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November 11, 2016
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July 1, 1959
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Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION II. CASES OF DISCOVERED FORGERIES A.. Multiple-forgery campaigns B. Single-forgery campaigns C. Forgeries in 1959 D. Descriptions of specific forgery campaigns III. THE TECHNIQUE OF SOVIET BLOC FORGERIES A. Political objectives B. The "secret documents" used 1. Form in which surfaced 2. Types of "secret documents" fabricated C. Source Materials 1. Fact 2. Fiction D. Crudities and Errors 1. Mistakes in fact 2.. Mistakes in format 3. Use of British spelling 4. Use of British expressions 5. Use of expressions which are foreign 6. Mistakes in U. S. military terminology 7. Operational carelessness in referring to dates 8. Operational carelessness -- using typewriters which betray IV. SURFACING AND REPLAY/ TECHNIQUES A. Areas and operational methods used in surfacing 1. 1957 2. 1958-59 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001200080008-2 B. Replay - methods of delivery to target audiences C. Combined use of overt and covert assets, , , kmm using the ISRAELI GENERAL STAFF Campaign as example: 1. Rumor campaign - France 2. Diplomatic report - Lebanon 3. False intelligence report - Italy 4. Press allegation - India 5. "SECRET STRATEGIC PLAN" forgery surfaced 6. Soviet "whisper" - France 7. Press replay on "French/Israeli plan" - India 8. Blitz replay ties FRENCH/ISRAELI GENERAL STAFF PLAN with SECRET STRATEGIC PLAN - India 9. USSR adopts the SECRET STRATEGIC PLAN l0. Press replay - India 11. Press replay - USSR D. Types of operation used in covert/semi-covert surfacing 1. False intelligence reports 2. Rumor campaigns and "whispers" 3. Mailing "black" 4. Hand-to-hand distribution 5. Clandestine newspaper as surfacing point 6. Covert planting in overt non- CP newspapers 7. Clandestine radio 8. Semi-covert: official distribution V. ASSETS USED IN SURFACING AND REPLAY - OVERT A. Located within the Sino-Soviet Bloc B. Assets located in countries of the Free World Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001200080008-2 VI. ASSETS USED IN SURFACING AND REPLAY - COVERT AND SEMI-COVERT A. Assets located within the Sino-Soviet Bloc B. Assets Located in Countries of the Free World 1. Soviet Assets 2. East German Assets 3. Czechoslovakian Assets 4. CHICOM Assets 5. Non-CP press assets used in covert surfacing VII. NOTES ON CENTRAL PLANNING AND ORGANIZATION OF FORGERY CAMPAIGNS A. Possible Soviet origin of internationally distributed forgeries B. The Soviet Center C. The East German Centers Political targets 2. Black propaganda against military targets VIII. ROLE OF UNITED ARAB REPUBLIC (UAR) MEDIA IN DISTRIBUTION OF BLOC FORGERIES IX. ROLE OF THE CP PRESS IN FORGERY DISTRIBUTION OUTSIDE THE BLOC X. EFFECTIVENESS OF FORGERY CAMPAIGNS Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 SINO-SOVIET BLOC PROPAGANDA FORGERIES 1 January 1957 to 1 July 1959 SECRET/NOFORN Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For - DP78-00915R001200080008-2 I: (INTRODUCTION and psychological warfare operations in countries of the Free World. The term of the Jo&M operandi and organization of covert Sino-Soviet bloc political action "covert political action and psychological warfare" as used to clandestine operations which are conducted for the purpose of influencing public and/or governmental opinion in the target countries along the lines desired by the Bloc. It does not apply to activities and propaganda which are overtly attributable to Communist parties or front groups, 41~ to operations conducted solely for the purpose of collecting intelligence on behalf of Bloc governments. One of the classic tools of covert psychological warfare is black propaganda of the type known as "deception" or "misinformation" ~?