COMMUNIST AGRARIAN TACTICS A Working Paper prepared in 1954-1955

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Approved For Release 1999/08/ ? Cl -RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 COMICILUIT Working Paper prorate' 111 1954,-1955 SET Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/ CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 T. tntvodtt TT ? The Rol. of th. PeitSWAVY ***mow * Tit Mimeo purism fealties 0. reanumist Agrarian ?Sallee in T V. Short Surveye of Other countries24) ??????? 3 7 16 A. Tnde-China ...*** . 29 Tationesie .000.00................. 31 0 Tree 0. 34 D, Japan 0 311 7. Italy 41 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 A T. inkithadisa International Communism is today . in ortier to apread and conwilidate its Influence within the so.called eintare areas of the world. r:ommuniet successes to ditto attest to the Com- a:mist use of tacties and tot:haves designed to take full advantage of conditions isolating within these arose and to organise and eontrol mass power" sufficient to propel Communist leadership to the front. The 'Free vanilla success in keeping andb areas fres Witte eventually under complete Communist domination depends upon its full understandine of the tootles and techniques esployed by the Celmunistel as well as unoo Its vigorous pregentetion of commter-attnacitions to take the place of the penaceas and leettership offered by the Communists. Tor in these areas, lust as in other countries of the free worlds Cmiatueists are seeking popular ?rapport end power not through pushing Communistic platforms but by espousing non-Cammunitt ideas. They ere promising to abolish those things which are irritating a notice and are appealing to those sentiments within a country which offer the greatest opportunity For a "nnited front" movement susceptible of c'emmunist control and manipulation. Throughout theee underdeveloped a, of the world where the r7ommunista ere nce so aetive, there are several common factors which are present in almost all countries. There is a revulsion against poverty and hUDger Re a normal mode of existenee. There is also a reaction against colonial dependency or foreign lamination of any kind. In somo eon:Aries one fottor is stronger than tbe other. National movements *wandered by these fasters, hevever, can oeldcm be stortod without leadership. in same tomes this has cove from within, such as by CandliA in India. Put where rAtive leadership has boon looking, The 745m-,unists have furnished native leaders trained in Ammar. And when natimalistic movements, have boon otarted without Communist par- tielpation, the r!teamuniste have attempted to lake over these movements by oes method or another. Non-Communist leaders, confronted with the explosive crroblems of a critical transitory period in their country, have been harassed by the necessity of keeping ^ommunism, from diverting nationalistic aspirations. Into this battle, international Ceremonies has bronght proven organising toohniques, trained cadres, a world-wide propaganda machine, material 1114, and, above all, a determieed program looking towmrd defleite meal. in countries vhoee economy predomieantly agrarian, from traditionel the Communists, in order to pain Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/0 -RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 emphasis on the "prbetproletariat" toward Increased organisational work among the peasantry. This has been particularly areirent '4 this the colonial and esmi-oolanial areas whieh generally- leek an esti,* or strong urban proletariat. This politically dictated shift of emphesis to the agrerien peasant wee initially followed by the Chinese Communists under 4ao Tse-tung, slid its suceessful application In in. forecast vsny of Communism's present agrarian tactics in the Free 'World. China served as the testing ground for Asiatic Communism and the agrarian taetics sad techniques evolved there spread to surrounding countries and later to other countries where Communist leaders perceived that exploitation of peasant grievances could furnish. "mass power." That this lay have constituted a departure from Communism's theoretical concepts ooncerning the role of the urban proletariat was overshadowed by the Communists' arnrwelation of political realities. Communist efforts to exploit peasant discontents are partioularlY apparent in the 7ar and lidlle riot. Sut similar Communist tecties are also beino followed in many Latin American countries and are being used to increase agrarien agitation in Western Furope as well. In addition to the loeal attention being given to organisational work among the peasantry In men, countries, a veesure of the international importance which Cr, senow attaches to agrarian teeties was demon- strated by the Third Congress of the Communist-controlled World Federation of '!rads rtlorg (VITU) held in October, 19534 This Congress clearly emrhasised the Colmunist desire for Increased attention to the under developed countries of the world and pointed up the important role which agrarian organisations can play in support of international Cornoniam's push rot power. The world Conferenee of Agricultural end rorestry Workers, held shortly after 1...he liFTTY Congress, followed the general policies laid down by the wrn, oonfirmed the emphasis on the "haekwerd areas, end specifically sparked fresh Communist activities looking to the orgarisation of peasant movements end actions and the, penetration of existing egrarian orgenisatione, 2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/ RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 IT, Th. hileJet NIAPAIrf Communist *nemeses among the areae do not stem from an *montane* ideology by these peasant masses. Communist from the effective anplioation of Communist ideology is disguised. Nseua'thslesi Is the creed of the weal militant and power.bengry groups tho WM operations. Par this reason, it is pertinent to usdwratand something Of the doctrines concerning the peasantry which are hold by those who iireet 170MMUDISM's attenk. Although Communism theoretically operates as a result of doctrines Whieh are held to be based an an Infallible historic *clews, new rationalisations are devised to fit nev experiences. tehind a faeade of unerring eorsisteney and, unfailing foresight, Communism edjuets itself to politisel realities. Such. flexibility is demonstrated in CommunisMis present emphasis on the role of the oeasantry. An uudersteading of this role viii assist in an understanding of the ectnal agrarian ',cootie' utilised by the Communists. Pre..41ao In its early form, marmism did not regard tb peasantry as an independent creative fore. in human history. The early Marxist movement believed that the antral drama of Communism would be eneeted in capitalism's original home and not in the backward areas. Before Lenin, there was not even a hint that a small proletariat, well organised and led by professional revolutionaries, could initiate the world revolution in a "backward area". Although the peasantry was considered to be a victim of feudal auetetY, it was not considered to be the real agent for the overthrow of ferdalisn. This role belonged to the urban bcmrgeolsie. In the transition from a capitalist eoelety to a socialist society, the ereative role was Pommeled to fall to the urban proletariat. vith 1 After noggins In Ms atm united creativity In Pussia. Fut Lenin never for a moment o ipiy that the peasantry would pig,' a central role in the . le -leant that only by allying itself with the proletariat ccrnid the peasantry hope to realise the agrarian revolution. Lenin VAS, also appreciative of the dynamic potentielities of the backward areas and at an early date bed nreosived that the nascent nationalism within these areas could itself be utilised as a force in realising the world revolution. This perception resulted In the Leninist theory of imrerielsm whereby almoet tbo entire onus for the wretehedness of the baekward areas was laid at the floor of international finance capital. of the peasantry became omeWhat more gn In Ruse/a in 1905, Lenin became co to the revolutionary wave. of t "democratic lietatorshin of prole- ceording to Odd% the peasantry was capable Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78- 0915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/0 -RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Tot Lntn s hodbetvsea Brunie, where tal made ?me i.roAa aM vhsre a i1i but vigorous proletariat existed, and the eoMenial and anial areas vhich vere elitists of impori. alism and %dare a modern !Mistrial proletariat hardly existed, if at all. Although he flirted with the theory tbekt * e*Pitellot Ph*** of evolution light not be necessary in the bombard area's, Lenin disearded this in the facie of the strategle needs of the Soviet Delon and re- ennhaelsed that the natural leeder of a revolutios vas the leteriat Aloft vhould oboe itself at the forefront of the masses" "irthereore, the teedeist eoneept of the "Parte insisted on an oroanic relation tetveen the Comeonist Party and the proletariat' According to Lenin, oclitical partite* eould be pothing nor, than politleal superstructures ooneentrating the political power of Ott** *****mi* classes. Th Russia, the Bolsheeiks claimed the proletariat moneopoly and Levin alvale believed that the Communist Party was nothing more or less than the political organ of the ledustrial proletariat. it van only hemline of its organic relation to the proletariat that the Nommonist Party could sot as the oracle of history. Thus, within the MarmWeamminist tradition, there arose the dogma that some actual relaticeehip between the proletariat and the Communist Party vas esseotiel to a Party's eontinned existenee. !et Lenin had at least wide the important point that the peasentry could serve as a revolutionsr7 supnorting force. The etrategy of i s refined under Stalinq he shifted emphasis on the basis of a worild-witie revolutienarY a into the bulwark of Commuoism for the whole v1 d. ted easy ef Lenin's theories in the light or pr.vut1in preties1 polities, there vas no apparent realisation of the peassatry nherent remolutioary foree end no abendonnent of the doctrine of the "van:mord of the proletariat". It reeetned for MR0 Tse-tung in China to theiteastrate the great significenee of the peasantry to a national revolutionary movement in beakvard areas of the world. In se doing, he actually pot in doubt the Commumist Party's claim to reorrmentation of the ladnstrial letarist. P while Lenin wn ccnc1eUn that the omen eould ee as a revolutionary sumporting fore., oertain loaders within the yeung Chinese communist Party (CCP) oar* realising that the peasantry "cometi- tete' the overvhelmieg majority of the Mimeo people and top of aorta, a great fore* in the nationel revolution. If the Chinese revalutioe does rot enlist the peasants, it viii be most difficult far it to seemed as a great nation:el refiamtion". By 1927, Mao Tos.tung appeerea to be the ehief exponent of this attitude. Improvised vith the unimpeded revolutionary dyeemism displayed by the Chinese peasantry in opposing Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 SECRET Japanese Improlallen 2 proletariat mad liber mimes cod devoted Rio imprison* esmeimied bin that the peesentri it. mein fermi st the Chinese reviletismi that the peasantry mild fermisb all the motive power umposenrY, at loss, for ths 00sPistlos tho *demooratie revolution,. ite appreciated the Leminiet formula et professional revolutionary elite basing itself se the motive power et the masses, but there wee an oohs et the Leninist insists..s en the neesseity et en ledustrial proletariat base. Mao was ready te tern his talk on the proletariat and tile fell advantage of the elemental fogies vhieb he fiend la the villages. lieut.. in Chime hestemed the general aseeptnace Mee's political strategy. Initially, then vas *reedy sequieseemse by ether Perty leaders and le ihendomment at emphasis en the Party's talks emeag the *ben prileteriat. Pet the CrP vas soon somfrouted IT as mews development et proletarina and memo& struggle,. ?he Chimes *hen proletariat, sibleeted to Communist propmeanda Shout its trensseadeattal mission vtleh eves never realised, turned SW from the Party erd lost interest is the reve1et1ewer7sPasrfsj it benne immereed again in its own private tribulations. The peasantry, en the ether hand, roe still ready ran eatian *Plod landlords nill- toilets, et*. Whether this settee ves led by the CCP or some ether group. ?be a:peal to the peasant had teen on the basis of elemoutel demands and he retained a desperate reedissos to rise against his viserehle eceditione. Perthermere, other eseditions were sere fever- oble far Communist estivity in the esentryside then is the vibes scoters Doogite the seetralinallem et power achieved by the lesmiateng, the vast 141441110 et the histarleadvere still eantrelled largely by semi independent var1er*. sad the government did net have ea firm control an in the 011,1644 P040100 Mies theory Sheet the peasantry fitted sestly into prevailing ceoditiene, his strategy and leadership vial* the Chinese Communist iiineasetves est bir 193243. ?he CCP teases se elite corps of po1ittes117 srtThiats leaders organised agog Masidat lines het drama, in its top levels, fres various strata et Chinese society. %ler Mae, this elite group realised that the peasontry goad itself provide the ems basis end the motive power for a ceveletionnr, trusformatten. ?he espiretiome *ad lurtestiame et the Party leaders vers est aseesserily debondsad by their peeseet hectground or by the isterests of the peasantry. Tiloy simply ruse to power by basing themselves em the dymmele fires of peasant dissemisat. Purtm! this rise to power, the almost total severames et the CPP free a supposed vete, proletarian tees did not Impair the belief ot the Chinese Communist leader, that they wars soloardniMermist-liercinists. ?boy sentineled to helloes la a redemptive histirie process end held that the Commumist Pert/moo Itself the sole agent of 'details redemptiem. ?he Leninist *mitring it imperialism, leoludieg the theory that imperialism Is a phenomenon peseta: to a Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 4itriwlmmmmmm certain stage of se, played a vital role in r!hinese Cesmenism. The Leninist concept of elitism vas expreseed in the form of a highly dieelplined highly-organised pit Y issacrstip, psrcetuated by Use absorption of *positive elements* disoovered and trained during the agrarian reform and other mass movements. The path to power of this elite ninist formula of using the dynamism engendered by and discontents of the masses. The ennerienee ort movement under .so simply demonstrated that amans Provided by the peasantry and other strata of Bode industrial rroletariat need play no pert in the rise to power elite ;mom organised on Leninist lines. As snob, this experience enhanced the ComNunist potential in underdeveloped areas of the vorld and stimplatel the spree of nommunist agrarian tactics. 