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November 11, 2016
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August 5, 1998
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October 1, 1969
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25X1C10b Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Next 3 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGHT r_9 9qq94A99969994999q :7 "Go _V.ll What Did Mr. Trudeau Say When You Told Him What To Dc With. His 9 Million Tons of Wheat?" ever notorious for impeccable trade habits, the Soviets now have let their three-year wheat purchase agreement with Canada expire with some nine million tons left unpaid for and undelivered. (See attached news story.) Should the Soviets fail to meet the terms of the June 1966 contract (reportedly it had no stretchout clause), it may cost Canada between $200 million and $300 million. Neither party has publicly conceded default. The Soviets don't really need wheat this year as they did in 1966 and there are two practical explanations for their foot-dragging: sharp internal Soviet competition for hard currency reserves, and the hope of getting a better deal while international wheat prices stay low. Soviet eagerness for Western busi- ness portends against outright default. Rather, the Soviets might try to pressure Canada into accepting soft currency credits, or even a barter arrange- ment, as part payment. Recall that it was just such soft currency deals that caused West Germany's Krupp industries to hover on the brink of disaster: Krupp became overextended in East Europe, especially in the USSR, and couldn't convert the repayments into hard currency at high enough prices. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 25X1C10b L Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194AO00500040001-7 a MCN`7" ON FIRST ANNIVERSARY OF INVASION OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA AUGUST. 1969 EVEN BY MILITARY MEANS. COUNTRIES GOVERNED BY COMMUNISTS AS BEING LIMITED, IN THEIR DOCTRINE THEY CLAIM '&1 RIGHT TO INTERVENii, A) rHE SOVIET LEADERS REGARD NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY OF THE TRAGEDY OF AUGUST $IS T, 1966 HAS"DEMONSTRATED THAT = 8) AS LONG AS COMMUNIST PARTIES DEPEND IN A POLITICAL MORAL OR MATERIAL SENSE UPON ONE OF THE RIVAL INTERNATIONAL COMMUNIST CENTRES THEY ARE UNABLE TO PURSUE A TRULY INDEPENDENT NATIONAL POLICY. BUT THE BRUTAL SUPR4- SSION OF THE CZECHOSLOVAKIAN ENDEAVOURS TO ACHIEVE A MORE INDEPENDENT NATIONAL POLICY AND A CERTAIN MITIGATION AND REFORM OF COMMUNIST DICTATORIAL RULE HAVE ALSO PROVEN THE INDOMITABLE ASPIRATION OF' MAN TOWARDS L.IEIGRTY AND INDEPENDENCE WITHIN THE COMMUNIST CAMP. THE COURSE OF POLITICAL EVENTS AND DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COMMUNIST 'STATES AND PARTIES HAVE JUSTIFIED THE CORRECTNESS AND UNASGAILAB&LITY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF THE SOCIALIST -INTERNATIONAL AND OF ITS DEMOCRATIC'.. THERE CAN BE NO SOCIALISM WITHOUT- DEMOCRACY AND NO DEMOCRACY WITHOUT FR6BDOM, CHAIRMAN GENERAL SECRETARY BRUNO PiTT&RMANN HANS JANITSCHEK Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-tDP79-01194A000500040001-7 r let~~~GII~~lp0~~0 The table below shows the Member Parties of the Socialist International and their status, as reported to the successive Congresses between MI.. and 1969. Belgian Socialist Party ... .,, .., .., Progressive Labour Party of Bermuda British Labour Party ... ... ... Bulgarian Socialist Party in Exile ... ... Cameroons Socialist Party ... ... ... Radical Party of Chile National Liberation Party of Costa Rica ... New Democratic Party of Canada' ... Czech Social Democratic Party in Exile ... Danish Social Democratic Party Dutch Party of Labour ... ... Esthonian Social Democratic Party in Exile ... Finnish Social Democratic Party ... ... French Socialist Party ... ... ... ... German Social Democratic Party ... ... Greek Socialist League' ... ... ... ... Hungarian Socialist Party in Exile ... ... Icelandic Social Democratic Party ,.. ... All-India Praja Socialist Party ... ... ... Irish Labour Party ... ... ... Israel Labour Party' ... ... ... ... International Jewish Labor Bund' World Union of Socialist Zionists' Italian Socialist Party' ,,, .., ... ... People's National Party of Jamaica ,.. ... Japan Social Democratic Party .,. ... Japan Socialist Party ... ... ... ... United Socialist Party of Korea.., ... Latvian Social Democratic Party in Exile ... Lithuanian Social Democratic Party in Exile ,.. Luxembourg Socialist Labour Party Social Democratic Party of Madagascar Democratic Action Party of Malaysia ... ... Malayan Labour Party ... ... Malta Labour Party ... ... Mauritius Labour Party ,.. ... ... .,. Mauritius Social Democratic Party ... ... New Zealand Labour Party ... ... ... Norwegian Labour Party ... ... ... ... Revolutionary Febrerista Party of Paraguay.,. Latin American Revolutionary Popular Alliance APRA of Peru.,., ... ... ... Polish Socialist Party in Exile ... . Romanian Social Democratic Party in Exile... Saar Social Democratic Party' ... ... ... San Marino Independent Social Democratic Party ... .., People's Action Party of Singapore Spanish Socialist Labour Party in Exile Social Democratic Party of Suedtirol ... ... Swedish Social Democratic Labour Party Swiss Social Democratic Party ... ... ... Trieste Socialist Party .. ... ... United States Socialist Party .. ... United States Social Democratic Federation Uruguay Socialist Party ... ... ... Democratic Action Party of Venezuela ,.. Vietnam Socialist Party .. ... ... Yugoslav Socialist Party in Exile ... ... KEY MP -. Member Party f 1951 1952 1953 1955 1957 -1959 1961 1963 1966 1269 MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP CM MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP CM MP CM MP MP CM MP MP MP CM CM MP CM MP MP MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP CM CM Mi4 CM CM, MP MP MP MP CM MP CM MP MP CM MP MP MP CM CM MP CM MP MP MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP MP CM MP MP MP CM CM MP CM CM MP MP MP MP CM MP CM MP MP CM MP MP MP CM CM MP CM MP MP MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP MP CM MP MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP MP CM MP CM MP MP CM MP MP MP CM CM MP CM MP MP MP MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP MP CM MP* MP CM MP MP CM MP MP MP CM CM MP CM MP MP MP MP MP MP MP CM CM MP MP MP MP MP CM CM CM MP MP MP MP CM CM OM MP MP MP MP MP CM MP' OM MP CM MP MP CM MP MP MP CM MP CM MP MP MP MP MP MP MP OM CM CM MP MP MP CM MP MP OM OCM CM ' CM MP MP MP MP MP OM CM CM OM MP MP MP MP OM MP CM OM OM MP CM MP MP CM MP MP MP CM MP CM MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP OM CM CM. MP MP MP MP MP MP OM Clem C` M CM CM MP MP MP MP OM' CM CM I Until 1961 member was Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, which then merged into the N e D w emocrat i c P arty of ana C d a Member was Greek Socialist Party until 1953 Member was Mapai until January 1968, when Mapol, Ahdut Hoovodo and Rofi merged to form the Israel Labour Party CM Consultative Member 2 OM -. Observer Member 3 4 International Jewish Bund until 1953 5 Formerly Zionist Socialist Parties 6 Member was Social Democratic Party until 1967, when unification with Socialist Party took place 7 Soar became port of the Federal Republic of Germany on January 1, 1957, and Party merged with German Social Democratic Party a Membership in Venezuela currently suspended Aden People's Socialist Party ... Argentine Socialist Party ... ... Australian Labor Party ... ... Austrian Socialist Party ... ... 2 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Apr &d For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 oscow i2 September 1969 CPYRGHT "FISHERMEN'S RESERVES" Fishing ships flying the Soviet flag can be encountered on near and distant'seas and on the expanses of the World Ocean. Every year they catch many millions of tons of fish and products of the sea. Our fleet is constantly supplemented with modern ships. Fishing ports are being developed. The equipping of shipyards and other' is improving. In all the fishing basins there are crews that have a complete mastery of the technology of sea fishing and get good catches. The Murmansk refrigerator-ship trawler "Apatit," where the captain and director is Hero of Socialist Labor I. T. Shan'kov, upon returning from the first trip this year to the shores of Southwest Africa,. delivered in its hold 43,400 centners of valuable fish output, with a plan?of 35,700 centners for the first half-year. The crew obtained good economic indi- ces and conserved fishing armament, fuel, and packaging materials. At the present time it is on a second trip and is also successfully coping with the assignment. There are many such examples. In the Norhtern, Western, and Far Eastern Basins, dozens of ship's crews have already completed their yearly assignments. And yet the great reserves that the fishing industry has at its disposal have -not been put into action everywhere. Some of the fishing ships operate at less than full workload. Too much time is spent in moves to new areas, stays at anchor in ports, and especially for the repair of the ships. Often the ships remain idle, engaging in no fishing operations, because of the poor organization of acceptance of fish by the floating bases [mother ships] and the transport refrigera-. for ships. A very important tqsk of the managers of fishing organizations and ship's crews is the putting to an end of the unproductive idle time of the fleet, the increasing of the effectiveness of utilization of every trawler, refrigerator ship, every floating base. The proposals concerning the organization of the work of the fish-catching and fish-processing ships in a new manner are deserving of attention. At the present time the ships operate in uncoordinated way, are subordinate to different administrations, and sometimes the floating bases refuse to accept the fish that has been caught. In the Western Basin it has been decided, by way of an experiment, to assign a group of trawlers to a floating base, so that they can have a single trip plan and so that the responsibility for its fulfillment can be borne not only by the captains of the fishing ships, but also by the floating-base crew. That will make it possible to achieve a better maneuvering of the fishing fleet and the manpower, and will increase the self-interestedness of the crews in the fulfillment of the plans. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 fish C W?jgQGTUMi S,e i RI ta; 'M - ~sibl TO 9purOhase i~44 001-7 stores, for example, herring or other fish that is constantly in demand. That is why it is necessary to take all steps to increase the catch of the most valuable food fish, to furnish it to the customer primarily in processed form, and to deliver to the trade network more live and fresh fish and more smoked products. Workers in production and in trade have been called upon to study the purchasers' demands constantly. The adverti- sing of fish commodities, especially new types of fish obtained from the ocean-going fleet and various other products of the sea, is in need: of fundamental improvement. A major source of supplying the public with a variety of tasty fish must continue to be found in our internal bodies of water -- ~rivers, lakes, ponds, reservoirs. For that purpose it is necessary to 'achieve a sharp increase in their productivity, to organize on a mass ,scale the artificial reproduction of valuable commercial fish, and to combat more actively the pollution of bodies of water. Unfortunately, .new fishing areas, new pond and lake managements are planned and built slowly, and are poorly provided with material resources. The economic reform is contributing to the increase in the effectiveness of production, and to the improvement in the variety and quality of fish output. Practice shoes that fishing ships and enterprises that operate in the new way make more complete utilization of their reserves and achieve higher economic indices. It is very important that new release prices be established for certain types of fish that are caught'which were loss items for the branch. That will contribute to the production of output needxd by the public and will noticeably expand the opportunities of increasing the funds for the development of produc- tion and the providing of material incentives at the enterprises. The improvement of methods of.planning and economic stimulation as applicable to the specific conditions of the branch is one of the vital tasks of the personnel in the fishing industry. The present-day technical level of production of fish output demands the broad application of electronics, means of automation, the achievements of chemistry and other branches of science and technology. Much more will have to be done by our scientists, designers, machine builders, and instrument builders. For example, the processing of the caught fish is insufficiently mechanized. The Ministry of Machine Building for Light and Food Industry and Household Appliances USSR has been called upon to show some concern for the mass production of equipment needed by the people in the fishing industry.' The instrument builders are supposed to arm the fleet with improved searching apparatus, means of communication, and electronic navigation equipment. For months the fishermen are out on the ocean, far from their beloved shores, far from their families, fishing during the summer and during the winter, often in complicated conditions. It is necessary to demonstrate the maximum amount of concern for their labor, their living conditions, their recreation. This includes everything -- the fishing gear, 'the providing for the cultural and everyday needs of the crews, the regular delivery of mail to the ships, the construction of housing for fishermen, and many other things. Approved For Release 1.999/09/02 .: CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved i rp ~i a~Z ~a ~d9r 20 i ~,A- ~P79 91 1R4Aq0qft%qq#M1 hive .been called upon to improve persistently the mass political work among the personnel, to develop the creative initiative of the people, and to work in a well-directed manner to assure that each communist serves as an example in labor and a pioneer in the competition for the increase of production of fish output and for' the preterm fulfillment of the five--year plan. During these, days the people on the ships, at the enterprises, and .at the fish farms 'together with the entire nature, are serving a labor watch in honor of the hundredth anniversary of the birth of V. I. Lenin, and have developed on a broad scale the struggle for the receiving of Lenin 'Jubilee Honorary Certificates and Jubilee Medals. 'L'he crews of 14 fishing ships in Kamchatskaya Oblast which have already completed the yearly plan have decided to give to the country an additional 140,000 centners of edible fish. Their example was followed by the leading crews of. the Northern, Western, and other basins. Let us hope that the present year will be, for the fishermen,. a year of great catches and. new labor YRGHTvictoriesi CF Pw6ono0Hwe cyAa nOA COBOTCKHM cpnaroM MoxcHO BCTpOTHTb a 6aH)(HHx H AanbHHX MOpAx, Ha npOCTOpaX M HpoBoro OKeaHa. Om" ewe OAHO Ao6wea)oT MHOrHe MHnnHOHbI TOHH pw6w H npO- AyKTOB Mops. Haw ?)nOT nonon)1AeTCA coapeMeHHblMH cygaMi1. Pa38HBalOTCA pw6Hwo nopTw. YAy4waoTCA ocHaweHHe cyAope- M9HTHwX 3aUOAOB H ApyrNx 6eperonwx npeAnpHATHN. Bo ecex npOM wCnOawx 6acceHHax eCTb 3KMna)KH, KOTOpWO a COBepWeHCTae oBnaAOAH TOXHHKOH MOPCKOrO pb16OfOBCTBa, 6opyT 60nbWHO ynoaw. MypMaHCKHH pecppH)KepaTOpHbtH Tpaynep 4AnaTHTm, rAe KanhTaHOM-AHpeKTOpoM repoH Coi4HanHCTH4eCK0- ro TpyAa H. T. WaHbKOB, BepHyaw Hcb m3 nepBoro peHca 3TO- ro rOAa K 6eporaM IOro-3anaAHoM AcppHKH, AOCTaaHn a cGOHx 7pIOMax 43,4 TbICA4H t%eHTNepoe yeUHOH pw6Hoi npoAyKI4HH npH nnaHe nepBoro nOnyrOAHA a 35,7 TIAC314H 14OHTHepOa. 3KHnax Ao6HJCA XOpOWHX 3KOHOMH4OCKHx nOKa3aTeneH, c6eper npoMwC- n08OO aOOpy)KOHHO, Tonmino, rapy. CeH4ac OH ywen 130. BTOpOH peHc H To)Ke ycnOWHO cnpaanaOTCA C 3aAaHHOM. TaKHX npHMe- POO MHoro. B Ce8epHOM, 3anaAHOM, AanbHeBOCT04HOM 6acceH- HaX AOCATKH CYA00WX KOAAOKTHBOB ywe 3auepw MAH ro oawa 3a- AaHNA. H ace we 6Onbw HO po3epuw, KOTOpw MH pacnonaraeT pw6Han npOMWWJOHHOCTb, npHBOAOHw B AOHCTBHO He ae3Ae. CIaCTb np0- MWCAOOwX CyAou pa6oraeT NO C nonHOH Marpy3KOH. CIMWKOM MHOrO BPOMOHH TpaTHTCA Ha nOPeXOAW, CTO)IHKH a nOpTaX M OCO- 6eHN0 Ha POMOHT KOpa6nOH. HepeAlco cyAa npocralaaloT Ha npo- MbICnO H3-3a nnoxo% opraHH3aL4MN npleMKH pw6bl nnaay41IMN 6a3aMH H TpaHCnopTHwMN pe4)pH>KeparopaMH. Baxc4eiwan 3aAa4a pyKOBOAHTOfOH pw60XO3$1 cTBeHHbIX opra- HH3aL4HH, 3KHna)KeH cyAon -'nOKOH4HTb C HOnPOH380AHTenbHblMH npOCTOAMH Q )noTa, nOAHATb 344eKTHBHOCTb ucnOnb3O8aHHA Ka)K- Aoro Tpaynepa, pecppPmepaTopa, Ka)KAOH nnaBy4eH 6a3w. 3acny- KCH83 OT BHHMaHHA npeAnO)KeHHA o6 OpraHH3aL4HH pa6orw Ao6w- BaIOWNX H o6pa6aTwUawu;Hx cyAoa Ha npoMwcne nO-HOBOMy. CeH4ac OIIH AOHCTBYIOT pa3po3HeHHO, nOA4HHAIOTCA pa3HbIM ynpaanoHNAM, HHorAa nnaB6a3w OTKa3bIBaIOTCA npHHHMaTb Ao6W- TyIO pw6y. B' 3anaAHOM 6accoHNe peWOHO B nOPAAKe aKcnopH- McHTa npHKpenHTb rpynny TpaynepOB K nnaBy4eH 6a3e, %TO- &w 0HH HMOAH eAHHbIH pewcoaiH nnaii N 3a ero BwnOnHOHHO HeCAH OTBOTCTBOHHOCTb HO TOnbKO KanHT3Hw pw6onoaHwx CYAOa, No H KOnneKTHa 6a3w. 3T0 no38onHT ny4we MaHeepHpooaTb.AO- 6uGu)eli.4HM 4niT0M H nIOACKHMH pecyp. uMH, nouWCHT 3aNHTOPO- CO83HHOCTb 3KHnaWOH a BwnonHOHHH nnaHoa. C0B0TCKHO MOAN nPOAbABAAIOT B03paCTaIOU4HO Tpe6oaaHHA K aCCOPTHMOHTY pw6HbIX Tosapo8. OAHaKO B Mara3NHax He BcerAa MO)KHO KynHTb, HanpHHep, COnbAb H Apyryio pw6y, nOnb3ywu4y- KKCA nOCTOAHHWM cnpocoM. Bor nO4eMy CAOAYOT BCOMepHO YBO- nH4HBaTb A06w'y HaH60Aee L40HHOH nHU4eBON pw6w, Aanarb ea norpe6HTenio npeHMyuIeCTBOHHO a o6pa6OTaHHOM BHAO, nocran- JATb B TOprO0ni0 6onbwo )KHBOH H CBe)Ke& pw6w, KOn40HOCTeH. f pou300ACTaeHHHKH H pa6oTHH104 TOproanH npH38aHW nOCTOAH- HO H3y4aTb cnpoc noKynareAOH. B KOpOHHOM yny4WBHHH Hy)K- ABOTCA,peKnaMa p616Hwx Toaapos, 0c060H140 NOBWX BHA00 pwd oKeaHH4eCKOrO npOM bCna H'pa3nH4Hwx npOAyKTOB MOPA. KpynHblM MCT04HHKOM CHa6)KeHHA HaCOneHHA pa3HOO6pa3HOH N BKyCHOH pw6og MOryT H AOJ)KHbI OCTa8aTbCA HaWN BHyTpeHHHO BOAOeMw-peKH, o3epa, npyAu, BoAoxpaHHnHu%a. Ann 3TOrO Hy)K- NO pe3KO yseAH4HTb IiX npOAyKTMOHOCTb, a WNPOKHX Macwra6ax OpraHH30aaTb MCKyCCTBOHHOO BOCnPOH300ACTB0 L4OHHWX npOMblC- nOBwX pw6, 8KTHBHOO 6OpOTbCA C 3arpR3HOHHOM BOAOOMOB. K co)KaneHMIo, HOBwe pw6oBOAHble o6bOKTw, npyl4OBblO H 030p- Hwe XO3AAGTea npOOKTMpyOTCA H CTpOATCA MOAIOHHO, nAOXo b6ocne4HBaIOTCA MaTOpHanbHWMN peCypCaMH. 3KOHOMH4ecKaA pe4)opla cnoco6crayeT nOabIWeHHlO 'acpcpox- TNBHOCTN npOH3aOACTBa9 yny4WOHNUO aCCOPTHMOHTa N KaMecTBa Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA. DP79-01194A000500040001-7 pb16HON npOAyKt4HH. lpaKTMKa noKa3bieaeT, 4To npoMbicnoabie cyAa m npeAAMI VetP e4eiaVeY19919f?911jh ~- 3yK)T CBOH peaepBbt, AOCTHralOT Onee BWCOKHX 3KOHOMH4eCKMX nOKa3aTeneN. O4eHb Ba)KHO1 4TO Ma H@KOTOpb40 BHAbi Ao6b-Bae- ,MOA pbl6bi, KOTOpb1e 6bi11n y6i T04Hb1 AAA OTpaCnH, yCTaHoane- HW HOBbie OTnyCKHb1O tleHbl. 3TO 6yAeT cnoco6cTaoeaT6 BbinycKy npOAyK14HH, Hy)KHOA HaceneHM10, H 3aM@THO paCWNpHT B03MO)KH0- CTN y8OAH40HHA (POHAOB pa3BMTHA npOH38OACToa N MaTepHanbHO- re nooulpeHHA Ha npeAnpHATHAX. CoaepweHCTBOaaHHe McTOAOB nflaHHPO0aHH31 H 3KOHOMH4eCKOrO CTHMYAHPO83HHR npHMeHHT@Ab- HO K KOHKpOTHWM yCAOBHAM OTpaCnH - oAHa M3 HaCyu4HWx 3a- Aa4 KOAAOKTHDOa pb6Hog npoMWWAeHHOCTH. COBpeMOHHWN 7eXHH4eCKHN yp08@Hb npOH38oACTBa pbi6HOH npoAyKU,NH Tpe6yeT WHPOKOfO npHMeHeHHA 3neKTpOHHKM, CpeACT13 aBTOMaTMKH, AOCTHMCeHHN XHMMM H gpyrHx OTpaCAeN Hay- KH N TOXHHKH. 