+e device; used for this purpose is the forged document which offers seemingly incontrovertible evidence of a "fact" or set of "facts" which the forger wants his target audience to believe. It is to this aspect of covert Bloc psychological warfare--propaganda by forgery--that the present study is devoted. Propaganda by forgery is not by any means new in Bloc operations, but a noticeable increase in its use in 1957 and 1958 led to an intensive investigation of the subject. This study covers internationally- distributed forgeries only. It does not touch upon the equally important subject of propaganda forgeries which are targeted at a single country and are surfaced and replayed within that country only. Such forgeries appear from time to time in various parts of the world sad. West Germany, in particular, has been flooded with them {-asen& - 3efly:a a as~s~snt.d icy a irf -thivvs i during the past few years. a V r g propaganda) t?XXEE ~ ~ is a function of the foreign intelligence services of the Bloc countries, closely directed of the world with information supplied by Soviet and East German defectors indicates in the field of foreign affairs (as distinguished from ideological CF th t black -nn a ands/ Correlation of field reports on individual operations observed in various parts internationally-distributed forgeries in-.the- past_.# - T have been delivered to their target audienceesa r}d t~ i ccomple pa ern of overt, covert, semi-covert and official media throug ? ~''~ ^~' ' e ake ee gal by high-echelon units of the Communist Party. The ftGQ*VftOy with which ti" *The otrtwoareCl in P,,bl Information Action CasHis' o rsive Act vitiee , i loch y orhange Si'.. O-So ` t Bloc. resentatiz T hin Com - of cal. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 I. cont . , , i--T 1,~ 1~ ~s this study before definite conclusions can be drawn. 1-0 0140 the possibility ` a single, central prrt ,e f planr g and prepar n of the forged documents, hrres More information on this point is needed, however, &A1111' ~~ e tint ernational7 r i c signs a-ceriai-nty and br -Up W?1=a el-) tw lw to be a breakthrough. in knowledce h operations, + H~..a~wmr-. covert political action and psychological warfire of v i c. ing propaganda forgeries, is formation supplied by 25X1 C5b 25X1 C5b had duties) the nclature of the Soviet intelligence services, but study of his information against th `of previously known data on the RIS makes it fairly clear that the 25X1 C5b unit for which he was co-opted-was individuals who recruited him'1for this purpose tin Moscow>were rr-presentatives or the Foreign Intelligence Directorate of KGB,== are directly controlled by the KGB through political intelligence officers in the on the basis or p onservatiz.on, wito, r1 V~Jp10.VSVLLV A Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 -3- Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001200080008-2 II. CASES OF DISCOVERED FORGERIES In the period 1 January 1957 to 1 July 1959,ja total of thirty-six forgeries of known or apparent Soviet Bloc origin were distriputed to targets outside the countries in which they first appeared. Attachment 1 ~e-e~i-s~ ff these documents, in chronologice order of surfacing.. As indicated therein, the thirty-six forgeries appeared as follows: 1957 19f -8 1959 1st quarter;,' 3 2 3 2nd quarters 0 6 1 3rd quarter 6 4th quarter -. 12 20 4 (first half of ye Multiple-forgery campaigns 1. An odd characteristic of the 1957_59 forgeries aa-w-wh-r is that they rarely come singly. Of the total of thirty-six known forgeries, thirty were clearly established by their content (and frequently by Bloc editorial comment as well) as preludes to or "confirmation" of other fbrgeries. Following these lines of interconnection, these thirty individual forgeries emerge as the component parts of ten separate multiple-forgery campaigns. The campaigns are listed in tabular form in Attachment 2. 2. The BERRY LETTER. CAMPAIGN The method in which a multiple-forgery campaign is developed is illustrated by the BERRY LETTER Campaign, which began with a series of remarks made by Nikita KHRUSHEV in November 1957,aady the time of its final replay in December 1958 had involved the surfacing of no less than seven separate forgeries. (Whether the KHRUSHCHEV role was planned as the first step in the campaign or whether his statements were simply drawn upon by the BERRY LETTER writer as idea material is unknown.) Prelude : In the TASS release quoting KHRUSHCHEV's 22 November 1957'interview `fel s: "I would like to-express my views with regard to statements Aly made by certain representatives of military circles and published in the press. It was reported that, allegedly, a part of the American bomber force, with hydrogen and atomic bombs, is constantly in the air and always ready to strike against the Soviet Union. Reports have it that one-half of the planes are in the air. This is very dangerous. Such a situation serves as an illustration of the extent of the military psychosis in the United States. When planes with hydrogen bombs take off with three American journalists (William f,ndolph Hearst, Jr., Frank Conniff and