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December 12, 2016
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February 9, 2001
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November 3, 1951
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Approved FF Release 264WTRA80$6A+~(60'4Q,0610r6000 ~I J RAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY REPORT N INFORMATION FROM ,E FOREIGN DOCUMENTS OR RADIO BROA j,, , Argentina, Brazil, Chile Colombia ' COUNTRY Costa Rica Dominican Republic, Guatemala, l Ionduras ~ DATE OF Qetober954 to , Panama, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela INFORMATION November 1';31 SUBJECT Characteristics of Some Latin American Radio H.bW Stations PUBLISHED 25X6 WHERE PUBLISHED DATE PUBLISHED LANGUAGE CHANGE TO FO^ FICIAL USE ONLY P10 REGRADING, BULL 'RR -,,. ... (!r1 .arnh4., CONTENTS SUlE19ufARY . . . A. Argentina . . . . . . .. 1.?' General Characteristics B. 2. Radio Brazil 1. Genera del Estado l Characteristics 2. Radio National 3. The Em issoras Associadas C. Central America . . STATE ARMY 4. Radio Sociedad National de Minerial DATE DIST. 3 'aemb6r- -'1951 NO. OF PAGES ' SUPPLEMENT TO . . 4 1. General Characteristics 2. Costa Rica 3. The Dominican Republic 4. Guatemala 5. Honduras 6. Panama D. Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. General Characteristics OFTURN TO ARCHIVES a RECORDS CENTER 2. Emtsore$ `*uevo Mundo AFTER WE 3- Radio Sociedad National de Agriculture ,?. 1. General Characteristics R REGRADING LA 1 2. Radiodifusora,Necional de Colombia L- IMP F 1 U , SO FICATION C FIDENTIAL ETJN NO... NSRB FBI CHANGE TO r ! O Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP78-04864A00020006000 -1 /53 I 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 CONFIDENTIAL 25X6 OMMS (Contd o) CONFIDENTIAL 1. General Characteristics 20 Radio Nacional del Peru 10 General Characteristics 2, Radio el Espectador IO Venezuela 0 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 10 General Characteristics 2. Radiodifusora Nacional 30 Commercially Sponsored Programs H. Uruguay - 0 0 0 0. 0. 0 ? 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a 10 0 A. Argetinai Broadcasting over all transmitters reflects the dominating influence of the Peron regime. All-stations are required to relay Government-edited newscasts -end to maw their facilities available to the Goverment at any time. Emphasis is placed on the personal leadership of Peron and his wife and on the achievements of the regime. The official radio has undergone a considerable expansion during the past two years, cutting deeper into the activities of commercial broadcasters -at home and broadening the scope of the International Service for listeners -abroad B. to Privately owned radio stations in Brazil, operating side by side with the Government's Radio Nacional, do not appear to have been subjected to any outright censorship under the Vargas regime, although some signs have been observed that the powerful Emissoras Associadas may be growing more cautious in its political reportage. An executive decree issued in July 1951 placing the 'Radio Technical Commission, Brazilirn counterpart of the FCC, under the direct control of the President aroused wid!spread criticism in Congress as representing a return to the personal authoritarianism of the first Vargas regime, but there has .,been no indication to date that the decree has affecte:1 the status of any radio station. C.. Central America: Radio brcrd?casting in the Central American republics is c g nfzed to a large extent along commercial lines but operates under varying -degrees of governmental control. Central American radios, with few exceptions, echo the views and policies of the regimes in power0 Prominent treatment is ,given to the essential historic unity of the Central American countries, although exceptions to the normally friendly exchange of views have occurred during disputes between individual countries, when propaganda wars involving most of the Central American radios have developed. Radio time in Guatemala is leased regularly to Communist or Communist-supported groups. D. Chile: Broadcasting is relatively free from control in accordance with constitutional,guarantees0 Legally recognized political parties and groups -appear to have equal access to radio time. Emisoras T'uevo Mundo, following an editorial policy designed to appeal to a man-in-the-street audience, carries freque It criticism of the Government and generally favors activities of the left- of-center parties, as contrasted with the more extensive treatment of activities of rightist, parties over the stations of Radio Sociedad Nacional de Agricultura. COKE ID" F UAL CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP78-04864A0002000600 CONFIDENTIAL E. Colombia: Radio broadcasting operates under an overt censorship imposed under the state of siege declared in 1949. The political apposition has attempted to make itself heard through the operation of clandestine transmitters in various parts of the country, and the Government has been taking steps to eliminate this type of activity. The Government-operated Radiodifusora Nacional serves as the principal vehicle for presenting