moved forware in 1970 and 1971, there was concern as to wether the 13 'men who had infiltrated the B.N.D.D. might still be report- ing to the C.I.A., sources said. Two of the men, for instance, went overseas as part of their function for the narcotics bu- reau. ? The program is under re- newed scrutiny by the Senate Select Committee on Intern- ePnce and is also being investi- gated by the Senate Permanenti Subcommittee on Investigations,. whose chairman, is Senator Henry M. Jackson, Democrat of Washington. The program has come un'der sharp criticism on two grounds. reau. He received approval fort ,the program from Mr. Mitchell' land?on the basis of, it being a 'request from the Attorney Gen- eral?Mr. Helms pledged agen- cy cooperation. No considera- tion was given to- the question Of whether the program was legal, two sources familiar with it said. . "It could not be said that the, C.I.A. was in any way reluctant' to cooperate," one source said., According to sources, the following occurred: Two C.I.A. agents, posing as private businessmen, began re- cruiting candidates for ,a secret operation in law enforcement. .Candidates were not told, they would be working under;' cover within B.N.D.D. at first., The men were trained' in two? week courses in the "trade craft" of code names and other aspects of covert operations. They were also given a rigor- ous background check. At the end of this period they were asked if they wanted to work for the narcotics bureau. Thirteen of the 19 can- didates eventually went to' work there. The secret opera- tives applied, were examined and trained as Federal narcotics agents- with the knowledge of only two men, Mr. Ingersoll and Patrick Fuller, then Chief. of Internal Inspection. Mr. Ingersoll 'is abroad and Mr. Fuller declined to.comment. The operatives were spread' er, over ti:a various B.N.D.M,? regions, and eventually two of them went abroad. In one case,' officials of the bureau heard a "rumor" that agents in a field office were ? drinking heavily and using. Government, tars to drive' arciund .girl friends. . ': One of the operatives was "routinely"- transferred into the suspect office and assigned 'to rcultive the erring agents. _? It was his job to find out if there was sufficient 'truth to the rumor to begin an internal incpection case. The agent re- ported only to Mr. Fuller, using a code name and other pro- tections. There is some question over'. the effect the undercover report of 'corruption, might have on the victim. "There's a phrase in, the trade," said one source. "It's ailed, 'dropping a -dime on- a guy.' That means you can ruin a man with a telephone call." He said that unsubstantiated allegations by these sectet op- eratives resulted in men's chances for promotion being halted. Another source, 'how- ever, said the material was not used against an agent unless it could be substantiated in a case for dismissal or other Civil Service action. The .13 men are all still with the' narcotics bureau, according to several sources, and, have been transferred to routine jobs. The Drug Enforcement Administration also has some i 60 former C.I.A. employes working in its structure. ? ? What has concerned several intelligence sources is the rea- son the C.I.A. would *coop- i erate in such a prograr ? and : whether, in feet some of these opeiativas weta placed iu ? , C.I.A. secret internal power in the narcotics agency: - Yesterday a source close to the staff of the House- Select 'Committee on Intelligence told The New York Times that the staff director, A. Searle Field, had seen .a. document that in- dicated that a high level mem- ber of the Nixon White House staff . was reporting to the C.I.A. Several members of the committee told reporters that NEW YORK TIMES 15 July 1975 Common Cause Aidel Quits After Getting C.I.A. Counsel Post Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, July 14 ? Common Cause, the public in- terest lobbying group, an- nounced today the resignation of Mitchell Rogovin as general counsel and as chairman of its litigation committee. Mr. Rogovin, a partner in the Washington law firm of Arnold & Porter, recently agreed to serve as special counsel to the Central Intelligence Agency during. the House and Senate "Mr. Field had issued an inter nal advisory to the committee 'Members suggesting the C.I.A. documents showed the agency; had a pattern of infiltratinet the executive branch. . Today a source close to the House Commitee' s investiga- tion said the, documents thati Mr. Field saw were apparentlyi produced by the Office of the C.I.A.'s Inspector General, bu ;had not been provided to t.11 ,Senate Committee. This source said Mr. Field saw the documents as part of a list of possible improprietiesj that the C.I.A. might have to I answer to.. This, the, source suggested, would make it ap- pear that the C.I.A. had meni in. the White House. witho the knowledge of the Presi- dent. ? . . .... Mr. Colby, however, reacted to these reports with an ang charge that they were "out- rageous nonsenSe" and- there was "no truth. to" the proposi- tion the C.I.A. had secretly in- filtrated the White House. Ron, Nessen, the White House press4 Secretary, said there "may be a' handful" of C.I.A. employes, working at the' White House but. it "shows up on the pay- roll ? . . . .they're here quite openly." .., . ' . , Authoritative 'sources ? fa- miliar with the Rockefelle commission activities said the commission never saw- any evi- dence that the C.I.A. had mad improper infiltration into any other United States Govern- theta agn.,:y ttxCe.pi? Lhe nar bu - cotics reau. Senator Frank Church, De. zriocrat of Idaho, who is chair- man of the Senate Select Com- ,mittee on Intelligence, has or- dered his staff to make an in- vestigation into' the infiltration charges. He declined, however, to confirm or deny whether his' 'committee 'committee had received any., CIA: documents that implied it was spyirig on _the White 4 House. intelligence inqUiries. In a statement reversing ?Iiia earlier position, David Cohen, president of Common Cause, said that he and Mr. Rogovin had recently agreed that "the potential exists for conflicting positions between Common Cause and the C.I.A. with re- gard to the Congressional in- vestigations." Common Cause has been advocating' public disclosure of ? the C.I.A.'s budget. . . "Under these circumstances," Mr. Cohen said, "both Mitchell Rogovin and Common Cause -believe that in a given situa- tion the appearances of a con- Ilict of interest might exist be- cause of Mr. Rogovin's dual roles, regardless of what the actual circumstances are." Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-006432R000100370005-2 ? Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 T1MF, JULY 21, 1975 A 'Spy' in the White House? Bombarded by criticism and hound- ed by investigations, the CIA is beginning to take on some of the characteristics of the State Department during the Mc- Carthy era in the early 1950s: morale is falling, effectiveness is diminishing, re- cruiting is becoming tougher, and good men are wary of committing their thoughts to paper in memos and recom- mendations that might come back to haunt them some day. Last week the pressure on the besieged CIA contin- ued with a welter of new accusations. The most sensational charge was that the CIA had secretly planted its agents not only in the Treasury, Com- merce and many other departments but also in Richard Nixon's White House. What was more, the alleged top agent was no file clerk or chauffeur but Alex- ander Butterfield, the former presiden- tial deputy assistant who did as much as anyone to break open the Watergate scandal. It was Butterfield who super- vised Nixon's notorious taping system. When an aide to the Senate Watergate committee casually asked Butterfield in July 1973 if conversations had been taped in the White House, Butterfield forthrightly said yes, and Nixon's fate was sealed. The report that Butterfield had been a CIA man was persuasively denied by many sources, but it started a wave of speculation about how high and wide the agency had spread its covert operations. More basically, it produced a rare Ellinr,sc into the rzystericr's workings of the CIA and its use of "contact" people in Government agencies. BALTIMORE SUN 23 July 1975 The story began last week when Congressmen Robert Kasten and Ron- ald Dellums, members of the House committee investigating the CIA, report- ed that the agency had planted its own operatives in the White House and many other arms of Government. Both men said that the committee's staff director, A. Searle Field, had reviewed CIA docu- ments reporting such plants. The next day the agency's alleged man in the White House was named by L. Fletcher Prouty, 57, who retired as an Air Force colonel in 1963. For nine years, while still in the Air Force, Prouty was a con- tact for the CIA in the Pentagon. As such, he had acted as a liai- son between the two establish- ments. Last week he said he had learned in 1971 that the CIA's contact in the White House was Butterfield. At the time, Prouty was looking for access to the White House to get help for a project involving U.S. prisoners of war in Viet Nam. His CIA con- nections referred him to Howard Hunt, the convicted Watergate burglar and a longtime CIA agent. "If you're a Rotarian," ex- plains Prouty, "you