Robert Considine), KHRUSHCHEV was quoted as Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915R001200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Release 1CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 II. K. Y. cont. that means that many people will be in the air piloting them. Th Is Al=o the es bil t of a t blackout when the pilot may take the slightest signal as a signal for action and fly to the target that he had been instructed to flv to. Under such conditions a war may start purely by chance, since retaliatory action would be taken immediately. Does this not go to show that a tart as result of sheer ers , a derangement in the normal psychic state of a person, which may happen to anybody? Such a horreible possibility must be excluded. It may be that both sides will be against war, and yet war may still start as a result of the military psychosis whipped up in the United States.... Even if only one plane with one atomic gr one dro en bomb were in the air, in this ease too it wool be not the Government but the pilot who could decide the question of war." (Underlining supplied to indicate statements on which the BERRY LETTER was apparently based.) Basic forgery: The BERRY LETTER Some five months after the above interview, on 7 May 1958, the official East German Communist Party (SID) daily Neues Deutsohlaixi surfaced a letter purportedly written by Assistant Defense Secretary 1} Frank B. BERRY to Defense Secretary Neil McELROY. The letter stated that 67.3 percent of all U. S. Air Force flight personnel. had been found to be psyehoneurotic, a condition which led to all sorts of phobias, unaccountable animosity and other irrational behavior. It mentioned excessive drinking, drug-taking, sexual excesses and perversions and constant card-playing as further evidence of the general breakdown, adding that "moral depression is a typical condition of all crew members making flights with atomic and H-bombs." Attachment 3 is a copy of the BERRY LETTEi. as surfaced in Neues Deutschland of 7 May 1958 First supplement: The M CRASH (true) Having thus provided "official evidence" that KHRUSHCHEV'a "pilot who could decide the question of war" was, in two--thirds of all cases, mentally unstable, the planners of the BERRY LETTER methodically supplied "examples." The first was a plane crash in England, reported sane Si t , item o 17 June 1958 and tied w th the BERRY LETTER by RADIO MOSCOW on 18 June. ( The crashl actually Wm occurred ~ #nt -ha s. x ever been fully- c~hvakedr ice' ~`~r? nitized Approved For Release :`/CIA-RDP78-00915R001200080008-2 cont. Second supplement: The U. S PILOT LETTERS (f forgeries) The next step in the campaign appeared on 3 July 1958, when the Soviet Embassy in London released to the Western press and the British Foreign Office a letter purportedly written by a U. S. Air Force pilot stationed in England, in which the pilot threatened to drop an atomic bomb in the North Sea near England, in order to alert English opinion to the dangers of an accidentally-triggered nuclear war. On 4 July RADIO MOSCOW tied the letter 4116 the BERRY LETTER and the MORGAN crash. The letter and the fact that it had been released by the Saviet Embassy attracted extensive comment in the non-Communist press throughout the Western world. No doubt in the hope of repeating this delightful burst of publicity, the Soviet Embassy in London released two more "U:S.PILOT LETTERS 0 "(along the same lines as the first but varying in detail) on 9 July and still another on 15 September 1958. These were virtually ignored by the press. Third su lament: The POWERS ORDER Fore in allejation form On 2 October 1958 the campaign was given another push when Neues Deutschland published an article claiming that the indiscretion of a USAF officer stationed at Kaiserslautern, in West Germany, had disclosed the recent issuance of a secret order by Strategic Air Command (SAC) chief General POWERS, forbidding any flights over U. S. territory by planes carrying atomic or hydrogen} bombs. Bloc replay promptly tied this (non-existent) order -uM the BERRY LETTER. Fi'r'th supDlement? Content of the forged SCHLAGZET envelope In December 1958 the BERRY LETTER campaign received what seems to have been its final replay, in a booklet mailed "black" in West Germany. Forged copies of the mailing envelopes used by a bona fide West German periodical named S_S gzeug were mailed in West Germany,to an estimated 4,000 addressees. They were accurate forgeries of the real Sghlagzeug envelope except for