6 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-0-6915R000700120002-9 Prom thsMeese durim( the rise et Commmuist aentrol, kale sone maw er the eemmoniele Way 1* veriar4ias1epe4 tmeg mei listed tlignmoolememis whioh reopm fir sworn it ihe eommmmiet movemmut im elifue? 'hese somas (a) a edissiplimed Per* wool vi tk the Mawr If VMS, togas, Levis and as mar lise Wallah a Pant; esd (40 *vmdied front or ellrevabitiary "waft 4111 all irovalltlemerTdram, *ad wow, 1. by *ask ? Party. imdpet theme elosamis se 1022 aa it the appliemtlem et Chimera 'mai end operatismal imobaiques mow the pesammtry is a lessee Ii the vadersisnding of esammeist agrarian tastier in ealosial and eami. eelonial woes et Oa marlht Ude'. A diesiplimed elite it protessismal tomeludismariee organised ea Leminisi.dielinist lines sestinas' Ube a moosessay imarediont of Commemist esseeoe. The .emited front', a rewrite Commaniet veyabologioal as well as politioal teehmique, plays an importemt part isi rallying lianii.inporialist tense ander Commis% leadership in the iseeeteamleped arms* An 10 so sueoemeral ter the fer hoe boom duplicated im 'tot Wan amd, to a degree, in a few Ware aroma, butip by and large, hes mot been greeted in east underde- veloped esentrioe. Te a sense, howeer? it wk. argued that emanemist substitutions for this element base teen found ski& aro mere adapted ourreattpelitisal roallilos, those sabstliotions are is the fern et the Csamadatsatrark intareatieuel organiestions sad other neve. meets doeigmed to adhlove end sapper% legal efforts vilb the velpAt sod oonfort er intermatiemel emit,sanid. eameiderimg Chimes agrarian tastiest, aortal* gessral sheer. rations ere poriimemt, lhe eemmmeist creatias ot a militemt peewit upseasat was ftedliiated lir the pewartr amd oseenaio heeds. sr the vast masses of thepss.W, by the failure of the Neemintang I- ? nt to aomeson Mat ftdIt37 stilt ihe alleviation er those oamditiomo endby tho new asprandk to their problems uhish the COP enured th: psneents. lbe seepams metianal 4401011110 sod politioal situation in Chime permitted the err to estehlimik areas limier its eamtvol where it mild demonstrate to the peasants that the eomnomiste also bed their beat imiereste at heart and mimeo. In Waste the Communists eould test out "arias essrures &slimed to emlist supporters for the economist oases, POSSINS support vas see 1dtta11 s program or laud rarer, designed to satisfy the hulk et the peessatrY Wahl* the area enderOPsentrolo rm additlem* wee realised that for other Chinese and for other areas et the wintry, the Coomomist nevemomt bad a limited Mere es a 'rest natiomal movement teases it de-emphasised the email Comeamist revelmtimary doctrines and oomometraiod on the theme or aartt-tapertaltaa.. Almost all Misuse *sold agree on this issue iwn if al could sot agree an Ism& eseissatioms, roduetions or rent. et*, ?he Masse eonimmiets mere sueossafal im stirrieg up aloes hatred threogh their lend rearm wows. and is build's( ep hatred of foreigners through the anti.inporiallas senpaign. To the 7 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-0091-5R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 P78-00915R000700120002-9 To a marked degree, the Communist's daring both the period of their rise to felloulag the withdrawal at Kuomintang formes from During the first period, the Commumiste revolved mews peasant support In order to win the civil war. During the latter, the Communists ewe intent on retelidng and luereasiag mess peasant support suffieleut to solidify their political dominance of the entire eountry; to enable them to lave& land reform as the first step In Commimisn's trams- formation of China; and to ensoorage a badly seeded Increase in age oulteral produetion. Tt Shoed be remeibered that the arigimal intent of the Chimes Communists was to achieve agrarian solleetivinatisa through several gradual stops rather than through immediate Implemen- tation by force as to place In the Soviet Pules and to some latent in Western 'wove During the early Cmieter16,4iesetieleed INelehrterneeldert coalition, Mee had been head of the Training Netter for the Peasant Movemeut end, 49 sigh, hed bees in Ohara* of training politleal cadres' to go into the villages and put into prestleo *greed coalition polisies at land redistribution. The Commentate thee memeged to biome assimilated with the alleviation of peskiest dissomteats at aa *arty date.* poyehe- logiesiadvantage they aMbeequeatir exploited to the finest. At the same time, mee end other Commuoist leaders *squired am eariy ex, perigees in developing politisal soiree for wort:with the peasamtry. Them political cadres were recruited from amaag Party members amd received carafe training. later, during the sivil war, soh emirs*, bashed up b7 orr armed support, insited the poor to riot agelast 3d. lords and the rich in the oeuetry, and to redistribute their land and wealth, In areas where CCP armed support was not yet established, the cadres followed somewhat different tootles. A typical teohnique vas to emphasise to the peasasts within a given village that their tames were to high mew the Kuomintang government and to ergo them to refine to pay amy mores The sedgy' advised the passemts to drive ewer the taw colledtors and !premised that the Cacmendeta weed eels end help them if the pollee tried to eaters. the tax law. is the peasants then drove ewe, the tax eolleeters and were flood vith polies *sties, Commumist forges arrived and relight the pollee on behalf et the peasants. The peasants thus found themeelves lined with the commumists against the law, and the cep howl little diffloulty reeruitimg followers from emamg them. These tee-helloes, as well as the lemd reform 'within the CCP arms, hed the offset of Identifying the peeeents end their interests with CCP aims end eetiams. But it was through the teahnique of lend retire" that the Con- muni to perfected the tactics by whit they same to OP$99110 end soatrol Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 China's great pesasat begone a weaponof fer.resehtag politieel tbe brewing of Commeeist setivities within an already been made of the politleal cadres develeped fw peasantry. Chou 1111.Lei hes said..?*Tbo vomit iliettlastimmerarettra? fir Lod refers is the preparation of smarms.* %Awe* the now goverement's decision to effect a *laud Were! progren in an area and the astnel realisation or that program, evoke or even mesas were eenetines (mired to recruit and train the dears vertsre sod to disease the ;em? blem. Tho Party energised its eostrol and influemee from the very beginning of the program. This sae be sham by traelag the progress of a lend reform program in alhinese village mot previeesly imposed to reelunist activities or grimiest's!". Tbe engross ef this program will also point ep may of the tsetse and toolostques tees else* been adapted to nosiest or agrarise movenegis by Connuniste In ether The first manifest' a village lewd rearm WWII" mos the arrival of the *laud reform eadreec sr U. "week teem* groups. These groups, eseally eider the leaders-tip of veteran cadres experioneed ti werttimg sang peessote, erre gessrally drawn free CCP organs, political workers in the am, eta-diets, govern. meet staff workers, end tbe CCr's *Niteroi Vert CAlle (40W01104 or sposialists in all tilde of propegmoolawurt). rrequestly, the wort teems owe to a village skortly before or Ober harvest time so that the gears* weld help the peasants terveet and goad leers In deteil about eonditioss in the 41striot. The seam attempted to adept tte peasants' mode of life, to live among thou, and to offer 'orioles ologgiasa.all the while gatherisr data en the village. The inveetigeties wort by the cadres relied heavily on personal isterviees amd grow!' 'limestone. Sinu1taneons4, the village yes bombarded with istensive propegenft (including personal *explanations*, eolerfel pesters, piers, ballads, eta.). Propageoda was married out not omIT in imbirwisom end grow discussions, but *leo threegh "wafer* evolving?, suet as sight glasses om variants upsets of improving ferning oonditions, pest mitre, etc. otivities, individual talks ogees teu vest csdrss eystematicelly rallied around the *positive e pees/Lute end farm liberers. the bogie wort of the padres was to 3.ct those **tette, elongate* amemg the peesests to serve as the eore f the organisation or a peasants' aseeeiaties *mg the new *people's vitiate the villa.* the peamantel aeacelatices were to serve as the ?enter of the sew political paver and were to adelaister the lend ream sooting* the "elements* were eeleeted in * village because they were already esti,* in ,village affairs belt this appeared to be a deviation from the offigialrelley et using only elements free poor peasants and agricultural ]4e as the eere of the TIVW village leadership. it amy rate, the first step of the 9 "ISEME Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RD 8-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/2 P78-00915R000700120002-9 "lend reform promo* u completed mins the ;witty* elements* mere rallied together aa d miriamted, the peasants *seekesda* by peeve. P.M. and agitation, end informatten colleted om the dietriet. The next step centered on the breeding dem of the traditional power-strusture in the village and the pover.imase In the minds of the peasants. More eposifieally? this mut step mem to *set the messes im motion* so se to develop a situation of *class strergle. During Wm step, the key features mere mess meetings te scone end pumigih the "lceal despots' and mess meetings to differentiate glass Oates. The general strategy was to mite the poor peasants, egrtemlftral laborers and m144146 peesents and to iontraltse the *tend of the rink pemeasto so as to isolate the landlords as a grown target for tmmedtate attoOk. Thip irleal means to arouse elees enety ageinot the lendlerde and to generator a fighting spirit among the poor peasants and egrionitarel laborers ineluded getting them to Ugh of their plight end bed treat- ment received from landlords end vidh resole, to mistreat their llrimg mealtime mith the rieh landowners, evid to see *rho supported whom* After one ladirtftel was oomvineed of the name and the elftht of the (Tr to support the came, he mas encouraged to :onteet other peasants and ?amylase them. tihm a large slough member had semi the light, a fighting group mms considered to hove been established mmd the most active elements among them *sleeted to %nem the core for the struggle Vith referees* to the actual land reform programs the stage vas *les sett under the leaderehip of the mare, *ad imported by the wronged rarities or th* Tver peasants, for the demand for retold. *treat do. posits *ad the eseessive portions of route. The reametiom of remt and the retina of rent ena remt deposits mere the initial materiel entioseente to the mesamte for the ferther development ef the clams struggle In the mares mrs c5enn1nely unpoprlar mimeo o officials notoriousfor t *data" on their atrocities. Mass prom boards, etc.) propagated the aceusation sad the peasants mere invited to air their of peasant agitatim, the Ohairman of the iodic* inuld be done. The peasantg mere then tinyvere romerfUl in a eolleetive form, and nowerftl enough toprevent their "feudal oppressors from regaining their former authority" Tine, eltheugh the alarm against tbe amused might well be