go to a mem- ber of the Rotary Club." The old school tie worked. Prouty said that Hunt, who was working for a CIA front company, told him, "My contact is Butterfield. There'll be no problem -with it. Give me a week or so." Soon af- ter, said Prouty, the White House began to help. Still, Prouty did not go so far New ouse intelli e rings on CIA fi By MURIEL DOBBIN Washington Bureau of The Sun , Washington ? The long-dor- mant House intelligence-activi- ties investigation will be launched next? month with a public probe of how the Central Intelligence Agency uses its money, Representative Otis G. Pike (D., N.Y.) announced yes- terday. Mr. Pike, the new chairman of the reconstituted House in- telligence committee, held a two-hour organizational meet- ing to outline his panel's strate- gy, which will involve co-opera- tion with the Senate intelli- gence panel and an effort not to retread ground already plowed In the course of the congres- sional inquiry into the espio- nage community. According to Mr. Pike, as a result of a conference with Sen- ator Frank Church (D., Idaho), chairman of the Senate intelli- genee committee, it had been decided that the House counter- part should explore the fiscal aspects of the CIA and leave the field of political assassina- as to call Butterfield a CIA "spy" in the White House. Indeed, from what Prouty said, Butterfield was performing only the traditional role of contact in Washing- ton?acting as a go-between. The CIA, like most federal departments, relies heavily on contact men in other agencies to look out for its interests. Prouty cited his own experience as a contact man. At the beginning of 1960, the CIA wanted to fly two Cubans into Cuba in the hope that they might as- sassinate Fidel Castro. As a contact in the Pentagon, Prouty was approached by the CIA to see that the plan worked smoothly. Said he: "I set it all up, made sure some [U.S.] fighter plane didn't shoot us down." Vicious Nonsense. It was long ru- mored in Washington that Butterfield had been the "CIA man" in the White House and that the relationship was known to Nixon. As a contact, Butter- field would have routinely handled re- ? quests from the CIA. That certainly did not make him an "agent." CIA Director William Colby angrily maintained that the claim that the agency had infiltrated the White House was "outrageous, vi- cious nonsense." Without clearing But- terfield unequivocally, the White House declared that as far as it knew, no pres- idential aide had ever acted as "a secret CIA agent." The CIA may not have "infiltrated" the White House, as charged, but the bothersome question remained of just when a contact man becomes so loyal to the agency that in effect he turns into its agt st. As time goes on, the congressional committees investigating the CIA will want to know more about the agency's invisible web of influence that stretches throughout Washington. The CIA'S or- deal has a long, long way to go. ence panel to o lIen antes next month tion to the Church group, now about to make a public report on that sector. The CIA budget, estimated ' at around $4 billion, has long been a closely held secret, and William E. Colby, director of the agency, has shown no enthusiasm for any change in that arrangement. It is general- ly accepted that the trail of the money could lead to intelli- gence agents and their opera- tions, a sensitive area fiercely protected by the agency. An example of that protec- tiveness was offered before the House individual rights sub- committee yesterday, when Lawrence R. Huston, former CIA general counsel, defended the agency's decision not to prosecute nine of its employees because of the danger of expos- ing secret operations. ? Representative Bella S. Ab- zug a , N.Y.), chairwoman of the subcommittee, released a letter in which the CIA admit- ted it had discovered 30 cases of alleged lawbreaking by agen- cy employees but had referred Those decisions were made by the agency during the period of an agreement between the CIA and the Justice Depart- ment whereby such intelli- gence-related prosecutions were contingent of their endan- gering sensitive projects. The Rockefeller commission I report took the position that such an arrangement involved I the CIA in forbidden domestici law-enforcement activity and also meant the Justice Depart- ment was abdicating its respon- sibility. Mrs. Abzug asked Mr. Hus- ton whether he would have de- cided against criminal prosecu- tion in cases "all the way up to murder" under this agreement. The witness said that he would have but added that none of the cases had involved murder. After his appearance before the committee. Mr. Huston told newsmen he bee' told Robert F. Kennedy, Attorney General at the time, how the CIA plotted with the Mafia to kill the Cuban premier, Fidel Castro. According to Mr. Huston, :KtaMeiPtsf-b6e45A ApprNaig:#101iMib9NE perturbed" but commented, "If you're going to have anything to do with the Mafia, come to me first." During that 1962 meeting, said Mr. Huston, there was no suggestion that those in- volved in Castro plots should be prosecuted. The revived House intent, gence probe will call for testi- , mony by witnesses from Con- gress, the General Accounting ? Office and the Office of Man- agement and Budget, according to Mr. Pike. The new chairman said the committee would seek to pinpoint responsibility for the CIA's fiscal decisions, espe- cially in cases of "wrong or im- proper" moves. An atmosphere of at least temporary harmony prevailed at the House intelligence com- mittee, a panel bedeviled by dissension since its inception six months ago. The House last week voted to abolish the first intelligence committee and set up a new one with a different chairman and three more mem- bers. 00100370005-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 NEW YOPICTIMES 16 July 1975 ' Spies in White House Allegations About C.I.A. Point UP Accepted Role of Capital 'Tattling' By JAMES M. NAUGHTON ? . Special to The New York Times WASHINGTON, July 15?The Central Intelligence Agency has, denied vigorously that it ever; planted any spies in the exec- utive mansion, and the White House insists there certainly , are none there now. But true or s News ? not, the allegations Analysis of C.I.A. penetra- ? tion of the Presi- dent's home and office serve to illustrate a curi- ous fact of life in bureaucratic Washington: the Government, routinely "spies" on itself' be-I cause knowledge is power.' "The brutal truth," said a gov- ernment veteran now serving in the White House," is that knowing something first can give you tremendous leverage." A cabinet member armed with foreknowledge of a Presi. dent's view on a current policy Issue can frame a position that will have minimum impact. And a bureaucrat able to ad- vise a senior official on White House attitudes can enhance the bureaucrat's career pros- pects. , Mr. Prouty was quoted yes- terday by The Springfield -(Mass.) Daily News as saying that perhaps he had been given "the wrong name to cover ,up the real informer." The search for the facts was further corn- plicated today when Mr. Prouty! denied making such a state-i ?pent. The chairmen of Senate andl House committees looking intoi C.I.A. activities have said they have no evidence now that the agency penetrated the White House in the sense that agents were working there on clan- destine assignments. The mat- ter remains under investiga- tion, however. So does an ?allegation, re-- 'portedly supported by a 19731 report of the C.I.A. Inspectorl General, that agents of the C.I.A. infiltrated the now-de-1 funct Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs with the ap- proval of Bureau and Justicel agency problems. The official, insisting on anonymity, . said that he had acted as an agency "contact officer" while working in the White House. But he said that amounted to no more than providing informal guidance to gence agency who asked from time to time about policy attitudes. Accordingly, say those who have been both bureaucrats and White House officials, intra- mural spying "tattling" of "coordination" are words they would prefer?has become a government ? commonplace and will likely remain so. Presidents trying to gain con- trol, of entrenched bureaucra-, cies seed agencies with loyal' allies who will report back on the extent to which White House policy directives are be= ing honored. Conversely, agencies asked to assign personnel to work in the White House respond enthusiastically, secure in the knowledge that a buraucrat's loyalty will often run more to the old agency than to the new FrricienL '?t Both practices can go amok, with embarrassing or worse 'consequences. Documents showing the attempt by the Nixon White House to make the Internal Revenue Service "politically responsive" Were disclosed during' the Watergate investigations and formed part of the grounds for seeking the impeachment of Mr. Nixon for abuSe of power. Similarly, testimony last year before the Senate Armed Servi- ces' Committee showed how Charles E. Radford,. a young Navy yeoman assigned as a National Security Council clerk, kept the Pentagon advised of what kenry A. Kissinger, now Secretary of State. had in his White House briefcase and waste basket: - No one has yet established the facts of the alleged C.I.A. infiltration of the White House. L. Fletcher