one detail: they carried a West Berlin return address which, on investigation, proved to be a vacant lot. The envelopes contained an overt East German propaganda booklet, with the address of the KULTURVERLAG DER DEUTSCHEN JUGEND (Publishing Sanitized - Ap eaoF &utb(DiAjiRDRZB-oMliiLR00 Q Q%8iZs _6_ Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 II. A. 2. cont. devoted to a suggested "culture program, giving songs, skits, -.e:. .n 1c for use as an amateur theatrical performance. One of the songs, printed complete with score for piano accompaniment, was a direct tribute to the BERRY LETTER. Freely translated, it ran: he FFllying Psvohoneuro_ by Werner BRAUNIG There flies Jim from Alabama, there flies Jack from %nnessee high above the city wearing heated pants, with the bomb aboard and the Psychoneurosis, and on the automatic pilot is printed: Liberty. And what can happen.._ how does that concern us? That does not concern us at all! There flies Jim from Alabama high over the State of Wisconsin and there is a city and people walk in rows, and there is a (psychoneurotic) crack and he shoots them up-- there were a few people killed And if such a thing can happen-_ doesn't this concern someone? Doesn't this concern us at all? There flies Jim from Alabama Over you, and over me. With death in his head, and then he sees red, and he pushes the button and it's over for you and for me: And because that can happen tomorrow, it does concern us; Mankind! It even concerns you .,$ Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 .Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 II. cant. The ltple-forgery campaigns show some indication of a pattern of annual targeting for 1957 and 1958. As shown by the content and the emphasis in replay of each. campaign, they have been targeted primarily as follows: ZgMet 19 jq Worldwide 1 1 Middle East/Africa 1 2 Asia 1 1 Europe 1 2 4 6 have been targeted at Middle Eastern and Asian audiences and% at worldwide audiences, making a total of A' of the 1 campaigns targeted wholly or in part at.,audiences in the industrially underdeveloped areas of the world, while of the .6single forgeries were targeted at Asian and African audiences. During this period there has been occasional replay of propaganda forgeries to audiences in North and Latin America, but no forgeries have been reported as surfaced in or targeted primarily at countries of the Western Hemisphere. Sinele forgery campaigns Of the,hr":torgeries which were launched singly, one (the O'SHAUGHNESSY LETT R) was established by its subject and 11 as part of a known East German IS operation. The other,-"were overtly launched and thereafter died on the vine, with little or no subsequent replay. The a' re shown at the end of Attachment 2. Forgeries in 1959 Thus of the total of cam psi gas surfaced in the period 1957_59, No new forgery oampaigns appeared during the first half of 1959, although new forgeries were surfaced in continuance of,2rof the 1958 campaigns andA new single forgery was launched. Replay on certain of the campaigns begun in 1957 and 1958 also continued during the first half of 1959, as shown in the final column of Attachment 2. DescriRtios of s~-e cy i c forger y csrpains The known propaganda forgeries which were internationally distributed during the period of this study are described, by target area, in Attachments, through T Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 III The Technique of Soviet Loc For r to iea Political objectives The political objective] of the 1957-59 forgeries, viewed as a whole, can be defined simply: creation of a climate of Governmental and :met public opinion which frill tend to (a) break up the Western Alliance and (b) discredit the West in general and the United States in particular areas o g N4 r he The specific objective of each of the propaganda forgeries has been readily identifiable by its content and timing, and often by accompanying Bloc editorial comment, as an effort to supply 'documentary confirmation" of propaganda charges which were being made at the same period through conventional Bloc media. The BERRY LETTER, for example, "proved" the unreliability of indivi dual U. S. pilots in the midst of a Bloc propaganda campaign against the flights of the Strategic Air Command (SAG). The ROCKEFELLER LETTER "confirmed" chronic Bloc charges of U. S. Imperialistic aims, while its DULLES MEMORANDUM supplement "proved" that the recently announced Eisenhower Doctrine on the Middle EaDt--a. major current target of conventional