news to the home audience from the official viewpoint and as a means of underscoring the legality of official acts and refuting opposition charges. G. Peruo..The_,radio in Peru serves primarily as a vehicle for enhancing the prestige,and.power of the Odria regime through the presentation of carefully screened material to. the home audience, The official transmitters enjoy a virtual monopoly over the news as the result of strict enforcement of restrictions on the operation of commercial stations. All stations are required to carry daily relays of official newscasts, Similarity has been observed between Peru?s Radio Nacional and Argentina's Radio del Estado both as to content and presentation of the news. H. r ua : Radio broadcasting is characterized by the broad freedom existing in the country for all forms of public expression. There are no governmental controls apart.from the Radio Broadcasting Code, although under a revision of the Code enacted in 1946 the Government has the power to take sanctions against those held responsible for the dissemination of material liable to affect Uruguay's friendly relations with other nations. Radio El Espectador, key station. in the;Difusoras del Uruguay commercial network, leased radio time to all political parties during the 1950 election campaign, apparently with complete impartiality.. I. Venezuela:..-Monitoring of privately owned Venezuelan radio stations has yielded little in the.way-of significant material in view of the strict censorship of the press and radio in effect under the regime of the Military Junta. Broadcasts over the.. Government. radio, which constitute only a small fraction of the total radio output, serve primarily as a medium for publicizing official announcements, speeches, and decrees of the Military Junta. Programs for the home audience appear.haphaz.ardly edited, with no attempt made to tailor official handouts for listener appeal.. In-contrast, the few programs beamed abroad seem carefully plained,to present Venezuela in the most favorable light and to emphasize the country?s attraction for foreign capital. CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/09/06 CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 25X1A ' Approved For Release 2001/ ~-DC;P78-04864A00020006 A. AR 1. ileneral Charact ristics - 1 - eoNFIDENArL a. Government Control; Argentine radio broadcasting over the private as, well as the official transmitters has reflected increasingly since the 1943 revolution,. the domina- ting influence of the Peron regime. The Government, in addition to constantly broadening the scope of the official Radio del Estado, has covertly purchased control of all except one of the private stations. Commercial broadcasting is permitted to continue so long as it adheres to the broadcasting code formulated in 1944 and periodically revised since then. The "private" stations and networks are required to hook up with Radio del Estedo several times daily for transmission of the official news bulletins and at such other times as the Government may desire to utilize their facilities. There is no official precensorship of broadcasts but the Government manages to exercise a kind of censorship by requiring commercial sponsors to refrain from broadcasting domestic news until it has been carried over the official radio, which receives its news hand- outs directly from the Undersecretariat of Information. Swift official action is taken when broadcasts include material lacking official sanction. On-the-spot audience-participation programs were banned in June 1950 after a contestant slighted the Eva Peron Social Aid Foundation. The Essc reporter newscast, sponsored by the Argentine subsidiary of Standard Oil of New Jersey, an established feature over the Buenos Aires Radio Belgrano station for more then.a decade,.; was discontinued on Oct. 1, 1951, apparently as the result of the manner in which the Essc Reporter handled news of the abortive Sept. 28, 1951 military revolt against the Peron :?egime. The Esso Reporter program, which contained news from the UNITED PRESS wire service, was supplanted over Radio Belgrano by a program of news credited to the newly estabished AGENCIA PERIODISTICA ARGENTINA, the INTERNATIONAL NEWS SERVICE, and the AGENCE FRANCE-"RESSE. Radio Belgrano had for some time been the only Argentine station carrying Essc Reporter programs." The Government's control of the broadcasting industry's labor unions provides it with an additional powerful weapon through which it can exert pressure on broadcasters. Control is exercised also through the Argentine Radio Broadcasting Association, which, organized originally to represent the private radio industry vis-a-vis the Government, has now virtually become a spokesman for the Government. In the political realm the radio is reserved almost exclusively for the use of the Government and the Peronista Party, although theoretically the opposition parties have free access to radio facilities. Latin American radio stations outside of Argentina have broadcast a number of reports on the filing by opposition parties of requests for radio time during the current 1951 election campaign, but as of this writing only the Peronista Party has