Prouty, a retired Department executives but Air Force colonel who once without the knowledge of Fe'd-i was a liaison officer with the eral narcotics agents. t intelligence agency, charged. The C.I.A., like the State and -last week that Alexander P. Defense Departments and other Butterfield had been a C.I.A.' agencies, routinely assigns in- "contact officer" in the Nixon dividuals to work in the White. White House. The agency, the House and various departments White House and Mr. Butter- in roles related to their intel- field all denied it. ligence gathering function. Whether anyone in the White What remained at issue was whether these and other indi- viduals might be performing apparently was at issue. . One ? intelligence agency duties with- government official, insisting on. out the knowledge of their supetiors in the White House and Cabinet departments. One government official, while neither confirming nor .denying these suggestions; said that the image of C.I.A. per- sonnel working in Mata Hari style in the White House might stem from confusion A House acted as an "informer" in the classic Mata Hari sense anonymity, said today that he: had performed as a C.I.A. "con-- tart officer" while working ,in the White House. The official said that amounted, however, to no more than providing in- formal guidance to ,acquaint- ances in the intelligence agency who asked from time to time ?PbellgeNsiPiletiroete rexecutive mansion.- ? , Other officials described such' 'practices as neither surprising ,nor 'alarming and said they I were an unavoidable conse- 1iquence of bureaucratic one- upmanship. 1 ? To a bureaucrat, said one, it -can be "critical information" to' determine how much room for maneuvering exists in a given policy debate. Thus, the aide said, it is common for a White House official with ties to a government agency to be asked, "Where do we stand on this before I send k such-and- such paper to the White House?" According to another well- place official,"the more highly structured [is] the advancement system of an agency, the stron- ger is the tie" binding a tem- porary White House aide to that agency. Thus military offi- cials, whose career advance- ment will depend on judgments of superiors in the Pentagon, are said to be more prone to pressure fori nside information. Similarly, the official said; LONDON TIMES 10 July 1975 11 fir advocates of particular goiern- ,ment programs are likely to 'feed strategic information to, an agency promoting that pro- gram within the Administra- tion, "People who are bright enough to get transferredf rom' an agency to the White House are generally zealots about one. thing or another," he said. " he routine acceptance- of. intragovernment tattling may's be illustrated by two matters involving Secretary of State Kissinger. ' Although frowned upono fficially, the spying on Mr. Kissinger by yeoman Rad- ford was hushed up initially and no formal action was taken against the yeoman or his su- periors at the Pentagon. ,. -When a reporter for the-:tah,; laid National Enquirer took away the garbage at curbside. of Mt. ,Kissinger's home lass week, the State Department' issued a formal denunciation, saying that the Secretary was "revolted" by the act and tha Mrs. Kissinger was -suffermgj "grave anguish 'From Frank Vanl US Economics Correspondent -Washington, July 9 The Ashland Oil Company, the fiftieth largest company in the United States, disclosed in a 400-page report to the Securi- ties and Exchange Commission (SEC) that it received $98,968 (about ?44,400) ,from the Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA) in the five years to March, 1973. , This disclosure adds a new twist to what has already be- come a sensational series of revelations about the secret uses of huge funds by giant multinational companies. Many large United States companies have been charged by federal Government prose- cutors with making illegal domestic political campaign contributions, and SEC investi- gations have shown that many of these companies gave large bribes to foreign politicians and government officials. The latest SEC investigation has produced evidence that some foreign activities of United States companies have directly involved the CIA. It would appear that the money received by Ashland from the CIA was a reimburse- ment of salaries that/Ashland had paid to CIA agents abroad, who had posed as Ashland executives. ? Senator Frank Church, as chairman of the Senate com- mittee on multinational com- panies, has been investigating the illegal uses of company funds for political payments iij?hij CIA did, as chairman of a special Senate committee, he has been investigating the activities of the CIA. ? With this latest disclosure, the work of his two committees appears to be converging and he is likely to exploit this to the full. Thus many more ! admissions by companies of! links with the CIA and foreign ,political payments are likely to be disclosed at public hearings staged by the senator. Ashland executives are bound to be called before one of the senator's committees, especially because the new report fails to give details of the exact nature of the company's involvement with the CIA, and also fails to detail to whom exactly Ashland made illegal foreign payments. The report does note that Ashland possibly made pay-offs to foreign officials and politi- cians totalling about $275,000 (?125,000) in recent years, with about $190,000 of this amount being spent in Gabon. Most of the report deals with the previously disclosed domestic political payments by the com- pany of $800,000. Most of these payments were illegal. One of the hitherto undis- closed domestic political con- tributions by Ashland was $5,000 to the campaign of Mr Hugh Carey for the governor- ship of New York last year. This payment appears to be legal. . But it could have repercus-. sions, particularly on the reputation of Mr Carey. ITe is already facing consiaerable difficulties and embarrassment ovei payments from oil com- panies, notably those run by his brother. . , : CIA-RDP77-0044R000100370005-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100'37000-2 WASHINGTON POST 22 July 1975 ,Charles B. Seib 1.The' Prouty-Butterfield Flap ? The , Alexander Butterfield-CIA before the broadcasts, but without sue- White House aide during the Nixon ad' story, which flared and then fizzled cess. ministration was a CIA man. And out in one brief week, provided a good The story hung there for 21/2 days. then he and Schorr went into the ?but not reassuring?case history of Prouty elaborated on his charge, and it Prouty material. enterprise journalism as it is practiced ' was widely carried in the print press, On the NBC broadcast, reporter on television today. There was a shoot- usually coupled with a CIA denial and Ford Rowan developed Prouty's asser-, from-the-hip quality to it and a disturb-. . with emphasis on Prouty's statement tion that during Butterfield's military ing disregard for a man's reputation that he was not calling Butterfield a Career he was processed for assign- .and for the public's need, to make "SPY." ment to CIA, which led to this sense out of the strange doings in Then Butterfield, who had not been exchange: - Washington. -: reached by reporters, astutely ac- ROWAN: Is there any doubt in 4 The story had its beginning in an ef- cepted an invitation to appear on the your mind that. Alexander Butter- fort by two congressmen to defend - popular CBS show, "60 Minutes," that field was a man with CIA connec- their turf?namely the House investi- ' Sunday evening. There, before a prime tions, who went to the White gation of the CIA. Reacting to a move ; time audience of around 20 million House staff and his CIA connec- to kill or restrict the investigation, : viewers, he indignantly denied Prou- . tions persisted at the time he was they committed a little leak. They told ty's story. an the White House? reporters that they had learned of a "Not a shred of truth," he said under PROUTY: No, I've never had ' CIA practice of "infiltrating" the exec- questioning by Mike Wallace: At an- any doubts about that. utive agencies to the extent ef placing other point in the interview: "I have At the end of the segment, Rowan an agent high on the Nixon White, c never been their designated contact did note that Prouty said he did not House staff. ,, - ' : . .:i. man. That is absolutely false." Later: think that "Butterfield or any CIA The result Was predictable. CIA Di-4 "I had no contact whatsoever with the man assigned to the White House" was. rector William Colby called the story - CIA." And later:. "I never did deal asked to spy on the President. .,.. "vicious nonsense.", Ron Nessen, the with the CIA in any way." ? Now, if Prouty was merely saying (Wallace says that Butterfield was that Butterfield was a contact man, the . not paid to appear on "60 Minutes," man the CIA dealt with when it had : Mr. Seib is an dssocias te editor of but his and his wife's fares?his from something to take up with the White _The Post, serving as an. internal the West Coast and hers from Wash- House (Butterfield's denial rejects ombudsman. From time to time he ington?and their hotel bills were paid even that role), Why the rush ;by CBS also writes a column of press crit- by CBS.) . and NBC to get the story before the, . public first