Bloc p e14U. S. propaganda--vas simply mete in implementing the~U. S. imperialist policy. As the content descriptions in Attachments 4 through 7 show, the specific propaganda objectives of the 1957-59 forgeries have included: "q nfi mation' - of f: ,1U. S. imperialistic aims (ROCKEFELLER LETTER Cam i Charges made in the chronic "U. S. plots" and "Western plots" propaganda (TAIPEH CABLES, FROST LETTER. and ROUNTREE CIRCULAR campaigns and several of the single forgeries) 'Current propaganda charges concerning the SAC flights as a danger to world peace (BERRY LETTER Campaign) ~U. S. plans for large-scale military aggression (U.S. SOLDIERS IN LEBANON Campaign)- jlEfforts of a belligerent U. S. to sabotage plans for a Summit Conference (MMIT CONFERENCE DIRECTIVE) Fan French and British distrust of the U. S. and, secondarily, of West Germany (HOOVER LETTER Campaign and the O'SHAUGHNESSY LETTER), (:-Discredit anti-Communist emigre leaders and the U. S. in particular, and the west in general, in the eyes of Bloc nationals and emigres (CESKE SLOVO Campaign), Bloc efforts to: t'' Fan U. S. and Arab distrust of France and Israel (SECRET STRATEGIC PLAN Campaign) Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Releasbj: CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 III. 4I cont. Presentation of the propaganda message within each of the forged documents is far from subtle. An example is the HOOVER LETTER. The forgery itself is a long, rambling document, but its message appears succinctly in the opening paragraphs, which (a) establish that the writer is offering the addressee a job and is making the offer on behalf of the U. S. Government, and (b) define the job: "You will never persuade me that we might find a better person to work on the project. Do you seriously believe that there is someone else who would know how to grab and hold on to the good old Sahara Desert the way you would? They think highly of you in %shington and give your abilities full credit. I don't have to tell you about the importance of African oil.?' To avoid any possibility that target audiences might miss the point, replay comment usually explains it again and as bluntly as possible. Continuing with the HOOVER LETTER as an example, RADIO MOSCOW explained in replay that the letter showed "the desire of the U. S. monopolies to seize control of oil wherever it is found in the Middle East, and that the State Department gives them all possible aid." The content of the letter itself made its primary targeting at France clear, but to be sure the message was not lost on this audience, RADIO MOSCOW broadcast a comment in French citing the letter as proof that "the United States desires to prevent France from settling her disputes in North Africa in order that the U. S. may take over the resources there." Another example of editorial lily-gilding is provided by,Bloc comment on the ROCKE",ELLER LETTER. The forgery itself was purportedly a plan for achieving U. S. domination of the world, in part through military alliances but primarily through economic aid programs. In surfacing the letter on 15 February 1957, Ngues Deutschland supplied its own paragraph headings for the various sections of the letter. These included: "American Prestige Catastrophically Fallen" "What is Good for Standard Oil is Good for U. S. A." "Iranian Foreign Policy under U. S. Control" "Economic 'Help' yaws Military Pacts After it" "Forcing Neutral States in Direction of U. S. Wishes" "Bring Colonies of Others under U. S. Control" "Re 'Selflessness' of U. S. Assistance" Comment in a later replay by the East German press agency ADN was equally forthright in explaining the ideas the forgery was expected to convey: "ROCKEFELLER's letter to EISENHOWER is causing a stir throughout the world. Indignation at the plans for brutal enslavement and oppression, hidden behind what is termed aid, is running particularly high in the Sacitiatdes dv FXbrNe DWLVA-F Y- 00915 R001200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Relese : CIA-RDP78-00915RO0120008Q008-2 RADIO MOSCOW, in a broadcast in Indonesian to Southeast Asian audiences, also removed all danger that its listeners might miss the propaganda point, by explainiing that the ROCKEFELLER LETTER "shows decide the direction of -the foreign-policy the U. S Government, which that the imperialist interests of ROCKEFELLER and other U. S. billionaires --le-the fascistic executor of their wishes."