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Document Creation Date: 
November 11, 2016
Document Release Date: 
July 31, 1998
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February 1, 1959
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Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 SMOV COMES JOBS BUT OPPRESSION R MAINS 1959 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 WOV CHANGES JOBS BUT OPPRESSION R MAINS Sir Winston Churchill once described the Soviet Union V1a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma." The neon of this observation has recently been demonstrated by the - rplexing development concerning Serov. his assumption of the poet of Chairman of the Committee for State Security (KOO) in April 195k, General Ivan Alexandrovich Serty has been perhaps the most dreaded in the Soviet Union. He also appeared to be one or mil of the Kremlin hierarch. As head of the , he directed a vast network of two million agents, spies and informers Whose function was to protect the Soviet Union against internal subversion and espionage agents. His organ- ization p surmably maintains dossiers on leading Soviet per-- sonaIi.tles? containing incriminating and compromising infor- metion on many of the regime's highest and most Influential rov is no longer head of the X. The world, the Soviet public also, was surprized when a brief off cia:i announcement on 9 December stated that he been relieved of his post "in connection with his trans-- ther work." Although no reasons were given for h it was not for lack of professional qualifications. r -v entered the Army as a young man, serving at first with artillery, and ssequently transferring to the secret e. From 1939 until 1941 he worked cioaely with brush-- v. who was then political chief of the rake, as chief of the secret police there. For the next 13 years he served under Soviet secret police chief feria in important posts in the national secret police organization. Three months la's execution when the ME was separated from the al Affairs, rov was appointed its head blefor espionage, counter-espionage and the secur- y poll a reeponeible for the large-scale deportations of the Baltic populations in June 1941. Under his Secret Order No. 001223, approximately 200,000 persons were seized .nd sent to forced labor camps or exile in Siberia. He also masterminded the deportation of the ethnic minority Chechen ad Ingush peoples from the Caucasus in 1943. As punishment Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 box'atlon with the Germans, an estimated 5,,OOO d into unheated trains in the middle of U sanda died on-the Jou7rne7. More recent ly* rSerov' is &4,,r dic " ed with the treache t"f rousarres o General Pal 1eter d f er o t Hungarian Forces i th6 ne uprising or 195, and er the revolt had been Suppressed. Although ar n once nt has been sued t h e "0 o w at other: work" Serov Is to be transferred, he Is regarded as too valu- able ri,enced a member of the hierarchy to be elimi- nated. a he left IMB,* he has appeared at several of- ficial, Kremlin functions, on indication that he is still an rta t meter of the power ,pup around ihx ushchev Anastas Mikoy'an said on n January Inn Los Angeles that Serov had a position in the Soviet Arty? In view of his previous experience, it appears that he my be the new head of Soviet military intelligence. After World War II Soviet military intelligence was .nosi ly dominated by the ger - eral a urity organization, probably beoauae Stalin was un- willing to allow an independent Intelligence network to de- r0giM has a%ed the need fora specialized, and there-- fore more autonQ ua, military intelligence. To minimize the Political danger of a separate military intelligence or- ganization, it app's that shchev may have appointed his trusted lieutenant, rov,, to head it. 3 acco-rding to an authoritative diplomatic `ov heads a new Soviet espionage agency that t in secret weapons, including bacteriological Leal warfare Materials. The new organization is a ' ?aviet military itlli b .negenceut with apecial prly- e t.ion of Russian secret devida-ft oun*~ ?