3AeCb 81148 HeMaAo npeACTOMT cAenaTb HaWHM y4e- NWM, KOHCTpyKTOpaM, MawwHO- H nph6opocTpouTenUM. HanpM- Mep, HeAOCTaTO4HO MexaHN3HponaHa o6pa6oTKa Ao6biTON pb16bi. MMHHCTepCT8o Ma WHHocTpOeHHA AAA nerKON H nMtt4880A npOM W W- JOHHOCTH H 61ATOBWx npH6opos CCCP nPH38aH0 nO3a6OTHTbCA -O MacCoacH Bb1nyCKe TaxHHKH, H@06XOAHMOH npOMWCAOBHKaM. ripm60pOCTPOHTeAK AOn)KHW BOOpyMWTb L4J10T COaepweHHOA flOMCKOBON annapaTypo%, CpeACTBaMH CBAJN N )A9KTpoHaa$rat4N? OHHWM O60PyAOsaHNOM. NEW YORK TIMES, September 29, 1969 ECONOMIC REFORM GAINS IN HUNGARY Budapest Acts Cautiously to CPVR@K-f New. Ideas BUDAPEST (UPI)-While the' reform movement in neighbor- Ing Czechoslovakia has been cut short in tragedy and confu- sion, the Hungarians now blaze the trail in Eastern Europe withi fresh ideas and changes. They .do it quietly and cau- tiously, partly for fear of up- setting the Soviet Union and partly because they know that sweeping or premature reforms of the hated, top-heavy, Soviet- type economy might easily lead to massive unemployment, in- flation and anarchy. So that now, when stock is being taken of the changes be- gun in January, 1968, the most hopeful conclusion in Budapest Is that moves for partial free- ing of prices, greater responsi- bility given to enterprise man- agements and other innovations have at least not. caused any violent dislocations while they have certainly given the econ- omy a new psychological cli- mate. CPYRGHT The gross national product- value of all goods and services -grew by 5 to 6 per cent in 1968, which was markedly less than in 1967 when the growth was 9 per cent. But this was exceptional: besides, the slower growth now can largely be ex- plained by the more general in- troduction of a shorter working, week. Many Prices Freed Something like one third of, all items sold in ? shops and. many other goods have seen their prices entirely freed from overnment control. Other prices are determined by the me lay of supply and de- and within set limits at both nds. Yet others have their ceil- ngs fixed by the Government. e prices of a few items, otably essential raw materials, ay always be laid down by entral authorities. In principle, it. is now left to nterprise managers themselves o decide what they should pro- uce, how much and where to ell it, at home or abroad. tate-owned companies negoti- te freely with each other for he supply of goods and their arketing, they hire and fire abor according to their require- laotive., ..? , . -1 Pbi6aKH MecRi.aMH HaxOAATCA B OK@ q~,~ 4aAW 1*0~~?79HQ4'~94AG O51 Q F t _'T poAHblx 6e-11 V 3HMOH, HepeAKO B CflO)KHOH o6CTaHOBKe. Heo6XOAHMO npoABns~:Tb MaxcHMyM 3a6o- Tbi o6 MX TPyAO, 6b1Te, OTAbixe. 3T0 H cHaps)K6HT7e, H Kynbryp- HO-6WTOBOe o6cnyMCHeaHHe 3KMna)KeA, M pefynApHaR AOCTaoKa nO4Tbi- Ha cyAa, CTpOHTenbcTBO *HAbA Anu pbi6aKOB H MHoroe u'naPTHHNWe_ opraHN3aLtuu Cygoa H npeAnpHATHH npH3aaHbi pa38H8aTb TBOp4eCKyIo HHH4HaTHBy niOA@H, yeneycrpeMneHHO pa- 6oTarb HaA TeM, 4ro6W Ka)KAWH KOMMyHHCT 6Wn npHMepoM B rpy- e 3 A , aCTpenbu.HKOM COp@BHOBaHNA 3a yaeAH4eHHe npOH3ao,cTaa B 3TH AHH KOnneKTHBbi C 08 n @ n HATHH ?, .unn. YA P A p pW6onoael4KMx I KOAX0300 BMecro Co aceM HapOAOM HecyT Tpygoayio eaxry ar4eCTb IOO -neTHA CO AHA po)KAeuWA B. H. JIeHMHa, pa3aepHynH 6opb6y 3a nOAy4eHMe J1eHHHCKHX 1O6Hnegsbix no4eTHWx r paMOT :H IO6HAeiHbix MegaA@N. 3KHna)KN 4eTWpHaAi{aTH npOMWCflOBWX KO- .pa6ne-i KaM4aTCKOH 06naCTM, Y)Ke 3aeepWHBWMe roJoao nnaH, p6WHAN AaTb CTpaHe AOnOnHHTOAbHO 140TWCA4 L eHT 4 HepOB nH- t4eaoii pb16bi. Hx nplMepy noenegoaanu nepeAoable , 3KHnaMcu, CBSepuoro 3ana , ,Noro H Apyru x 6accoiHOa. lyCTb we HWH@W- HHA rOA 6yAeT Ana pM6axOB rOAOM 6OAbWHX ynOB08, H0ab1X Tpy- AOBbiX 11060AI This year, for the first time, wage levels are freely negoti- able. Increasingly; the national planning authorities will be left only with safeguarding broad indicators and developments, while resorting to credit policy, taxation and other "regulating instruments" rather than direct Intervention. Hungarians now feel that a large measure of economic stability can be maintained by such methods while individual! and local initiative is being en? couraged as greater responsi? bilities are afforded to enter- prise managements and more rational incentives provided. Rezso Nyers, the father of the Hungarian reform-.a basically self-educated man in his forties, known for his rugged common sense and pragmatism-has been given the green light for changes to continue and gather momentum. Problem Is Huge The achievements so far are necessarily small if measured against the . magnitude of the task of revamping the entire economic structure, making sense of the price 'system, ori- entating Industry along lines that are most profitable for, Hungary and generally placing; economic activity on a sound,' self=paying footing. Officials and observers in Budapest reck- on it might take as much as 10 or even 15 years'to attain the broad aims of the new eco- nomic mechanism. But no one can fail to -he encouraged by so much, frank- ly spelled out, awareness of the need to revolutionize (or per. haps counter-revolutionize) the orthodox Communist pattern of Hungarian economy. That this N nera.scarv in order that dual. ity of production, productivity and standard of living can bel raised, is plainy accepted by those who matter in Hungarian political circles. .One of the chief yardsticks for measuring the success of the reform must be the extent to which the crushing burden of Government subsidies paid out to uneconomic enterprise, can be reduced. According to one source, this amounted last` year to $3.5-billion. This was somewhat over the level in 1967, but the difference might have arisen because of new ac- counting methods. : ,111 l;11 ff. k- DP79-01191.11''''AO00500040001-7 Approved For Release Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 October 1969: D ATE S W 0 R T H N 0 T I N G October 17-31 Budapest 7th Congress of (Communist) World Federation of Trade Unions, the front. that publicly protested the invasion of Czechoslovakia last year....:and:has since avoided the issue. Coincides with anniversary of 1956 Hungarian Revolution (23 October - 4+ November). October 22-27 Sochi, USSR October 31 Moscow November 14-16 Venice Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs (annual East-West meeting of scientists; locale changes). 1961 -- Stalin's body removed from Lenin's tomb in Red Square and re- buried at inconspicuous place beside Kremlin Wall. 6th Congress(of (Communist) Inter- national Federation of Resistance Movements. The FIR conducts anti- West German propaganda in the name of anti-Nazism and extols WW II role of the Red Army and Communist under- grounds. This year's meeting coin- cides with 30th anniversary of first year of WW II, which was peribdd.of Nazi-Soviet Pact. November 17 Czechoslovakia 30th anniversary of closing down of all Czech institutions of higher learn- ing by WW II Nazi occupation forces, following mass student demonstrations in Prague occasioned by death of a medical student Jan Opletal, killed during student protest against Nazi occupation. Nov. 17 is commemorated annually as International Student Day by the (Communist) International Union of Students which has its headquarters in Prague. Now, however, this Student Day ironically more likely recalls Jan Palach's self-immolation in Prague Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Jan Palach's self-immolation in Prague on January 16, 1969, pro- testing Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia. November 29 Albania 25th anniversary of seizure of power by Communist-led National Liberation Front, in wake of German withdrawal, 1944. end November Vienna Conference on European Security and Cooperation sponsored by (Communist) World Council of Peace. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 25X1C1Ob L Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 October 1969 THE COMMUNIST SCENE (2L August - 26 September 1969) I. Brezhnev Doctrine Embraces China The Brezhnev Doctrine of limited sovereignty was originally launched in a Pravda article of 26 September 1968 as a doctrinal legitimization of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Speaking at the Polish Communist Party Congress in October 1968, Brezhnev himself confirmed this doctrine, which asserts the right of the Soviet Union to intervene in any way it deems necessary when it decides socialism is threatened in any country within the "socialist commonwealth:" While the Soviets have claimed that this doctrine of "limited sovereignty" (in those terms) is an invention of their enemies, they have reiterated it in their own terms at discreet intervals up to the present. From the outset, the doctrine raised specu- lation not only in the free world, but among Communists, notably the Yugo- slavs (quite openly) and the maverick Rumanians (somewhat more indirectly), as to whether the doctrine was supposed to apply to all Communist countries. Until now it strained plausibility to claim that the Soviets had in mind not only the East European Satellites, but also Communist China. But now the Soviets have made it clear that they do indeed embrace China under the protective custody of the Brezhnev Doctrine. A Soviet journalist, Victor Louis, who among his various functions is also the Moscow correspondent of the London Evening News, wrote what would appear to be an ordinary news commentary for the Evening News of 16 Septem- ber (full text attached). The article, in ostensibly raising questions as to the applicability of the Brezhnev Doctrine to Communist China, in actual- ity asserts that it is indeed applicable. What gives his assertion the weight of real authority is the fact that Louis has been widely known and labeled as an agent through whom the KGB, the Soviet secret police organi- zation, has at times deliberately launched policy initiatives carrying the sanction of the Soviet government. For example, last year Louis visited Taiwan and was authorized to invite Nationalist Chinese newsmen to visit the Soviet Union. This move was universally interpreted as a Soviet step toward rapprochement with Nationalist China. Similarly, Louis' present pronouncement can be taken as a Soviet declaration that they arrogate to themselves the right to intervene in Communist China if they deem it neces- sary in the best interests of "international socialism." The big question causing concern to all responsible outsiders is whether this inclusion of China might mean that the Soviets will actually act on the doctrine and attack the Chinese. Outsiders to the secret and mysterious realm of Communist inter-relations can only hope that this will not be the case and that the other cold-blooded possibilities outlined by Louis in his article (especially pre-emptive nuclear strikes against China) are nothing more than crude sabre-rattling. Even as a propaganda move, the article is Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 an unfortunate ploy and again raises the ever more frequently recurring question as to the diplomatic competence of the Soviet leadership. (As an incidental matter, it is surprising that the leading free world Commu- nist parties do not take a stronger stand regarding the conflict, nor of- fer to mediate it as "honest brokers," and even stranger that they seem to make no effort to find out first hand what is really happening, for example by sending news reporters to the scene.) How the Louis article fits in the Kosygin visit to Peking, with ;;the aftermath of Ho Chi Minh's death, with the rumored illness of Mao, with the temporary suspension of Soviet anti-Chinese propaganda, and the re- ports of armed border incursions, and how these all affect the vital ques- tion of peace or war can only be speculated upon. Unfortunately, in the closed totalitarian societies represented by the Soviet Union and China, access even to ordinary facts and information is not a public right as it is in the non-Communist world. II. The Brezhnev Doctrine in Yugoslavia "In the assessment of present Soviet-Yugoslav relations, both sides stressed the significance which they attach to the principles contained in the 1955 Belgrade Declaration of the governments of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia and as reaffirmed during the meeting of the President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with the Soviet leaders in Moscow in 1956, documents which lay down the principles of respect for sovereignty, equality, and noninterference in internal affairs...." This excerpt from the Soviet-Yugoslav communique resulting from the official visit of Soviet Foreign Minister Gromyko to Yugoslavia 2-6 Sep- tember appears on the surface to be a concession on the part of the Sovi- ets toward the Yugoslav point of view concerning the proper relations be- tween Communist states. With the stress on "sovereignty, equality, and noninterference" and the absence of a reference to the "duty" of "inter- national socialism" (the formula used to represent the Brezhnev Doctrine), the Yugoslavs won a verbal victory for their point of view over the Brezh- nev Doctrine. Whether it was Soviet two-faced cynicism or a matter of substance is debatable, but it should be noted that, first of all, Gromyko was far from renouncing the Soviet doctrine and, secondly, he answered evasively to a pointed question during a press conference in Belgrade in which he was asked whether he regarded Yugoslavia as a part of the "so- cialist commonwealth" and therefore subject to the Brezhnev Doctrine. By way of answer, he chose to refer to an earlier speech of his in which Yugoslavia was treated separately from other socialist states but was not expressly excluded from the "commonwealth." Other than this crucial point, the visit seems to have tried to re- pair the relations damaged by the invasion of Czechoslovakia. This was accomplished more by negative moves such as stopping or softening the polemics, and avoiding mention of or taking positions on, issues on which they disagree (e.g. relative Yugoslav detachment from the Sino-Soviet conflict, the Yugoslav promotion of non-alignment, Yugoslav's friendly Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : cIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 relations with the West, etc.). A mutual effort was made to say cordial things about each other and to emphasize what they could of their common ideological platitudes, for example, their common hostility to capitalism, imperialism, the bourgeois enemy, etc. The Soviets hoped thereby to stop Yugoslav doctrinal provocations over the issue of Czechoslovakia and per- haps to enlist support on other international initiatives, while the Yugo- slavs may be looking for advantages in trade relations, though keeping a wary eye on the limited sovereignty doctrine. III. Czechoslovakia under the Brezhnev Doctrine The Brezhnev Doctrine had its origins in the Soviet suppression of "humane Communism" in Czechoslovakia under the now sidelined, former Sec- retary General of the Czechoslovak Communist Party (CSCP), Alexander Dubcek. Czechoslovakia's evolution since Dubcek's ouster and replacement by Gustav Husak last April is an example of the continuing application of the limited sovereignty concept. Dubcek was ousted and Husak installed under the direction of the Soviet Politburo, not by independent Czecho- slovak action. The elaborate security and police precautions taken to keep commemoration of the first anniversary of the Soviet invasion under control were undertaken under the watchful supervision of the Soviets. The progressive elimination of all liberals in the party and in positions of public influence of any kind has also been Soviet-directed. The daily events in Czechoslovakia are a sad chronicle of this continuing denial of Czech sovereignty as well as of the basic freedoms of a people. That the main leaders of the 1968 experiment in "humane communism" (at least Dubcek and Josef Smrkovsky, if not Prime Minister Cernik) will suffer further denigration and;.punishment.~is not in doubt -- only what the nature of the denigration will be and when it is to take place. To observe the forms of legality, their fate will be made known after a Central Committee Plenum, though the decision, again, will have been made by the Soviets, with the announcement coming from their Czech puppets. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 :3CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPY 9ved For Re eRj"I,P"F F0 X000500040001-7 y victor oUis Moscow---Sese circles in Eastern Europe are asking why the doctrine that Russia was ju&tifi.ed in interfering in Czechoslovakia's affairs a year ago should not be extended *,c. China Events in the past year have confirmed that the Soviet union is adhering to the doer trine that socialist countries have the right to'interfere in each other's affairs in their own interest or those of other who are threatened. The fact that China is many:a< times larger than Czechoslovakia and might offer active resistance is, according to these Marxist theoreticians, no reason for, not applying the doctrine. 'Ihether;or not:,?'? the Soviet Union will dare to attack Lop Nor, China's nuclear centre, is a question of strategy' and so the world' would only learn about it afterwards. 'Fraternal Help, The bombardment of Sinkiang with biroadcasts has been under way for months already. Soviet broadcasting time in the Uighur and Kazakh languages has increased cons,iderably.' The appearance on Chinese territory of underground radio stations?critiaising Mao, indicates the degree the unification of anti-Mao forces within the country, It is quite possible that these 'forces could produce a leader who % ould ask other socialist,.,,'. countries for "fraternal help." -3:t is not hard to continue to draw the analogy with .events in Czechoslovakia, for China has its own Slovakia--Sinkiang. The main popu- ~..;d, lation of this province in Uighur and Kazakh, and these people have already tried for achieve autonomy three times in the past hundred years. The Slovaks have attained a ~? ,gpod measure of autonomy since last summer. 'Usually well-informed sources in, Moscow were surprised at Western excitement over the?. ?Soviet plan to launch an air attack on Lop Nor. Nobody here has a shadow of doubt-that Russian nuclear installations stand aiT5ed at the Chinese nuclear facilities. The in creasing number of border incidents and the way they are being handled show that the Soviet Union prefers using rockets, to manpower. She has a variety of rockets to choose; ~, from, depending upon the terrain and other circumstances... For instance, in the case of a Chinese attempt to occupy an island, the whole surface of the island was burned to= -;J gether with any Chinese troops and equipment already ensconced there. National boundaries -not marked by great rivers are more difficult to hold, but no doubt a scorched-earth policy will be pursued on Chinese territory each time there is an attack by a small:, China's military growth has gone almost unnoticet,l. The detonation of the first Chinese; atom bomb on October 16, 1964, coincided with tho political explosions in tha.Kremlin -, as Khrushchev fell from- power. Subsequent atomic tests were mentioned in the.,Soviot,; press, but at no great lengt'?.. Mere in Moscow there are no noticeable preparations for war with China. Many Russians are surprised how quickly the theoretical differences .i with their great neighbour (w1ho is not Balled our junior brother any more) have devel-:, `oped into a serious threat. Russian readers have been prepared for a possible attack ,.? from Mao simply by the reprinting in the Soviet press of long quotations from -the Chinese papers. There has been sufficient said to make any one here angry without additional expla- nation or editorial comment. Previously these tirades were only distributed to party;;; members at party meetings, but now they are considered fit food for anyone's thoughts. Of course, there are still plenty of events going unreported here, which arexaever=, theloss causing the military considerable concern, It has been learned from Vietnam that the Chinese are withdrawing (roar the northern part of the country many of their advisers who have gained several years' experience fighting the Americans; they are being transferred to the Soso-Russian border.' Approved Fir RP_IP_aSP_ 1999109/02..