been able to obtain time for radio campaigning. The radio has been used as a weapon to combat such opposition as still exists in the Argentine press. Prior to the closing down of TA PRENSA, Buenos Aires radios carried strong attacks on the paper, refuting its editorials point by point. Attention shifted to LA NACION with a broadcast on Aug. 3 over Radio del Estado, censuring the paper's failure to repudiate the acts of violence and sabotage on the Argentine railways and the news- paper with "tacit complicity" in the affair. (Page A 2 of the Aug. 6, 1951 FBID Daily Report) ?b. Portrayal of Leaders: Constant emphasis on the personal leadership of President Peron and Eva Peron is a feature of all Argentine broadcasts, with approximately 20 percent of the time on an average news program devoted to detailing the daily activities of the President and his wife. Peron is depicted as an intensely busy man, arriving at his office before 7 every morning and not retiring until late in the evening. Eva Peron is pictured daily at her desk in the Labor Ministry interviewing labor delegates, settling trade union disputes, accepting donations for her Foundation, and nrdering :social welfare and relief measures for distressed persons. Stress is laid on the worldwide cc-pe of her social welfare activities. Peron is referred to variously as "President of the Republic," "President of the Nation," "the Chief Executive," or simply "Gen. Peron." On special occasion's when he is addressing public meetings he is generally introduced as "President of the Argentines," "Leader of the Argentine Workers," or "Leader of the Descamisados." Sra. Peron is referred to if, news reportage as the "wife of the Chief Executive, Sra. Eva Peron," or, less frequently, as "Dona Maria Eva Duarte de Peron." At public rallies she is introduced as "the First Lady of krgentina& .)r "the Lady of Hope." CONFIDENfiAL CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/09/06 CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 Approved,. For ReA I/06 :,PI ?IUE1flAt?6 c. Glorification of .the Regime: ..;wsca'sT carry frequent statements by prominent persons, both Argentine and foreign, praising the achievements of Peron's "justieialista" regime. Statistics are broadcast purporting to show the vast economic benefits accruing to labor through Government measures, and messages of support and gratitude from civic, professional, and labor groups are read periodically. Stress is placed on Argentina's "third position," neither capitalist nor Communist, in which capital and labor work constructively for the national welfare and contribute to the building of aunited country that is a force for peace in the world. d. Standardization of Languago: When the official Radio del Estado came into its own with the 1943 revolution, a campaign was begun to "clean up" radio shows and improve the language used -ever the air. All Argentine stations now present the news in a pattern and language that may be described as standard, departing more and more from the racy Argentine national idiom and approaching pure Castillian. In style and delivery the Argentine radio now parallels to a great extent Franco's Radio Nacional de Espana. 2. Radio del Estado a. Expansion of the Official Network: The continued expansion and strengthening of the official radio is indicated by the readjustment and distribution in September 1950 of Argentina' frequencies so as to provide wider scope for broadcasts of the expanding Government network and by the inauguration in October 1950 of a new 100- kilowatt international transmitter by Radio del Estado. During the past year and a half Radio del Estado has cut deeper into the activities of commercial broadcasters by featuring radio, entertainment in competition with private networks and by broadcasting lengthy programs of popular music So far the official Government radio has accepted rho advertisements from private commercial sponsors. b. The Home Service: a official news bulletins, edited by the Undersecretariat of Information, periodically open with brief commentaries lauding the Government's achievements or.quoting statements by Peron, fillowed by the routine reportage of the activities of Peron and his wife; governmental actions, official appointments, and economic data. No news from abroad is broadcast. Opposition activity is mentioned only in con- nection with Government action against it. The avowed function of. Radio del Estado's broadcasts for the home audience is to report on the Government's work. A request by the opposition Union Civica Radical for the use of official radio facilities during the 1951 election campaign was turned down by the Minister of the Interior on the grounds that Radio del Estado carries no political propaganda. The party.was advised that it was free to contract with "privately" owned stations for radio time. In an evident attempt to support this concept of a free private radio industry operating free from official restraint, President Peron scheduled s-ecial campaign speeches during the week preceding the November 1951 elections for broad- cast over the "private network of Argentine broadcasting stations." c.. Programs for Listeners Abroad: The Argentine