~~^ hand also can be discerned in the announc,emermt o ,pout the Soviet Union s0-called ''vol t , un eer ; ar er*s are being ford, with members recruited from the _. of _ _. vs se wa1-fkers' __ litla detac rte is to act as auxiliary police to assist _2 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 the regular police in keeping down hooliganism and drunken- nee the Soviet Union is one of the most thoroug hly tes in the world, it seems impbable that the r lar police cannot be relied upon to keep public order. _ .~~ A ci.uea to the real purpose of the new militia may be found that its members are to preeiaterve order on streetaa, portation, in store and clubs, and to apprehend ?le nts ''anti-social" is a broad term, frequently nts opposed to the regime. Competent ed therefore that the creation of the a step to provide a new seeret police bere drawn from the most reliable Party workers. Stalin's system for maintaining ?..- _ an absolute dictatorship., whereby one out of every four Soviet citizens was a police informer, is coming back under another nun. Serov is believed to be charged with. the responsibility for organizing and directing this now secret polio* apparatus which to avoid arousing suspicion among the other members of t iin hierarchy who rejumber Stalin's rule cif terror " 11 too well,, will. be known an a "workers' militia. Vhs ihift in g leadership does not presage any relax.- *tion. of 3ovlet police activities. rov' as replac nt, A1. ander *1epin, was hand-picked by Xbrushchev and has had a nine-month indoctrination period since he was trans., fsrrd in April from his previous post as leader of the C- ' a youth Organization (Komsomol). While lacking Ser v %jelepin has beers under Party discipline 15 of which were spent as a senior party of_ 4 of the om l., Shelepin was concerned with control" of its 20,000,000 members. In a speech given in April 1958 he told the Central Committee and the -vi*t cover nt that Komsomol organisations "must guarantee the rov nt of idaolo ica1 and educational work among g "is views and tastes"--a point or view that will be equally useful for a policeman. the Soviets have attempted to impose a facade %&lit'` upon the Qperation.s of the most per- code in December. Although the new code nate some of the most flagrant abuses of the Stalin Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Ch as secret police trials, reliance on confession without other evidence, and criminal responsibility at the of 12, it deers not by any means guarantee the Soviet oTition the protection of Western legal concepts. The right r'he etendant ie rot accepted; and the death pen-- y can be exacted for high. treason espio e subversive , nd ter r=orist activities, premeditated murder and banditry . In the U O high treason Includes fli t abroad and rretusal to return from abroad and conspiring to seise power. Since in the past many Soviet citizens, including the highest Com- aust leaders, have been put to death on charges o spying for the rialiats or conspiring with the West to overthrow the government, it does not appear that the new code will restrict 3belepin's police activities. ?u therrore, the more rigid enforcement of the decrees of i$ dealing with the internal passports required for Soviet citizens which is now being carried out, and the recent unveiling.of a statue of erz1 insky, founder of the secret police under Lenin, suggest that L wushchev'a state- sont to Senator Humphrey concerning the reduction of the role of the secret lice in the USSR,, is for forel con- stion only. All these developments can only mean that with Sero s pro amt employment as head of a new military secret police organisation, the sinister shadow or the Bret police will continue to haunt every Soviet citizen. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CI* DP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 CURB C ST Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 LAI13 Al On 14 January 1959 the - small took a tt1 t stop to .s r 44M Aa its National Ass os tt4 powers - one y rdinary wive stly; stability eco xc p sw bead bent i t1w north, V Of the three star o-fin It becaw a ftench pro r"POWO to rg desires for tho'91riff promulgated on 11 May 1947 a o provi for a constitutional monarchy . A1t 1 'ran< LWOPO"dent state w thin the ti -- recto iti~ of Laotian ea** only on .0 :Ulf 1154 with t *emm-fire, l- UAW p bl whL h er"d stlon. LWS is tho s 9-China eounr xtz and little oo 3 ouq*rtv U n4 accounted for its in 1957. Tx moss: is a by the lack of awicAtlw.ts xtioh during the rain season are practic*l nos The poEstl estmated at between ~ three million, is zWo ou about equally o tive tribes,, principally Chinese the Eck of tr*ined and experienced Laot and Lactiam and very riet of eri.- davelo a of tl*alUy rinoi1 Df #,079oOGO- lp of its natt ts. In addition available to es, and c*rr , participate in the c 'r ent, staff its o out its lio1 , is a serious bandicap. ion of circa. tanoes--a sir, econmioally politically Inexperienced,, lackin tainin - minority groups, ax rte Vietnam- -appears to be a szn nese state of Laos he ev r-p ent threat voted Sava 1nl h. s of Premier ,r than of one-man needeed Lo combat the and bring order like a hr nd ThailaW. China Cambodia to the ry de up end n 1893. In i . e, ion which transportation and co- i nta us of an 1 4&:,. iinte- 1 ndene va Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 'I t try. C # occupied .Bev , 'am x=U to and pro-Coate: aw now or thet Lao ( ee n the t1an-0 IMS re zed as the legal Under the Geneva zgrement,, the ro ... rr, and the P agreed to abandon to regroup Std forces in the two . Odin cc deed ^d as an ad invaded s organized Laotian ment under Vermont ent of the claim to authority .ea of ftong Salt' :a agreement. Orr of ent and rep entatlvea or PL. ?his provided for the rem ition of ?L an a legal Political Party under the Nev nme TAO Hit ` iati4n toti c Prmt--W.MZ) the a aion of two PL leers the Laotian tian oa tnetx One of the two *iniate was rinse o, head of the L and of the and a half-- r of' the then Premier., Prince Souvanna, Phoum. deal for reaahi nt of the Beni 1 Saly ant Sam Me= and for the Ot 01 1*5-00 PL Idlers AVW (AIM h11* sea. on bepa at the same the ftyamber n' Ft stAdtheir w fores * It a also _ eed that n ted into the Laotian *tioria1 uuld assume the status of :: d formations t Worrilla, warfare aver the I. lead ram might order. of thou 3aly and ;ration or L troop. Lance with the term o 'icial. The anintograte aoweeri them to a a a ,estine st the gave ent could )r their austere In On the political level,, the XLRZ. retained its tight grip on the two reoccupied provinces d .lte the appointment of row re bay 'lent:. , In addition,* Mx% 'organizers create 'an ni n the a ple towards the v `rn- to er the functions of the regular authorities cells 4 .ch, b threats, actual violence or entic is 'To set tote other rsvincea, {where they established Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Wit"M t cabin ? omits veld nta:1 COMMURIOU find It aaaies poor zultemte of Lo"t **Uld 40 ftrty* elect; Los for the v*z t , r irthe :t' UM) Una a r 'or ty with 37 had b0M rt d, b a r r r= e L KAFTRZesis f f' t fay W often able o I13 Aug Leant teat t .v a cult by 7 ntpb the bewerat k" an Pushed *Oftlftled c - 1 ac dig on of ft d elsewhere * ' era among at 4, '17 minister's bet f .t ton 9 of the 21 Assembly f - t d ,ffi- t of combating Coman o n * t h e : N dG'PU t ttv _ 5el r ftc*d with t - situation k with no alternative but to tt 7 t b4tti t i January action. ever, e of and the have been je- t a at Bete .mod v rxa rat to-it torsion o the T Oalled o - niat North ' xUrt'aiot dit1 tera orere and even made forma lbor National 30 t e.i1y cent 3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 r t o f to a formal 'Protest