tree. the hey remotion of these "esethmanatien" meetings mos perehelegleal. The posaftnt man being strengthened in his ccefichnos in the new power end mes being prepared for further aggressive motion eseinet these elemses idootirtod by the Nmimmitits as ~US, 10 SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: I -I3DP78-00915R000700120002-9 meting* also Serval te indentrineta v*Wee t refa. hatred at the "sonar? sad moriOhteg thetr telhadt*** to messes. mi.. also true ef these meeting, helot for differentiating the class status et the villas* Oats-- whew properties weld be sonfiseated, eieb er middle property would be preieeted, er peer pelmets who would other property. !tins teperteet te have polio the glees status of the individuals is the village held to determine thia. selibratiems very often bold vMh i. ntilts.d es another oppertemity for propaganda end in4oetr1nstto. ommenist tootles relied bentiti won "dro04141 * demereatiao Ilse beton, friends and fes" in order to meet* a feeliag of solidarity* The next step in the lard reform programv th. taition of the new village power *trusters. the Peasestet OOP has defteed this as "a mass organisation fOrmed or the peasants" and It woo knows offistilly as ve areas for the reform of the agrarian system in the rural areas". The key relate for the cadre' is the ergesising eta leesanist Ammo& atlas in a village vowel great esre bed tote tikes in selecting the first group of 'positive elements" vho formed the teekbees of the Asseelatinto the middle peasants bed to be woo ever so that the peer peasants wee14 not be isolated; .ad prestieml pworibed to be im- plemented to suit spasifie legal seeds. The sett at up of en Asseel- attee often Included a variety of propane& see as drums and gongs, portrait., slogans, speedup and eves plan. It hes been mentleeed previonly mantra and inflames from the vor7 The vent terse or lend reform soiree dientihed to vire, as a rule, tarty soiree. Their onloori***** bard gave then additional prestige. After the "lamd refeeer vpa the Porte. eentrel vas further streegthened by the systematie or the moot active, capable and reveler elements snow the peamests into the Party and the Tenth leap,, indoetrinatioa and treillage, by eontrolling the is ergenisatines, by serving the villagers an a saurus of help and esmfert, tqr poreemel exemplary diode, mod by lategrating the hest elements seems the poseente into the Party, the cee sagaired a rim *ad WW1*, seatava at the grass rete level for agrurisn and ether programs. Although the 'ore of leaderibip among order mem to a village were the snares sent to frail crP realised that When these were vithdrewn ayes neeesserr bo repleood by local looderabia. Tor this ream, ofterto war* aloft to 'boort some peasant Isadore within a village into the Party. The meet likely elements were those peer peasants 'who bed setually engaged In the land reform struggle" for these vire the elements vbevere 11 Approved For Release 1999/08/2 DP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: mast llaastiafted with the past new or as a aO1UtLCN. Tor these indsoirluartisa omegas where they were ta of Party asibers and how to Wain them. Shield a aandidate acoeptable to the Party, be weld this he reqvired and phew good restate in varioes palatial and predestine sampolgas Tr seseessful, he would then be elevated te eadre level and participate in the leadership or local organisations. Py this general premiss, native leadership wee festered end integrated into the Party oyster to create the core of a stele political ardor. 'rho Peaseats" Asseei- *tier vas naturally one of the most important, if net the nese important of the loofa orcenisations where the Mr maistalund a firm aware' P78-00915R000700120002-9 There were other organisatioms which the CCP utilised to farther land reform program as veal as to emhieve political and poyabelsgloal control of the peasants. In adlition to the Peasants' iseosistion, the peasants were dhanneled into a nuaber or group activities, notably the mutual-eid teams, rural 000peratives, the wonem's leaps, the Youth ?corps, the people's militia, as well as various cultural amd edneational organisations snob es reading classes and drama groups. Tbe 'stool-aid team, abich involved the pooling together on voluntary bests of man-powar, animals, implemeats and other rural resources, was used by the Communists not only for its eosnomio advantages bpi also as an Instrument to so-custom the iedividualistio peasants to 'imperative farming. Tn organising sea team., the Commemiste demonstrated the advantages of such teems to the standard of living of the peasant, and in the early deys of r"P power peasants could join or withdraw freely. The "land reform program" she paid great ettention to the peaeant woman who was neurally over4worbed sod ander.privileged. The cadres undertoek special efforts to twit the peasant women that their Whoring* were not the result of fate, but of enploitatiom by landlords and of the baokwarivess of the social system. Voles shored in the lame redistehution, la the opvortumities for solf-acoornment in the village, and in other rfr-dirosted political dangles. limit aoight was eeeigied by the r,70mmuniste to the youth is the rural areas %memo it was molly the Yeaar peasants who served as village cadre., initiated the farming of the Peasants' issosiaties and other mess activities, mod supported sealeuely the 'metal referee. The rural eeeperatives were generilly developed after the peasants were mehilised durinp the land reform, but sometimes wove started at the very begimming of the program. In the early daya of 7,C7V' power, those sooperatives sopplied the peesaste with meessitiee at levee rates, granted loons at lover istersot, ete. and served as an erectile, weapon im the mese perinatales program et the Commumists 4uring the agrarian reform". /Tom the foregoing pleturs, it is evident that monists regarded "psychological mehilisetion' as of equal impertemes with the redistributior of land." Their methods of peyehologioal nobilisetion fell into the two categorise of permission and seerviom. 12 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 MEN Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 SECRET Seeurlir end prestige e bottom's% all media, arose of the land suet tn two mall dere of CCP an@ The Were pimiento@ or nem olieweeod Approved For Release 1999/0.866 MIP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 mires, (Poo in ere instruments deems, the Slate initial stages of *fifties sod the soiree were landlord slam is set possible wt an isereess4 domed for *the penieheemt and ether seater- reraletimary elmende and Amite were *mod en these fermi *doll* or oltotsfo omPloosee in the land refers. Them served U a warning to ether villagers. The Chimes eemwonlete dos utilised metal preemie as well as Ordeal pemishemet. This 'medal pressure wee iutemified 'try prepaensda and iadestrinatien end varied in direst properties te the senselidatien and Wesel* ef the Camenist asd ludeelrimatios wok la the mil area Whoa easeful, the CCP meld meet en this werk te 1111,00 busbeeds, did:am* te report en their parents, The Chimes, Comenisis effeetively utilised traditional ferns of epee to WroVimmetbahwg the lasd refer* proven and in laffsiting the desired payebelegisal 1it1es *ugh Nona woo molested beanies ef pelmet feeilority with then. misdeal firm installed ihe eingisi or %nub to oimPlo tom Oreleimg labor berms amd varies *snidest programs. There taw the fleeing or stories to 'spread um ideas mem the neesse," The treditiennl Yew ('plostiall ague) vas wad *stem 11017 bemuse it meld be performed by few or mem sad prenenied es a dame, song, drana er a esableatian. The Commis's alas semosireged the villagers to organise Irma WNW mod to Proem OOP vita ow thalami sheet labor heroes sr the memos eta mortal* land attars propose Dram tease free seighbiring distriste were used to dremettee s Ituo et aetivity desired by the Commiste in a gliten village mod tor peih the legal peacoats inse astien..sweb ..a fieht against the landlords Besides the beeke, amaraspooes periedisals, aud pamphlets published far themesee, ems et the mot *mom visual media used wr th. comae* in rural Mug arm sod* books, nlailibeerds*, aud potters The semis becks amteined arteries in pietism wit% =planetary *mem is simple lemmas; they wore used to leech the romards end jars et lamd reform, ate. The widembbeare vempapers seetained ems telletius petted in a *hue plass aid tors net mly a seem of lufbreatien regarding goverment program and village 'activities, hut worm! tee as an setlet far peals apinian gime the peaseate wen meseraged to write cements, arilleien, ets, Pesters, traditionally popular with the peasants, were-used to, the Commis% in old design hot with um themes. Tor implanter, the God Forth was emetims repremated a plater, of Mae is the um porters. Lantern slides were else ahem SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 developed *arise the mailer veriod or CP pst sti etre1. LmtSr tastiest vhich seed develop rider en mewed Ceouvelet regime, vere net es Wootens to onviltioes Inestenial mod sent.eoleniel areas of tbe free world. Toby. in China, eelleetIvisetlea le severest*, beteg epeeied up and, with es lueroseed sessantratien ea industrial develepueet China, tbe IX!! Is new peoldeg the ionised* beivese worker sad peasest.* Nevertheless, it le aloe apparent that the maw Caueemiste have remained appreciative of the lessees ef their esrller period. A oareftl psyebologleal mabilleation conduces tells ee homiest fester Sr all CCP programs, agrarian or otherwise, mud the peasant is evidently' still resegeleed as the mimes poser* Al* prii1s4 the professional revelutimmerlee Into polttiel power. 15 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 tem se eel, vy orthodox Lesinist ameatart 1?ar and emeentented its oftiwis os the allies. Bret with the ememmalies of lemons of an agrarian base, Communist in gas elemifisent *siige. purls( the period of VW-MN ememeetes start along the path et vielent sovelatiaa. Cemesiste did is flat 'male a vilitant peseest for atisaarynevaasat withered m the vise sad Tedium emeasisis be to seek * mem volley. The strategy adarequastly arrimod et vas me *high sought to avoid the pitfalls of a volley which me. emtrated either as the indvetrial proletariat or on the Welles peasant, end ens divested issieed at meat's, a nese* ems( all mg- mete of the paprlation in a eavatry Aire parties* metre me mot the order of the day. This mum wee the "Baited Prost", me at Bee's Ingredients for sueseee. Communist agrarias testi* in Tsai& eines 1910 must thre be viewed as a pert et the larger emeept et the United Prost, Am inportent parahologtaal loom It the yrovelvtlenery period', however, res that the pessents its 'hem that they meld in feet sumeolfelly sprees lowermost attempts to suppress this if thew were *en the morde. S the Commist Pert" ed Tvdte (OPI) did net arrive et this new poli wiliest a dmisive peek fres Soviet Commeniste. Cenftelon and ftleilm bed been vaapant within the Pert, over tho retell e proloteristised peasant, sad the meet stage of the Tudian revolution. Then In January 1990? the Comintern Perna adAreseed an editeeiel to Indian ftemmiste vhieh seemed to call the ism. This editerisl noted that,???The path tikes by the-Chimp. the path that met be tiken by the people of the various ealmial and seni-oolontal mustries Is their fight fern' 'attend tudependenes and People's Dauecrace. This rue deeided slap at the aaii-Vae flatten rithia the MT. laferrimg specifically to Tvdtv, the sateelvl 'The mew nomenemt of the peoples la 11401140, the memenest that umfilded after the rur and developed into en armed strugrle, famed the Britieb Imperialists to mho a teetleal, British Imperialism remiss, end strips Tails ti its based, torivolo4 Ti them medillons the tadk of Indian Cammiste, drowima en the emeriesee of natiemal liberation movement In Chive and other munixtee is natmrany to etrenghten the ellleme of the muftis?lms vith all lhe peasantry, to fight for the Introduation et vrgently needed agrarian Approved For Release 1999/0 16 DP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/2 ? DP78-00915R000700120002-9 the besis of the ammo' struggle freedom aid of their units all stasss. parties, villing to Weed the sationel imdepacienee ad freedom of I Ras wes the Cominfore direetive. and CPI leaders bestowed a new alley and strategy to seet the donned fer a breed uess lisps agar conditions when armed inserredtiee vest *met on the agenda.. There were. of aura, prelatical reseals why the CPT eheold fellow such a polity. Is China the Commaist revolution bed haw shifted to a rare' hese lerfe'T heeemee the KNT bed driven the Commumiste oat of the atlas; in radio the oities ars epee to Camaist agitotion. In Chine the possibilities of a perlieeselaY aPPeattlem ewe meemaimtmet1 in India the CPT tad eases to the bullet aid to the legieletures. Xa China a Communist liberation ermy meld profit from the luterfaremee of JaPam end the geographical prontair of the Soviet talons these eceditises did not exist in Wis. although it Should be noted that the CPI tied stepped op aetivities in areas ealiguess to Canoeist. astrolled border areas. ,he CPI it'llf put teeth sem way gad reams oby all of 11600e taties were set aPliable to /Min. Is its Policy Statement ar 1951, Co CP/ dalsred...eRe ONNOOt fen tiO take note or the fact Cotillion the ChiessiPurtr? begun to lead the peasantry in the liberation simile, it bed alreedy so ore, whim it inherited from the split in the Revolutia of 1929...14 menet fill to mote the fact that China bed no taified end geed ammeelesilas which prevailed the enemy from arrying cot sementrated end swift attache on the liberation fame. ladle is differeet in this aspest from China, in that it has a amparatively mere milled, velleargeniend and far.fleng system of ammonications...Indin hes * fir How lierktall *lass then China bed dories her laza to freedem...hrthers Caeon foil to nets the fast that the chines. Rod Army as firrawied and threateued with annihilation agein end *win until it reached Minslartn., At the seme time. the CPT akmaiedged that the eraeleticmeme role of the Tossfantt7 bad hose enhamed as a remelt et the Chinese revelation and =labs, given inoreaeed attention by the CPI. The Polley Statement bed this to sty...iv/his does not seem that thmreis methlai in amen between no and Chlue...00 the eatrarTil 'the Mac Imdia is Of /mot elpsnees, Like Chia. India has a vest peewee* population. Our rovolutios4 therefore. will beve nay features in seam with the Chimes %omelettes... Vs ore essentially a =labial ceentry, elth a 'met emierit, of emr people living on agrieulture. Mat at our workers aloe WO direet", senessied with the peasantry and isterested in the problem of land... That *ekes the struggle or the peasetry or prime impartmese.' 