thing Friday -morning? Arid: i Since then, Hunt has denied he told icism. ? ,- -Prouty that Butterfield was a CIA con- why the presentation of the Prouty \ , tact, and Sen. Church, who heads the revelation, if it can be called that. as a ? .Pregiriptiva 1.11.1.CCI . CPMPOenntr, . snia n , Senate CIA investivation, hs said rv_s big development in the 5:tcry alsout_ mountain was being made of a mole-' shred of evidence has been found to high-level CIA "infiltration" of the fed- hill. And reporters set out on the trail pral establishment? ? - of the alleged part-time snook on the Butterfields feel that his job search support the :charge. Nevertheless, the ? : In retrospect, it is clearthat all eons... old Nixon team. , cerned?Prouty and CBS and NBC? were careless , . ,. were careless in their handling of' az- The next day, July 11, shortly after 7. The' .NewS Lis-i.' negi'l man's reputation and of an ,important 'a.m., the two top network morning and complex story. Not; ohlY &es it am i shows?the CBS Morning News and , the NBC Today Show?came up with a: (he was eased out of his post as head pear that unjustifiable harm Was donee! to Butterfield, but a':great fdisservitat of the Federal Aviation Agency last name?the same name. They produced waS 'done .to the .ptiblieetetliat the DWI March) has been seriously hampered. former Air Force Col. Fletcher Prouty, live on CBS and taped on NBC. Prouty And it is a fact of life ,that undoub- terfield story drew attention away' ' said the high Nixon official with CIA tedly there will'bt- pptne-ewho wiliesaye from a very serious question: Just ties was none other than Alexander years from noWre when hisfehameles what has been the nature and extent!. Butterfield, who in 1973 started Rich- of the CIA's involvement in the opera- ard Nixon's slide toward disgrace by up: "Oh, !yes. , He'e::the gtly whP; gut- tled Nixon for the CIA."; . e: , ,J.:4.'i time of , other ogovernment .agencies?', That: cfeestion:la' "Irloirielo 'i be hir disclosing the White House taping sys- Prouty claims that the :did nbt ' de- tem. fame Butterfield?that he, aftee all, enough to answer: Sue:h .diktr?a,C., tion - Butterfield was a CIA "contact offi- only called him a "contact officer." It'ti the Butterfield, caper, 'don't make i14)' ' cern in the White House, Prouty said, is true that nowhere in the network job any easier. His source: E. Howard Hunt, a long- transcripts is there the charge that Schorr and Rowan were asked for' ?time CIA man who later was sent to Butterfield was a spy or an infiltrator, their afterthoughts on the Prouty7 prison for his connection with the -But consider this exchange between broadcasts. Schorr defends the use of Watergate burglary. CBS- reporter Daniel Schorr and Prouty without supporting evidence on; , ' : Just what is Butterfield supposed to Prouty: the ground that in an earlier situation have done for the CIA? That didn't SCHORR: Colonel Prouty, I Prouty's information stood up. Rowan, , come clear. On the CBS show, Prouty guess you have no way of knowing defend? his broadcast on the ground said Butterfield's function was "to whether President Nixon knew Al- that he had received some support for' open doors for CIA operations." On cxander Butterfield, who worked Prouty's story from several other, the NBC show he assented to a de- in his office, was a CIA man? sources. ' ' . ,- e? ? eeei. , scription of Butterfield as a "man with PROUTY: I think that's one of . Conceding those points, one musts CIA connections." Imprecise deserip- the big problems. I would doubt still ask why they didn't' take the timer tions to be sure, and far from identify-. Nixon or anyone else really knew to check on Prouty's story fhore fully ! ing Butterfield as a CIA spy. But in it. or at least wait for Butterfield's re' the context, the implication was clear; A strong implication that Butterfield sponse. Butterfield was the CIA's man right on was more than a contact man came Schorr said that although CBSlearned the evening before the broad-'the edge of the Oval Office. again later in the CBS broadcast when cast that NBC also had Prouty, compet7 Neither network provided a response Schorr and Bruce Morton of CBS were from Butterfield or verification from !live pressure was not a factor in the recapping the Prouty charge. Morton any other source: NBC did couple a stated the question: "Did the CIA infil- decision to go ahead. In fact, he said, flat denial from Mrs. Butterfield with trate the White klouse and other gov. that decision was made before 1-.... the Pro'UtY cliar'a CBS piii'Proule on . ernment agencies?" A tape of Colby's found out that Prouty had talked to the air without any denial, direct or in-Rowan. lie noted, however, that Thurs. "vicious nonzense denial was run, and direct, but a half hour later reported then Morton said: "But earlier on this day was a dull news day and that the that ?Mrs. Butterfield said the chargeMorning News people were happy to broadcast, a retired Air Force officer was "ridiculous." Both networks saywho handled liaison with the CIA told get a good lead story for Friday morn- . they tried hard to locate Butterfield Daniel Schorr that a high-ranking ing. Approved For Rylease 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-0043A013610:0)394?10912t- competition -- Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-R ?? LOS ANGELES TIMES 18 July 1975 Why, the 11j -II oritaa Men. The Agency Must Communicate, and Floating Bottles Aren't the Answer BY ERNEST CONINE . ? The American people, at least many of those prominent in politics and journalism, are showing signs of becoming paranoiac. Ex- Idbit A is the remarkable uproar set off by ,the unremarkable disclosure that there are people in the White House and various feder- al agencies and departments who maintain ?contact" with the Central Intelligence Agen- cy- Alexander P. Butterfield, best k _ known as the 'former White House aide who disclosed the 'existence of the Nixon tapes to the Senate :Watergate committee, has flatly denied that ? he was ever a "contact officer" for the CIA. 1. The retired Air Force officer who made the allegation about Butterfield now allows that he may have been misinformed. And, contra-, Ty to initial insinuations, responsible congres- :sional investigators say there is no evidence that the CIA has spied on the White House or 'other agencies by "infiltrating" personnel ;without the knowledge of the agency in- volved. ? . ' Butterfield, who left the government some time ago, glumly expects that the notoriety now attached to his name Will complicate his ? efforts to establish a suitable niche in the pri- vate sector. . But while the damage so irresponsibly done -to his reputation is disturbing in itself, this serzaation over the existence of CA. "contact imen" is even more so for what it says about -the current atmosphere in -Washington and .the country. The CIA was created to serve the President , of the United States by providing intelligence On the activities, capabilities and intentions of ..other nations. How is the agency supposed to get the information to the White House? By floating it across the Potomac in a bottle? lt is self-evident that a degree of coopera- tion and coordination is essential between the CIA and other departments that have intel- ligence responsibilities?Defense, Treasurar. State and the FBI, to name a few. How are they supposed to communicate? Through ? Western Union? People with common sense will conclude 'that the logical thing is for the CIA and agen- cies of government with which it has business to maintain liaison officers for such contacts. would have been appropriate at almost any time in the last 200 years. But it. is especially appropriate at a time when we are developing a national talent for seeing evil even where none exists. The talent is nowhere more evident than in the controversy surrounding the CIA. The CIA deserves its lumps for doing things that, to put it mildly, it shouldn't have done. It had no business penetrating U.S. radical groups to establish their connection, if any, with foreign powers; that is the FBI's respon- sibility. It had no business investigating leaks to newsmen in this country, or opening peo- ple's mail or listening to their telephone- con- versations. . Certainly the CIA had no business getting involved, if it did, in assassination attempts. against foreign leaders whose actions were in- jurious to this country's interests but hardly, perilous to our fundamentalhational security. As Sen. Frank Church (D-Ida.) put it, "If we are going to lay claim to being a civilized ,country, we must make certain in the future that no agency of our government can be licensed to murder"?with or without pres- idential approval. The American people have a right to expect Congress to conduct a thorough investigation into- CIA deeds and misdeeds. If some people must be fired from the CIA in disgrace, if some rniiRt go to jail, if the agency itself must be shaken up to keep it from -becoming a rogue elephant, so be it. ? It is equally obvious, however, that the na- tion needs a first-class intelligence-gathering capability; that the goal must be to reform the CIA, not destroy it, to see that the agency stops doing the wrong things but doesa bet- ter job of the right things. Unfortunately, the CIA's critics show an ap- palling