by Lao's on 19 JerWU7 . Th* a Co inlst ressur e o obviowly designed to Sport non- Ast Laotians ala-aed rangy of the Ftoul govern- With ly to resist - .2 ter bard -21 axwS which not bope success- vlz asylum to ken Province who bave d Chinese coamwme e ab - poverty, the .am, ez.._ eeverr .Decomber alone- U1107. Despite own their evert and people have oeuible t ee to these e iae1 in -: r o 0 b1ne a minority aroup ea to me peoples o l * *. as Warm d use b.U eeeial powers to Vomit it to conchto e ipstn. With reel for econw1c development UM" to evolve Into a MG( - The Internal COMMUds obftked,, ther bar mu .et e, q_q ~ : t in Ce rain to be - i;i f ore confidence. he doe4 not intend but that Will not 1 otlvitlea and Lbl t an opp r_ to have a good and ;a antic to have been o w her to Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 slave ex Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 yr 19549 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 fA last $+~ W9 i[ ~y y[,, -p{ ~'}, i ply ..,y yg } ~yjlRl 1ry? ~,p ' ?aii ta F n z n_ t aAA 1 yJ d ~l qi i F 'e Kw4.A~ W'jYJ +FI trb3 e Chile , ' to toTrade .rair and also that In rMi City i. Jana ' 19S7. There also have been quit ,+ a ,_ ..r in pe orld beth heavy e _ 1 .,v been de 1.g . fair by v ab advertl.a, Plain and that S the to to do busts. In trade t&1 rs an . ce l1en t Meam rda and also , t ki r rktt quality of to go-Wa and, turn -4NWW Gt t Political system htcbl =aft It AA_ du *_e `` __ . see that ti a ip +-t ' "' h radi e fl a d ;1 ai*. One is u :. ese and other to Polities. It cannot be, dent=.,d that a t-iumber of tde -pe;l.eth~ re ' and in Mtrap , have bey tvve* the th t a WAV i1 h IB Over7th1 . the I% t. dezii CO d be farther i l B tM 4Y*,,., pi*ced On the p d r uttiou f : yr equi nt "A-,4-1 - t ? Ousu r It s t*>r which the peo 1- ,- lqft - L ;, , l p e e a been 1grr3r d. t *I a Qea i u y Hlenk t o e 1~ 1' ias the death of talin, wanted to reanedy thts it t1:on a ;1 f i4 ; u tt tt l ga a?A their ~i t thee and, given t fact that - k wh add y auen tns1ste Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 It is, t .ererore;, quit plain tI of cowwwr pods, one sees at the pav Kee at these fairs is intended ""or elti of the Bloc must take whatev offer the.. An ea4 fir Is orte tort' in Leipzig in rc : 1957 Lou, rind abot 10 hectares,. 1 chines and the observer r goods. That reputable Swiss n the indivi%%ua "r chart., Don tons r r the ecor-amy , o em c re shone are lee stve. At the latter, the State t -ha yy the nrls:n and rigid no. are the rules At tern fairs, busine-sown eaI with tne 4 Let. . it is the $ t a t i o n a r i e s w h o v all." The oart 'i of cons r ftal"s of t people axe, the result of c , over the Y*otrS., has had a profouna 'tect h run covetAr to all the pr s of Communist # Because, at the pr t *tag* of its d veto, t, the e nt will not release *wvish productive vier for the production of ean- r goods# it deliberately prices what there is so b that t afford them. This is nothing less than a disguise form of ti , despite Mr. . o an' a recent statements that thero is rationing in ftasis.- Ili peroenta a of profit the Source give the goverment not less than 60 percent of its total .venue. Let rtiel of arison t on it in t":1 Sri in he Soviet with array 0 ruck by the 1a k of papers the IZQ x isc p is stri:in* tern fairs and the Lelp l `a, i, -MI A si. tom, 4MIjt7'* sails for oftta. A pair of erg array Coomun rt only,`' while the r the State chooses to no`af make his o art11ea ) . tr o rayon a shoes tt *50. -2 ,. Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3 h ee; Ln=yb a: rue uc .i 8 an, The Matz have * effVctlva propaganda v b Gue who v --w their ftee V AI=, :_e :*, '2r e PWOVOU tha h trt `air i the 1** o1 y o sUMOr SOW ordinary citt bee-w. owner o~ mhaadi i market. that liberate, t Opt,' ved. of of Ihe fruit V Faced and that has been ant rcm Our" r CO - f reac p. 1--to :La Approved For Release 1999/08/24: CIA-RDP78-02771 R000500340004-3