--cIA-RnP:7, ,Elf `t"OiUIC TIKES 18 September 1969 Conte 8111 f C PYRG T SpH'ial to The 5,,w York Ti W g? fflfflOM7 ight' stations criticizing Mao indi- r qt71'1cFi i tack net China Sept. LUNJUN, 17 -- Victor of anti-Mao forces within the Louis, the controversial Mos- country. It is quite possible cow correspondent of The Lon- that these forces could pro don Evening New", has strongly duce a leader who would ask other socialist countries far hinted that the Soviet Union 'fraternal help."' might make a surprise attack Mr. Louis said it was a corn on China. moo assumption among well, In a dispatch by Mr. Louis, informed sources in Moscow a Soviet citizen believed to that Soviet nuclear weapons have close connections with were aimed at Chinese nuclear the Soviet secret police, the sag- facilities. gestion was advanced that, The increasing number of whether or not the Russians, border incidents and the way attacked the Chinese nuclear, they are being handled, Mr. test site Lop Nor in Sin- Louis said, shows that the Rus- kiang was only "a question of signs `prefer, using sockets to strategy." manpower. Mr. Louis' dispatch said: For example, he said,. whore, ,,some circles in Eastern the Chinese attempted to oc- Europe are asking why the copy an island, "the whole sur- doctrine that Russia was lust,. face of the island was burned' Pied in interfering in Czesho- Ito 'ether with any, Chinese' slovakia's affairs a year ago troops arid equipment there." should not be extended to; ,China. Events in the past year t t the Soviet A War of Nerves ,have, confirmed trh a Union Is adhering to the doe-1 trine that socialist coun- fere in each other's affairs in their own interest or those of others who are threatened. "The fact that China is inanyi times larger than Czechoslo-i I v e ff i i h v er act akia and m g t o resistance is, according to these Marxist theoreticians, no rca- son for not applying the doc- trine. Whether or not the So-i Lop Nor, China's nuclear center, is a question of stra- tegy, and so the world would! only learn about it afterwards.' possible pre-emptive strike matched what the Russians against China. thought would happen in Whether Moscow seriously Czechoslovakia -- but didn't. contemplates an attack or is, There has been no sign that any seeking to bring pressure on' pro-Russian Chinese opposition China by such a threat. cannot to Mao Tse-tung exists or is easily be determined, but the likely to rise. Chinese have reacted as though It is not known if the dis- the threat is genuine.. . patch by Mr. Louis, who last Brezhnev, Thesis Recalled' week was the first to report Mr. Louis's dispatch put the the visit of Premier Aleksei N. pre-emptive attack into Kosygin to Peking, reflects the ideological framework of actual discussions in Moscow the thesis advanced by the So- of military moves. But it seems viet party 'Secretary, Leonid I. certain that the Soviet Union 13rczhnev, at the time of the wishes to convince Peking of Soviet intervention in Czecho- the genuine possibility of a Slovakia when he proclaimed sudden strike. The Russians the right of "socialist coup- presumably hope to compel the tries'" to intarvegie in each Chinese to enter into meaning- ful discussions of Chinese-So- other's internal affairs. viet differences, with the im- The doctrine of interventioni pitch threat that the alterna- ?has been castigated by Peking, tine is nuclear war. which has warned all C:ommu4 Meeting With Chou Sh nisi countrie t' i t h : s a own t e doctrine ByIoe LoSO SALISBURY means that Moscow has arro- MOSCOW, Sept. 17 (Reuters) Victor' Louis' suggestion that gated to, itsif the right to in Moscow television tonight the Soviet Union may carry tervene in any country in any showed the meeting between out a sneak` attack on China's manner it deires. Premier Kosygin and 'the Chi nuclear faciliti s appears to be , Mr. Louis's reference to a' nose Premier Chou En.lai in'. part of a broadening war' of possible attack on Lob Nor and Peking last Thursday. nerves by Moscow against. Pe- his statement that the "world The film showed the Soviet) king. would only learn about it after- Premier walking across the Mr. Louis' has in the past wards" coincided with the So- runway at Peking airports to ,carried out :special tasks in viet circular letter' ward Mr. Chou. The two' men the field of foreign propaganda, s suggestion of a sudden attack on Chinese and their aides shook' hands apparently at the behest of the facilities. briefly, with slight smiles. The Soviet KG R., or secret police, Mr. Louis's report of under: next sequence showed the two or the Soviet forei5a office, or ground anti-Mao radio stations sitting side by side in a bare both' in China is not raborne dio out b rcom. apparently in the airport His dispatch echoed a 'cir- other sources. Indeiy building, cular {otter that was distil- fervors believe cite stations are ad' l, on Kosygin and Mr. Chou shak- par?ies and Eastern European and :,,re Soviet territory ing hands again just before the Communist governments short- and : part v the ,general war Soviet ly before tpt. I in which tos- of the airwaves being carried Premier's departure. But ~~`'ion of a out along the Soviet-Chinese 'this time the two men used cor.w .. aire.`l the q"i. ' frontier. r both hands to grip each other's .,s H' "" a d grit o:eVs` i?...Ee::s 1':citi1'ko' CP'yt G' tT Nvuhl suggestion w a leader" an Pumped their hands arising in China. who would up and down enthusiastically i'reequies4 Soviet intervention ,for; several seconds.. r, . _9 _9Q 4 PUETC8 J;Aninl:, ev.111iaie(l It, is a common assumption in Moscow The Soviet Union has a whole gamut of that "Soviet nuclear rockets are pointed at rockets adapted to the terrain and to cir- Chinese nuclear installations," Soviet cumstancc. Thus when the Chinese sought journalist Victor Louis wrote Sept. 17 in the to occupy an island [Chcnpao Island in the LJssuri River'], the whole surface of the Is. Premier Evening fllex a~ ci NT, ICNews,osygin's sig. talks days with CIA ? after land was burd together with, any Chinese I'rentic nose Premier Chou En-lai during a brief troops and equipment there." su &',r. Louis's disclosure; are disturbing for iprisc visit to PcitinkN.' " several reasons' for what they tell about the There is no doubt that the tactic of fighting on. Chenpaa Island in l March; about for scorched earth will be applied to Chinese their timing, cpmini? so shortly after Mr.' :territory whenever there is an attack by a I{osygin?s ciTorts reduce tensions be eon mall WAV C '6 tid Fir1"Th99/09/02 ?CIA-RD'l9"U~I~iQO 00446 00aNeast, CPYRGHT va's manuscript, which the Soviet security police had seized in her apartment. First report of inectiitg It is generally assumed that Mr. Louis's principal is the powerful security police or' KGB. The fact that he was the first to report Mr. Kosygin's airport conference with Pre vier Chou in Peking shows that he has exceptional sources of information. What Mr. Louis has written about the ap- plication of scorched-earth tactics -- pos: sibly even nuclear--on Chenpao Island had. hitherto never been reported with such. precision. On March 21, Moscow Radio called reports about Soviet nuclear action against Communist China "a provocative". false rumor." Another angle brought up in Mr. Louis's recent article was his contention with re gard to China that "the Soviet Union is, adhering to the doctrine that socialist coun-? tries have the right to interfere in each other's affairs." Moscow hitherto has denied the existence of a "Brezhnev doctrine of limited sov+ ereignty" or the possibility that what al- legcdly was good for Czechoslovakia also would be good for Communist China. The Soviet attitude has wavered in this respect. As early, as March, Bulgarian For-` eign Minister Ivan Bashev stated that the Brezhnev doctrine could be invoked to sanc-, Lion intervention in China under the War- saw Pact. This statement, made in an in-. tcrview given to the official Austrian press,. agency, later was denied in. Sophia and, Moscow. PAR FIRM FIR VA A - -A bees a of the identity o c au her whose oward the end of August the Soviet. Cen- close connections with high Soviet agencies tral Committee is reliably reported to have are public knowledge. addressed a circular letter to foreign. Com- i No ordinary Soviet journalist, the mysteri- munist parties raising the question of a pos- ous Mr. Louis has repeatedly been entrusted sible preemptive strike against China. with important unofficial missions. Earlier Mr. Louis's article in the London Evening .this year he twice visited Taiwan and had News was the first unofficial Soviet airing of :a long conversation with Defense Minister this view in the Western press. Chiang Ching-kuo, the son and heir apparent One asks why Moscow should have of Presidcrt Chiang Kai-shek, launched Mr. Louis's threatening article at When Mrs. Svetlana Alllluyeva, Stalin's a time when the Soviet press has turned daughter, came to the United States with down attacks against Peking. The possi- the intention of publishing her first book bility that Mr. Louis as a private individual "Twenty Letters to a Friend," Mr. Louis should have published this article on his scurried from one Western capital to an- own initiative is ruled out by all observers, other offering publishers what was supposed to be the original version of Mrs. Alliluye? Negative element introduced WASHINGTON POST 22Soptexnber 1969 , 1arquis Childs Even if his article reached the Evening News before Mr. Kosygin's surprise visit to Peking, its publication could have been stopped. . As matters stand today, Mr. Louis's arti cle has introduced a new negative element into the Sino-Soviet discussion. A newsreel of Mr. Kosygin and Mr. Chou taking leave. showed that the two men had come closer to each, other's views. The, Chinese press. and radio no longer refer to the "renegade Brezhnev-Kosygin clique." Mr. Kosygin's name has ceased to be a matter of abuse.. !Dnly "Brezhnev & Co." are supposed to be the villains. Diferences hinted Some "sources" in Moscow seem to have admitted that the Sino-Sovict dispute could be solved and that the border revisions demanded by Peking actually cover only about 40,000 square miles. The more-than-a-' million square miles which, Peking says, were ceded to Russia in the past century as a result of "unequal treaties" now are said to have been a political argument and not a formal revendication. The only valid explanation for the pub-' lication of Mr. Louis's article at this par- ticular time seems ' to be that differences regarding policy toward China continue to exist among the Soviet leaders. .Mr. Louis's presumed principal, the XBG, headed by alternate Politburo member Yuri V. Andropov, is subordinate to Gen- eral Secretary Leonid I. Brezhnev rather than to Premier Kosygin. It also is possible that members of the military high com- mand would like to exert pressure on China. '~?~paga~d~ Masks Stats ' I CANNOT forecast to you wrapped In a mystery inside the action of Russia, Win- an?enigma. aton Churchill said in one ' Even for those most di. of the darkest hours shortly ; rectly concerned with Intel- after the outbreak of World Ilgenee reports from. around "tear II. It is a rid d 1.e the globe . the r i d d l e In he mystery ns e a enigma Is nearlyas great in `1969 as it was In 1939. And there hag been, added t h e Chinese puzzle.' The two are linked together In obscurity, the fate of perhaps a third 'of the world's people. Ever since the meeting of Alexel Kosygin and Chou En-Lal in the airport at Pe. Approved For Release 1999/09/02,: C.IA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 ing - the Soviet premier out in Moscow for a down. To this, however, an im- a lengthy A Chi ' ! Y paper onttTe men i i i n na k ore gn m n st r 14 Qty p~ that br, the intelligence @a5 e9 fib T -: ~ ~ s e~OO ~ r the Soviets' 60 he murk, the ntelligeIfelligence The Kremlin doubtless had gram has had setbacks. Yet have perfected the tech pectalists have spent hag few illustions that a single. the time is not far distant ' nique of blowing hot ands reds of hours analyzing the, meeting could put a period --a year and a half to two cold, spreading directly con eager evidence available., to a quarrel so bitter and and a half years, -- when, trary reports at various hat they (have come up, deep-seated. A second motive with missiles and delivera. levels to create as much con. ith is, in part,) conjecture, had perhaps even more to ble warheads, Peking can fusion as possible. They, nformed theory. For what do with the Soviet premier's Inflict substantial - damage have done this on the quar., t is worth, and the special-' readiness to ask for aeon- rel with China, one set of ats frankly acknowledge its' frontation and to sit down 'logical Soviet Union. Is whisperers playing down the' Imitations, here is their logical to expect, therefore e, In a bleak room in Peking's that Moscow will sit back as feud with the word that the cenarlo. bleak airport with Chou. He the sands in that sinister border skirmishes have been The meeting was sought was out to demonstrate the , hourglass run out? greatly exaggerated and the Y Kosygln. He acted partly; Kremlin's determination to thought of full-scale war: n response to the urgent walk the last mile In an at- IT IS HERE that the absurd. At the other ex-!' leas of the heirs of Ho Chi tempt to end the feud. That murky light closes down and treme come hints that a pre-.' inh in Hanoi. At Ho's fu- will be Moscow's argument the mystery deepens. The emptive nuclear strike can eral they hart put the great- with doubting neutrals, such questions have no hard an- not be ruled out. The mys-. st' stress on the need to as the Roumanians when the swers as, for example: Why terious Victor Louis, al- . eal the breach between the quarrel heats up again. should it have been only legedly a journalist with: ,we Communist. giants. The While Moscow temporarily six to nine months ago that wide official access in East-' th d e or oscow-Peking feud was a shout down the propaganda er went out from ern Europe, is the latest to erious obstacle to the pros- valve, anti-Russian vitupera- Moscow to Soviet ambassa- put out this hint. d ors around the world to This might be no more cution of the war in Viet- tion out of Peking continues am: Moreover, it was split- almost unabated. How then spread the word'of China's than a guessing game to ing the Communist are the chances of war be. threat to peace? At any time help intelligence camp tween the. giants appraised during the past five years officers. nto two hostile factions. when war is defined as the this alarm might have been have pave suchuc. tim me if did not: bear- WHAT MORE impressive movement of divisions across sounded. ing on the an awesome destiny not bea only y ribute to the memory of He the border in a pre-emptive The diplomatic campaign of the Chinese and ,the nd his leadership than to strike against China's nu- produced strange and some.. Soviet peoples, but of all ake his death the occasion clear installations in Sinki. 'times almost comic results. ; mankind. Whether China is 1 f a peace pact? This was ang? Not long before Charles de : such a profound concern he impassioned petition to The odds are somewhere Gaulle stepped down, the that Moscow cannot enter oth Kosygin and Chou 4060 Soviet ambassad between 45 35 t , - o or to France ; ., into serious arms limitation von as the thousands of against a war In those terms. Valerian Zorin, asked to -alks is just one aspect of imnamese filed t th call th a T p s a ho bush fighting along the him anmessaresident to give' the puzzle that is rather ler of the dead leader. 3,000-mile border will bring message of the high. more than a guessing game. osygin went far out of this furious outcries from both est Importance. The aston- ay for the Peking meeting, sides. That will be about the fished de Gaulle found him- 01969. v? Ilea reatura 8radloat. nd d the order promptly went extent of it, - C-PWRISMT9 to Zorin NEW YORK TIMES 1 September 1969 C oviet Tensions 7 . campaign In the Soviet press is bound to heighten' world fear of a Moscow-Peking conflict. It seems in-' credible that the Kremlin can be seriously considering a preventive war against China or even an aerial strike' at}Chinese nuclear facilities. Yet little more than a1 year ago it seemed equally incredible that Soviets troops would invade Czechoslovakia. It required only, a few months advance indoctrination to make most' Soviet citizens accept the "necessity" of "saving Czechoslovakia; the "Hate China" indoctrination has gope on for almost a decade. Whatever Brezhnev & Co. may intend, much recent Soviet comment on China has implied that Mao is ?a' paper tiger, who could be defeated easily if the need arose.- Sovietreaders have been presented a picture of a chaotic China in the grip ofvirtual civil war. Most pointedly, perhaps, the new commander of the Soviet Far' Eastern .Forces, rocket specialist Gen. V. F. Tolilbko, has recently recalled the Soviet-Chinese border miniwar in 1929. He stressed how easily rela-, tidely small Soviet forces were able orl that occasion c to `defeat numerically superior o nents and 'occu Manchuria. t More sober minds in the Kremlin must see the monu- 'war. Whatever the divisions and rifts in Chinese oaiety now, a Soviet attack would almost certainly. ao. It isdifficult to believe that Mao would not seek', o deliver atomic or hydrogen bombs against Soviet oscow, And advancing Soviet troops would run-the anger of bogging down in a morass of guerrilla oppo itlon on a scale that would dwarf the United States roblems in Vietnam. These counterarguments cannot be considered deer jive, however, because the present Kremlin leadership as repeatedly shown itself addicted to expensive P 'setting in train the events that produced the short- Soviet prestige and in Soviet weapons captured by' e Israelis. And last year's invasion of Czechoslovakia proved , Eve all, how Insensitive the present Politboro ma- j r~ty is to the great force of contemporary nation. disastrous miscalculation Of all, yet, tragically, there d1an be no guarantee this,. decision will not be taken. Approved For Release 1999/09IO ...