inability to distinguish between the agency's excesses and normal, acceptable in- telligence-gathering techniques. ? In the bizarre atmosphere that now pre- vails, it is considered sinful that the CIA has asked scientists to fill their government inon what transpires at international conferences' attended by Soviet scientists. Never mind that Soviet participants at such confererices are always under KGB discipline. _ Disclosure that Ashland Oil Co. and gone other firms allowed themselves to be used as financial conduits for CIA operations, and knowingly provided cover for agents mas- querading as corporate representativa abroad, is received as a shameful example of corporate behavior. How, pray tell, is the CIA supposed to ran its intelligence-gathering operations? Are CIL agents in other countries supposed to wear signs on their backs? Are they and their con- tacts supposed to come to the embassy_for their paychecks? . _ Finally, in the flap over CIA "contact mile critics seem to be suggesting that any man or woman who ever worked for or with the CiA. is some kind of monster who must forever he shunned by decent folk and denied employ- , ment elsewhere. Such indiscriminate character assassination is McCarthyism of the worst kind. It is also nonsense of a sort that will make it harder than ever for the CIA to recruit good people for its legitimate functions, and to avoid !m- ing the good people it has. Sensation-seeking members of Congress and their compliant allies in the media will have a lot to answer for if they end up destroying the CIA instead of reforming it, thereby set- . ting the stage for massive intelligence failures of the sort that could lead to serious mistakes in judgment. And when either of the two great nuclear powers makes mistakes, he world becomes a very dangerous place. ? - The admonition against throwing out tire baby with the bath water is the hoariest of cliches. But it's worth keeping in mind. . CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR 21 July 1975 Butterfield exonerated ? , . The trouble- with trying to ferret out backing down on the Butterfield allegatio Ernest Conine i. a member of The Times' Editorial Board. Yet confirmation that CIA liaison men have . indeed been detailed to the White House and other departments is treated as a sensational and incriminating disclosure. : A European diplomat, expressing his won- derment at the expose-a-day atmosphere that now prevails in America, told the New York Times, "You don't have a country over there. , You have a huge church." ? ? Given the American character, the remark ..........ormam??????????????, *as a factor in his pressing to gc4 the story on the air. He said he didn't know that CBS had Prouty, but he thought ABC might have him. "In a situation like this," he said, "my thought is to get it on the air and see how it flies." wrongdoing in high places is that over- aggressiveness, a tendency to fetus on per- sonalities, or failure to follow up news tips ? adequately can lead to the harming of some- one's reputation. . ?, ? Such appears to have been the case with Alexander P. Butterfield, retired Air Force. officer, former head of the Federal Aviation Administration, and best known for his revela- tion of the White House taping system that led directly to the downfall of the Nixon adminii- tration. ? ? a. aaaa The allegation by L.. Fletcher Prouty, 'formerly the Central Intelligence Agency's liaison in the Air. Force, that Mr. Butterfield was the CIA's "contact man" in the White House turns cut to have been based on a passing Comment in 1971 by E. Howard Hunt. - Notwithstanding ailr. Prouty's subsequent This one appears to have crashed, - ?10 and the finding by the Senate Select ? mittee on Intelligence that "all the evidence ? directly contrary to that charge," an indelibl: ? ? if erroneous ? mark has been left on ?? Otherwise good record., , ? ? There is still much foninvestigators in Senate and elsewhere to do regarding U.S intelligence agencies that have overstep4 ? their bounds in recent years. The extent ty _which the CIA played a role in the operatic, of other governmental departments, for ex ? ample, needs to be thoroughly studied so (ha, future abuses can be avoided. ?, But the Butterfield case points up thal investigators, and particularly- thc have a special obligation to make sure Ma public reports are indeed based on fact, an. that individual tights are protected in th reporting. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R00010070005-2 _ _ _ Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 NEW YORK TTMES 24 July 1975 '70 Nixon Order to Ce To Balk Allende Reported President's Authorization Termed Cause of Agency's Role in Military Plots to Thwart Marxist's Election By NICHOLAS Special to The - . WASHINGTON, July. 23. ? President Richard M.. Nixon authorized the Central Intelli- gence Agency to make a last- ditch, all-out effort in Septem- ber, 1970, to keep Salvador Al- lende Gossens from becoming President of Chile, authorita- tive Government sources said today. , ? e As a result of ,the'.assign- ment, the sources said, the C.I.A. became involved in the planning ofitwo military coups d'etate?planning that included proposals 'to kidnap Gen. Ren? Schneider, Chief of Staff of the Chilean Army, Theoretically, the kidnapping of General Schneider would have 'given .he .Chilean military. a' -je' tification for declaring martial law and ,ss,,,,,i."g frt..e ipowers of government. , The sources said that the C.I.A. tried later to stop the carrying out of one plan, but that it went forward neverthe- less and General Schneider was killed by Chilean military plot- ters, in the kidnap attempt. In the other plot, the agency was said to have supplied in- surgents with three machine guns i and 'with tear-gas gre- nades. When it was discerned that the plot could not get broad political support it was halted and the guns were later returned to The C.I.A. unused, the sources said. ; ?Henry. A. Kissinger, then President ,Nixon's assistant for 'national . security, affairs, was :briefed about the first plot on 'Oct. , 13e 1970, ,by Thomas J. 1, Karamessines, then chief of covert operations for the in- telligence agency, the sources isaid. Mr. Karamessines report- edly told Mr. Kissinger the plot lhad little chance of success and it was at that point the two agreed it should be halted. Mr. Kissinger has told Presi- dent Ford of this plot, Admin- istration sources said, but has said he did not know that the C.I.A. was negotiationg with yet another group. Intelligence sources said, howeever, that agency officials felt Mr. Nixon's orders to block Mr. Allende whch were strongly worded, constituted a blanket authoriza- tion for their activities. Reports in The New York Times last fall indicated that the C.I.A. was involved in ef- Approv M. HORROCK New York Times forts to stop Mr. Allende from assuming the Presidency. But in these accounts and in subse- quent Congressional hearings the efforts appeared to be lim- ited to the secret financing of opposition parties and labor unions. The latest disclosures are the first confirmation that President Nixon and the C.I.A. contemplated military coups or the violent take-over of the Chilean Government. The new information, with copies of Congressional testi- mony in 1973 by Richard M. Helms, then Director of Cen- tral Intelligence, have been for- warded to the Department of Justice for study on whether the contradictions may consti- tute perjury, the sources con- firmed. Mr. Helms testified on Chile before a Senate committee as early as May, 1973, and later n connection with his confir- mation as United States Am- bassador to Iran. He also testi- fied at a Senate Foreign Rela- tions Committee hearing on Chile earlier this year. There are contradictions in his testi- mony over the depth and ex- tent of C.I.A. activities against Dr. Allende. Kissinger's Testimony Sought Meanwhile, Senator Frank' Church, chairman of the Sen- ate Select Committee on Intel- ligence announced today that the committee would call Mr. Kissinger to testify on the "line of authority implementing the Nixon policy toward Chile." The Idahoe Demccrat said that Mr. Kissinger could offer in- sight into the extent of the "knowledge and control" exer- cised by the policy-makers. The announcement brought a sharp reactin from Roderick Hills, a counsel to President Ford. He said the request for Mr. Kissinger's testimony was "abrupt" and was not handled with the same courtesy he knew the committee had ex- tended to other witnesses. The committee, Mr. Hills said, had made no attempt to find out what Mr. Kissinger could really add on the ques- tion. He said, however, that his reaction should not "in any way" indicate that Mr. Kiss- inger would attempt to avoid testifying. Government ' sources and sources within the intelligence community ^1-re this report on the fast-paced events of the fall of 1970: On Sept. 15, 1970, 11 days after Mr. Allende a Markist, had won teh presidential elec. tePOI AsfiejaageY2doefi Nikon 'Called a secret meetine at the White House. It Was attended by Mr. Kissinger, Mr. Helms and John Mitchel!, then Attorney General. The meeting was unusual be- cause it was out of the normal channels of transmitting in- structions to the C.I.A. Under the law and in practice C.I.A. covert operations