'Phe CPT then pledged itself to the reited Trout strategy, prefeasieg Aberrant, or sor 'ratio's Ala menet *traria, the task of indlding the alliance ef the working Cleas and the pasentry as the basis of the United Stemma Treat, igarieg the Ugh of build. tag the rnited national Prat, ignoring the tab of potties the welds; aim at the heed of this Prat in the liberation struggle.... It announced that..."the weed,* claws, relyieg on agrialtural workers and poor peasants, in firm alliana with the peasantry, tospetbor with 17 Approved_ For Release 1999/08/24-:-CIA-RDF'78-00915R0007001-20002-9----- Approved For Release 1999/08/24 ? DP7 -00915R000700120002-9 Us obeli* ij3a, leads the battles is WAR. wwhile greatly elevating the role, mistimed to plan, the proletariat at the Prost. NA remeabwriag that even Mao, after the CMnse reveletion had succeeded, worked herd to preeerve the WU Pribitort4mAssed revolutiom, it is diffieelt to kem mbether /Alen Commemist statements on the proletarian hem or the Piety are merely a nesmindess tribute to iogea. At any rate, the CPT Mberked for the first time em a course whit* Included efforts to toild a strong peasant ameneut. Tho PPUed, P*144140 Mess iltrOtslEr In general term, the Columnist Visited Trent strategy, it which the peasant movement is a part, defines the principal ONOW100 to tO fought as the feudaliste and the isPerialimite and afteettee the mososity of unitiug all *lasses into a breadhased Vatted Preset againet tho common enemies. In India, the two prissipal commies are speolfleally identified as British and American imperialism, A fight agaihst Win& imaarialtaa is synomymous with a fight against samba impression; for although India is no longer a falser, the Communist. malatain that foadelism mists there as a Seat or the of Maim and Writica monopolist.. And the fight against Am:riots imperialism is treated as sylmmymons with a fight few "Poem% Under a United Prost mem, the heels strategy for overthrowing a regime is the fanatic* at a united front of all groups opposed to the regime. Thromghtthe fermatSom or 400Dit?ia ?tont the way will to paved ter the formation or a goverment if People's !omorraTf, amd the meessery and emential step to this ultimate creation is the establiehmeat of a "Government if Demomatie Unity". All this will to sosomplished thromgh mese Mbilisation and mass struggle. Put it is vitally imertamt to the Communists that the United !rent does net become an end in thwar or that the Party is ansUmed nr in it, The Communist Party suet remais intact mad pure., lessee the CP/ lammed from the dilution whisk overtook the ityderahs4 Party within a ftited Prost To aoomplish its ends, the CPT recognised that its teaks be: (a) to build the Party; (b) to build the we organisations; and (e) to build the ';:lemeratio Prost. According to the CPI, the United Demosratio 'Trout eould only to a trout of political parties, groups and individuals arriving at agreements fres plass ti plass and tine to tine, even widening the mope of these agreements, The Pertre emeeption of the Netted 'Prost is that it is basically a front of *lasses. It stated.. ."Although them *lasses may have mutually eon? flietim interests, nonetheless the fact remains that imperialime and feudalism constitute the eovmon enemies of all.. Our oonmpt at United Front Brims from this common interest between *woo various classes." More sposifleally. the CPI has noted... *Deem the mistime emditions therefore it is only the coming together if the various grumps, parties and in4ividuals on whatever issues and in mhatever plain they sea and 18 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/ ? RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 struggles that will help in the raw !Pratt. As a melt of straggle of the masses common eat whieh helps in the presses 'program. The agreement en sueb wider as a remelt of the straggling struggles.? Indio thus onestitete attempt to weld the peasant gotten which con be an effective "transmission halt? lotuses the P this large segment of ibe people and, at the same time, obaneel the palatial and economic demands of thew peasant lessees asalnat anti.Consmist fore*, and toward the creation of a rnited Pront to whigh the CP/ would Oar the predominant part. As snob, conmenist agrariam tootles become similar to thew which the CPT follows with reepeet to trade unionists, women, et:Oasts, intellectuals, eta. In sow recreate, the peasants as a group sonetitute one of the greatest ehallenges to CPT organisational Wants became of the *cosmic differenees existing in various peographie areas of the country and booms of tbe complexities itherent in the %am, religions, east*a sad languages or Yndt*. On the other hand, (PT aotivities amoeg the peasants represent am important Party underteking homage the peasants represent approximately two.thirds of the population end beams the Cammunists' road to pager in India mey well be the agrarian rood. This.. is an intensity of diatenateet about agrerion matters la India, and in arew where agrarian tension has most sante, the Communist organisation and agitation has been at its heat. Initiative In the natter of land reform?at least le Seme sections of the eountry.gaseed into Communiat heeds rather than the Government's. Sections of nu, peasant population are acquiring positive faith in the agrarian program armload by the Commentate for the immediate Mare. ',tat the CPT ham rot been even more euctoetteful to date among the peasants seems tot revolt in IS instances from the Party's own inertia or preoccupation with other mass movements. The prOhlema of wee in India, particularly one that sough were recognised by the CPI. It ecknouledged steed that because of the vast anyone. of our uneven development of the overlaps crisis and of the and peamantnmmeaset, anti the uneven state of organisation and eant- solownese of the pennant masses esti the influences of the Party, the petulant movemontwill not develop at the same tempo everywhere amd different forms of orgenisation and struele will have Ulm adopted &needing on the maturity of the crisis, the degree of unifleation of the peasant menses and their mood, the strength end the inflames of the Party and other fasters..." vithin the various provinces of Indio and 'Me in vartoun dietriets of the same preview, Communist agrarian tootles have Indeed developed at different tempos end in 19 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 fcren, bet tho overall C es is the All !nets Kilns Saha Usual nese orgesissilem through ebieb ted noun Sabha, encompassing all the lower organisations in preoimees and district's. throughout the eenstr, CPI hopes to do this throvgh systematic organisational vat paw the peasantry and asrialtural workers. As a CPI desimest pointed sot in 195,...."rt is the jab of the Party to ass that the appeal of All India Kisan Sabha, to all other dhaeplene of tisane and Kiss* organisations which are today outside the Klass Sabha to oome into the fold of the ill Tsai* risen Sabha, is implemested. This sea be 4000, as the All India Maas Sabha points out, by first foram velltY in elides (to wage joist etc-mules aseinst evictions, mew taupe, rent redustiamos etc.) and to term joist sommitteas or struggle. Irises Sabha's appeal to all its lower omits to make a wearied drive to fern Joist Com. eittess of all the *listing Klein orgamisatioes to fight Kielce struggles on speolfie issues has to be carried out. It is them soli that the whole mass of rises. can be rallied behind a united orgasisatien." C. Seep General 1dtien The strategy followed by the All India Ki $abha (AM) is to bring the peasants, despite affiliation to verioue pelitieel particle, into unity of SOUS% or spositie Louse. S4MO issues vary in different parts of the sentry, for the CPT seeks to iec000 built Erma local dada. Should the postulants themeless fail to voles so, demands, it bosoms the task of the AlIS to dm. the Kisan masses into dissaesions Where their immediate demands Ons be "formulated" and reeognised end thereby booms sUbjeet to *citation The ATKS vows as the champion to raise the social, esomonie and sultana level of the peasasts and aaricullural laborers and, la oddities to its land reform program, tries to bosons an inevitable part of the possant's life from which he clan get coeetast advice and help. It opposers literacy classes, sports and cultural activities, relief and self-help movemeuts. In general, however, the AIIS seeks to unite the peasants against "landlord-imperialist explaitetion"? to popularise the vietories which the Kisan movensat is *obtains, and also to stress to the peasants the *eh/asuman of the USSR, China and other People's Demaerseies so that this will create mrs comfideeee in their sem strength to &Alive similar objectives." (This Islet point 1. 5150 utilised to comeolidste the feelings of interneticoal solidarity Aid* would hell, to WINS them against all the plots of Amer/Amu and British imperialistemw) The AIIS sponsors general flees demands which are readily understendable to the pelisse sasses (ea., *Unties of landlordism, redatiloo of rents, availability of lawn?* credit, adequate wages wad living eanditiotto) and, at the some time it pushes immediate fighting demands whit& sustain the movement, emint:in the "level of esessisumness and the preparedness and organisation of the assess of a partioular locality,' and serve as "stepping stones for the realisation of ear cameral agrarian demands% Approved For Release 1999/08/24"1:Va- DP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 the different wi teral laborerig, middle bath eountries the target 'unlike the CCP, the CPI dose not CPT tactics ere direoted so thoroughly peasant pavement that the Party desires become sapportere and pernolpenis in the movement. set forth in 1953.,.