-e - NIA YORK. TMS ~31 A v for Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 cPYR e Complex Question of Who's Provoking Whom 1IONG KONG'--"Who knows,' shown in similar circumstances and serving as guerrillas have., may have been ready and hit' a professional China-watcher oo- elsewhere for them to be tough been sent in the last year to back sharply when Chinese pa. served here last week, "there and combative toward the Chi- Soviet frontier regions. `trols moved in to probe the si.tua-, may be no. real fighting at all on nese, regularly making their, From the evidence it appears. Lion. Reports of, relatively heavy, the Sino-Soviet border. Attie: till, strength known and felt, and likely it was a Chinese attack' Chinese casualties about 30 the only thing we have to go on showing their intention to toler that started the fighting at Chen-' killed and 30 wounded, compared are statements from two goveron- ate no Chinese encroachments. pao (Damansky to the Russians): 'with two Russians killed and mets that lie regularly as a It would, on the other hand,, Island last March 2, seemingly In seven wounded-ate indicative' matter of state policy" be out of character with the pru-' reaction to a long period of bar-, of Russian preparedness and su- difficulty of assessing responsi-, nists have handled their,foreign Nlity for the clashes that havo relations, when war or peace been occurring this year between with a major power has been Soviet and Chinese Communist Involved, for them to provoke the forces along the 4,200-mile Chi- Russians .,unduly. The Chinese, na-Russia frontier. No third party well know that among Soviet has seen any of the fighting. The leaders there are Individuals who only guidelines outside observers would relish justification for mili- have are claims from Peking and tary action against China that. Moscow. Each side charges the would humble Mao Tse-tung and other with intrusions, provoca- smash Chinese nuclear Installa- Some .fighting there has un- doubtedly been. Pictures showing battle sites, dead and wounded are convincing enough for this to be accepted. But deciding which side has taken the Initiative must, perforce, depend on' cir- cumstantial evidence. On this ba- sis a scenario unfolds roughly as follows. In long-range, over-all terms ,the Russians have very likely been acting more aggressively along the frontier than the Chi- nese. They are far more powerful. ,They not only have vast nuclear `superiority but also much strong. ?.cr conventional air, ground and naval forces, than the Chinese. And a substantial portion of their military potential has by , now been advantageously deployed ,around China's borders. They are thus in a position to take risks, knowing If a showdown occurs ,the odds are on their side. ;No Encroachments ~' . It would be In keeping, with behavior the Russians 'have Soviets. And following the initial Besides the major border clash-' attack, indications are that a. , es that have been promptly pub-; ,Russian ' "teach-them-a-lesson" licized and made the subject of 'counterattack was responsible.; protest notes by both Peking and for the second Chanpao battle., Moscow, the Chinese Communists 1 In the case of the subsequent' have charged the Russians with, incidents immediately publicized' almost daily Incursions on the' ? 'from Peking and Moscow--one ground and in- border rivers ands 'on June 10 on the border be ,frequent reconnoitering aircraft; tween Soviet Kazakhstan and ;Intrusions into Chinese air space. ,Yumin hsien (county) in Sinkiang The Russians from.time to time' Lions. Peking would logically be and the Aug. 13 clash in the' throw a similar but some-' careful not to provoke such a." same what less formidable package of. - -- - - - -- -- This posture, however, would not rule out the Chinese striking back at Russian aggravations and showing by occasional minor thrusts and forays they are ready to fight if pushed too' far. In conformity with their basic posture the Chinese do not ap., pear to have greatly reinforced their Soviet frontier areas. They. border at Druzhba. In this region,, ing for at least a limited attack' have fleshed out understrength distant from their main centers on Communist China, possibly, border units and constructed new of power, the Chinese are not' with a view to destroyipg nuclear; defense works, and there were only militarily weak and lacking' installations and overturning the' reports this weekend of some a railway link but also polit'call Mao Tse-tung regime. new troop movements north, ..shaky because of the predomy. For their part, the Chinese' from areas as far south as seem bent on protecting them-, Canton. But the Chinese deploy- nanny Moslem minority composi-, selves while keeping anti-Soviet. ments do not indicate prepara- Lion of the population in Sinkiang' tensions at a high level for do-1 tions for attack. Their prepara- _? The fact that the Chinese; mestic political purposes. Mr., tions, on the contrary, fit the charge the Russians with moving: Mao's whole campaign against i Maoist concept of a defensive 'boundary markers on the Yumin -his, opponents has been pitched; I people's war. The enemy would. border some time before the -in terms of charges that they; not be met head on but be sucked Aug. 13 attack would suggest' , favor Russia and Russian-type' i n and enveloped by mobile mili- that a local Soviet commander Communism, and so the more he,, Lary contingents and the popula-; ;might have taken it upon himself ,can depict the U.S.S.R. as ant Lion in general. In readiness for: to Improve his positions by elimi- 'evil, potential aggressor against; such a strategy, hundreds of . mating a Chinese salient jutting .'China the easier it is to smear' thousand's of civilian construction ;late' his area. The commander his rivals. ' ?'t corpsmen capable of toting gotta : TILLMAN DUEDIN' . CHRISTI SCIENCE MONITOR' 2.2 September 1969 poviet war a~~n Washington J The Soviet Union and Communist China are deadly serious in their tit?fot-tat border skirmishes in Central . Asia, but highly Informed sources here don't believ 'either side intends all-out war. . Approved For Release 1999/0910,2 : v oubecas, ?awuaIaba uuua - tives. The Chinese are doubtless not) Russians Stroh 'innocent of provocations, but the' Strong weight of evidence points to, The Russians are particularly: more Russian pressure than Chi-. strong in the area of these out-' nese as regards these lesser dis breaks, with ample ground, air plays of aggressiveness. and rocket forces available and: As motivation for their tactics, a branch railway running from' some observers here believe, the .the Alma'Ata line to the Sinkiang' Russians may indeed be prepay-`. Nor does the best intelligence here indicate that the Soviets have any intention of launching so-called "sure ,gical strikes" against China's nuclear bases. [Soviet Premier Alexei N. Kosygin conferred with' Chinese Communist Premier. Chou En-lai iii Peking 'A uohd ebrs. ~''~*l'e0 06?40 NiQ to the; By William C. Selover' [The Russian language broadcast, monitored here,; ti~.And the Soviets, facing the Chinese: "We mist deli said the me sinime~erin _ r-rrw r .ea.LYnua_J% n%nrnnn A A ment and 16~N5M~~~tcNdn~~c`4riw~ [The broadcast said the meeting was constructive bu , at more or less the same pace, with each side respond. i i ng n much the same way, did not disclose details.] ~kirmish pla ce o eve that has taken so far,' k future course of the Sino-Soviet dispute, for little really! -ls wn i no o show that neithid ser seswoy to blae i hllm is known about intentions in this area. for all of them. But there is fairly general agreement among expert .i , The early-March Chinese ambush, for ex- ',in this capital that: ,ample, may have been a response to a se o Both sides operate on the basis ,of rational judg ries of Soviet probes. In mid-March, the 'ments, each carefully considering the consequences o ` Soviets launched a counterthrust. In May, .its own actions. 'June, and August, the same pattern was. They avoid making decisions based on immediate repeated. emotional responses. Both sides could legitimately' believe they I r? -I N are right. And, in fact, there are some genu- O They will probably continue rubbing against each; ine differences on a border claim, where the other across 4,000 miles of Central Asian borders, butt 'frontier shifts, with the river as it changes. the conflict is not likely to expand beyond that. course. Nobody is' willing to make flat predictions about the f While ,little is known' here about the precise nature ? @ China is not expected to attack the Soviet Union i Tlie S-no-Soviet split originally resulted ' an all-out offensive, nor is the Soviet Union likely to from ideological differences. initiate such attneka nr, rhi.,n ? These differences intensified from 1956 on -through the Khrushchev era, when national But anyone listening to the shouting that is going on interests on each side became paramount.. between the two giants these days is sure to get just the' Recently,. experts note, Moscow radio has opposite impression. The funeral of Ho Chi Minh of-l for the first time urged the Chinese military forded a clear example of the apparent gulf that has to turn their arms on their leaders. Ideology opened between them, High-level Chinese and Soviet- . 'didn't enter the argument. delegations managed. to sidestep each'other during the The United States Government believes it days of mourning for the Vietnamese leader., Js in the best interests of world peace that, "wt ,the Sino-Soviet conflict be contained. The Soviets now are accusing the Chinese of having' One way American officials believe the launched some 488 border_yiolations. along the, Sino? X.S: can help is by keeping "hands off," by -Soviet border in the past two months. They assert that` not giving the appearance of coming to the' this threatens an expansionist war against the Soviet .defense of one side or the other. ;Union, i Y Other than that, Washington's hands are At the same'timc, Chinese leaders are telling their ',Virtually tied. Any attempt to take advan '.population to expect an "inevitable" nttliek by the ;stage of the situation, officials here agree,` 'Soviet Union against China's nuclear capability. ?would more than likely backfire. Meanwhile, the U.S. is continuing to press The Chinese and the Soviets'are dealing from the: '.the.Soviets for a date to discuss disarma- kanme premise: Each will take no nonsense from the' ment and to offer small, kind gestures to other. This will inevitably produce the kinds of skirm-. the Chinese to show them Washington is ,ashes and conflicts seen earlier this year. sincere in wanting to keep out of the i: Experts imagine the Chinese, facing the Soviets, say-' squabble. ing to themselves: "When one Is faced by a wild beast ;one must not show any fear.` 29 ugust SOVIET SAYS A WAR WITH THE CHINESE WOULD PERIL ALL Pravda Editorial Warns It Would Inevitably Involve- Use of Atomic Weapons By BERNARD GWERTZMAN Spatial is The Now Yorb"nuts . CPYRGHT , Aug. 28-% The-So- viet-Union suggested today that a war with Communist China would inevitably Involve the use of nuclear weapons' and "would not spare a single con- tinent" A long editorial in Pravda, the Communist party newspa- per, was one of the most open; efforts by the Soviet Union to' gain support for its oft-stated assertion that the Chinese lead- ers are pursuing ? a reckless' course that endangers not only- the Soviet Union but the world.! The editorial appeared aimed various foreign offices as they at enlarging the Chinese-Soviet ,did last March after the clashes dispute from an intra-CommuJ on the Ussuri River. The West- nist affair into something that ern diplomats say they would should concern other nations as not be surprised if Foreign ;well. ? Minister Andrei A. Gromyko [In' Washington, the State ;? 'raised the matter an the' Department discounted re-?;i , United Nations General As-~ ports that the Soviet Union., semblyYwhen it meets next might launch a preventive air' month. i strike against Chinese' nu "The adventurism of the Pe-! clear installations.] -king leaders, the atmosphere of Diplomatic Effort Seen war -hysteria they are fanning,! Some Western diplomats be complicate the entire interne-j lieve that Soviet diplomats may banal situation," Pravda said.` again raise the' Chinese Issue in 'The use of threats, black ',1 mail and provocations in rela-I Approved For Release 1999/09/01: CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGHT tions With~q ~r~~q-lRlele~sie l ?~/0r2 : Cl-RC r ~Jg1Q 000; veloping co tries, rncreasrng. Much of the contents of the international tensions, 'making, f Pravda repeated a former So- editorial had been stated earlier Viet assertion that "given good- advances to the forces of imps-; by Leonid I. Brezhnev, the' will, the necessary conditions riilist reaction, making calls, and must be Insured to party leader, at the world meet- can not for peace but for war-all ing of communist leaders in guarantee normal relations be. this causes the legitimate anx- Moscow in June and repeated tween the Soviet Union and the lety of many peoples and. in party and Government dec., Chinese People's republic." So- skates," it, said. larations.. Viet suggestions for talks with " The additional stress on the Chinese.. leaders were re- The military arson Al, of the, China's 'militant policies may counted, Maoists are filling up, with all cause'some apprehension among But the Pravda editorial the latest weapons," Pravda, again warned .,that "any at- Soviet readers who are already, said. "And a war, should its .conscious of the possibility of: tempts to speak wuageo! ith the Soviet i Union in the language arms, break out In present-day condi war as a result of the periodic to encroach on-the interests of tions, what with the existing` (border clashes. Just' yesterday, weapons and lethal armaments, la Soviet weekly, Literaturnaya. building people, which ' et Gazeta, punted a letter' . from afi Communism, will meet and modern means of delivery, a Chinese youth that said. mili- In ' with a firm rebuff." would not spare a single cons tary fortifications were being analyzing the cause of the tinerat." friction, Pravda said that Pe- built in Manchuria "for. war king was pursuing its "reckless, Pravda said that Communists, with the Soviet Union." adventurist policy" to distract and "progressive world opin The Pravda editorial again the Chinese people from severe ion" had condemned Peking's; stressed the desire of the So- internal problems. course, viet Union to preserve the "There are many'testimonies "Incideritally,'? It added, "the' peace and the ability of the So- pointing to the fact that the y Chinese leaders are undertaking more sober-minded representa- Viet armed forces to defend the these actions In an attempt to to tives of the ruling 'circles of homeland. see a way out of the political the capitalist countries also ex- "The Soviet Union has never and economic blind alley into press great concern over the intended to aggravate relations which they have led the coun- menace to the maintenance of with the Chinese People's Re-, t ;; Pravda cyd. e general peace with which the public," the editorial Bald: "The; Leap and ~rtsfailur, the Great of the leadership of the, situation, that has now devel-l struction of the party, of the or- ,Chinese People's Republic 'is oped corresponds to the vital gans of people's power, and the fraught." Interests of neither the Soviet establishment of a terrorist mii- Inor the Chinese peoples, the story bureaucratic regime of h i 28 Augu8't 1969 Russia oat .l$eportedly Considers Attack On' Peking's G'P q cilitics 4 [Wrtnhr,1ytnn Bureau oO. The Sun) ,, Washington, Aug. 27-Reports indicating that the Brezhnev-Ko. sygin regime at Moscow is con- sidering trying to bomb Com- munist China's atomic instaila. t1011% out of existence are begin. ning to be taken seriously in the international community of dip. lomats here. Chief among them are intelli- gence reports that Soviet Com. munist party leaders have been taking, soundings on the subject among their opposite numbers inl both Eastern and Western Eu-, story or whose relations is Mao Tse-tung and his entourage characterized by close ties and in the course of the so-called ,friendship." Cultural Revolution ~ Reawtion ` Contributing also to the sober. 'ion will use a nuclear strike intelligence reports to the effects 1 "1 think the best judgment is that the Soviet Union has dou- bled its forces along its China order; that they now 'total bout 30 divisions (nearly 500,000 en) as against 15 divisions four ears ago, and that they include obile missile laanchcrs, State Department officials, cit- g conflicts in the reports about Viet soundings of other Com- unist parties, continue to pro. ss about them a skepticism hich also'colored a statement illiam P. Rogers; Secretary of ate, made a week ago. Addressing a group of students nding up their summer em- 1 yment as "executive in- ns," Mr. Rogers was asked: ~ hat do you people feel the noes are that the Soviet Un- that probably it will not do so,'! Mr. Rogers answered. He added, "The Russians would be faced with a very seri- ous problem because, although if they made v strike against Com- munist China they could take. over a good segment of that area up near Peking-they prob- ably could even take over Pe- king-but then they would be- come involved In a land, war. with 800,000,000 Chinese. ' "That would be a very diffi cult thing for them to handle, and I think they are quite aware of that, even though they have l moved military equipment up to- ward the Chinese border." Mr. Rogers went on to volun- teer a commentary on the possi. bilities of Peking initiating a "YtYcin`i%~a an atmosphere of political crisis and inflicted great damage to the country's economy." The party newspaper said again that a. "war psychosis" was being created in China and. that the population was being ,alerted for possible nuclear !war. On the other hand, it reas-, fsured the Soviet people that "there is a great distance be.. tween the schemes of the Mao. fists, their noisy threats ad- dressed to the Soviet Union, and the real possiblility of realizing them." The border clashes, Pravda said, are part of the chain of "hostile actions by the Peking leadership which does not cease its absurd territorial. claims on the Soviet Union." "It deliberately continues to. create tension in various sec- tions of the Chinese-Soviet bor- 'der, engineering the intrusion of armed groups. into Soviet t rrl-, tarp and creating dangerous sit- u atdons. Pravdas repeated offers to ne gotiate differences with the Chi- nese but stated again that Mos? cow "has flatly rejected the ter- ritorial claims of the Chinese People's Republic," Sino-Soviet war. "The Chinese Communists, I think, realize that they are not really able militarily to cope with the Soviet Union; so we rather doubt that they would ini- tiate ai major attack," Mr. Rog- ers said. "Very Permanent" Then, referring to the more than 430 Sino-Soviet border clashes that Peking claims have occurred this year and blames on Moscow, including the latest one on August 13, Mr. Rogers added: "Our best judgment Is that the border clashes and incidents probably will continue to recur. We are convinced the hostility between the two is very deep and very permanent. We are quite conscious, though, of the fact that these border incidents always can flare up into some-' thing neither s'd r ll intends y pprove o Release 1999109/02 : CJA-RDP79-01194A000500400bi-T CPYRGHT ' =W ;YORK TI23 y ^ 13 o>7te>abe 1 6 AnglCo-A and must sa o i i ad 1 Al 1 government is that we hope that AAA\111 ~H+ doesn't happen." " " There are some people, heIdtTjiT continued," who argue, 'Well, it l j L would be a good thing for the v, United States to let the Soviet ----* Union and communist China en- gage in a fairly sizable war. We '.Diplomats-in Peking Divided don't think so. We think warfare anywhere is harmful to the total world, community, and we think this kind of war would be inju- rious to all people, and we hop it doesn't occur." Other members of Washing ton's international communit privy to the intelligence repot about Moscow's soundings sal the reports came first from I ly, then West Germany, and rapid order thereafter from Eas European countries. Three Categories Speaking of conflicts, amon the reports, they divided the into three categories, the firs consisting of reports that Sovie leaders, as hosts in June to a international conference of Com munist parties at Moscow, ha merely lectured , their gues about "the great threat fro China." The second category com- prised reports that the Russian had warned the leaders of just some countries' Communist par . ties that Peking might escalat the border situation and genera hostility to a point where th Russians might have to tak military action. To the third category, the re- ports' collators assigned those they called the ,, 'most extreme",-meaning, they explained, re ports that Moscow has been tell ing Its Warsaw Pact allies that the Soviet Air Force might have to "take out" Communist Chin a's nuclear arms installation and wants to know what attitude its allies would take in that event. The collators professed t know that some of the 'soviet Union's East European allies an concerned" lest they be called o to aid it in a Sino-Soviet war They also suggested that the looser language appearing i itheir recently negotiated mutual defense pacts with the Sovie Union may be a reflection !that conee;n.. on Import of Meeting of 'Chou and Kosygin .C JP,9He r-c.