------ Lorm. in which surfaced R Facsimile reproduction. Attachments 3 (copy ) of the BERRY LETTE and 9 (copy of the ROUNTREE CIRCULAR) are examrnles of this form of surfacing. Used in 22' of the..36 forgeries. kr'Verbatim quotation of the text of the alleged documents, with no effort at facsimile presentation. Attachment (copy of the DULLES MEMORANDUM) is an example. Used in,6 of the 36 forgeries. Allegation only, i. e. disclosure of the details of the alleged document with no attempt at either facsimile reproduction or verbatim quotation. Attachment 2x 11) (copy of the BISHOP DIRECTIVE) is an example of this #,'W. While an unsupported allegation is not, strictly speaking, a forgery, the surfacing and relay system used for these forgeries-by-allegation is the same as for the other two types. Allegation of the existence of the document in question is sometimes a prelude to surfacing in one of the other two forms, while in other cases the campaign may run its full course on the psis of the allegation alone. Used in 8'of the 36 forgeries. A propaganda forgery may be surfaced in any of three forms: Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Rele1ape : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 III. 19. cont. Types of "secret documents" fsricated Of the separate forgeries, 27zere supposedly written by or to U. S~4 tionals foreign nationals *tkn(KISHI/DULLES PACT, SJAMSUDDIN LETTER to Ambassador MacARTHUR, FROST LETTER to the Indonesian and WELENSKY DOCUMENT.) (cables, dispatches, letters) purporting to be correspondence b to ween the State Department and its diplomatic missions abroad (O'SHAUGHNESSY LETTER, BISHOP DIRECTIVE, they _ TAIPEH CABLES, BRUCE LETTER, SUMMIT DIRECTIVE, ROUNTREE CIRCULAR, DIRECTIVE ON UAR and the MURPHY LETTER.) 11 urporting to be internal U. S. Government letters or memoranda (DULLES MEKORANDUM to President EISENHOWER and BERRY LETTER to Defense Secretary McELROY.) semi-official letters by former U. S. Government of (ROCKEFELLER LETTER to President EISENHOWER and HOOVER LETTER to a U. S. Oil company executive.) letters or other correspondence between U. S. officials and KAWILARANG, and CHIANG Kai Shek letter to President EISENHOWER..) Of the remaining/forgeries,`have purported to be internal %'t_letters or verbal indiscretions of U. S. ?military personnel abroad U. S. PILOT LETTERS, "JOHN H" LETTER, POWERS ORDER and U. S. PARATROOPER CABLES documents of other Western and pro-Western Governments (FRENCH/ISRAELI GENERAL STAFF PLANS SECRET STRATEGIC PLAN OF THE ISRAELI ARMY! ERHARD LETTER to West German Chancellor ADENAUER; SUDAN GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS ~,u Y wrrd forged issue of an emigre newspaper and .2'series of letters X The other' ,d were they "forgeries p` jthe CESKE S OVO Campaign purportedly written by the editor of the same periodical) and the (West German periodical) forged SCHLAGZEUG/mailing envelope which carried the last known replay on the BERRY LETTER. Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Relea e : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 M. cont. Source Materials A typical Bloc propaganda forgery consists of two distinct sets of source material: a framework of overt fact, used to give verisimilitude to the forgery, and the fictional statements which convey the propaganda Fact. The factual material may include any or all of several kinds of data: 1.mes and tines of the mw2orted writer, the dressee and any other persons who may be mentioned in the document. A frequent practice is the inclusion, either in the forgery itself or in accompanying editorial comment, of the full name and title of the purported writer and addressee. Thus, a NCNA (CHICCA press agency) news release replaying the FROST LETTER begins, "B ntan Timur today published a letter sent byar Admiral Laurence FROST Chief of the U. S. Naval Intelligence Bureau, to KAWILARANG, one of the ringleaders of the rebel clique," and then explained that "KAWILARANG was the former Indonesian Military Attache to Washington." In surfacing the POWERS ORDER (allegation only), Neues Deutschland identified "General Thomas POWERS, Commander of the Strategic Air Command of the United States," as originator of the order. The BERRY LETTER is signed,"Frank B. BERRY, M. D., Assistant Secretary of Defense (Health and Medical) 1 Place names and names of oreanizational its. The BERRY LETTER refers to USAF bases on Midway Island and to the Patuxent River and Cooke bases. The "JOHN H" LETTER identifies its purported writer as a member of the 79th Engineers. The ROCKEFELLER LETTER mentions "the