are passed' on by the 40 Committee, a top level White House security group, and transmitted through the national Security Council. It is unclear whether the matter ever reached the agenda of the committee. Mr. Nixon was, one source said, "extremelytanxious" abou Mr. Allende's rise to power in Chile. Another source said the former President was "frantic." He told Mr. Helms in 'strong language" that the C.I.A. was not doing enough in the situa- tion and it had better "come up with some ideas." He said that money was no object and authorized an initial expendi- ture of $10-million to unseat tehe Chilean Marxist. C.I.A.'s Efforts Redoubled Notes on the meeting, how- ever, do not indicate that Mr. Nixon ever specifically ordered the C.I.A. to arrange a coup d'etat in Chile. But the "tone' of the meeting, one source said, was "do everything you can." The agency redcubied Us ef- forts. Mr. Karamessines, depute director of plans at C.I.A. and thus the chief covert operate:, ,went to Chiie himseti, source said. On Oct. 13, 1970, Mr. Kara- messines briefed Mr. Kissinger on the C.I.A.'s progress. He told Mr. Kissinger that Brig. Gen. Roberto Vieux, who had recently retired from the Chil- ean Army, was plotting to kid- nap General Schneider as the prelude to a military take-over. Mr. Karamessines said, how- ever, that it was the opinion of the C.I.A. that General Viaux's project could not suc- ceed. Mr. Kissinger told the C.I.A. to "keep the pressure , up" and keep the C.I.A.'s "as: sete" in Chile up to par, but agreed that this plan should. not go forward. He told the agency to try to halt General Viaux's plot. These sources said that C.I.A. cable traffic, copies of which are in the hands of the Senate Select Committee on Intelli- gence, indicate that the C.I.A. did make an effort to halt the plan. Nevertheless, General Viaux's plot went forward. On October 22, 48 hours before the ,Chilean Congress was sched- uled to vote on Mr. Allende's election?the fact that he had not won a majority threw the decision into Congress ? an attempt was made to kidnap General Schneider, When it ap- peared the general was going to resist, these sources said, 'he was kill' 1 by three .45 :ealiber buIllets, according to t,:leilean press accounts. However, between the Oct., 13 meeting and the killing of General Schneider on Oct. 22, these sources said, the C.I.A. MI e scanty testimony on. 8 :MO, ngloir tees. 'A grout) of military oft{- cers under Gen. 'Camilo Valen- zuela, then commander of the Santiago army garrison, was also planning to kidnao Gen- eral Schneider to pave the way for a military take-over. The C.I.A. these sources said, at first had greater confidence in General Valenzuela's plot. Accordingly, officials at the agency headquarters at Lang- ley, Va.. authorized the C.I.A. station in Santiago to give the insurgents three machine guns and tear gas grenades for use in a kidnapping attempt. The authorization was .issued on Sunday, Oct. 24. But within hours the C.I.A. 'had ascertained that the Valen- zuela coup not get sufficient pdlitical support to succeed and that Jorge Alessandri Rodri- guez of the right-wing National party, the runer-up in the elec- tion, would not accept the presi- dency. Nevertheless, apparently on the order of C.I.A. officials in Santiago, the guns and tear gas were reportedly given to the conspirators. They were later returned to the agency unused. After Mr. Allende had been confirmed and had assumed of- lice, the agency secretly sent imoney to the families of men arrested in General Viaux's ;abortive plot, the sources said. :The money, one source said, was paid to "keep the families ouiet about the contacts with C.I.A." Nixon Reported Told L According. to the sources. Mr. iKissinger told President Ford. !after Mr. Nixon had resigned, of the stenped-up effort to un- seat Mr. Allende and about the Viaux plot. But Mr. Kissinger has maintained, in private con- versations, that he never knew about the second plot, the. 'sources said.' Mr. Kissinger has said,' in these private conversations, that had the C.I.A. proposed a military coup in Chile the agency would presumably have come back to him and outlined the plot, and the President and the 40 Committee would either 'have authorized or prohibited it. The 40 Committee is a spe- cial group under the National Security Council that passes on all covert operations. One source said that the 40 Committee had approved all co- vert activities in Chile except the involvement in the Viaux and Valenzuela affairs. But an- 'other source said that "from the beginning it appeared the matter was being handled on Its own special track." Another source said that, C.I.A. officials had felt that! the President's strongly worded; !assignment on Sept. 15, 1970, lwas a "blanket authorization" Ito become involved in plan- fling' for a military take-over. I Since the military coup in September, 1973, in which Pres- ident Allende was killed, therel has , been a growing national inquiry into the role of Mr.- Kiseinger and the C.I.A..iin ef- forts to undermine the Chilean' G-ovcrnmzni. When Mr. Helms' testified before the Senate For- eign Relations Committee dur- ing hearings in 1973 on his. 003 kotOn as ambassador, he. 11 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 the Chilean matter. ' -1 Earlier this year, in private, testimony later made public. Mr. Helms told the Senators he had "made a mistake in his earlier testimony" in that he had not revealed that President Nixon wanted President Allen-- des Government overthrown. In other testimony this year,, Mr. Helms said there had been a "probe" to see if there were. any forces in Chile to oppose Dr. Allende's advent as Presi- dent. "It was very quickly estab-' fished there were not," he added, "and therefore no further. effort was made along those' lines to the best of my knowl- edge, at least I know of none." Mr. Helms returned to Te-' Iheran, where he is Ambassador. He could not be reached by _ The New York Times today. NEW YORK TIMES 23 July 1975 rilud Sons Charge C.I.A. Used Agents ; To Embezzle Funds DALLAS, July 22 (UPI)?Two sons of H. L. Hunt, the late billionaire contending they were discriminated against be- cause of their conservative views, charged today that the Central Intelligence Agency in- filtrated the family oil empire and used secret agents to help embezzle more . than $50-mil- lion from them. ? The brothers, Nelson Bunker Hunt and W. Herbert Hunt, said new Federal charges that they had tried to cover up a family wiretapping scheme were a further result of an attempt by the C.I.A. to discred- it the Hunt oil empire. They said they held the C.I.A. re- sponsible for earlier Federal charges that they had spied on aides of their father. . They said their refusal to allow the C.I.A. to use their overseas Hunt Oil Company af- filiate for espionge had led to the Federal charges against them. "After turning down the C.I.A., a massive embezzlement scheme involving loses of over $50-million from the Hunt Oil Company were uncovered," the brothers said in a news release. ."An investigation disclosed' that some of the Hunt employes Involved in the scheme were secret Government agents." A Federal grand jury yester- day charged the Hunt brothers, Percy Foreman of Houston, a criminal lawyer, three other, attorneys and a retired Texas industrialist with obstruction iof justice for allegedly trying Ito thwart the wiretap investiga- ,tion. The indictment charged that the seven men had conspired to pay witnesses to go to prison', to hush testimony about the iwiretapping. The Hunt brothers 'allegedly spied on aides of their 'father to obtain information ELT! business dealings. LOS ANGELES TIMES 10 July 1975 'swill Impossible? By J. F. terHORST , WASHINOTON?Mike? Ackerman is a spy Who came in from the glare. Now, having quit the CIA, he is doggedly seeking the glare ?not to rat on his fellow spies, but to per- suade the country, the press and members of congress that undressing the CIA is as trea- sonous as giving our missile secrets to the Russians. ' ? ?This will be a' tougher mission than any' in Ackerman's ll-year career as a professional espionage agent carrying out -clandestine operations in 20 countries in North and South America, Europe and Africa. For, while he is extremely critical of the CIA, he doesn't want it: destroyed or rendered impotent by the glare of publicity on past or Present activities. And that's a hard product to sell to people who believe in an open society, resent prying, 'fear "secret police" and are properly shocked by official reports of CIA domestic surveil- lance, testing drugs on innocent persons, as- sassination plottings and dealings With the Mafia. ? " . I told him as much when he-dropped by my Office the other day. We had been fellow panelists on the Mike Douglas television show the previous evening and, frankly, Ackerman hadn't gotten in many good licks for the agency. No way, I told him, to make a hero - out of the CIA. The public climate is hostile. Ackerman is for real. He quit the CIA in. Miami three weeks ago, cashing' in a bright *figure wi".) the agency for the refund of his pension and $4,000 in leave pay. He blew his pwn cover by walking into the office of the Miami Herald and telling his story to .a *porter:- ? ? story checks out. He really is off the -agency payroll