Government has in the past two years undertaken an extensive cultural and propaganda program for listeners abroad in various languages including Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, Italian, German, and Swedish, utilizing the shortwave facilities of Radio Splendid, Radio Belgran~, and Radio El Mundo in addition to those of Radio del Estado. Following the addition. of the new transmitter in October 1950, the service was expanded and is still being reorganized. Formerly known as Servicio Radiotonico Internacional (SRI), it is now designated Servicio Internacional Radiofonico Argentina(SIRA), and all stations carrying the programs announce as LR&, the call letters of the Government radio, regardless of frequency or transmitter used. The pattern of these programs generally follows that of the Home Service broadcasts, with the emphasis always on the growing strength of Argentina, Government achievements, Argentina's "third position," and her role as a force for peace. Domestic controversial subjects are not mentioned. They differ from the Home Service in that news of other Latin American countries, carefully screened to point up unrest, labor troubles, and economic difficulties in the neighboring republics, is included. Particular emphasis is placed on reports of this nattixe from Chile and Uruguay. Always implicit is the contrast with Argentina, where conditions are described in the most optimistic terms. The programs in the International Service appear well-planned and carefully edited, and comparisons have shown the quality of translations from Spanish to be competent. CONFIDEN"TIAr Approved For Release 2001/09/06: CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 . BRAZIL 25X1A Approved For Releas~Il'biICIA-RDP78-04864AO002000 1. General Characteristics - 3 - CONFIaEr~AL s Freedom of Broadcasting: since Vargas' assumption of power as President of Brazil, there has been no indication that the private a erati 7,Y owned broadcasting ststia~,q, p ng.side by side with the Government-owned Radio Nacional, have been subjected to outright Censorship of any kind. A Federal regulation providing that all stations must grant equal time to ^1.1 political parties, introduced in the Lower House under the Dutra administration several months prior to the presidential election, appeared to have carried and to have been in effect during the election campaign, and criticism of Government policies continues t3 be reported freely over the private networks. b. Tightening of Government Control: The Government's power to control broad- c sting activities, however, was strengthened considerably through the issuance of a presidential decree on July 20, 1951, revising the regulations governing the country's radio stations and placing the Radio Technical Commission, Brazilian counterpart of the Federal Communications Commission, under the direct control of the President. The decree, which was designed "to raise the cultural, artistic, and moral level of Brazilian radio broadcasting by imparting to it a prestige commensurate with its educational and social importance," provides, among other things, that permits for the operation of radio stations may-be revoked by the Government in the interest of "public safety" and stip,lates that station concessionnaires must obtain prior authorizaiion from the President'in the event of the sale or transfer of shares or obligations from one firm or individual to another. c. Reaction to Radi-i Decree. Reaction to the decree was immediate, uartict}larly on the part of trie congressljnat ippiaition. Senator Hamilton Nogueira, spokesman for "o Uniao Democratica Nacional (tmN), charged that by this decree the President, had returnec to the personal authoritarianism of the first Vargas administration. Other UDN leaders charged that Vargas had usurped the functions of Congress. In reply, the president of the Lower House maintained that the sale purpose of the decree had been to modify regulations which had been in existence since 1932. Heated debate on the issue continued, with one UDN Deputy pointing out that in the event that his party wished to acquire a radio station, it would now have to depend upon the President's good will. The chairman of the UDN charged that the decree had been framed by the organizers of the former Department of Press and Propaganda with the clear aim of holding the threat of presidential action over all of the country's radio stations. The Government's Radio Nacional, meanwhile, praised the new regulations, terming the decree a "profound patriotic measure aimed, above all, at maintaining national security." Despite the potential threat to freedom of broadcasting contained in the decree, there has been no sign to date that it has affected the status of any Brazilian radio station. There has, however, been some indication that the big Emissoras Associadas chain, owned by lawyer-journalist Assis Chateaubriand and constituting the largest privately controlled radio network in the country, may be growing more cautious in its broadcasts of political news and comment. Lengthy analyses of the political situation, broadcast re ular the Dutra administration, have been heard less an( less frequently in recent months s. Although the Associadas stations devoted considerable time to reportage on congressional criticism of the radio decree, they carried no station editorials on the subject. 