discussions at Camp David which resulted in my resignation;" etc. Official format, if the forgery is presented as a Government cable, dispatch is or memorandum. (See Attachment 12, which/a copy of one of the TAIPEH CABLES as surfaced in B tz, and BMW Attachments 3.,wthe BERRY LETTER,,-and 7., -the ROUNTREE CIRCULAR.) Re erences to recent news items, used in the body of the forged document or in accompanying editorial comment. The "JOHN H" LETTER states that "I arrived from Munich July 27 by Globemaster with a group of the U. S. Army." (The forgery itself was based upon the landing of U. S. troops in Lebanon, and the world press of the period was full of details of their transportation by air from West Germany.) In surfacing the DULLES MEMORANDUM, sues Deutschland explained editorially that the Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 Sanitized - Approved For Relbaie : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 document had been written "in the last half of December '1956, 7 just after the NATO meeting in Paris." (NATO had held a widely publicized meeting in Paris at that time-6 The Camp David talks between President EISENHOWER and Nelson A. ROCKEFELLER, mentioned in the ROCKEFELLER LETTER, had taken place and had been reported in the press) St t ments the pMRgrted niter bag ctual made i " s eeches r ss co eren es magazine gZlicle t ors ternent ,y j blished other dividuals which ht Rjausjkl be attributed to him. An example of this occurs in the ROC lLE:R LETTE1z. On 5 December 1955 the _N 2v Yprk Time carried a front-page article in which this ~COtts~c h paragraph appears : "Although economic and technical aid in the underdeveloped countries has been running at more than one billion dollars a year, more than half has been-concentrated in three places where military political, rather than economic factors are controlling. These are South Korea, Formosa and South Vietnam." The ROCKEFELLER LETTER, surfaced 15 February 1957, contained this paragraph: "Although, for instance, economic and technical aid to underdeveloped countries last year amounted to more than one billion dollars, more than half of this sum was actually devoted to three countries in which military and political rather than Economic considerations were the determining factors. These countries were South Korea, Formosa and South Vietnam." Nimes and addresses needed for operational use. Still another type of factual data used is, of course, the names and addresses of target individuals when the forgery is to be surfaced by covert mailing rather than by overt means. Target addresses for use in "black" mailing of psychological warfare material are known to be obtained by the East German IS (and, presumably, by the Soviet IS as well) through overt research facilities--telephone directories, diplomatic lists, names and addresses culled from local newspapers, overt directories Sanitized - Approved For Release : CIA-RDP78-00915RO01200080008-2 ,Sanitized - Approved For Releaoj : CIA-RDP78-00915R001200080008-2 III. .cont. ofk government units, from lists of foreigners visiting Bloc countries, etc. Others are known, in the case of East Germany, to be obtained from East German agents travelling in the West. In the one known Czech operation discussed in this paper{ the nmk1aa-m-Mottla CESKE SLOVO paign4 -# mailing addresses were obtained by urglarizing the offices of the offices of the real CESKE SLO' O and making off with its subscription list. The overt material used in Bloc forgeries is culled from an enormous supply of research material: newspapers, books and periodicals of all nations, diplomatic lists, telephone and other published directories, overt information handouts of Western official units, and so forth. The extent of Bloc overt materials research facilities is established not only by the factual detail used to embellish the propaganda forgeries but also by the content of conventional Bloc radio and printed propaganda. Books The State Of Israel--Its Situation and Policies (see ') are built by stringing together quotations-usually out of context and occasionally false-from a fantastic number of published non-Bloc sources oeh rangfr the world's mayor newspapers to obscure local books and brochures. While the overt evidence in itself leaves no room for doubt as to the method and extent of Bloc research of this type, it has also been confirmed 1 by a recent East German IS defector who described in detail the overt research materials available to psychol gical mc8 warfare _in>ther.,