and on his own. He is not be- ing paid under the table to peddle CIA propa- ganda. As a bachelor of 34, he can afford un- ernployment better than most. r He quit for several reasons. Disgust with *me of the goings-on he has. been reading about, like assassination planning and cozying ,up to gangsters?stuff concocted by the '"cowboys," he says,, the sold generation of .clandestine operatives who thought they were still working for the OSS and Wild Bill Donovan. And Ackerman is angry with sena- tors and congressmen and journalists who , don't want to settle for controlling CIA but are more interested in the political and per- roved For ? *,1 sonal benefits to be reaped from stripping CIA naked before the world.' But mainly he resigned because he no long- f er could do his job?a ticklish and risky job of persuading knowledgeable foreigners to gath- er secrets from their own 'governments and turn-them over to the United States. That, and sometimes covertly helping non-Commu- nist groups and officials to stay in power? something he thinks the CIA should be doing.; right now in Portugal. . ? "The CIA is paralyzed," Ackerman says. "Its1/ credibility overseas is nil. Its enemies rejoice.'; Its friends are chagrined. Its professional offi- cers are demoralized." He quit because hisi own intelligence sources were frightened thatl they, too, would be exposed and their livesi endangered. "I quit because I no longer couldl guarantee them the security .they have to have." . ? / He is deeply religious. His late father was), an immigrant Russian Jew, and his mother still keeps a kosher home near Miami. ?That heritage, and a trip to Russia as a student; have made him intensely -conscious of Soviet oppression. His CIA experiences, moreovero have made him keenly aware of the threat posed by the Soviet KGB in this country, Lat- in America, Europe and the Arab lands?and the- need- for an effective CIA to monitor; those activities and counter them. Ackerman swears that his CIA _unit opera:. ed under a strict ban against any assassinvi tion or political murder. Dut if it's It that! 'others did such plotting, he thinks Congress ; should pass a law to make it a crime. He ) wants a law forbidding CIA personnel from divulging secrets, saying that is as traitorous-1 as when somebody in the military slips weap- on secrets to a foreign Owen He thinks Con- gress should set up a special committee for permanent oversight of the CIA, with strict accountability required. And he thinks a law; maker who tells secrets out of the hearing room should be cashiered from Congress. - Fat chance of that. And only a slim chance, that Mike will succeed in saving the CIA from overexposure. A lecture agent has told him he might be able to meet expenses with that kind of pitch to audiences?but that he could.: make, up to a hundred grand this year as a.i blabbermouth. ? PUBLISHERS WEEKLY 14 JULY 1975 NO VEL TO ORDER The CIA's recovery of that sunken Russian submarine has stirred at least one publisher to commission a book. The publisher is British, the author is Ameri- can and the form will be fiction. Noel Gerson, who recently became a i client of Scott Meredith, has started work on the novel, "Neptune," for Heinemann. Pan, on the strength of a large advance, has tied up reprint rights. John Farquharson Ltd., Meredith's Lon- don associate, helped put the deal togeth- er. U.S. and other publication rights are in the hands of the New f ork agency. The Gerson output numbers 138 titles, one of which became the well-known Ave Gardner picture "The Naked Maja" and four of whfch during the last five years, have been Reader's Digest Condensed Relekae 2001/08/0PAPPPROPs77-00432R090100370005-2 Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R0001067000512 WASHINGTON STAR 23 July 1975 By Norman Kempster Washington Star Staff Writer Following a White House meeting with President John F. Kennedy in 1963, a Belgian Jesuit priest was .given $5 million in under-the-table CIA money to support anti-Commu- nist labor unions throughout Latin America and back the presidential campaign of Eduardo Frei in Chile. The incident was related by an American Jesuit friend of Belgian Rev. Roger Vekemans as an example of the CIA's relations with mission- aries and other overseas representa- tives of religious groups. The Rev. James Vizzard said he was having lunch with Vekemans at a restaurant near Dupont Circle when a White House automobile pick- ed up the Belgian for a meeting with Kennedy, Atty. Gen. Robert F. Kennedy, CIA Director John McCone and Peace Corps Director R. Sargent Shriver. AFTER VEKEMANS' session at the White House, Vizzard related, "Roger came back with a big grin on his face and he said, 'I got $10 million ?$5 million overt from AID (Agency for International Development) and $5 million covert from the CIA." Vizzo.rc.' said he has ria reasor, believe that the CIA ever asked Vekemans to do anything that he would not have done anyway in at- tempting to carry out orders from his superiors in Rome to support social development in Latin America. It was just a.case of the CIA helping to finance a program that fit in with the agency's objectives. Almost from its inception in 1947, the CIA has used religious groups both as a source of information and as a conduit for funds. CIA spokes- men declined to discuss the CIA- church connection in any detail but other sources said the relationship was prevalent in the 1950s and 1960s at least. Some sources said it may be, used less frequently today. SOURCES SAID the CIA dealt with religious groups in Latin America, Africa, Asia and elsewhere. A spokesman for the Senate select intelligence committee said the panel's staff is investigating com- plaints that the CIA has had improp- er dealings with missionaries. HOWEVER, Stockwell said his organization is warning missionarie4 that the CIA may try to contact them4 He said it is important that overseal churchmen not be gullible enough tci inadvertently provide information t intelligence agencies. "I personally would hope that missionaries would not provide information of this kind." he said in a tele- phone interview. David A. Phillips, once the chief of the CIA's Latin Americans operations, re- marked, "CIA people go to church, too." "Over the past 25 years in Latin America, CIA peo- ple have been in contact to -mutual, advantage with some of the many fine churchmen who work in the area," said Phillips, who has been attempting to re-, spond to criticism of the agency since he retired from r ^,tive service earlier this year. "THIS DOES NOT sur-? prise or shock me," he, added. "On the contrary, any information gathering organization would be dere- lict if it did not take advan- tage of the in-depth exper- tise of American clerics working in the area." But Phillips insisted that overseas contacts with mis- sionary groups have declined in recent years. ? "There are a lot of things that used to happen f.. Latin America in the 1960s that don't happen in the 1970s," Phillips said in a telephone . interview. ? Other sources indicated that any reduction in CIA contacts with church groups is probably due to a new suspicion of the agency on the part of missionaries rather than any CIA scruples about using reli- gious figures. a The spokesman said some of the ACCORDING to the accusations resulted.from CIA activi- Rockefeller Commission re- ties in Bolivia. He said the charges port, the CIA routinely con- included "tapped phones, dossiers tacts American citizens re- And improper use of priests." turning from abroad to ' "The committee is interested in determine if they can pro= whatever it can get on this matter." vide useful information., - the spokesman said. The commission said the agency attempts to contact Dr. Eugene Stockwell, assistant all Americans except for students and Peace Corps volunteers. missions, said he has personal knowli A CIA official confirmed . edge of two cases in which mission; that there is no prohibition aries provided intelligence informal on contacting missionaries, .tion to the CIA. But he said the either those who are taking occurred roved_Fo %Mir :tbat-RD P 0432 RO 141913139045 tke organ- general. 14 years ag neneral secretary of the National Council of Churches foe overseas who are returning to the United States to stay. He re- fused to discuss specifics but he left little doubt that missionaries are routinely asked for information. The official emphasized ?that in contacting returning Americans, CIA representa- tives always identify them- selves fully and stress that the interview is voluntary. NEVERTHELESS, some returning missionaries have expressed shock at having been questioned by the CIA. The CIA official said he knows of no instance in 'which churchmen were asked for information while' they were working in for- eign countries. But former State Depart- ment intelligence officer John Marks said such con- tacts have been made. Marks, a CIA critic who is director of the CIA nroject at the ?enter fnr National Security Studies, related the case of a Pro- testant missionary who said that until he left Bolivia two years ago he routinely pass- ed on to the U.S. Embassy, and thus presumably to the CIA station, the names of Bolivians he thought were Communists. Marks said another American at the same mis- :sion was asked to take over the reporting duties but re- ;fused to do so. VIZZARD, who serves as a lobbyist for the United Farm Workers Union, was interviewed in the living room of a house near Chevy , Chase Circle which he shares with eight other Je- suit priests. He said he has frequently heard reports of CIA contacts with mission- aries. , "If you get eight or ten priests together, you hear stories," he said. "Some of Ahem are probably true, some are probably false." Vizzard said he has first 'hand knowledge of CIA funding of one church-relat- ed organization in addition to what Vekemans revealed about his CIA connection. Lathe 1950s, Vizzard said,: lie was working in the Washington office of the National Catholic Rural Life Conference which was sponsoring a series of land- reform congresses in sever- al Latin American nations. Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 ization received i $25006. check from a prominent Philadelphia businessman to help finance one of the, meetings._ ? VIZZARD SAID he re- marked to the organiza- tion's director, Msgr. Luigi Ligutti, that the contribu- tion was most generous. ? "Ligutti replied, `Oh, it's not his money, it's the CIA's money," Vizzard said. He added that he understands that the CIA helped to fi- nance the other congresses 'as well. ? Vekemans. the Belgian, was secretary of some of the conferences, Vizzard, said. But Vekernans' primary effort was the Center for Economic and Social Devel- opment of Latin America located in Santiago. Chile. Vizzard said the primary purpose of the center was to support anti-Communist labor organizatins. But Viz- zard said Vekemans also worked hard for the elec- tion of Frei as president of Chile in 1964. ? FREI DEFEATED Marxist Salvadore Allende that year. CIA Director Wil- ham P. rni.by has told a cong,ree,sier.ai committee that the CIA pumped $3 mil- lion into Frei's campaign. It was not clear whether the portion of the $S million in CIA money which Veke- mans spent on Frei's behalf was included in the $3 mil- lion total. Allende ran for president again in 1970 and was elect- ed. Colby told the same committee that the CIA. spent million in opposing. Allende's election and in at- tempting to undermine his government. Allende died in a coup that overthrew his government in 1973. Vizzard emphasized that' support of Frei, a Christian Democrat, was a happy , marriage between the CIA and the Catholic church.. Both supported Frei for their own reasons. ? _ "THERE REALLY was a' sbelief at that time that the 'answer to social problems was a movement like the Christian Democratic party," Vizzard remarked. . . Marks said he has learn- ed that the CIA had the Catholic bishop of a diocese outside of Saigon on its pay- roll at least as late a 1971. He said the CIA treated the bishop with such care that a CIA case officer flew in from Saigon for special se- cret meetings with him. . According to Philip Agee, a former CIA officer :who has since turned BALTIMORE NEWS AMERICAN 16 JULY 1975 sj CARL T. .111013' illY _eat. which in ways was more a threat -to the . . .?You come home from a *month abroad ?American people than to any foreign toe. and plunge into this seemingly endless string of revelations about the excesses and .s'CIA leaders who, in awe of presidents abuses by the Central Intelligence Agency. And you are filled with revulsion by reports that the CIA secretly administered LSD to Lye- of its scientists,- causing the death of one of- them ? and then let his family be-. ? of this powerful inteiJg.ence agency-Who lieve for 22 years that he simply had com--...?? -were utterly timid, shamefully derelict.- . mined suicide. . ,? '; ? So now America's front pages are full of 4:0 ', ? ? or presidential aides, committed the agency and its resources to operations they knew were illegal and beyond the CIA's mandate. a' Congressmen entrusted with oversight ?- :You are outraged that for 20 years the stories suggesting that not only did the CIA CIA carried on an illegal program of inter- plot to overthrow or kill foreign leaders, but cepting and reading the mail of American -'that.it even "infiltrated" the White House citizens, or that some of the CIA's vast se- ' and spied on presidents. cret pool,of money was funneled to?Ashland Somehow we must do two things-. -(1) Oil, Inc., and. probably to other companies, -. . restore a sane perspective about the role of and .Wound up in illegal funds which were . the CIA and other intelligence agencies in used to determine who got elected to the presidency and other powerful political of- fjces in this country:: , ? . But most of all, you are left with a sense of growing national tragedy. For what we . may be witnessing is a tawdry drama in which an agency that is still vital to nation- al securityself-destructs. ' The proven and documented abuses and transgressions of the CIA are now so nu- merous, and in many cases so revolting, there is virtually nothing the CIA can be ac- cused of that millions of Americans (and foreigners) will not believe. Thus the ques- . lion arises as to whether the CIA as it exists our national life, and (2) establish safe- guards that involve watching not just the in- telligence community, but thepresident and his chief aides who are most able' to turn the CIA, the FBI and other agencies onto evil courses. ? The-same perspective must include an ? understanding by all of us thatir, .a world Where dangerous adversaries are constant- ly spying, subverting, scheming, stirring up trouble; playing dirty tricks, we can never be mere Boy Scouts and Sunday school teachers. Survival depends on our having. pee:pie who can play a rough game, too. :That bit of sanity also inciudes a real'. can ever again effectively serve this nation: - zation that, whatever its excesses, the CIA But how does one abolish an agency so as to has. not been ruling presidents, our chief kill its poisonous growths, and start anew executives have been exploiting the CIA: Of with an organization that deals only with course there have been CIA people on the those intelligence activities essential to sur- White House staffs: And Defense Depart:. vival in what is still a very dirty dangerous- ? '.ment men. And FBI men. And USIA men international atmosphere?. (one. of my worst arguments with Lyndon Nothing constructive seems possible un- Johnson came when I insisted that if he til we get all the. investigations over, until ? wanted USIA employe Voichi Okamoto 'to all the, abuses. have been aired, until the American people have a clear understand- ing of What it. is that we must forbid, and build strong safeguards against, in the future. . ? ; ? e?There is a foolish tendency in many cir- cles these days to argue that the nation is being harmed by congressmen, who leak information about CIA excesses, or by newspapers carrying stories of CIA abuses. Let us first face the truth that our secu- rity ? and the-CIA's ? has been jeopard- ized, not by blabbering congressmen, pot by an "unpatriotic" press, hut by A Presidents, grown overpowerful yet craving even more power, who ignored both ? the Bill of Rights and laws passed by Con- gress, and turned the CIA into a monster against the agency, the CIA's dealings with churches were not always of the "mutual benefit" variety described by the agency's friends. In his book. "Inside the Company," Agee relates that in Ecuador in the early 1960s, CIA-backed squads of right-wing terrorists bomb- ed churches because they believed the Communists would be blamed for the at- tacks. In most cases, Agee wrote, the blame did go to the left. be his personal photographer, the USIA .could not- legally pick up- the tab). Presi- dents- tend to build empires by pirating staffs of other agencies, and no staff is ens- - ier to raid than the CIA, which has limited public accountability. This kind of absurdity will end when the nation declares that the president's .staff shall be only what the president gets. Con- gress to approve, and that it may not be 'swelled to ridiculous proportions by bring- ing in ten times more people from agc.ncie.c. whose heads don't have the guts to say no. We need an effective CIA that Ameri- ? cans can trost. But we'll never have one Un- til we rein in our presidents and bald responsible our congressional overr.cers to ? the extent thet ',ve.can believe in thcrn, tt-x). ? THE WASHINGTON STPR 23 JULY 19 75 Commentary Joseph McCaffrey (WMAL-7 News): "Perhaps we really need the CIA to open up its books so that we can find out what we have been paying for over these many years. So far all we have heard makes us feel that we really haven't been getting our money's ,,worth. . . . Columnist Jimmy Breslin might be a ,..c,00d choice as the next director. After all, he wrote the book about not being able to sheet straight. We have spent billions on the CIA, even building it a nice expensive playpen over in Langley. Please, CIA, tell us some- thing that will make us feel we got at least 10 cents on our tax dollar. Please." Approved For Release 2001/08/0134: CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370005-2 POTHOUSE August 1975 ate Approved For Release 2001/08/08 : CIA-RDP77-00432R000100370065-2 ? z. .e r5 f ?-,-'...-...,r,.. ; - ,IC,::,:_? . -..,,,, ..... ---.: 4,-V1 IA- ,-.1-?-?-..?%k?-:-.1f ] ia..?-17-1AY-''''...: "ift-3..._.1 --aCi'Irs,:.-11-- s ' ? 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