-Preaee E Sept. 12 - The dis- TaMs in. PC! 1 osure esterday between ? Premier leksei N. Kosygin of the Soviet nion and Premier Chou En-la!' of Communist China startled foreign diplomats and observ- ers here. But opinions were di- ided today on the political significance of the talks. The meeting was reported ere about a dozen hours late, in the middle of the night, in a brief dispatch car;ied by sinhua, the Chinese Commu- nist press agency. The dispatch said merely that the two Pre- miers had met a Peking Air- port and had a frank conversa- tion. - [In New Delhi, the Foreign Ministry said today that com- munist China was moving its nuclear installations in Sin- kiang to a "safer place" in northern Tibet.] The.briefness of the dispatch -eight lines-caused surprise In foreign quarters here, where. the initial reaction was to con- sider the meeting as a historic, event in view of the protracted Chinese-Soviet dispute. This morning, Renmin Ribao, official newspaper of, the Cen- tral Committee of Chinese Com-i munist party, reported thell meeting by printing the Hsin-l hua dispatch on an inside page., At the same time the paper con-1 tinued Its attacks on the Soviet Union. i Indications were that the Lo? sygin-Chou meeting took place; around 3. P.M. yesterday and- lasted about one hour. Asked to comment, Soviet Embassy spokesman here said that they had nothing more to say about the meeting than what had al- ready been stated in Moscow. G6 ENVOYS CPYRGHT ! ication that the meeting was! i ecided at the last minute andl at it probably was a result' f an initiative by Mr. Kosy-1 in. But some observers noted at during the Hanoi funeral f President Ho Chi Minh of 11orth Vietnam, Mr. Kosygin ad vainly tried to talk to Li Bien-nien, head of the _Chi- ese delegation. , ' Some Foreign observers here aw the meeting at the Peking irport as an 11th-hour effort prevent Chinese-Soviet ten- ion from reaching a point of o E return. It that the meeting consti- tcd a step toward a de-es- According to this school or ought, the Kosygin-Chou eeting would mark a step to- ard improved Chinese-Soviet. elaklons, and the continued nti-Soviet propaganda " flow ould be intended mainly for omestic consumption. " Target i Brezhnev Viewed as Observers are also pointingi ut that Leonid I. Brezhnev, ead of the Soviet Communist arty-much more than Mr. osygin-seems to have been he chief target of Chinese st- acks, The most virulent ava onal attacks by Peking have een directed at him, particu-! rly after Mr. Brezhnev nnounced a plan for an Asian ollective security system, hich was interpreted by the, hinese as an effort to form ~ military alliance against Nina. Those who believe the talks ere marked a resumption of a ialogue between Moscow and eking consider that there is likelihood of further meet- ngs. The list of differences be-, ween the two big Commu- 1st powers is lengthy. They in lude border problems and ompetition for leadership in he Communist world , Another point raised by the' alks is whether they indicate change of influence among hina's top leaders. There was peculation here today that the. h e ore realistic elements of t inese leadership had been' ble to strenthen their position n regard to the left-wing ex- emists. However, so far there as been nothing to support uch a suggestion. 0Ls5 0240001 j7 tit a antics in tes Seen By TILLMAN DURD131 ~+ o New York T 1 R ~1 4G, Sept. 12-Ob day that Premier osygin s dramatic trip to Peking yester- day for a meeting with Premier Chou had Lrought about any improvement in relations be- tween Communist China and the Soviet Union. The ideological and power rivalries between the two Coan- munist countries are believed to be too bitter and deep-rooted to he softened by what appears, to have been a short, chilly airport encounter, in which Mr. reluctant participant The report of the Kosygiui tonover by I;sinhus Is almoat ufiicicnt evidence to justify. negative assessment of the, ceting. The Soviet Premier and his ers of the Central Committee f 'the Soviet Communist party; Chou Was Not Eager In fact, the Russians were of "passing through." Tjicy ome. Hsinhua apparently do- icted them as "passing Events leading to the Peking eeting are viewed hero as in- s regarded as having shown urning to Peking before there, The Russians, on the other. and, give the appearance of aving wanted a confrontation, nvoy with this in mind. When Mr. 'Chou showed he as not coming back for the ast rites, North Vietnamese' caders -- according to Kcnzo ng in Peking. ? the Chinese, it is believed, ayed giving approval until Mr. :osygin was on his.way home.l 8 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194AO00500040001-7 CPYRGHT appointment and that he was accorded scant cordiality when the did. Neither the Russians nor the Chinese have given any hint of what was discussed, but since the Soviet Union initi- ated the encounter, it is pro- able that Mr. Kosygin stressed the Soviet desire for a general conference to settle border dis- putes and other problems. The Chinese so far have not accepted Moscow proposals for a general conference and it is unlikely Mr. Chou did so yes- terday. Some observers here sat the Chinese do not want a !border settlement because of the propaganda value in being able to depict the Russians as aggressors. There is some speculation that Mr. Kosygin asked about reports that Mao Tse-tung, chairman of the Chinese Com- munist party, is ill. Some ob- servers her,: think that if Mr. Mao, who has not been seen In public since May it), were well, ho would have made some pub- lic tribute to Mr. Ho last week. It is unlikely that Mr. Chou gave Mr. Kosygin much satis- faction on the question of.Mr. Mao's health. Move for Improved Relations By BERNARD GWFRTZMA'N CPY TTh.NerSorkTun,* MO COW, Sept. 12?--Western that they expect the Soviet Un- ion to use the meeting between Premier Kosygin and Premier Chou to support Its contention that Moscow wants to improve! relations with Peking. Any further worsening-of the already tense relations, the dip- lomats said, undoubtedly would be attributed to Peking's refusal to continue the dialogue begun in Peking ' yesterday. They said that Mr. k:osygin's willingness to fIy the length of China for a brief conversation would be used by Moscow as evidence. of its desire for better relations. The meeting was the talk of Moscow today. Soviet citizens were known to be asking for- eign acquaintances whether the conversation meant that the two nations would be able to or five days, such a ban be assumed. Every Soviet newspaper re, low-level delegation to attend printed tho,Tass announcement the funeral of President Ho Chi on the meeting on its front, Minh, adding to growing evi- page, and radio programs car?~ rled the report. donee that relations between the e the Tass announce- two countries have been strained Becaus n~ent said the two sided. anew since the death of the Viet- ,,frankl made known their pc-' namese leader, sitions -a Communist way of Heading a three-member saying there was no agreement Chinese party and government ---and because of the animasltV* group that left Peking for Hanoi; by special plane this morning Is Approved For Release '1999/09/02 : ClA CPYRGHT elations. But the facts that the two eaders met and that their con- ul led Western diplomats heref o speculate that the two na-j major military. confrontation. They average Russian gained cadership,regarded the meet-` ng in a positive way and that) ppear as the rational and eace-loving side in the dis- pute. Soviet leaders are concerned about a possible war fear de- veloping among their people and have stressed their desire for negotiations. Moscow has also found that the split with China has led many Communist parties, particularly in Asia, to act more coolly toward Moscow than Kremlin leaders would like. Diplomats were frank to say they had no idea how the meet, lag was arranged' The Soviet.; press, aside from reporting the. meeting, carried no articles' about China today. This in it self is not unusual, but led to curiosity among observers as to whether the Kremlin had ordered a ban on polemics, rf anti-Peking articles appear the major press in the next b1?JdT194A0005 0040001-7 h'e'r ..1d r i llcinn_ninn~ Vi(AI Thn lnrth ViF.tnArn c Q.- emier and Politburo member, geared to relent slightly today remonial tasks of a foreign mister for nearly a year. Attacked By Teed Guard Vice premier Li Is the only ember of old guard bureau- ats who survived the purges of e came under scathing attack om Red Guard militants. But his selection, rather than at the Premier Chou En-lai or nether top figure such as the arty vice chairman, Lin Piao, am's collective party leader. ip. Totally Unmoved Premier Chou rushed down to anoi last' Thursday morning, ,e, day President lie's death as announced, paid his "teriderl eon after talks with top North ictnamcse leaders. From the highly political offi- al message of condolence that eking, sent to Hanoi on Presi- ent lie's death, it was apparent wing the North Vietnamese plit and on the fighting in Vict? am. By addressing their messag' imply to the "Central Commit enlor Individuals according tot rotocol, Peking Indicated. it be-j eyed the situation was fluid and subject to pressure. Every word out of Hanoi since that Indicates the North Viet- namese had been totally un- moved by the Chinese. They went so far as to show their displeasure publicly by ed- itingout of Peking's condolence message the assertion that Pres- ident Ho had been a "close com- rade in arms of the Chinese Pee-' pie." On Mao's Wreath For the highly . sensitive maunt to an insult. Peking ame back with two more mes- 'closest" comrade of the hinese. Hanoi did not distribute The Chinese followed by' em- when their, official news agency acknowledged that Chairman Mao's mourning wreath deliv- ered to their Peking Embassy did carry . the words, "Close comrade in arms of the Chinese people." But Hanoi dropped from Its account of the Saturday meeting) parts of a brief speech made by Premier Chou that urged they North Vietnamese to persevere in their war in South Vietnam- in other words, strong sugges- tions not to make any deals at the Paris peace talks. Kosygin Staying On The Vietnamese remain as publicly neutral as they can, but privately they lean towards'the Russians who now provide 80 per cent of their military and. Three years ago, the Soviet Un- ion and' China split the aid pack age 50-50. Soviet Premier' Alexel N. Ko- sygin, who will outrank the Chinese delegate, is staying on for the Wednesday funeral in Hanoi. He has payed his respects to, President Ho, lying In state in Ba t nh Hall In the Vietnamese capital, standing in silence after placing a wreath before his glass coffin. The Soviet leader has held talks with the . Vietnamese on "problems concerning United States aggression in Vietnam," Sihanouk Arrives Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia flew to Hanoi today for the funeral. He is the only head of state to attend the cere- monies. Romania, like the Soviet Tin-. Ion, is sending Its Premier, Ion Gheorghe Maurer. The other Eastern European countries have important but lesser' offi- cials. ' . hasizing the phrase in all of ascription. on the wreath deli- I ung to the North Vietnamese mbassy Saturday. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 ZLEGRAPH, ,ondon t 1969 fJSSIA'S CHINESE BOGEY IT IS UNLIKELY THAT Russia's round robin to friendly: Communist parties, alleging that China is preparing a, protracted frontier war and stating that Russia would not' tolerate this, was marked " top secret." Moscow seems most anxious that both. West and East should share her preoccupation with the' Chinese problem. .. A 13-column': editorial in Pravda accused China of aggressive' intentions; and warned the world at large thit if war broke out' is no continent would be left out." There was also confirmation by the State Department in Washington that it knew of "rumours or reports ".. that Russia had asked other Communist parties for their reactions to the, possibility of a Russian nuclear, strike against China's' nuclear installations. Care must be. taken to get the Russo-Chinese' dispute into perspective. It is obviously of great importance, and might within a decade'or two, barring other upheavals in the meantime,' become the most important factor in world' affairs'.'` For the moment, on' the basis of first things first, ;it ranks behind Russia's military'prepondcrance, in Europe, her'.hold on her satellites, her strategic arms' race with America, and the Middle East and Vietnam wars. The balance of evidence at the moment points to a deliberate Russian campaign to exaggerate both the- immediacy of , the Chinese threat and -her' own jitters iii the face of it. ' This enables Russia, in the contest ' for world' Communist leadership, to represent China not only as, a- heretic but also as a dangerous aggressive imperialist, mad dog. It could also be intended to justify a pre-emptive, strike if Russia should cold-bloodedly decide to settle the growing Chinese problem while the going was good., In addition. Russia hopes to encoura;e'the West to expect salvation less from its own efforts than from the. repercussions of the Russo-Chinese dispute, and to assume' that Russia's military expansion is directed against China and not against the West. Such expectations and assumptions remain unwarranted, and dangerous. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Appro rp WAS' TXGT Q A1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001 7 CPYRGHT yko in afn pdi President Tito, although he has re- cently cracked clown on a number of liberals in Belgrade, is still managing to keep Yugoslavia on an admirably Inde- pendent, maverick path in the Commu-' nit world. This was made clear, politely but firmly, during last week's visit by Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko. The 'visit marked the first high-level contact between Belgrade and Moscow since, the Xremlin-led Invasion of Czechoslovakia., When that grim event took Place' ;las;, year, Tito was quick to condemn it. He made his position quite clear: "We . have expressed our attitude openly be-.' fore the world, and we shall stand by it forever. The principles of sovereignty, Independence, state integrity, freedom; and democracy are' valid for all ,coun-; tries,' regardless of whether they are within blocs or outside them." In effect, these words constituted a 'direct challenge to the so-called Brezh- `nev-Kosygin doctrine of "limited sover eig nty," This is the brutal thesis under' w ,icla .the Xremlin arrogates to itself, as. CimIST,L_A SCIEl, CE lj0 ;ITo b Sepw11 cciber 1969 d an -a n 1; rDVR, T A mild flirtation is going on between Mos dow and Belgrade. Moscow is doing the wooing while Marshal Tito sets the stage for ideological rapproche- ment. The latest indication of this is seen in Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei A. Gro. myko's talks with his Yugoslav counterpart, State Secretary Mirko Tepavac. They began on Sept. 2, and were described by Tanyug, the official Yugoslav news ' agency, as having taken place "in an at- mosphere of frankness and mutual respect." Tass's international service, designed for Soviet diplomatic and military personnel, said the talks are being conducted "in a friendly atmosphere." in the case of Czechoslovakia, the right to invade and repress with armed force any Communist land that seeks to be its' own master, free of Moscow's iron ideo-' logical, economic and military rule. The Yugoslavs, of course, have stood .,fast against this doctrine ever since their historic 1948 break with Stalin's Russia. Hence their support for those' xnenbers of the Warsaw Pact notably ,the Czechoslovaks and the Romanians - who have, had ' the courage to oppose,. total Soviet domination. Gromyko had' some ambiguous things to say about this in Belgrade, but he did sign a commu- nique supporting -- despite the crime" against Czechoslovakia - Tito's insist-4 ence on principles of respect for sover-i eignty and non-interference in internal, national affairs. In lending his signature to these principles, Gromyko may have had some cynical thoughts. But he may also have felt, and with good reason, that a move, against the ready-to-fight Yugoslavs could become a -very troublesome bus! ness indeed. L:astern War prompted the new approach.- ern banks, and sharp criticism of Soviet poli- Harder line echoed . Now Marshal Tito, in a speech of Aug, 27, has voiced opinions which might have come from Czechoslovak First Secretary Gustav Husak, 1 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGHT By Paul Wohi "'The class enemy has not been a imi- ing to " iP,u o l XQEiI t a 4r 0 99/09/02 said the ingt agency., "He lives, he acts, he undermines our society, and hinders social progress. We are submerged by the West with theories, concepts, and conceptions of all hinds, and, all Are negative." In the Tanyug version for the West the speech was toned down, but a local broad- cast monitored by the United States In- formation Agency Aug. 28 was very similar to.the French version. "We should not ignore antisocialist occur-, 'rences and tolerate the undermining activi- ties of some individuals who are alien to socialism," the Marshal was quoted in the monitored broadcast as saying. "We must act energetically and in time. We have the right to strike resolutely at those who work against the interests of so- cialism and to prevent [their) activities." "Our society has a real democracy, where people speak freely and freely give vent to their initiatives, but it is clear that there must be no democracy for those who act from an antisocialist position.... 