*the prolamin of unityf the peasantry Is e passible* of uniting the agrioulturel laborer end the "eases the rid/ peesents, egainet Imperialist, feudal and Indio, monopoly exploitation. And some leaded peasants are being attraeted to the Party. A notable issue Wel the CPI hes utilised in this regard Is the opposition by the lauded peanuts to the requirement forging them to sell their grain direvtly to the Covernment, and theraby to revolve less than they would by eelliso an the open market. The Cl'! hes sup- parted the rids peasanta in this stand end hes loudly condemned eveh plvedering tactics" by the !lowermost, There are several reasons why neithir the 3*rty sr the 4113 went to Champion demands vtleh woeld siverear affect the Merest* of the landed and rich peasants, The Party ramose that this mad "aggravate the eoefliet within the peasant vessels and weld tenpererilik vpset pageant unity." Actnellr, the Party Is probib4 else Wilt to hido the ultimate goals of a true Communiona program because it desires to capitalise on the desires of poor peasants to adds,* the material veelth of riot peasants. This particular ailments sometimes senses eonflicte, and in eeetioss of /*die where there are smell end medium landowners instead of "peasant vesses", the Cl'! bee faded the problem of hov to work for rent ?advances and at the sane time 'glutei* and strengthen peasant unity, Aceording to a Party dsessysts tbs 0010100 propoped in one -crowing, vas as follows' in the big landlord arose the goal vill be to orlanise the struggle against 'medlar*, and to seem rent redpetiont inother specifle areas, the strategy v111 be to organise maximum pressure throurh the anited kisan movement on the big lemd- owners for reduction of rent but without coming into a *lest vith the petty mad smell landowners. The big landowners will try to safeelmrd that?, reeitionbyraliyiem the petty oeleale to their svelsrto Ts sulk ease., the CPT suggests that a compromise with the pettyoimsri110 perked cut in order to organise united pressure against thebtg land- Weer, 1'71 reoognises eul fren the kant. Agricultural la hire oat toperform Chores for thcoe responsible for also inelpied are rural wage serners suet as bleekeniths, carpenters, ete. **cording le official Party domes/its, the agrioultleval laborers are to be organised separately ia independent ease organisations apart from the peasant orgeelsetions becanse..."firstly they have their 21 _Approved For Release 1999/418/24 ? CIA-RDP.78-00915R00070012 Approved For Release 1999/08/2 -RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 'It is to be remembered that championing the speeiel demands of seri the need of their separate oreentmetise aleoleccese evidemi. Tht Mege,Oreselesttea esejbe Party The Alle le, et emerge, the 'otiose wheels voider Cousedet Party aererien booties fel The *treaters o the .AT1S previa', fere Primary "MOOR Settee (All sobers mmet to eremesed Lute this omit) triet Item elates Proemial tines Siam (Theme direst depotowdigy Ill tele nese Committee end the Notre Mee Commeil ooveoll Ls the eneemtive creme of the All ladle Items committee seethe Seas) delegates' seeterweee at the AM Affiliated seism %hie the Kees movement, seemiderible f1abiIttr a.I sitemag, fleet with menet te the Promisee Items Sabha** The err tee **The prebleme regime the promisees ere varied eed emu oar by theProvissom. Ne esgsteweey direetleme and emidemee ven from the Center. !very effert shoed be mode te streeethee neal Mean Settee and Aerieetsral Leber %dem. They 'heed Tutelages** leading bodies of the ovaries movement in Me rosettes oftbe Alle should to reilistio end limited.. Approved For Release 1999/08/4 :?46 -RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: C - DP78-00915R000700120002-9 It should pool the give assistanee to atudyinpleNotasas, end Sabhaa to oreasise special kisas ci the large nenber of kis** cadres that are seems little AcIbt that the Provincial Risen Sebhas an authority aid control of teethes whieh point up tiii of the provincial approalh in 'radii'. rurthermoret the the Provincial risen Sabhas the riding role is diy.tewley agrarian tactics, has also elleued them to have sonsiderible freedom in adopting the aseessary oressisatiomal farms gullible for partieUler Indian provinces. rt some interest is this feet that at the Third CPT Catarrhal held in neeelher 1953, * greater esetralisation for the overall CPT wee urged. fforts have been made to make the heeds of the national lbmations of mass organisatioms speed a much greater portion of their time in Mew nelhl at Party headquarters. Yet the Visas movement head- qearters remains in Peagely mere amsessible to peasant areas. It would seem that deseadrelisatioe seems to he encouraged in this one sphere of Crt activities. The entire AIES etruetere remotions as the a the CPT. One of the tasks of the Party to to nopolorise Program and policies in order to ihow Its *stand is the service people*. Party prowl's& supports the slime of the ATMS as sayeassing the goals of the CPT; ATIS propaganda stream' the fact that the CPT also Ohamolons the programs, legislaturepetes, whigh the ATM domemds for the kisan movement. The CPT follows a mystematie sampaign of sending Party eadres from working, middle and Intelligeatela classes to work among the peasant masses and develop the kis** movement. At the same time, the 'Party eeeks the systematic recruitment Into the "PT of kilos and agriculturel Libor militants and their adveetion as rarty mentors. The tIpT has noted...*It is aboolutely essential that ve make a determined effort to pet eapeble peasants end agrlanitural laborers, vbe are actively *timed in their committee, to be ryn varlets sommittees at ell levels and tomato them function in them* so that Klein Seam' nor develoP as reel mass organisations..1'AM it is the aim of the CPT to *strengthen the ideolegical-politleal aid organisational ties of the Porte vith the millioes of peasants and agricultural literers.* The ATT3 serves the Party in this *in and also as a funnel to bring Tadia's peasant millions Into a broad united front where they mow be joined by etisse segments it the population similarly herded through the maehinations of other mass organisations. Party ?antral of the 4iIS structure reel. best mentership, but there are also five orgentsatiosal hierarehy of the Party. Th? nPI appoints a Central mesiber to be responsible to the CC for Party activities vithin a This brines Provineial Eisen Sabha., the guiding bodies of the Ream sevemento under the direct *cretin, of the CC. Similarly, the Provincial i4. &few Approved For Release 1999/08/2 : 8-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 of as nee to nes and in all oases will be Illustrativel the Provincial enseutive eonstitnte the Previnelal The embers of the g themselves a Pregladal by the Preclude' omm ttee of se organisation* and of rases movemeete Should are of a bade nature, decided by the Provindal .,ommittee in coneultatioe with the Provinciel !radian Committee eeneerned; other prObleme thoeld be taekted by the "notion Committee in conetltatiee with the Provincial Secretariat. There will be meeting of the Provincial rraetien immediately Were ari one meeting immediately after every meeting or the Preclude "As-cativo of the nese organisation involved. The rractioo Committee must meet at least one, in two mouths. The secretaries of the Practise Committees must **nit monthly reports to the Provincial Secretariat; eeples of these reports should be sent to the All India Tractive concerned Tho seeretaries of the ,raction Committees shoed devote thjrentire time te the week of the "raettems and the nese organisations to whiCh they belcmg end should set take op ether responsibilities. mare will to a nistriet tariat in with Party meahership of 50 and mere, ristriet nese treatable's-a and fraction eommittees should be set ve and a procedure should be followed se in the apse of preclude ?radices. eau be little doubt that the CPT eoutrels its mass ergenisatlems, ng the AIKS, from the top echelon to the grass-rode level. Sce, ?mesifie ctIgs Tactile employed by the Am an mpalms to .efforts by individual workers etic, the PT has sueoessfully exploited piece of legleletlea that has been enacted popularises any eneh law as a mietery of the that the lav represents a eoneeesica Which the Par SECRET Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 ? - DP78-00915R000700120002-9 ta one party to take up farmers and popular swam* not mimed tho agricultural organisational fiSh. the Gevernment of lend Worm lagialation in this distriatmoo after the Common:tete bed already bosons firmly entreadhed and did nothing to detrsot from the CPI popular standing. 7be Party eserted the reform made am ploomeal and tee little, while it claimed OA meat of oven this benefit Nkomo, of its kisan agitation This was ons rester actually sontributing to the evemins of tho CPI in erFavising a kisen mhba ix the district. The shove eituation points up * *mom 00-7muals grarian tactics in India-.that is, a frequent organised compet1tice6 Other radian parties have failvid ta Immo into the agrarian dphera. Whore rival kis= orginisatime la exist, Umyteve shown in sem instances an ebliity to draw members away from tbo nammunist organisations. But even in ors area whorl, t%ermunist popularity is known to have suffered as a result of intimidation and coercion tactics vhieh vers mod to briug agriarlWxi workers into Communist kisan seibhas, no important anti-Commist group mod to taks advantage of the ebbing roomiest popodarity and to build 4, mon.Commusiet, If not nese;p01ittee1p counter agrarian organisations. And mar* than ary other political pwrty, the CPT has showna particularly astute appreciation of tho political potantial of minority groups. Ihe CPI has *adored perhaps its greatest samosa es tho ohampion of the cause of linovistie provinces. Linguistic rogismalism has teen an important policy of the CPI, and linguistie agitatiom has boon suemesi fully applied to 010 ferfttiOR of ki0411 sibbas as wall. to Roussel, tha very nature of nammist agrarian proposala?oomplod with silemee the' wrong minims or ineffootivo competition an the part ef other poilt1oa1 partlike?otrangthsno th* Commiet position. The CAT is the only major Tmdlan party, for instance, uhlah adoleates the abolition of modadari (ioadierdism) without my oompersatiou to the annotating proprlotorvtom land is taken away. And bemuse non-leadoseng peasants in India Pay high rents and aro plagued by fragneetod fares, low pro. +nativity afti Nod-to-get moat, tho CPT proem ublob promises to correct them conditions has a tremendous appeal in rural areas where reforn is long overdue. Sipco many of the load refOrn measures 'meted by the loverment hams fallen far short of oeuvineing the peasant that his oanditime aro really being improved or that the Goverment is ilatermited in imwowlag them rather, the Communist program has aatually been enhaneed instead of constored by the (7evernment reform. 2$ qC! Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : Olt DP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Another tactic b.isg 1v.d by the err is a tis4n of trade union end kisem opera s, of course * fellows the united front etre is mot an &Mame pushed by other pelitisal parties. todelikr, the CPT emphasis peasant-id,.trial Libor front has been most netimmible slue* the CPT Third Congress in late 1953. Tn ens area, the err has recently moved the Metric,* kisan sibhe aid the nistriet trade mien season, previously located in different plass*, into one 'Wilding, this location also happens to be the headquarters of the CPT District Committee. Sines this memo followed on the footsteps of reports of timeliest:kg agrarian =rent in this area become of a wave of tenamt retailer, it is indiestiss of the alertness of the CPT to resegmise and empleit situations favorible to its growth. The Party (meets that the coordisatieft of trade gni= mud kiwis activities within Astriele will reset in a dleese ellen* of 'peasant and proletariat, with an increased ewareseas b sleek of the Problems of the other and a greater readiness on the part of one to support the demands of the other, All this weed enhanse the everell ability of the CPT to organise mese agitation and struggle and would contribute greatly to the meatiest of a Pelted treat, Ts many respites, CPT agrarian tootles reeall thole iselaAvred by the Chinese Communists. The CPT selects; and trains eadres togs out into the villages end week with the peasants. timorovewr possible, of couree, villagers themselves revises the Party cadres sent in from the outside. ithin one provinsial district, it has been reported that IS vofv1 time!' CPT workers were assigned to make up a %OM rearm:Me for building a village.Ievel propaganda organisation aimed at pepulsrising Communism. The channels for this propaganda program are reported to be &mien village headmen. The 'Indian village soundly or penehayat, is a group of 5 elders who are responsible for pluming lodgment on prectieelly all civil oases arising from village affairs. This is a traditional village method for settling disputes. A CPT penetration of the panthents tends to permit the Commulot Party to inflames panehayat deesioes to the advantage of Party prsoagastia. There is ecomeidereble *olden.* of CPT efforts to penetrate peach's:Ws, and, in a few earn, risT followers are knows to have become eembers. Ta areas where the eituatiem lends itself to a kisan campaign, a etaniard pattern of aetivity is followed, (Ummeellyi suet areas have considerable agriculture lands, a large peasant populatioeverbiag the land, and big landlords, CPT cadres and legal Aro nets, if amy, Viii agitate for public meetings and nags deeenstratiene in sonmeetion with some lone trouble. Petitions will be (Armlet*, sod the sign/stereo will be obtained of those victims of the proposed evictions, or whatever the local trouble coy be. wtore public mestizos aid destomstratiene will follow. 