2. Radio Nacional a. T`.-? Administration's Viewpoint: The Government-operated Radio Nacional in Rio de Janeiro serves to a large extent as a medium for bringing the political views and policies of the administration before the public. It broadcasts official acts, decrees, and regulations, reviews congressional proceedings in some detail, and from time to time broadcasts editorials and commentaries on the accomplishments of the Government. Continuing a policy initiated under the first Vargas administration, Radio Nacional broadcasts a daily half-hour official newscast which is relayed by all Brazilian stations as well as by special additional transmitters. This program, called "Ipformation Bulletin" under the Dutra administration, is now announced as "The Voice of Brazil." Although Radio Nacional's reportage of political events was slanted to favor the Government's views, ample time was provided to the opposition parties under the Dutra administration to expound their political programs. Under the present regime, Radio .Nacional gives wider treatment to political items reflecting the views of the Government and devotes correspondingly less time to reporting opposition activities. While on July 23, 1951, three days after the issuance of the Vargas decree regulating broadcasting activities, Radio Nacional described the measure as "a decree which has garnered the greatest praise" and "a safeguard to our educational functions inasmuch as it places them under state care," it reported none of the widespread criticism which the decree aroused in Congress CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 25X1A Approved For Release 2001/09/pMbq-APZ8-04864A00020006000 - 4 - CD FLDE Al b. News Sources: Radio Nacional uses the news-gathering facilities of the Government-controlled AGENCIA NACIONAL, the independent ASAPRESS (AGENCIA SUL AMERICANA DE NOTICIAS), and the pro-Government newspapers A NOITE and A MANHA for its national and local coverage. News from abroad is consistently credited to the UNITED PRESS. C. Programs for Listeners Abroad: There appears to have been no attempt in Brazil to develop an international service comparable in any degree to that undertaken by Argentina. Radio Nacional has for a number of years carried a brief daily program in Spanish for Latin American listeners and in English for listeners in the United States, but sampling of these programs has yielded little in the way of significant news. The English programs contain descriptive material and economic data of a genera?. nature, amateurishly translated from original Portuguese--language scripts and read by inexperienced announcers. The Spanish- language programs, more competently edited and presented, consist largely of travelogues, music, and cultural,features. 3. 1bg-Emiogorag Ass; ,a a a. National Coverage: Programs monitored over the Rio and Sao Paulo stations of Chateaubriand's Associadas network provide fuller over-all coverage of national affairs than that of the Government station. Both the Rio and Sao Paulo stations carry daily except Sunday an hour-long "Newspaper of the Air"containing detailed reports on developments throughout the country as well as brief world news reports. Aside from their apparently more ceuti.r-us approach to political reportage, these stations have made very few changes in the pat- teri: . and content of their news programs under the Vargas regime. b. News Sources; The Chateaubriand stations use their own nationwide tele- graphic service, the 1VE RIDIONAL news agency, plus the news-gathering facilities of Chateaubriand's DIARIOS ASSOCIADOS newspaper chain fat uheir national news. World news re- ports are credited to the UNITED PRESS. Although both the Rio and Sao Paulo stations derive their news from the same sources, the Rio station tends to give fuller play to the policies of the major conservative parties, while the Sao Paulo station favors the state administra- tion in Sao Paulo. C. CENTRAL AMERICA 1. General Characteristics a. Government Control: Radio broadcasting in the Central American countries is -rganized to a large extent along commerical lines and operates under varying degrees of governmental supervision. Although the extent of actual control varies greatly, Central Amescan radios, with few exceptions, echo the views and policies of the regimes in power. When an administration changes hands, the policies of the radio stations in the country generally shift accordingly. In times of emergency the governments take over the operation of broadcasting facilities outright. b. Concept of Unity: Newscasts and commentaries monitored over Central American radios give prominent treatment to the affairs of the Caribbean area as a whole and contain frequent reference to the basic historical unity of the various countries. Commenta- tors discuss freely the affairs of neighboring republics, usually in a spirit of constructive criticism and as a rule avoiding political .issues entirely or treating them with extreme caution, ca Propaganda Wars: Exceptions