1;'e carry a tremendous responsibility, because the revolution has not yet been concluded." As a sign of Soviet approval, Pravda' summarized Marshal Tito's speech. On Aug. 20, the Yugoslav weekly, Kom unist, welcomed Mr. Gromyko's coming ar- rival 'as a token of further. cooperation be tween the two countries in the spirit of the Yugoslav-Soviet reconciliation of 1955. Korn unist's hopeful appraisal was broadcast in' Russian to the U.S.S.R. On his arrival in Belgrade, Mr. Gromyko said that "the Soviet Government attaches great importance to the development of re- lations with Yugoslavia.... Both countries are linked-by common ideals in striving for socialism and communism and by a friend- ship tempered in the struggle against the fascist invaders." `Why have illusions? On the same day the district prosecutor of Belgrade banned and seized the latest issue of the literary, weekly Knijevne No. vine, which happened to carry a bitter at- tack on Soviet political methods. Echoing earlier Yugoslav criticism of Soviet- prac- tices, the weekly accused the Soviet leaders i'ii w YOM Tn=8 7 September 1959 C 'wqt and Yugoslavia Xpeda& to TAO `"c ' ao' TIM41 BELGRADE, ugoslavia, Sept. 6-The first high-level Yugo- slav,,Sovict talks since the Mos- cow-led occu, c .?. of Czecho-' :nded here. slovakia in 1:.... today with both sides express- a humane socialism into a betrayal of A-r F?7"1494AW35M*0@01-7' 'rialist conspiracy,'the right to independence' into a bourgeois illusion." Yugoslavia. may, temporarily at least, be headed for a stricter course, more accept. able to the Soviet dogmatists. Marshal Tito's latest speech announced "a progres. sive selection, from bottom to top, of the million-strong Yugoslav League of Com- munists." "Why have illusions about this figure?" said the Marshal. "Do not hesitate to chase from our ranks those who shame us." Ac- cording to the French version, Marshal Tito even spoke . of "a purge. "They say in the West that Yugoslavia gradually is adopting a Western regime.. That is what our enemies want, but they are mistaken if they imagine that we will deviate from our dedication to socialism." If Marshal Tito on this occasion has given in to the urgings of Yugoslavia's old-time Communists, he must have reasons to think such a policy will benefit his country. Albanian role seen Haunted by the possibility of a nuclear war with China, the Kremlin needs Yugo- slavia to hold down Albania, where the Chinese are . believed to have installed rockets. Yugoslavia, in turn, is interested in bringing about a change in the hostile Albanian regime and also may want to ob- tain concessions from Bulgaria. These issues will not be mentioned in the'. final communique, but are likely to be be In the long run, though, it' is, doubtful that Yugoslavia will draw closer to the Kremlin or adopt a, true hard-line Com- munist policy. Once Marshal Tito has taken advantage of the present Soviet overtures, he is expected to resume his policy of in- dependence and to continue his country's balancing act between East and West. Yet the Tito speech at Zadar, on the Adriatic coast, does remind Yugoslavia and the world that the older leaders in Bel- grade and in other countries' national capitals still are Communists at heart and that their collaboration with the West is a matter. of expediency. Pledge to Ip o?ci Ties lations and to tryto eliminate existing dfferences. to vvlseela-d~ Dlar-ifi@ his stay he met Wth President Tito, Pre- mier MiLja.Ribicic, and Foreign t Mi i i k e r ?n n s a ac'avac. This readiness was empha- 1 At a news conference, held sized in a joint communique before hs departure for Mos- and separately by Foreign Min- lcow, Mr. Gromyko stressed ister Andrei A. Gromyko at the that "both sides have expressed end of his official five-day visit their desire and readiness to work to. diminish the existing. 'F I to- remove them." However, Mr. Gromyko con firmed that differences regard- ing "some events and facts" still exist. The occupation of Czechoslovakia and the doc-I trine of limited sovereignty of socialist countries are believed! Ito be the main issues. ~CPYRGHT CPYRGHT RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 L Difference of Emphasis This became clear at a din- ,ner given by Foreign Minister Tepavac in 'honor of Mr. Gro- ` myko. While Mr. Tepavac in his (toast firmly declared that Sov- iiet-Yugoslav relations must be ased on the principles of In- dependence, equality and non- interference, Mir. Gromyko an- swcred that according to the views of his government these relations should be based on lthe principles of "socialist in- Iternationalism." "Socialist internationalism" is the term used by Moscow,to justify the occupation of Czech-I loslovakia, and it is the phrase 1 with which Moscow is backing the doctrine of limited sover-I eighty or socialist (communist) ' countries. Relations between Moscow Viand Belgrade were strained aft- er the intervention of Czech- oslovakia, which Yugoslavia strongly denounced. Asked whether the ,Belgrade declaration of 1955 was regard. ed still valid by -the, Soviet Union, M. Gromyko avoided a straight-forward answer. "Cer- tainly," he said, "this declara- tion has and can have influence ion the further development of relations between the two coun 'Cold War' Ended In '55 The 1955 declaration, signed by the two governments, ended the "cold war" between Mos- cow and Belgrade and guaran- teed the Yugoslavs their inde- pendent way. Asked whether he delivered an invitation to President Tito to visit Moscow, Mr. Gromykol !refused to comment, saying that "there are certain ques- tions that cannot be answered ,precisely at this press confer- ence." It is known from Yugoslav sources that President Tito would insist first on a visit by ! Leonid ` I. Brezhnev, the Soviet !leader, returning a visit Mr. Tito made to Moscow two yeaxs ago. f In a joint communique rounding up the talks just con- cluded, the principles of sov- ereignty, equality and nonin-I terference are mentioned as I the basis for further coopera- tion. '.Appraising the present, state of Yugoslav-Soviet rela- tions," the communique says.. the two sides stressed the sig- nificance that they attach to the principles outlined in the Belgrade Declaration, signed by the Yugoslav and Soviet governments in 1955 and con- firmed during the meeting. of the President of Yugoslavia with leaders of the Soviet' Union, In 1956 in Moscow. THE ECONOMIST AUGUST 30, [96q Russia and Rumania r't the list ? r Brezhnev and his colleagues are show- ng their displeasure with the Rumanians n a variety of ways. Mr Brezhnev himself ailed to attend last weekend's celebrations f the 25th anniversary of Rumania's iberation in the second world war-he ent a comparatively low-level delegation nstead--although he went to a similar' ans arc being punished for giving Presi- CPYRGHT on the Brezhnev doctrine of limited sovereignty for communist countries. The Russians plainly detest any speculation about the Brezhnev doctrine. It is a slander, said their foreign minister, INIF r my ?o, in nis Supreme, Soviet bpvculi of July ME, to S ege that ?ussia and other communist countries stand for some.kind of truncated version of national sovereignty. Bourgeois propaganda, Mpscow radio echoed him in a Czech- language broadcast last weekend. The gentlemen protest too much. It is not western propaganda that invented .the concept of limited sovereignty. It was Mr Brezhnev himself. In a speech last month in Poland he bluntly reminded his %...& arty Congress earlier this. month as the %...& avt.a..aa meant taking responsibility for the for erfidious i i li i g i p mper a st tact r c of d ge- tunes of socialism not just in one's own uilding." On August loth an important countr but anywhere in the world . y, icrriber of the Hungarian politburot, Mr Snore comnu nistc in eastern as well as c i d i s n, ma e it po nted ? western Europe, had hoped that Mr - efcrence to those who g,o in for " spectac- Brezhnev's original formulation of the id- jar political initiatives in their relations last year was just a temporary expedient ith countries ibl f ` respons e or the current to provide an ideological excuse for the olitical problems in the world." This was . r r,--, l ...?,.:.. -T,._ C_...t o os o t government did s best a the M scow ably also at Rumania's latest friendly I gations in Bucharest and Tel Aviv to Rumania's economic policies have also ne recently attacked those communist s ghted nationalist considerations," want gado. And ? last week the ' important arned such countries against retreating into their a" national shells." More sinister still are the persistent mours. of Russian pressure on the . wnanians to join in another round of 44y prepared ideological offensive based it , t o communist conference in June, to reassure the doubters and the critics that the principle, of separate roads to socialism -which implies that each country is fully master of its own future-was. still valid. But the authoritative words of Nfr Brezhnev in Poland, and his equally unambiguous words in the most recent issue of the party magazine Kommunist, have dispelled these illusions. Communist, states have an obligation to act jointly, as in the case of Czechoslovakia, in support of the principle of proletarian inter- ?nationalism-that basic component which gives the international class struggle its revolutionary character. This is the way the jargon-machine is putting it ; and not many east Europeans, in Rumania or elsewhere, will fail to see what it means. Approved For Re ease 3 S TNDAY TIMES, London Approved For F Pe'OLQW99/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7111 7 September 1969 By Our Special . Correspondent r agYc r lJ day ?. of wild and conflicting rumours, the political Situation in Prague is more con- fused than at any time since Gustav Ilusak become First Secretary of the Party in April. .Just when and how the former leaders Dubcek and Nmirkovsky will he banished is rupurccct last week that the Central Committee was already meeting in llradcriny Castle for ice vital session at which Dub- cek and Smirkovsky will be him in the Commission's in the Praesidiunr ?~ an. diplomatic corps in general re- u to join a half-million-of his' suga;c harvest. Some pressures pudiates. Sanchez disclosed p (were. applied before the inva- cauntrymcn In exile. that, "some collaborations, ` r Augus, ; sion of .Czechoslovakia and the were required of him, but he 'o cherr32 a year- Gonzalez, old livtng., and tin: Castro regime was encounter, indicatedgrthat he did not follow San some difficulties..,t' through on one assignment to' ing '4' fuarki% thousands of miles, from, ? Cuba a trip home might The Castro government s Contact certain Latin Ameri- lulvo boon , tinlo of nostalgia plans sugar to harvest carry out requirethed the 1970; cans In`Geneva.and evaluate wad renewal. TI1oro would he renovation of the sugar mills, them agents. prospective intelli?,; visit& with, his, 70-year-old fa.! and greater financing from the gsacs aas gan ther,. his mother and the five S o'v let 'Union. Difficulties: Sanchez, his wife and their' :'brothers who know more about` arose when these demands . two daughters, 7 ' and 5, ?c i g a r;-making and shoe were made to the Soviet Un disappeared from their Gene. repairing than diplomacy..:' 'ion. It was necessary tosend va apartment about Aug. 14, And so be went, taking a'. high-level delegations to' Mos-- and arrived in the U.S. about leave, In May from his post as, cow and this course was .Aug. 25. Sanchez refused to. charge' 'd'affaires of Cuba's ? made easier after the invasion tell how or when they contact United Nabobs mission in Ge- of Czechoslovakia with Cas- ed U.S. authorities. Ile said he nevi;' Switzerla #d, "I was tie's surprising support of the 'was ,pondering his future but ?shocised by the ituiltion 1 saw invasion, had made no decision about a Job or a place to live. The my country; itwus simply, The 1970 sugar ar State Department in Washing. sinful," he related here yes vest,which' began two months, ton confirmed that he had terday ? in a quiet, unemotional 'ago, in the earliest start on been confirmed asylum. .vohco.'.''What he-., saw: back' record, ,is the most vital one been 'Describing home he' added, 'convinced: yet for Castro, who has.stakc4 the poconditions litical h me gist I was not serving a "the loner of the'rcvolution" found in Cuba, Sanchez said, just cause." on Cuba's ability to prdduco ;t0 "There is no democracy, ' lut the star i 'told by this million tons of sugar. That There is no freedom. There is' would be more than twice the persecution. The ails are full. law 5c11on1 graduate and for- output in the recently ended There is hunger in Cuba. med- mer only se of t the he !'angushuishh and d was 1969 harvest. Sanchez said that teal. , assistance is lacking. hot despite official 'propaganda, .Cuba ,is a big jail ... work t, homeland before found returned d his few people in Cuba believed" 'done under pressure and to wensus in July, It was the goal would be met. threats, in very long work of what ho;calle d the subalso., Cuba depends on sugar ex.- days without incentive of any kind. It Is forbidden to travel' tion of ,Cuba to "total domina-, ports for about to percent ot~ kind. I t Ideas are o tion" by the Soviet Union. Its foreign exchange, and Cas- persecuted; tro has hinted that the island' and in the end you have to Seers lip Ilusstan Colony ' may be in danger, agree with the imposed line. r off to And there is a general mood of < When P,r e m i e r Castro meet 'its .sugar ex tort com- .-: raised the Sovict;invasianof rnibtments chaos fn the country. zechoslovalcia.last. year, he Unhappy Over Collaboration'.' While the common was ,marking h major.turning People lack food, medicine, ad point :in llavuua-,Moscow rela- One of the points made by equate clothing and shoes, the bons. They have grown steadi- Sanchez as he talked with wealth of Cuba continues to ly 'warmer ' ever ? since. So newsmen in a Manhattan hotel flow abroad in a vain effort to warm, in fact, that Sanchez suite was that "undoubtedly subvert the Latin American.. charged ? Castro "is making of : Cuba will have difficulties" in continent." Cuba merely another colony ofliving up to trade agreements' Asked why he waited this.' iinpetial ',Russia." Now, he with Western European coon-' long to defect, since some of 'said, "Cuban foreign, policy, tries. Sanchez' specialty was. the conditions are not now,' -cannot contradict ' the designs foreign trade, and ? he was in- Sanchez replied, "The situa-r bf &tosco."; volved in some of Cuba's coma' tion in Cuba has been deterio- ",According, to'Sanc'hez,' the mercial dealings with We9tern 'rating progressively. ' Many ,Soviet Union put an economic countries. More than Z0, per young men like me, who were ,squeeze on Castro, forcing him cent of Cuba's trade is with practically born with the revo- to to. adopt ? a more pro-Soviet .tile west. lotion, who had great faith in 'stance, Sanchez said he know `' 'SSovlet economic aid to Cuba Fidel, Castro .and who love 'nothing of any formal pact including sugar subsidies, is their ,Soil,. have not found it ;'along those lines asrepo rted, believed to have reached $450 easy., tQ abandon their coun-. Pay ai other Cuban diplomat, million to ;? Million last o try Orlando Castro Hidalgo, who . Fo"r i lease 1999/09/02 : CJA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 25X1 4f oved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Next 1 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 October 1969 ANATOLY KUZNETSOV On 30 July it was announced in London that Anatoly Kuznetsov had evaded his KGB escort and asked to be allowed to stay in Great Britain. Kuznetsov is the most prominent defector from the Soviet Union since Svetlana Alliluyeva, Stalin's daughter, and is the most noted author to renounce theat Stalin s crinics YOU Seriously appeals to me. For the last 10 years I have thin expose Stalin. And when onternptiblc but something, in been living in a state of con- they stop, criticising him, you etween. When I write I have the stant, unavoidable and irresoly- stop, too. illusion that there is sonic sort able contradiction. Finally I. r They oduc some eal t en ;of sense in my life." Not to write have simply given up. I wrote Sn ritual C)'it)/AILS lie c product of a deal between s for me roughly the same as my last novel Vic Fire, with no he censorship and an author's fora fish not to swim. I have feeling left in my heart, with. There are so very many Soviet conscience. been writing as long as I can out faith and without hope. "writers" who are just like that However much T protested or remember. My first work 'was But real life will not forgive a tried to prove some point, it was published 25 years ago. Could nn loriger wvrite ,,all who violates his conscience. like beating lily head against a In those 25 years not nisirrr/'.e Those writers have all become wall. Literature in the Soviet. In of my works has, been I knew already ]?n advance for such cynics and spiritual cripples Union is controlled by people )minted in the Soviet Union as certain that, even if they pub- and their hidden regret for their who are ignorant, cynical and wrote it. lisped it, they would ?,lessly wasted talent cats away at them hemscivcs very remote from cut everything hnntan out "of it, to such an extent that their literature, But they are people Vent 017. h0/)iFl,tl' and that at best it would appear' wretched existence cannot be with excellent knowledge of the as just one more "' ideological " called life but rather a carica. latest instructions from the men pnhtica] reasons t , the pot-hailer. (And that is, inci- ture of life. at the top and of the prevailing v Soiet ecosorci1 acid the' tali- pot-b lc exactly what ]lap it would probably be difficult Party dogmas. tars shorten, distort' and pencil.) to think up.a worse punishment I could not force my way $iolate lily works to the point I came to the point where I for oneself' than to have to through their ranks. Ycv- of nimakine' them completely un? could no longer write, no longer spend one's whole life trembling, tushenko managed to achieve of ttisable. Or they do not sleep, no longer, breathe. cringing, trying fearfully to get a little in this way, So1zlie Ii n permit them for be 'published the sense of the latest order and. managed a little more, but even at all. The Tragedy of Russian fearing to make the slightest that is all over now. The cracks So long as I was yoianj I Went Writers : What is valuable in ;mistake. Oh, God! Were noticed and cemented up. on It o]ng for as yo nig. But coetature om tatni ewe whit (b) To write properly, as their' Russian writers go on writing the appearance of each new artistically original. A writer is ability and consciences dictate. and keep hoping for something. oirlco mine buwas 'lot a t for, soraow. above all an artist who is trying that is theyhlwriteawito one ll not So far a cinarier rejoicing f to penetrate into the unknown. _--?