1Pinally, a Loeb by the peasants to the Notelet es Provincial capital might be organised, especially if this sem be joized in by some other left-wingpolitical gromerwhich has collaborated with the PT in the ?creation of a related front" within the area. Sioilerly, 5R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/744M78-0091 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : P78-00915R000700120002-9 before provincial Ideas eonferenee, CPT waters are always mitts* in neighboring villages creating enthusiasm for the fertheeming coefareses and vhipring op peasant tepee that the ooeferenoe viii help solve their prObleme. In collecting money in the rural areas, the Part, may approaeh people directly and explain to them the policy of the Party and the necessity of contributing to the Party fund. The CPI enplains how it Is earring and fi4httng for the interest, of the various classes of people. The Party *imply seises upon the meet pressing demands of the masses snd poses as the dhampion of these particular demands. A Party document has discussed some of the teatime to be followed in creating a separate organisation of agricetural workers within the kisan movement in one previnoe. According to this 4ecememt the lstrict Nps-littees will meet and decide where separate organi- sation of agrieniteral workers has to be get epi this weld be the ease *ere they are in large nuMbers? wherever they have developed as one class, and wherever their class oonecioneness has developed. In places where a separate organisatien has to be set up, a pUblis mooting should be called and in that meeting temporary committee of 7 should be oleeted. Nely those in whom the agricultural snorters have faith should be elected to the oonmittee. risen Sehha workers onn also 60 elected to these oommittees provided agricultural venters have confidence in them and sleet them. The document points out that within the Party there are comrades 'who have gained the sonfidemes of both Means and agrionitural worker, by their saerifioes, hard work etc." Vhile these comrades can work in both kisan and agricultural laborer organisation, the Party vents most of them to work in the egricoltural workers' organisation. As a eovemest bogies to be built up for the agricultural workers, the queetion of a constitution for en agricultural workers organisatioe should begone part of the movement. All the problems which arise to connection with creating an organisation should be, -_coording to the mil "takes up in pnblie meetings and then temporary committees should be elected." Tn this way, the CPT ORO create the kind of organization it desires and one which it will control As has been indicated, Indian Communist agrarian teetios very firom arse to area. This may be the result of different economic scentless, degrees of agrarian tension, or the attitedes of various Provincial govervesents which, in some instances, have forced the Party into a virtual nnelerereend existence. Tt may also be the remit of the degree of literacy of the population, for the CPT, like the CCP, seeks to utilise propaganda media which are suited to the particular lone inhabitants. In 00 northern previnees, for instance, the ert has reportedly been carrying on an Intensive propagaeda pregrae threegheet the villages extending from the Tibet border as Car south as Almon., Vtter Pradeeh. Aocording to reports, communist waste** in the area are constantly on the wateh for potential Party wickets among the local inhabitants. Visiting Commusist organisers indeetrinaie marmite in simple communist dogma and organising tectios for a period of about Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 2 or 3 days. They then reportedly rooters 15 or 20 days later to assess the trainee's progress, dimes preblems onseentered and revise eemomeeme- fel vethode. Sabsegasstly, the Part, organiser will maks return visits on the oversee of mos a month. Loma organisers, vbe receive emathly salaries, will po in turn from village to villaae, visiting is3ividua14 the houses or Oa, poorer families, often supplementing their appals* by giving money for foodstuff* eel nedietmes. These Ceemcmdst clebers rely mainly on individual evanseltsm rather them on the me of literate,* as a mesas to propagate lomemmist ideas, sins. the illiteracy rate in this section is very high Among the over-all CPT instrumeate for suseses, the e.t Pewee Bindle weapon has been the printing "rose. This enmeluslom is based on the feet that %die is a country Aare speelal reverence is attached to the printed vire and whore verfeletty is high virtue. The CPT has been extremely prolific. Observers have pointed out that if Communism triumphs is India* it will be to a large eldest the result of the intensive propaeanda eampaign shit& the Party has ranted on. Pamphlets, magasines and other publications of all sorts are leaned continuously by the CPT. At the some time, however, the long?tested Communist techelques of personal agitation have by no news been lebandoned. The Party is reported to have *liberate 04:motiona1 pro- grams which include teaohers' training schools and seheols for &avowed worker cadres. It puts on series of popular lectures, mists in self.ednoatiom prelims, utilises eagle lantern slides, films and pesters for the edneatiom of illiterate and semi-literate somrades. Tn general, it would appear that the Communists in Tndia have developed programs of agitation and propaganda that are imparter to these as yet developed by other political parties?end this development is certainly apparent in the Communists' agrarian tsetse. lu addition, Tadia's agrarian popelatten, like other segments of the population, has proved suseeptible to the Communist effort to instill a. sense of international brotherhood among the Party's adherents which ben proved to be important to dark-skinned people wbe ones smarted under the white man's lamination. Put the Nest encouraging factor favoring Commuelet savories tactics is Nei* eantinves to be the leek et op- position to Communist organisational week among the peassuts--perticularlY by the government of India. As lomg as the Goverment remains outside the sphere of peasant 'Activities, the ('PT will eontinue to exploit skillfully the nrebleas of the *grilles population and will askieve 111,008110 ? Vetfm--- Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08 ? - DP78-00915R000700120002-9 V. i4PVi. Couetries commnnist agrarian tactics generally fellow a umlted front etre gr (es issoribed in India) or the mere extreme path of portisen warfare (as described in China). !vest in oftetries vhere the Party is illegal but where it is not in fevorible position to undertake partisan warfare, the follows the united front strategy. gcn. Norther examples of Comrmumist agrarian tactics are disoussed telefir ip the following cases. A. rtdo.Chvi. no In Vietcong as ma, agrarian Unties employed nri to consolidation of the C,o'i,pzjst relies are nest pertinent to this serasy Those net agrerian tactics have borne a striking einlierit, to these rracticed earlier by the Chinese Communists. To the Viet MIth forme engaged in Partisan vertu", nanil reform" measures vers designed to achieve the greatest poesible support fro * population mode op largely of peasants. Indeed, threughant the agrarian rearm program practiced by the riot Minh leaders, it was evident that the NIMMIMIStil realised that the euseese of their revolntion depended an the SV4411011 of the agrarian reform program to organise peasant support The 71st Minh teehrigne?whether in the village or the city as to find a group of persons who might be rallied; to erate a mess movement by Wending their interests; and firelly to !nines these persons to fallow Commnmitst pansies end-to serve an egente. "tend Were" was the instrument for reaching, rallying and toadies the peasants In net Haag as in China, Avvarien reform and the mobilisation of the messes has gone hand-in.hand. A Tien minh doeument hes stated.... to mObilise the masses is to educate the sasses by propaganda so as to sake the masses conscious of their strensth and to onseereee them to rise un and fight for their rights." A Party document has *lee put the program in this vers....a0bjectives of the mass notilisatiom are not only to give land and rice to peasants but else to imam& to weaken as mueh as possible the politic,' ed esonomie inflnence of the reactionaries, to take the first stop toward bringing Polities2 power to the working peasants and testiest a few of their economics needitc to raise the political standard a step and to wake the oleos conseleuenees of the peasants to take the first step toward improving the village organisations And the Peasants' Assoeiation, consolidating the local administrative authority, consolidating end enlarging the Papules' 'Front in the villages boosting prodeetiem and giving impetus to the Aesistance." Agrarian testicle, in a country vith a predominantly peasant have (Away firmed an important phase in the evolution tie Pepublie of rioting% (tRS) regime alemg lives pre. communist, and partieulerly chives. Communist, theory for Approved For Release 1999/08/24: -RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 IfeRET"'""mm... seelemial aad seedricelseial" areas* beam* the first step for *smanhiag es1 propcoderamme of the landlords. Tt alfto vas the first step reforming varies* Pert, organisations, the legal power, the eselel struotere In rural areas, and in stronAr promoting the resisteneo. Tt ehanneled fOodstuffs !Or use by the Viet RI* formes. To addition to rent reductions, the Communist,' Initial agrarian reeve program else milled for ibelition of usurious intommAralms sad the "temporarre distribetion to landless peasants of certain abeeetee.ommed and meets lands. Ouly after the mass mobilisation bed profteded le a eotishidiari manner widths, llet Minh forme Obtained mistral ever cartein some of the country, could the ransom:tots issue new *arteries reform decrees *deb provided for confiseatiemo requisitiont or purchase for redistr1.- %Aloe by the *state* of all privatelyk.held laud, settle, and agrieelteral implements In excess of aerials ememets The meow in *ii the lead was to to apprinvrieted..4mdmight oonfleeation or cospoemated exereprille attea.derended on the Miami &Wired* and performance of the *lamd. lords. Chinese Communist tripods*, where "enemies* were reenandeed end psythologleal bold over the peamalis vas the *speak bitterness* meeting' fOr demenciet ems hotrod. Tn earrying out the *land reform program*, cretins mesibere for the Party, the net Milk leaders rsqdra knowledge of the various scale Alamo in the villegoe end the deter- nineties of an Indivtideml's eleastfleatien. As ems Party document pat I. of the greatest importenee to low whin ere oer tree Meads, who are our allies, and vbIch *lasses to wee in order to *oblate 'attend union." The National Committee of the Party etWested various teats for determining the !wooer classification of on* IndivIdeal, is general, the Viet Ram procedures followed these aped in China. The landlords become the taro. of tunediate att.* end later ether "enevies, suet as resctlemsry traitor,* cooed be Isolated owl dealt with. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CFA-RP 78-00915R000700120002-9 78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 SEMI to win over In newly ressosquered where the 60 of the villasee durisg Th. three orgemisa ems which were the at impartamt to the Comemaists were theme of the peassats. the yam, mem end the yommg wean en ecoditionas those organisations would 14 elandeetines overt. They *lied to the oolleetion of "twee" for the IRV aid in the enrollment of 'wag people te assist is propaganda work emeag the pessants. %hen a mien wee oesopled by the !reads or rietneseme forme, these orgenisatiome, while furnishing tisformatien to the vlet Mish forums also worked to progressively transfers the villages into *patri- otic villages*, then into "resistance villages's mod finally into "guerrilla nets.' Not only did Communist mageganda at "land reform" find a ready *adieus among the peaeastry, but *landlords* heave) Wm - caimans with *imperialists* or *forelan demi:otiose 0110 Of OW AOSt important aspects of the mess mobilisation the development of new cadres far the Party whieh would ty leaderships strengthen the leading Par* ?news eed relatioes between the masses and the Party. This develop. was esseetial to Viet MI* aotivities whether in TINV songs or In areas hold by Pres* and vistaless*. Within the larger Connumist effort to ovate a rated National rronts the Peasants' Aescodetion teases an 'agoutis' organs utilised to solidify Plwilf deeleettee ef the PeeeemtrYs aud to bring to the fere new peasant eadres far the Party. The Peasentel Association became an important instrument for the purging of "the feedallatic and corrupt element* in the eerie-es regions which have been taking advantage of the name of the ?rent to fight against the resistanee and against the poliey of the ?rent.