to the normally friendly exchange of views have occurred during the disputes between Central American countries such as the incident in the spring of 1950 involving the alleged manhandling of Salvadoran athletes at the Central American Olympic Games in Guatemala City. Charges, countercharges; and lengthy denials and refutations were broadcast by both countries. Honduran broadcasts appealed to both sides for calm and reconciliation, although their presentation of the incident was slanted to favor of El Salvador, while at least one Costa Rican radio station took the occasion to broadcast re- ports about a proposed Central American alliance against Guatemala. During the summer of 1951, the Quatemalan radio carried a number of reports designed to illustrate the country's close ties with El Salvador, based on common ideals and interests. A similar propaganda war involving all the Central American radios occurred during the Caribbean Legion affair, in which Nicaragua and Guatemala particularly were involved. More recently, during the summer of 1951, the Dominican radio carried on an in- tensive propaganda campaign against Cuba, charging Cuban lobbyists in Washington with maneuverinf to perpetuate a system of privilege in sugar quotas to the detriment of the Dominican Republic. FIET 1 CONFIDENTIAL- AFor Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 Approved Approved For Releas&WUTMUA CI 5RDP78-04864A0002000 d. Technical Qualities: Many Central Ame J DE l4 o?erate outside the authorized internatio.Lial broadcast bands, since they qre unable, wi their low power, to compete with the interference normally experienced in those bands. Short-wave relays of broadcasts over Central American transmitters are often handled haphazardly: Tine -schedtles are erratic and short-wave transmitters are sometimes put on in the middle of a program. The transmitters vary their frequency often, and programming over many of the stations is subject to constant change. 2. Costa Rica a. Freedom of Broadcasting: The Ulate Government aplears to have followed a troadly-liberal policy in the field of radio broadcasting. Although newscasts emphasize Government actions and policies, ample time is given to reports on the viers of the political opposition, usually followed by refutations from official sources. b. La Voz de la Victor: The commercially operated San Jose station TIPG, controlled by Perry Girton, broadcasts domPgtin news credited to the DIARIO DE COSTA RICA, owned by President Ulate, and to thb independent San Jose dailies LA NACION,and EL PAIS. Emphasis is placed on economic developments. Trade union news is reported factually, with stress on the anti-Communist nature of the labor movement. Care is taken to point up the Goverinient's pro-democratic orientation in the field of inter- national relations, its support of the United Nations, and its friendly relations with the United States. The station carries a daily rebroadcast of the Voice of America and an English- language "Daily Press Information Service" program. A daily half-hour Catholic program is also scheduled. World news, apparently taken dir-ct from various wire services, is read without comment. News affecting Central America as a whole, particularly in the economic realm, is given in detail. Programs are haphazardly edited and poorly organized. Items appear to be read.''i n their original newspaper form, with no attempt mad- tailor them for radio. The readirg of the news, usually broken into short periods of domestic and foreign items, is inter- spersed with lengthy commercials, and newscasts contain frequent apparently inadvertent repetitions of the same item. Announcers seem poorly trained: Their Spanish is ungrammatical and pronunciation of foreign names frequently incorrect. 3. The Dominican Republic l,a Voz Dominicana: Owned and operated by J. Arismendy Trujillo Molina, Ciudad Trujillo station HI2T carries a preponderance of material signed to exalt President Trujillo as the savior of the country and a world statesman of outstanding stature. A.daily commentary hour carries talks in ,`panish by commentator Arturo E. Mejia, generally on world affairs but including frequent references to the greatness of Trujillo's accomplishments, alternating with talks in English beamed to English- speaking countries, generally designed to depict the Dominican way of life, history, or tourist attractions. Newscasts devote most.of the broadcast time to reports of purely local interest, with the stress on economic development. Labor news is seldom mentioned. Government decrees and meanlires in `d v r of industry and agriculture are read in full, and newscasts are heavily weighted with ports on popular tributes to the President, demands for his reelection, and benefits aching to the people through his policies. The canpaign against Cuba during the s of 1951, as vehement as it was inconsistent, described Cuba as a "vassal" of the Unite ates while at the same time "exposing" the "close connections and similar affiliation the Governments of Cuba and Guatemala. President Prio's visits?to Guatemala were cited as euc~ence that Cuba is "the center of Communist activities in the Western Hemisphere" and that t~h'e country