-,_-, ~i);uch an ugly, AP lse ~tnd c~ys? , ~paM ear ,{yn~ n~1~p~t~ appy state, of tthapen feint, anPkel t F RV' I ,~ P,~e 6 dUD0,7~2h ITA40 dP ti W4di~'1~i unthinkahlc for Ito look people in the face. obvious truths. destruction.,,- a Soviet writer-to be able to ED' UNDER 5T SE These are the very things which writers are forbidden in the Soviet Union. Artistic freedom in the Soviet Union has been reduced to the " freedom " to it?aisc the Soviet bY,SILCIll an 1c aimnuntst? party It is a sad thought that Rus- sia has long and deep " tradi? tions" in this connection. The best Russian writers were always persecuted, dragged before the courts, murdered or..reduced to wcie. (e) W-8 44 and 'Vilite lie Communism, ' as far as possible." To choose The theoretical basi f this subjects which are not dan write and publish his writings my published works should be hope. At least . . - , without restriction and with-A de oyd down a s t I?Pf t'cjv bbl 1 Tg is cry glad ,that fear. Not to c1~ ved*QfnAema hWmvil ;lrt ,rack turned down unanimously by and %ti?cnt ?ff with it to t;te the editorial board of Ad magazine Molodaya Gvardi- magazine Yunost. Outside in ya - the very opposite of Yunost - where I had one the corridor they\ took _armee by the hand and said: "M hope. The two magazines are velous job! But you know like cat and dog. the way it is. If one turns you down, I ' was staying with my. You go to the other, not fot- mother getting to say its rival has in Kiev when .I dis-' covered that my novel had rejected your manuscript. been printed in the magazine That is what I did. They in an abridged version [in handed me my manuscript 1957), I learned that the editor bark with a warm handshake ,In chief, Valentin Katavcy, a.,u and with thank:; for the pleasure it had given: "It is saidL"What a pity, after till, it's a good novel like jt a'r' absolutely brilliant, but we cannot, of course, print it. ,not, we'll publish it: Let them You know how it Is,, shut the magazine - down if Then I took my manuscript they wish(" to Oktyabr is consei-vativc That's what he said but literary magazine] the very then they made about 5d cuts opposite of Novy Mir. I told' and. and. changes, without of the editor, Vsevolod Koche- course the knowledge or. too, where, how and why it. agreement of the author. had been turned down, He 1999fn9fn2c? clA-RfP7q-n119dAnnn5nnndnnnl -7 in a circus: Russia is in fact one gigantic circus In which the animals sit in cages,, while the life of society is. one long performance in the ring. AUTUMN, ' 1967 It was a sad day for me when 'I was ? borf In Russia. The world is so vast, yet I had the bad luck to come into it in that long-suffering country. But. the fact of be ing born here-will affect the CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/02 :CIA-RDP79-0119AOQ1500040001-7 spent a long time reading it, that I make cu s. I said: "No, acqu;rftlg a certain s u novel can I publish in that Finally he asked me to come I won't let it be changed. str-ving, laboring, achicv- way? If I pay the typists, found the lacquering B uerin+ in this, "17'~ for you, calmly and delibef- pate with the millions of cop- orisPolevo. "We shall not or what sort of lacquering ?i'eturn the manuscript; we ately, and pick,on the very ics of the poor stuff pub- Yumost wanted. I write things shall print it with cuts." things that cost you so much lished under the same name. much more crtitical than this I shouted: "Give me my effort and of which you were And you'd be arrested for myself and have no fears. manuscript; it's my manu- so pioud as a writer and an it at once. The end of you But we are not going to print script!" artist. as a writer. The lone soldier it. It's written far too badly."i When they refused I Who does' the destroylng7against the gigantic machine, So 1. put the manuscript' grabbed it' and rushed out Flist, people who understand Private printers do not ex- away in a cupboard. onto Vorovsky Street. I tore as much about art' as a pig 1st, of course. An under. A year later, I had a tele~ the manuscript to shreds and' does about oranges. Who, in ground print shop would be phone call from someone at' stuffed the waste paper bins place of brains, have a cot- , betrayed by agents. Novy Mir; "If you will agree in Vorovsky Street full of ]action of quotations, and , .-Then comes the most to a few cuts we will print them, all the way down to fear. frightful'part of it for a cre- the novel." All right, better. Arbat Square. Only later did It is even worse when your ative writer. I begin to feel have something published I realize that I had torn up own colleagues and writers that I am getting stupid., I More Cuts Requested the original with them. Yar" I described the Ukrain- I Then there Is the darkness! They tele honed me in p Jan officials who worked , the lack of information I had always -respected Tula to say that there would under Hitler's recruiting Uk- ,the Novy Mir. I decided to put be no work for me to do,. rainians for Germany and ignorance of who has been achieved in the West. I have up with it and leave it to that all the correctin 'had din th ff t th G , g g sen em o o e es- them, Then the phone calls already been done, and that, tapo. You'couldn't get around heard of the namos of Fran- }n ??.. 1?nrn., i? 'Y?..1.. l.w...,.. . .. _ _ - -_ - nnlan .Cnnn? ,f`nw...e Lrw H._ a e he e ' v - "' ''""r' .(,ry day or two: "We shall would be "' a note saying that embroidered and so forth. I have heard, shirts, d .. 7 . _as you l+n}' nn"nr rnnrl Cnmm"h ern hn"n to ref f1,ie noecn nn an he was bein ro b nd th could e G g pu - u e ` a that chapter." At first I pro- people are discovering things. b lished in an abridged form: mans. t t d th ki f d o es e en Fmane see ng new arms and ways : D as , They reminded me that other- Polevol Is Criticized of writing, moving forward, you please, only take my wise I would have to return name off it. From then I felt the advance I had received ' ...In the same way people arguing, :while I keep bang- to leave my name on it, The way out. throughout the world, knows breakthrough- roofs (don't laugh) that they did p with all the changes made. I not get sib Polevoi, be-. A Ul:cx UV rrAtty not put "Anatnly Kuznetsov" cause he will l s ee,things the Nov. 7, 1967, The 50th -an hut "A, Kuznetsov." could no longer stop the ma- censor will miss. He will im-' niversary of the founding of A third of the text was cut chine once it was going: I mediately mark your best the Soviet :state. would have to pay for the re- passages with green I walk around, sit down, el and henidl athtrh i d t gelnoo - setting, and in those days I pencil "Cut" or thick "Unsu t stand up and keep thinking was up to my cars in debt. able." Everywhere the first about the same thing. I feel ,;recs. When anybody started They printed it, with a censors are ? the , so-called as if I were prison. I , a conversation about it, I al- notr.~saying- "Magazine vcr? writers, the Cynics who do Incapable of writing. I have, ways replied: "I do not dis- lion, which meant nothing not even bother to conceal ,y writ= cuss it. It is not my work." to anybody. hope of seeing n it was very fact. in no g hopublished, now or In the Meanwhile the book [in odd to hear I told Polevoi to his dace: future. I am condemned to 19641 sold hundreds of thou- later from many knowledge- "Yo ?.,, a i htf..1 ? u g or sea-satisfaction and he ',permit. vict books about life in the even Bahl Yar" would not sim l id "Y " p y sa : es and he ., country, and was awarded a have been published in any ? I sit down to write, but added: So what? You think The onl thin di l I c h t t b th C l y p g an oma ype y e Com on w a entra soever The sitna -.- mitten of the Communist tion changed. It appeared you're f;oing to write and I m this pathetic' complaint to, t r th ei o ca ry e can? nowhere. youth orgnnization& which I that I had been lucky and R m did not bother to go and re- that I ought to thank Yu- writing Is yours, s, the back- k g fused to he able to butt , sides are ours . calve, nest. In 1967 the. novel Was Eve now I can't. If I write, then thi I h i ? ry ng ave wr tten Storyof'Babi Var not reprinted. Permission to to whom am I writing? Why, n writing? already have Instead I wrote my third reprint was refused, exists In three versions. The first is the genuine original a .1. le t very.first I did not offer a whole sentence out of and amended for the yPole- my name. Not that l wrote -- B t t _ _ -_-- _--- u i doesu t get them mysel . Kind people cause it rlenrly sngrested berg had written, When ha, through. So the third version ----- ,____? gave me a hand. that thirc u,t riiff.?renre lrarn: of if he was furious --- Soviet fascism (I did not try fication: "It's just one little ardly. This ? is the version lure. Is that now prostitu- to prove this, brit to my Sur_ sentence, a very small that -reaches the reader. it tion? But it is far.worse thbn ]arise thai: is what emerged.) thing." He shouted: "And becomes known to the world, the good, straight-forward, I submitted nn Inoffensive' when they. castiate a man. as "Soviet literature." second oldest ptofession, To text In which, it seemed to they also cut out a very, TII~ COST tin censorshi ST OF yield one's body for an hour would small thing . p absolutc?J 'SAMIZDAT' or so for money -- what a not find the slightest thing to In the same wa y object to. t ly everything that was pub Is there a way out? "Sam, trifle! But they' make you At v.?? _. .1 _.. ,ir1,w.1 ?,ww Y prostitute 'vour mind. your work, but they demanded You spend your life for +Jr ` ~ o ,... `',,,,., your talent. For a bowl or publishing poetry, But soup, a pair of trousers, for Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIAhR't M f?f9'4A(O05000U@O(FaVs permission to Give me my manuscript Ing something in art and maybe 100 copies at the cost lick the plaAppmfe&ForhpelgpcigelA?q/t99l92 : CIA-RDfj7AqZ; 6b16AQQQCI ff,0C~s te1"s table or even to travel can even try to escape, ~1 abroad - in a group under A spiritual prison Is much' the abroarveillance of the secret, 'more serious. An attempt to Following are identifications of personalities and insti police. escape, is out In cited by Anatoly Kuznetsov in his article "My Diary.. the e, Soviet complete victory h ,tinn: They will catch you.: in the Other World": system. The 50th 1 .-1711erNq nowhere to flee. ADZHUBEI, Aleksd 1., 45 years. NOVY MIR, liberal literary month' anniversary of the nightmare. : 'old, Soviet editor.and a son-In.- I edited by Aleksandr Tvar- Illuminations on the streets. With' this profanation and law of Nikita S. Khrushchev; dovsky. From morning till night for-.; prc??tih;tinn o n,y talent editor of Komsomolska t yaPravda, g O aa; !.1957-59; editor, of Government cheto conservative literary` ~ ic r. :itii;G I ant monthly, edited ted by mal meetin s with Nia arcs; , g gr,, ~,uaiiv turning ? into Tunes- newspaper Izvestia, from 1959 KOChetev. Vsevolod of speeches and boasting. 1n- until Kitrushchev's si fall from POLEVOI, BORIS spirinQ military parades. The cos Rhinoceros. I feel the power In 1 1964; since then on , 61, Soviet novel- 'hardening on my forehead. I staff of Soviet' Union, an illus lit; since 1962, editor of?Yunost, disciplined ."celebrations" of g y `crated monthly published In literary youth monthly the people. The nrilitaty pa- feel sick, sick of it a111 I several languages. . , SIAMIZDuse,' erally "sel elf-publish- rade of death-dealing instru- don t want to be a 'rhinocer- EHRENBURG, Ilya: Soviet novelist Ing house," slang term used for ments for Intimidating man-, 'os. Will some good person (1891-1967).' ' surreptitious circulation of tvpe- kind. not help me? KATAYEV, VALENTIN, 72, Soviet - written copies of forbidden L In the thi~tl movement of novelist;. editor of the -literary Forks. If you want to save yo r magazine Yunost, 1955-62. . Soviet writer whose work was self you won't succeed by' Shostakovich's 10th sympho-' KOCHETOV, Vsevolod A., 57' So- published briefly in Soviet Union just keeping silent. You? will fly you hear the cry of the, viet' novelist; editor, ' Litera. (1962.63) and has been. banned shout the same stuff until horn. And in reply you hear ?turnaya Gazeta, then :a literary since then; widely. published lyy . you're hoarse. Shout hurrah, the wind rustling across the dai 1955-59; since 1960, editor abroad. u of Ok; ktyabr, conservative literary TVARDOVSKY. Aleksandr T., 59 clap your hands. Otherwise open spaces at night, Noth-a month~lyy . Soviet poet; since 1958, editor, they will notice at. once that log but the'rustling. And the' 'KOMSOMOLSKAYA PRA'DA, of Novy Mir, liberal literary you are not "reacting" and horn repeats the cry againi daily newspaper of the Kom-' monthly. ,they will ask you why. and again to the very end.! Lea ue the Young Communise voROVSKY STREET, 520 address Help! Kind ped e; it there. g of the editorial office of Yunos An inarryy PIS a + N MOLODAYA GVARDIYA. literary YUNOST, youth-oriented (literary nrlmitiOrdvr?affair. prison rYou ix are put ,are any still left in tha? monthly, oof. the Young Commu- monthly published by the So- WOrldl , nist League. viet Writers Union. TELEGRAPH, London 10 August 1969 The fugitive author tells how the K.G.B.'s tentacles `reach like cancerous growths into This article, written inBY 'ttussian by the th h every branch of life in Russia' F A M A T O L _ (4 atol u5~'RE; :So',) au or, as L;heka, tfie ., t e ussia. And in particular been translated bDAVID jfe K.V.D, the M.G.B. and the into the world of Soviet in the ;n the orie G.B..--in other words, the literature. g sing e Gestapo. writer in Russia who has not is a frightful story that Everybody knows that the had some connection with have to tell. Sometimes it number of people murdered the K.G.B. This connection s ems to me as though it by the Secret Police runs can be one of three different n .ver happened, that it was into many millions. But when kinds: j st a Stig ttmare. If only that we come to reckon the num. The first: Y ou collaborate re hue... bee of people who are enthusiastically with the ' 11. How all this works out in The Soviet system remains terrorised and deformed by K.G.B. In that case you have practice I shall explain by t m] i on nl power in nxcept Russia, elude t th whole o have to in- every chance of prospering. reference to my own experi. a ly powe. ful. apparatus of the Soviet Union.. The of , ledge The your second: You acs the similar a matter of fact a o pression a n d primarily K.G.B. s tentacles reach,' like K.G.B., duty toward to the Story could ould be who B., but you refuse to coe bimilol- by any Russian writer who t auks to what has been cancerous growths, into 8laborate directly. In that case Is even slihtl known. But c lied at various - .tim eve branch Approve For F~elease 1999/002*: MV-00"M4 gf94At0400 'A IS,/and they want, deal, and iii particular of the prospect of travelling abroad. The third V- -TS) ee a advances made by the K.G.B. and enter into conflict with them. In that case your works arc not pub- lished and you may even find yourself in a concentration to live, anApprcedkF*rd $AIge AtPR.,(PP(g?n,nCiorgDP~7c9 011,94A000500040001%-7 plcasa'nt young quiet. `started to explain to me that' man, Yuri Ganin, a student at .'ie this was the most usual and Because we are all obliged to Polytechnic Institute, who un- IN August, 1961, I was pre. most natural thing: no group "rite reports after a trip abroad. blui?daicd himself to me at great was ordered to write one after length. He told me .that he paring for the first time in of tourists and no delegation, I my Pa my could do without its " Com- ad, to co trying to guess what our being taught how to o mak make, mis- France. I had been included rade" and the voluntary "comrade" would write, so silos and were made to sign in a delegation of writers, . t assistants attached to him, that I would agree with him. On terrifying documents about the 'was a most impressive experi- The Western world was one occasion someone had turned preservation of state secrets. Ile once, because in the Soviet devilishly cunning, and we tip late for the bus,. said he had dreamt of bein" Union the only pcople ho had to be incredibly vigilant, and the "comrad.e" had been an inventor, but instead 61'that are allowed to travel' ravel abroad Either I would undertake to, that incident fromncident frig detail and h nds others accord wan to obliged spet a l wean-kill out are those with " clean " maintain contact with the like it. I devoted ded et about t half f the formurlalas, how many' m ae missiles es 'records, who have been " comrade " or else my trip report to reporting on myself, were needed per thousand thoroughly " vetted," who would be cancelled and I because that -is essential-where human lives. have not been in any trouble would never be allowed to I had gone, whom I had knot The Soviet Union was, in at their work or in their travel anywhere abroad. The and what had been said. his opinion, a Fascist country, political activities, who have "comrade " would beaver But my report, wasn't to the The students, he said, id, were pub- y liking of someone high g never in their lives consulted pleasant person, and he g up. Eight lishing a ma a? years passed before I was a chi t i t h h ld i psy a r aga s , w o ave never wou approach me himself,' n zinc and were being arrested. were being allowed to travel abroad, this Finally he burst into tears. been before the, courts, and saying: " Greetings from Mik. time to Britain. You will now tried to calm him. Through his. so on and ,so forth., hail Mikhailovich." learn the price I had t f ;~ o pay or tears he screamed that he What is more, the whole Our delegation consisted of that. would r d h p o uce t e magazine process of getting one's some 15 writers and editors of I lived the whole of those' himself. I said that was stupid: papers in order lasts many Moscow magazines, and we all eight years in Tula and throu h= , g and that lie would prove nothing' months and requires a mass gathered at the harbour in out that time the "comrades" like that. of references, quires mires, Leningrad to embark on the kept coming to see me. When I + of ecret rences rs and nacres, liner Latvia. I looked at each came to inquire of other writers Now 1 tremble ? of the delegates and wondered: it appeared that this was the 4 ential advice on how to which one of them is it? The most ordinary occurrence--f hey Not long afterwards somebody behave. By he time a person person in charge of the dole- went to see everybody-every Phoned me and asked me to meet has gone through this proce- gation was a woman from body. And it depended on the him on the square outside. It" co dure he is so intimidated and Jntourist (the Soviet Govern- extent of the writer's decency knew one of invited meirto~is t?on who tcalsed up that the trip begins men, Tourist Organisation) who as to which of the three cat. to seem like sonic religious kept counting everybody as if egories of collaboration he would the bench and said: " Why didn't' i ritual. we were chickens. Maybe she choose. you r ng us up? Somebody was the "Comrade"? They would ask me gently and reveals state secrets to you and I had already gone through But when we were, aboard politely. about my life, about tells you various formulas, gives this intimidating procedure the ship it was one of the edi?. what I was working on, what my gru infparman peri, dbyou simply, nder. and was packing my case tors who came up to me and, friends Yevtushcnko, Aksyonov, ground papers, and you simply; when someone telephoned to with a crooked grin, said Gladilin and others were. doing, object What t is t is the not right lll'c right .say that people from the " Greetings from Mikhail what they were saying and what wa. Y.' Mikhailovich ". sort of people they were. At first then, in your opinion?" Secret Police were going t0 I said only favourable things and tremble when I write now' :visit me. A couple of men He was a boorish fool, who b out that conversation on the spoke highly a appeared and showed nae owed n b ody, who also kept count- objected, Yevshcnko was com? e tit -aL made a e y frill up the delegation, and who watcrhing ttrcarefullly I enough,nol was lilac forgiaven r and hnd ot frying- allowed nglri to rtk.~Q n w y jokes, s chatte abo Lit literature, then got listened greedily to every con, must provoke him to ar but I was warned. versation, But I noticed that and report what was really going From that time in 1!)63 I was` down to business: some of the writers were also ,.-. , _ _, insi especiali a certain Sytin, to me more sear 1 ~vhy we've come, one of our y olio, who use threats. p y and to comrades will be travelling in the Soviet film world. Of the as usual with your de le I shoutd ga. h , . em that it was 15 members of the delegation,' e at t not tion. But it will be difficult one was from Intourist, one was proper behaviour and I for him to cope on his own, the "comrade " and at least five asked them to keep away from m I i ' a sa d I didn t see anything So you will help him, you were "voluntary assistants.'s bad around me_ no rnncnrron, .