* Peasant soiree were dereloped in study seselons held in the villa's* under the auspices G f the Peasants, Association. Ti the session., the peasestss *roves the study and enunciation of erimes, were Able to nes that *the crime were indiscriminately committed bry. the lenderners against all the ethnic minorities", and they would *clearly realise the nenommirs ef division of which they had beer the victims." P. Wend* cemmisist agrarian to that in Twilit. Ibile there sre e which might lend themselves to partisan warfare a there is no prevent indication that the !Wessels ommualist desires to purees sum. deliberate policy to the near Adore PIT Secretary-renerel has noted that tho Party Shoed do nothine pre- ? cipitens unless the peasantry and the siteatigeivere ripe for witless that to ro too far too gulakly would be edvemdarisn. The Seereterr- General has further noted that only.after the *peasants had won and were in control could the PIT lesidAiTtgailftWrewelettem** meewehiles the TIT actively perticdpetes in the governeeat (and beg sloe penetrated it), deriving considerable political advantage from the mutual emeperaties" 31 Approved For Release 1999/08/f17;778-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/0404rifilieeP^F'78-00915R000700120002-9 1th the Neti t of its arty whisb sentrals the government as with the Comemmists The PI/ utilises what it ealle the National Dotted Trost and it considers this to be the meeessary ingredient far the of a People's Democracy in Indonesia. The Party premiss that import. *lists, feedalists and collaborators attack all efforts to mixt oolemialise and feudalism in the country, and that the only wow te bring in a progressive opernmest is to Ohmgs the balsams between the imperialists, the landlords and the collaborators on the ems side end the power of the people an the ether. The PEI proposes to do this arousing the messes, especially the workers and the peasants. Like the CPT, the PIT is ware that the Party mmet guard apiast amy neahes. ing of its purity as a result of it. participation in &Trent; PIT leaders streen the fact that the Party net guide the National Prost but must also preserve its irdepeedence and net allow iteelf to be absorbed by other parties or otherwise loos its identity. According to the PIT, the National Trent MOWS an aliases ts and induetriel winters. Party documents stress the them! National Front must be led by the proletariat Amd that "the at in conjunction with its political party, the Communist be the architect and leader of the revolution and be the peasants.? There is this the familiar dogma of the and the ma bas not neglected its work *song indestrial the game time, the PKI lays greet emphabis as the need ed work with the peasantry. The official Party program that Indonesia is an agrarian ?gantry- and that the Party xt.nsive3y and thoroughly in the villages. re 195), the moral pointed out that the bests tasks of the Netimal in the ranks of the peasgmtry, slime 70% of the eta, and to cooperate with other parties and groups emphasised that the National Frost was the result by the PIT within these parties and other groe 4 be ineffeeteal melees eupperted by the testicle arechiefly directed at the CT Invited peamemt momeessip, for all tated that the formation of this one in away that eam he uniersteed, sad of different ideology. The strategy Aloe hes already resulted in the t frost of 110110 strength-_16 existing present organisations. least two ineartemt Mood croup under PIT control, and it other peasant organisation,. PSI at the penstratioa of peasant sr- Approved Fof-Re1ease4999/08124:-etA---R-13P741-009-t5R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 atlas been the tope neat on or peasants' ergamisetioes, by the Government. In some designed to build up a strewpess*nt .f by the looel Cou at.troflM peasant en foreigni4wased estates and, t the sane lent to rescind its order revairingall squatter, This technique has bed some success and is expeoted to spread to ether arose. While agrarian Tumble= are a resognised ooncern of the Indonesian loverneent and of other political groups, it is Obvious that it is the 'XI %/bleb is making the vest stresmees effort to eapitalise ea peasant desends end discontent and to build a strong* easel,' organised Pesseei movement under its domination, Althongh the Mats resognition of the inportanee of the peasantry has come omly in rusentylere, now that it oontrols the mein Inateesian peasant organisation it Is in a stronger position to influence this segment of the population. The Party Is currently pointing out to Its madam that they must not reaSh the OSTIMO4MO conclusion that in their district there is no Objective or motive around 'M?peasant 33 Ikerrm. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: DP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 According to Party documents, whenever peasants roast favorably during a meabersbip drive among them, a Mead must be read, to ato, In and provide leaderehip In order to make the peasants eves mere smare of the Nff's policies, The Party *trump the necessity of eonstemtly propagandising its program and aetivitr, palatine out that to maintain and increase Its inflames, its sympathisers must always aortics the ?tope the Party ill taking to resist the cruelties at the reastismemlse and improve the lot of the peasant, nespite the PIT's eardial relations with the government party, the individeal PSI approalh to peasant natters eas be seen in the propaganda twist it gave to the government's preassmee- meats on nationalisation of land. Testead of endorsing this ass good Commuuistic program, the PSI Seoretary-Caneral has r000mmeaded to ether Party leaders that no peasant libse a slogan which calls for giving land to the State. Sinop the bogie prOblem of the Pill Is to brim about a peasants' revolution, the Secretary Gemmel has noted that a PIT sloven might better be "land for the peasants," Moo a dodos such as "land for the man who works It" Is toe vague and might be Isundersteed In OUP'S where a capitalist ie working the /mad, The Secretary Mammal concluded theta good slogan for the PSI to use would be "distribute the land to the peasants and Ist emit major the modes* of his own land." Ina leveesin I in Tram o harassment and arupprisidaa Id arganisatica and dissiplise ran sad its discdplise and 14Pal ty In government or by amr prosonfarlog opposition. arty and its affiliated arnasisstions are all illegal, fli4mmmw Approved For Release 1999/08/2 : -RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 bastion that Is illegal een never.. hest erode/Ai Lt it light even to fere,* Despite its **Wag tip as eftleiest elsn&istii* g*ntsati in ran anti in ,,ast of the provisnee, in ne ite propaganda, snag seeuran 414011-615"' vectors and peasants The To:6We bests strategy for everthrewiug the precast regime appears to be the foresees of a suited !root et all to that regime. To this end, it is evident that the s that it suet muster support from sll Possible osesosts of Iranian society. Sines the coop of 1953, TIldiah has stepped up Its propaganda appeals to "workers, peasants, end patrietio capitalists" to form a nnited front with the Tedih. It has taken pains to alley the fokara of the "patriotic eapttallate by contending that the Tudeh does not oppose private ovnerdhto of property, but that it is eancersed with the well-being of all classes of the people, inaluding the capitalists, as against foreign ITmperialiea. it has anneuesed its willingness to cooperate with all other "anti.inperialist eeeietise in overthrowing the present government and in farming * nem reverneent vhich would Cheek all "interferesme by British and kneriean imperialists preeerve "all demoeratic freedoms" for politiaal seeleties and the press, and conduct frfte sleatices. To alley fears that it weed eentrel such a new government, the TUdeb has even eategerleally stated that It would "give full support to a united front ifororaloottwithout ammodia, a position 'within the government.* 'Web Party dominate strew, the need to fora a Inited ?rant somprieed of all anti.daperialist fere*a regardless of their political opinion, amid to cake IS..? the isdividtal groups' inalinatiams in Perty nrepageada. The Party suet therefore separately detail the antiAmperiallat wishes sad Inelinatiaas ef even' Class and group and make the Party's testa views enderstandsible to then an. wins 1 Intel the peasants. Al were more favorible, awing at that timap it was not na serious ettention wee dliedted at movement reaChed a peek in 1,4647 Democratic Repthlie, where some landowners land Ali* ves divided among the peasants. VIM* propagated by the governaeut la 1946, and the arcanisatien had te. b? disbanded. Naming activate* had sone sworn on the outskirts of Tlehros hut with the proscription Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/2 ? - DP78-00915R000700120002-9 ted orgaulantisme is I sew limited In its esti &sided to set up of the Pert, Itself, et to Oetater 1954. At this formulated bosom the IPO constitution. to feels peasaat sells Ins the Party area vas to the area. to be ?patrolled It thus biome increasingly obvious that covered the leportamoe of the peasestry. A Party *dues in early 1951 had already pointed this op2.**.w0er Pertrm the peasant as the most medal is tutorial polities.. .The mere vs eon attract the posseste, the more quickly' mill the strueture of sestet, be dumped." In 1953, Party doeuments were still proolaiming*,..*The poseante are not yet fully sweke. If the nation is to ashievefinal vi story this important miles must be solved because the peasants _got play an effective role in the revolution." The fest that the TPO? like its parent organisation the Tod0h Party, mos illegal did not discourage the Iranian nameeelets. In the peasant sphere, as is maw ether spheres, the Tudeh Party policy called for corresponding overt organisations to be vet pp beads the olandoetine ones. In 1951, the Party esti,up a legal ewer crousisation behind mbieh the IPO seed ?Perste mere effeetitea,* This wee called the Seel** for Aid to Peasants. Of the fifteen or go ester eeeisties set up* the Party in addition to its can clandestine breaches, the three Alai beve IMMO the most important, both in Tehran and in the privies*, ere; the League of Partisans of Peace; the National &misty for the Struggle Anima Imperialism; and the Society for Aid to Peasants. The activities anti lefleeree of the Society for Aid to Peasants hove steadily inereased, emphasising the importance and special effort given to peasant work by the TUdeh Party rsploitation of nemeamt grimmer' is the tdui.r Commemist streteey followed In Trost. Ivan mitheet Teal& **Heti.** as inereasing eweiresess of their oppression has been growing amoog the peesamtry* Tweak propaganda is therefore severed of e good reeeption. Seidel, for Aid to Posoents has established a midely-spread network, *ad It attempts to satisfy the peasants' health, asecelterel and odneational needs. In addition to its can eadres and propaganda media, the Sestet, Is Joined in its peasant campaign by Teems other Tpdeb organisational assets. For Instant*, the Party has made the struggle against illiteracy an important pert of its propaganda campaign among the peasants, and Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 IECRtT the Seetettrfer Strvjgl.. Assiut %grated with the doeistr for Aid ef the Sod** in the previseeit 'hi* the Ted* *geld work on the srtiet In mese arose of the through its front seeistys the wed then became the food pellet ?wish Party peasants, and it. astiml than in the urban areas, Altheagh the Tudeb mast neeeeeeri numerous meminpers, leaflets, lustrueti been ausilatle for distribution *M0if the peasants) costoins appeals foamed dirsetIr en the peasants. ?Ude& preplan& appeals are net only aimed at agrieultwal problems of the penaut, but they ales try to /roues men, the peanutry eamesimenes of their right to participate mare hilly in untiosel afftire and to deemed mere consideration from the Comment. ?he Shehte leei distributien program is attacked while the position of rural populating is Communist countries is ineribed in gloving terms, Peasants are versed that the raise *lasses wish to train and tarn then inie *Imperialist armiee and they *re called upon to *ink for pone and for the ernorreetioe and the makilleatine of their Immense potential strength for the on000 of Poem. The Party ham a2wmys stressed the and for trained and experineed members to go inte the me areas te marry em prepegamds activity, either by spenhes, ludisidual take sr distribution of preps- Kande medla. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/ : DP78-00915R000700120002-9 vtth the T Should be eacoarage4 to villages must distribute copies point up its support of the peasantry. walls on members to make tell use of their energies among the peasants. sometimes Party doeumeute have living in the tow= to help to further the eampaign *by velmeterily undertaking official duties among the peasants..? Other times, the Party is ewe emphatic, such as...."On ?ridgy members of year cell must go out to a village to contact peasants. /n general, Ndilh prepagmnda among Marxist line in its attests an the landlord aloes. is placed on the surplus labor theory of value, vig-go.vis landlords, en the exploitation and oppression by landlords, and on the wretchedness of the peasants' livee. The Communists preCleim that the only avenue open to the peasants to better their living eon. dittoes is to mite mew themeolves, follow the leaderShip of the 'PO and the NINA Party, and etreggle against the lamdlerde sad their agents on the farms. The Communists tell the peasants that they have been exploited and oppressed all them years bemuse they have net yet made the landlord* fear the power of a mined peasamtrY demegame that their "rights" be reeognised. The predeat of the peaseighotreggfie will be the end of emplaitation and oppression, the 'sliming of land, freedom and (by implioation) a healthier life and opportmmitiee for education Which are now denied them. D The I frost, or mines frost, the JCP bee been givimg Party's bee* of popular support new *traria to int/memo, Japan's target heretofore most reektant to P Th. JCP is utIliciagboth general amd specific tastier' to ta far the "nnifleatiom freer meow the farmers. Some ppeals pushed by the 010 were deseribed in the Comintern 15 Jannmry l'054: "the peasants are daemmding that they be Approved For Release 1999/08/2 DP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/2 ? P78-00915R000700120002-9 the and People $ policy of the Yosbids go.rnaent is poor* middle end MR the dascriptiom of success* however* vas bas been traditionally week is revel areas. meth an intensified Jrp effort toward political increase Its mess support* and both overt and escort increasingly apparent is the agrarian sphere. The infiltration of existimg farm organisatiens teem* a major Columnist taotio. Previoos Jer gageese is infiltrating the labor movement appears to have encoeresed a greeter onahalia as mart aatialtr in the oommtryside as yell. Communist efforts beve this bees direeted at influenciug existing farm organisations throegh exploitation of the hardshipegresulttni from the government's adoption of a Waffle& of eeoliomis austerity. At the soma the, there are reports of a :CP woultvral pregame for ferm villages* milli* owners all the mature limeade of the farmers and Which is espeolitilY daailaad to mat village youths god women, The *program" consists of servers on farm villages, the dispatehing of cultural motion oorps* various types of el lb astivitY the organisation of Choruses* etc. :Playing en important role in this program Is the Pare Culturel Assoolation (rek) Adak faastiaaa as * front for the nris, rims Communities Over-all %limos Department. It hes been reported that about 20 to 30 action sorpemen with nowe duties are dispatehed by the Party to 'soh :apaneee prefecture. Their assignments include visite to iedividull farmers and to the prefiretural government or agrieulterel cooperative melons in order to explain the 11004 at farsing an rta. These oultural elation sorpsmes else awry out it belonging typleally to the Propaganda Leticia Corps of the Party, and they is picture slides* movies* theatricals *to. The JCP has emphasised that the PCA nommont basll expend as rapidly as possible in order to help establish a *vpified firmer frame., This le Ube dens through serefel Party work., In nestle( in given village* for instance* *tires limed try to comeolidate animism on the status and politleal sigmlfloasee of the farm 'Sitars' mareemant. The, should Choose* through disoussies* a reeponsale parses f00 a Oven organisation. & meeting Should be milled to disavow the mew.- meat and Party and non-Party mesibers Arad together select persome suitable to take part in the movement. Within a gives lamas* a suit- able organisation ahead be milested to support the Pm, kid *meld be requested from orgamisatioms and individnele that airiest* mod carry out culture' laisamata. Appeals ahead be directed to individual 39 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : 78-00915R000700120002-9 studeate, of culture antertalaors, teohnisiamo, agricataral cooparativa valons, fain esionent leader, and all businesemem ooneerned with tha avatars of fame should be medo to serkwhe are popular In their rasp. Altar the advocates are desided won appeals tar the !CA ahead he mela under joint signatures, and in es intaroot as poasibla. Th. Jev, ecasiders that the "oulturel program inclides vstortaluments Walth *24 )7gione oultural 'memento*, better living standards and agricultural tochniquis?virtually the outlre maga of farm village demands. Currently, the popolartsation of the "Illohlrin owlet-discovered premiss of pre-treating moods te angora early fermi tiom and rapid growth--is also being employed by thaJP sis a lajmr webiele for promoting its popular appeal In rasa areas, reforming the ideologies dominant aeon, Japanese fervors and ostibliOhimg a nnified firmer front. Overt and ?overt 'Party Propaganda publleations and direativos have been plugging this method. Miahmain Study nabs have been fermi throughout Japan; in May 1954, It ties reported that ths national Maoris Scoloty had branohes In 39 of Jonents 46 Probooturol6 "is Jape:nes, Couvumists hove bees utilislag the Mieberin theory sines 1951 an a devise for spreadiag Communist propagandaduring ootensibly nom. political discussion, or now farming methods, Pat 'arrant attempts to Immo, the numerleal strength of the tiichirla study slabs point to a greatly accelerated drive among the rural populatiam. Althomeh tha Miehurin process may not ba ea offeitive as some other methods developod for the same porp000, it apparently is initially loos expessive end VMS praeticable for IA41,141201 farmers. These advantegos to the Japan*** farmer, quite apart from whatever political implioations surroned its propagation, may lend considerabla popular import to this partisaa? offort of the Jrp, rn mg, 1054, one rural Japans.. sOhool had institoted a oompulsory conrea in Michurin thorn, although losal authorities denied amy propaganda intent and maintaluod that it was purily a lab scums immolating of experiments with flowers barrio*, and ries. Nevertheless, it would soon that tha JO? had &sad a potent lever where- by it can set rp a network of front aericultural orgenisatioms and *tibiae* a maasurso of loadorship among the semis* population. CP propaganda has sloe given attention to Communleats iater. national agrarian strategy. The three Japanese delegate, to the World Agricultural sad roraotryVerkers Coufarenee la Oldster 11053 Iwo widely voted as to hov the Conform,. 'had openod their eyee to Maw greeter advances made by the democratic forces" and that they van "pertioulartr mod by the sharp rise in production realised primarily around olhols". The three del:sottos were members or tits pri.Oommenist nnification faction* of the Jowl rarmers %len, presently a %rivet of JCP infiltration tactias. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/21MDP7?-00915R000700120002-9 as in modern western senntriee hada, appiar to owe much to the imperials* ) otuaIly, this =prime' has of the merle haying few sombers t alas.. ut to western roomed st Partite, the prineipal lesion of the T esporiense V*11 the demonstration of certain erarisn tactics Whieb could be used to build a significant agrarian in a wintry where there already easted a movement fametioming under Commmast tactics may thus be very similar to those already countries of the Far end Middle leetv spittle an experiense &mold point np the taitisal program to be eoneerted from crinumist Parties in their efforts to increase agrarian tension in areas of the Vest. It was as a meet of efforts to redress its earlier failires among ?oral populations that the PT evolved certain general priaciples of agrarian polim. The PCI found that it vas neemeary to *PAY different testicle parts of the eountry asmording to the loaal agrisaltoral PCT directives emphasised the need ter a mmeh greater tactical and diversity in the Parte' eigreries Prafrea than that its policy for industrial areas. Its method* of orgamisation into imeoent the scattered and widely distributed mature cultural labor forest, the eeesomml Ohmmeter of an important cultural work, and the different classes existing within population. Its appeals eould be of a permanent or temporary in response o a "articular need. The PCI also learned that Uwe* preferable to organise the tare proletariat (rural wage earner) amd eeasproletariat (a earner vho also anis a small piece of land) on a normal trade and, at the same time, to separate meh organisations from those created for the peasant. There we. eaffident ikirdlarity between the industrial preleteriat and the esrioulteral worker to permit the latter to follow the more rigid trade union pattern.. amit'the imegamie and soeial demands of the peasants as a glass were recognised to differ from tilos* of the lime workers, and the PCI semeluded that their forms of organisatiom must therefore be different. tor the peariants there could be leagues, eommittees, assoolations and sooperative societies- - but the title was less important then their Objectives and methods. 'he important aspect or...toed by the PCT was that there should be associations designed speelfloally for the peasants end adopted to local requirements, and that these sheen to separated from the trade union pattern whighvas suitable ter the agrarian wafter. ThAs did not mean, however, that the PCI deviated from the established Communist doctrine sonogram an allow between the Approved Fo-r-Release- ? ? ? - ? se* roils Si mos Approved For Release 1999/08/ ? CIA-RDP78-00915R000700120002-9 'POT MOP017 sought to were designed JO WNW * and thee rt jUni oes as well es saes Thus is /tar Owe strwetore *Meeting the agrarian of Lod varkers is Cogreuaist.00ntrollid is seminally imAspeadent froa the Italie* Libor (MIL), *lee Comministweemirelled* there are sabeidierles, of whiCh the twe thee* of the fere taborer and the Share-erepper?.461 To emphasise farther the argaalastional distinction preletafiet and peasant, the Malian ageloolirrel proletariat 0001**1PreletartetWAINg ta the tericoltara sad forestry Verkers Trade %Ica latereational and *Ise to the Mg by virtue at their aeihordhip in the Mil * MU affiliate* TUT is also treat* peasant asseoistiome which jag the t.M but this is ea a separate volgastax7 basis sleet* the Laid V mot affiliated wt.* the OSTL or the War, oggstlies to be separate from these ot the *Meg* they are eeeposeati of. soma e thr elltesor of earlealteral 101~ sad peasant sports associations, ead. ether /nos terse ormaisa bbile the weesagets were orgamised in * Isom as varying *Ohion and as the basis et Immo largely lagoariarpoessesion at lead the agrioultaral proloterlat was organised as vageoserams. The PC/ realised that its wain effort *Mold be direeted et the wags servers who i, according to the Commentate, the beekkome of the class somas- *got in the comisrlide, yet ettile roma atritatioa *odd be sere eeeni rammatad maw the sgrarianwsgo.4arsers, the PCT realised that vilitent orgosisetioas *meg the peasants ewe w000sumr, to flogyart the agrarian 10140-hovolors and Wild * ooltd Warta* treat. lag* a frost could thee merge with the ever6411 "united front" and be awe effeetivally 'tinsel to sepport other Pr/ suipsigme, so* es thee* at the indoetrial worker** 6.4(thErmwm. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA- DP78-00915R000700120002-9 Approved For Release 1999/08/24 : - P78-00915R000700120002-9 the Party organisatim is the South; mammon were net velemed. Than the esalingumbirs from the South to training they mad study Party wsek for 6 moths the WI sidled far now methods eid ustead of reeratilmrimmihere far itself, Tose the simpler firms of moo snail mists, net up meliorative*, emeourmed ort to meats a breed agrarian front oonrod At this time, it also elearly saphaelied the need erg/Imhof to the different eateeeries of the aerarian At the letiirmatiomel omferemos of the Asrioultural and is in Ottober 19% the usikership was urged to study ee the ?CT and its agrarian testis* A measure of the PCPs ausemsfe organisatiomal work amomg ties was dememstrated in the mummer of 1,54. During nil, firm mions.Foderderra lid Padertmesienti.begea end agitation smog agrioultural workers in Northern Theme strikes van, gemerallr short and sporadic but demons tinted a definite pattern of cal polio,. Tu the Promises Of 'ITT*iR this patters was smtended and the Commmnists really de- monstrated the extent if their power. A Cememist-oallod strike or agricultural laborers virtually paralysed the outlive menomie life of the 'Allele Proillinsol Communist stnisseth Via sulk that nee.Coarmist firm mime meld mot make their voices sad inflame felt mem on issues mkt& they supported in mom with the Commutate. Taloa* up the strike, the COIL had eetiviets read, to fellow guerrilleplihe tactic's when mummery. It bad a legal eommittee set up to free them arrested. In some areas, it had an organisation for aellestimg greim from small land mums who, either through fear or &moire, and. me- tributions to the strikers There is little agrioulturewmeters fora an important bloc* of COIL strength. nay, the agrieultural labor gr aup is the most depressed .eeieahijr, met subject to sesial le. Jurtier, and met neglected in terms efeduoation. %Able to solve their ma trebles, rural workers are often euseeptible to the appeals of authoritarian ageacies of either the right or the left 'shish promise a ready mower. Put strikes and agitations smog them are mealy net of the dramatic nature of similar *sties among industrielmmters, said perhaps this is why the Communists time net mod their agricultural ersonisations mars frequently in mess stations. Tot the strike in rowan its eviienee of this plower under the control et the Communist Party in this and other arms of the ommtry. Although eCTL straw* la not spread universally throughout Italy, present indications are that intensive effort is tieing made to omptere the loyalty of the vast farm population in the South which etill has far less Nimunist in. flumes than does the north Daring the Ferrara strike, Ceramist Approved For-Release Approved For Release 1999/0812tglitilDP78-00915R000700120002-9 were to proelate this sg4i, (the werbars) aro glean sand and materia1 support not emir who bare airsally been snaessatsd. la their strew/Jo 0 by the Td.ddle metier 4' the peasantry. 44 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: P78-00915R000700120002-9