is run by "unscrupulous politicians" ..ho use-the people's money to enrich "those e ents of marked Communist tendencies who have: seized power =n Guatemala and who act as associ s of the State Edward Miller, charging him with partiality in favor of Cuba, commentators toos`. pains to point out that Miller's statements were not to be considered representative of `--, U.S. policy as a whole. CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/09106 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 Approved For Release 200A'IAMIA- P78-04864A0002000 Tmt Guatems la - 6 - CNFIDEN 71' a. Government Control: Radio broadcasting in Guatemala appears to operate on a free and uncensored basis. subject to the usual broadcasting code and to various:libel, emergency, and election lass which apply equally to all stations. Although the. .a? ?est and most powerful transmitters are owned by the Government, all the stations operate on a commercial basis, leasing out radio time for commercially sponsored programs, a ounae- merits, and entertainment. The Government has been found to take control of broadcasting only in times'^" national emergency, such as the political disturbances of July and August 1950. The declared policy of the Government to allow unrestricted freedom of speech during the two months preceding the Nov. 10, 1950 presidential election was announced over the radio on several occasions, as was the Government's intention to observe strictly the provisions of +",e electoral code under which radio time on all stations must be made available to every, legitimate political party. b. The Government Radio: The powerful Government station TGWA, La Voz de Guatemala, carries several complete programs of foreign and domestic news daily for the home audience in addition to special programs designed to enlist support for the regime. Newscasts are sponsored by Government agencies such as the Production Developmer+ Institute and the Information and Public Relations Department of the Institute of Public Welfare, and each program includes announcements publicizing the work of the sponsoring agency and urging endorsement and support of Government projects such as the trade union unification program and the plan for unification of the pro-Government revolutionary parties. Station commentaries serve as vehicles for refuting domestic and foreign anti- Government propaganda, defending the Guatemalan cause in international disputes, and pointing up the gains made in the field of civil rights, labor legislation, and education under the present regime. Constant emphasis is placed on the Government's respect for democratic freedoms. Originators of charges that the regime is Communist-inspired are tranded "foreign imperialists," "capitalist interventionists who want to restore feudalism to Guatemala," or "native feudal servants of the foreign companies who want to resume control of Guatemala." Trade union news is reported in detail, slanted to point up the workers' support for the Arbenz regime. During the crippling national railroad strike this year, despite the fact that the Government kept the lines in operation, the "low salaries and dire working conditions imposed by the foreign-owned Central American Railroad" were played up. Special programs on workers' activities are broadr- t, as are meetings during which labor leaders denounce "the foreign imperialists who ae exploiting the Guatemalan workers." Communist or Communist-supported groups such as the Guatemalan Democratic Youth Alliance and the Committee for Aid to the Spanish Republic rece?Tve regular radio time over the official transmitters, and news concerning the drive of the National Part sans of Peace for signatures to the World Peace Appeal is reported regularly and at considerable length on the official newscasts. The "Belize Hour," broadcast three times weekly over La Voz de Guatemala, urges Hondurans in Belize to oust the "British colonial imperialists" from a territory rightfully belonging to Guatemala. Emphasis is placed on the existence of normal friendly relations between Guatemala and the United S4%tes and on Guatemala's adherence to the United Nations and leadership of the smaller nations in U.N. councils. 5. Honduras a. Regulation of Broadcasting: There is apparently no overt Government censorship of Honduran radio emissions during normal times. Broadcasting stations operate on a commercial basis under the usual broadcasting code regulations. They are generally restrained in their references to Government activities and programs, and their news reportage and comentaries usually reflect a marked pro-Government bias. CONFIDENTIAL CONFIDENTIAL Approved For Release 2001/09/06 : CIA-RDP78-04864A000200060002-1 Approved For Release 26MANUTIalA 1$ M 0 7 - Jt~J/~ir~1('11((JJ b. La Voz de Honduras: HRN Tegucigalpa, owned and operate by Rafael Ferrari, carries newscasts consisting of competently edited summaries of domestic and world news, presented in a straightforward manner. Fmphasis in domestic news c-'verage is on governmental aetivi ties and economic developments. News relating to tic political broadcast, and newscasts generally contain a preponderance of social notes, reports -,n arrivals and dep