~ an e e pen to see O " r this was the usual arran ement and nothing anti-Soviet. If I that nobody slips away and g did sec anything, then I would stays, abroad, to see who ]f five people are travelling ring them u Ad ih b a road, at least two of there are' p. n w t that they vanished! 'talks to wham, and to see informers. If two are travel. how people behave." ling, at least one must be an I couldn't believe my luck. So th t it a , seemed, was the way "No, I don't want to," -I infmer. And if there's only' Said, one person, then ' he is an to talk to them. After all what could they do to me? `I was Informer on himself " . ?You must. Perhaps some other Russian already a well known writer y books were being published Let somebody else do it." writer will also, like me, be min 40 d.,coun others will be doing it. myself the and I " reduced to blind horror and will could d p pierrmimit t mvself cn lllxllrv course, that I was an a?nti., Soviet clement. or that I was' intending to organise sonic plot. .On On the contrary, 1 was a htcniber , the Communist party, a' ;recognised Soviet writer, and Il wanted only one thing:. to go on writing. But I had auto. lmatically to be. followed, because I came in the second category, Then I took a room in Yas? naya Polyana Square (the Tol- stoy Estatcl where I' wrote a novel. I became friendly with the scholars working in the Tolstoy Museum and they were very kind to me, especially the intelligent and attractive Liiiza Senina. One day she came to my room and told ore she had been appointed to follow ever?v. step - word Well, then we Shall have what they did to himnut "ve'l1 such characters! Perhaps How very wrong I was! I was r said. But, she said, I was a' A to reconsider . , . in that case- Yevtuslienko will one day tell' simply transferred to the second good and trusting person and what's the point of your of the conditions on which he Category, she couldn't do it any more; she oing?" was allowed to travel round the ~1 , Y home in Tula was open to was having nightmares. world and the reports he had to l l , _ iema 44 l,e 8 s lefit, qultB -write.. everybody. One day there ap?. One of the "scholars" at Yas- Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : ?IA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 nays Polyana w yrgfJi48TrJo 1Q v~r~~? 9~E1~Srr' iG?AaRD 0av1 AO~BGeTuthe . in any the K.G.B. and y, `[rertl 1'a~ poi='Tany g o . df~ly' abroad-but without much hope. case they for a e the reprinting the Director down to the guides, confused and told everything to I wanted to see the world They - Of it. . had to report to him. Every her "comrades." were always ready to promise foreigner who visited Yasnaya But I was struck with the way me, but that was the end of it. Polyana was kept under speci- people would immediately tell Others went travelling, but not ally strict surveillance. The fact me everything, warn me and me. not say that I had taken a room there give me advice. I can was especially suspicious and any more, so as not to harm they were trying to get some- them. After all, they are there, thing out of her about me. What they are not to blame; they are was she to do? She would be the victims. sacked! A stranger I was particularly shaken by get phones the fact that this was taking There are others whom even place on the revered territory, I do not know. A stranger of Tolsto~y's Estate., "Well," I phoned me from a call-box at a said, "lets try and save you; tram stop and told me what was let's make something up t0', in my letters to my mother and gether." ' which foreign magazine I had at I did not succeed in saving home: " What on earth are you her. On the contrary, out of in doing? Don't you realise that experience I wrecked her life. all your post is opened? . That One day in the cafe the K.G.B.- your neighbours on both sides officer in civilian clothes sat and above you are watching down opposite me and started you? That your phone conver- joking and asking odd ques- sations are recorded?" tions. I looked him straight in He gave no name and hung the face and said: "Listen, by up. Thanks. But I just couldn't dint of pure logic, I have rea- understand: what was the point used that you are from the of this horror? I was writing Security and that you're inter- literary works and had no in. ested in me. So let's talk like tention of engaging in- political man to man. What do you want activity. f was a writer. What to know? You ask the questions do ,you want from me? That I and I'll give you straight ans- wers. It'11 be easier for you and should stop to think before every for ." word I said on the telephone? me." He was terribly embarrassed In fact, on one occasion the hind started mattering that he telephone at home started tink- was not interested in me per-., receiver n odd way. I took off sonally, that I was above any the e rebut heard no ring- suspicion, that I had well-known ing tone, so I started banging friends in Moscow, that they on the rest. Suddenly a tired sometimes behaved rather voice at the other. end of the strangely, and that in general banging, said: "Please, don't keep my circle of acquaintances .. , , bnging, have patience. We're Later, in his own time, he switching machine. It's to another reached his own conclusions. recording tem . It's a cond Luiza Senina was dismissed catedit system-you understand after a frightful row, was given Later an electrician appeared a hopeless reference, and was and changed the electricity a long time without work until meter, fitting a new one, fresh- she was given a job as a libra- ly scaled, with a microphone, no rian in some trade school, where she still is today. doubt. Just try living in a flat, I hurried away from Yasnaya knowing that every word you say Polyana as if a curse had been is being listened to and recorded, laid on it. But wherever you In 1967 I locked up my flat Jive you still have contact with and went oft on a long trip. people. Young writers kept Two days after I left, in the coming to see me, bringing middle of the night there was a fire their their works with them. There thing in in it my was destroyed. and every- was one very sweet irl, a emen who came to the estroyed. e student at the Teachers Insti- firemen rem, scene flat, from tute, Tanya Subbotina, who pprevented he whole though never came along in this way and discgovered what destroyed, st caused the fire. re.l then one day asked me to go But us ,outside on the street with her. But and ps andmanuscripts ,, , _ escaped by by a real miracle:, once she - was sure we t forced to come to me and told .to try to become my mistress and report on everything I did. Otherwise they threatened she ?would be turned out of the In- stitute- She was not doing very well there, and they could, well' have done it, ' 11 Heavens abovel I have re- Counted only two incidents, be- Cause they are no longer- secret and. everything is already vgry. Then, unexpectedly, the Paris publishers Les Editeurs Fran- cais Reunis invited me to spend a month in Paris as part of the payment for my " Babi Yar." I thought that the authorities must understand at last that I was no enemy, so I made my applica- tion and started to go through the procedural marathon. I got right to the end.of it only to be told that the Union of Writers had no money for my trip. I declared that there must be some, misunderstanding, that I was going at my o} on expense. Then they told me in a whisper that it was simply that the authorities in Tula had formally sanctioned my departure, but their kindly and friendly atten- that Safronov, the propaganda tions. secretary, had said by tele- How movingly they explained phone that I should not be to me that the situation among allowed to go. the intelligentsia was very cour- I said in my statement [pub- plicated. That people as tense lished in The Sunday Telegraph as the writers, 'however clever last week] how my writing was they were, were in revolt and maltreated. But they also de- they did not want to resort to formed my whole life. I couldn't tough measures.... I had done speak on the telephone; I pray very well, they said, not to sign tically stopped writing letters; any protests; that was not the and I saw an informer in every business of an artist. But I ought one of my acquaintances. I be. to try and influence my mis- gan to ponder: what sense is guided friends and make them there in such a life at all? understand that if they did not Here is an extract from my stop causing trouble, then . diary in October 1967. "I have well, you understand. not been able to sleep for I went from town to town several days now. I am just a trying to keep out of the way of great lump of nostalgia. I turn these "comrades", from Moscow over in my mind what I have to Leningrad, to Kiev. Many written and compare it with people there probably remember what I would like to write and my asking: What are you going what I could write. I see before to do; what is the way out; me years and years of life in what is there to hope for? No- which I could have got to know body knew anything. Intelligent and study and understand and People in Russia feel only so much and which have ror There is nothing butyl dark- . been wasted on what it is fright- ness ahead. which I was to be a delegate from Tula, Sol7henitsyn sent me a copy of his famous letter [in which lie denounced the censor- ship]. I spent several nights thinking it over. At home they wondered what was the matTc>' with me. I said: "Solzhenitsyn is inviting me to commit suicide with hint." Yes, I could not find in myself the courage, and I probably fully deserved Solzhenitsyn's contempt. I simply did not attend the con- gress. I signed no protests, either then or later. I saved my own skin and kept out of things. Others were expelled from the party and from the Union and were no longer published. But they continued to publish me., and the "comrades" resumed "When I quote what I wrote k'Al MV 111911E ut riugust .U in 'Babi Yar' I feel like an ant, 1968, Russian tanks entered cemented up in the foundations Czechoslovakia. I spent several of a house.- All around there is days listening to the radio. Many nothing but stones, walls and people in Russia wept during darkness. To live to the end of those days. It marked, they my life with this feeling of being said, the turn to Fascism. stifled, in this state of being it came over me somehow of buried alive ..." itself. I realised that I could That was just after the trial not remain there any longer, of Sinyavsky and Daniel. Solz- that every day, every month and board henitsyn's writings were no long- every year would see only a I had moved the cup- par ure er being published. The process Piling iip of horror and coward. another with room, the intending to manuscripts into move of rehabilitating Stalin had ice inside me. . o ; my study there on kept return. begun, After that I pt my manu I had my own troubles. There Like a prison scripts buried in the ground. was an unpublicised row over But Russia is as well de- Another reason was that, when- "Babi Yar". They suddenly de- fended as a prison. Just read ever I left my flat for any length' cided that it ought not to have Anatoli Marchen'ko's remarkable of time afterwards, I recognised been published. At Yunost they "Evidence". He wanted only by various signs that someone, told me that it was practically one thing: to get out. They had been in the flat in my an accident that it had ever ap- caught him 40 yds. from the absence.. peared at all and that a month frontier and threw him into the I frequently asked varit us..tQp later,its publication would have same camp as Daniel. Marchen. -, Approved "For Release 1999/09/02 itIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGHT Approved For Release 1999/09/02;: CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 ko's description of that present dal, concentration camp is enough to make your hair stand on end. Then I received another in- vitation, this time. from America, from the Dial Press, who had allotted 5,000 dollars for my trip. I began to attend all the meetings in Tula. I presented ,Safronov', with signed copies of my hooks and I always turned up on time for talks with the comrade... " and spent situ months fixing my papers for America. Then I was turned down again, ,with the explanation that the Dial Press had published Solz henitsyn as `well as me and they were therefore enemies. It was Clear from certain details that. once again it was the K.G.B.'' who would not let me out. This! coincided with some fierce cri-. ticism of my latest writing in the Press. Now I began to feel myself run down and itcrnmed in like a wolf. I went down to Batumi rrt the Caucasus] to study the is of the land. The whole of the holiday coast of the Black Sea is under the strongest guard. When darkness falls patrols drive everybody away from the, water. Searchlights play over the beach and the sea. Radar instal- lations detect, even it child's ball' floating on the surface of the But I had made up my mind to swim under water to Turkey with' the help of an aqualung, entering the water before the patrols appeared and pushing in front of myself an underwater raft with spare oxygen contain- tr.s. I would swine by compass dust one night, otherwise I would. be detected in the morning by get a real piece of informing" the helicopters that were about I hinted to the "comrades" like flies. I had trained myself that it seemed as though an to swim without stopping for 15 anti-Soviet plot was being hours. I started on the building hatched among the writers. They" of my raft, were really impressed and It was frightening all the same. believed "me. They demanded I imagined. myself being cut in some facts, and of those I had two in the darkness by a sub- a head full. ,marine at full speed - they are My report revealed that the about the place like sharks. Or writers were preparing to pub- I would drown . lish a. dangerous underground So I decided to make one last, magazine called "The Polar desperate effort to obtain per- Star" or "The Spark," but they mission for a trip abroad. I no were still arguing about the longer thought of anything but name. I said that the people getting out, at any price. who are going to, publish it in- Night and day I had going eluded Yevtushenko, Aksyonov, round in my mind only that: Gladilin, Yefremov, Tabakov, to get away, away, away from Arkady, Raikin, etcetera, etce- that monstrous country, from tera, I said they were collecting those scoundrels, from that money and manuscripts. The K.G.B. Let me get out, even first number would start with to the Antarctic, even to the academician Sakharov's memo- Sahara, so long as they are randum.? I very much wanted to not there. add that they also intended to I just could not go on. It blow up the Kremlin, but that was stronger than me; it was would nave been too obvious the animal instinct for self-an exaggeration. I was trans- preservation, probably- I was ferred to the first category, at least a living being. I wrote 'Pier's how I came to be in in "Babi Yar" that by the time -Britain. I brought a copy of my 1 was 14 1 should have been shot report with me, photographed on 20 times, that I was still alive film, because it is the most,re- practically by a iniracle, a sort markable work I have ever writ- of misunderstanding. ten. The rest was easy. Only six So there we are: according months' filling in forms, a pro- to the rules of the K.G.B. I mise to write a novel about should now be shot for the 21st Lenin, just one personal agent- time. If only because I went Andjaparidze-and I didn't have straight at them and got out. to go swimming in the Black Sea. If only because I am writing (Who knows? - maybe they'll this. And I shall go on writing, have got radar that operates as long as there's life in me. even under water). On July 24 Now listen to what the Rus- I got out of Russia on the same sian writer, Anatoli Kuznetsov plane as Gerald Brooke, and I did. He said to himself: "You don't know which of us was the have to imagine that they are more -moved, as he looked out the Gestapo and think what they at the blue sky. like most- of all. Informers are I managed to get out and I'm what they like. Fine.. So. they'll still alive., You can try me 'if you wish. I have still not come round: I still feel as if I lay on the edge of a sea, groaning, ex- hausted and bleeding. But it is the sea. I have got away-from them. Forced cowardke I now believe that the 'main reason why many highly in- telligent and able people do not escape from there is because the Soviet regime has forced them to commit such cowardly acts that no amount of repent. ance can absolve them. There is no way out. But, really, what would 'Vol, say if you learned that Leo Tolstoy had been a Secret Police agent and had written reports on all the foreigners visiting his Yasnaya Polyana ? Or that Dostoyevsky informed on his best friends ? Would it be possible after that to have any respect for their works, however brilliant they were? I personally have no answer to that question. The only thing I can say is that Dostoycvsky and Tolstoy did not live in Soviet Russia. If you are a citizen of Soviet Russia you. autom-aticn.lly cannot he a 100 per cent, decent person. Cowardly silence or half-truths' -are those not lies ? I? have told you only about myself. But, believe _ me, there are very, many others who could tell a similar story. Let me leave it at that. Thank you-the good people of Britain. Copyright. Reproduction In whole or part is strictly forbid. .. den without permission,. ,, NEW YORK TIMES 21 August 1969 I.F. u ~etsov Recalls the Reaction of Russians to' invasi Ye Czechoslovakia a Year Ago The following article is by the 44-year-old Soviet author who sought asylum in'Britain last month, maintaining, that; he could .no longer work un-, der repression. He describes here the reactions he saw among the Russian people after the Soviet-led invasion o Czechosiovahfa a year ago. Cl y1RQdf KIJZNETSOV e waning or alL T,116 bireas In occupied Prague. In Russia on Aug. 21, 1968, the majority . of people felt as though world war had. broken out.. The very air, seemed to smell of gunfire. People went around. with long faces, all asking the same question: "What's going on in Czechoslovakia?" Many wept as they listened to their radios. It seems as If it were only., with all is sirens I started ally r'UN I had only just come away zen of the country that has occupied you; I know that rantastic. r ra io jammers. It isolates the So- viet people from the rest of the world and has the job not only of suppressing the slightest sign of discontent, also of djuninahas hitq everyone the belief that he is living the best possible of lives. These machines came into action with renewed force after Aug. 21, 1968. The oc- cupation of Czechoslovakia, the arrest of its leaders, the threats of a repetition of the. suppression of the Hungar. ian revolt, the Intrigues and the plots -- all this was ..-,.....-.....i .... .. ..w........., ..O great humanism, brotherhood and salvation. People were forced to turn up at meetings so that the newspapers could demon- strate to the world the ApprnvPrl Fnr RPIi?aca.1 AAA/ng/n9 - .CIA-RfP7q_n11 g4A0005QQQ4QQ01 _7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500U40001-7 CPYRGHT "unanimous, nationwide ap- proval" of the aggression. These were strange, dreary meetings at which people lis- tened with sad, worried faces to the official speak- ers reading prefabricated texts of resolutions that approved the actions of "our wise Communist party and Soviet Government." such ritual is a famlllari integral part of life in theSoviet Union. 'Nevertheless,', the seizure of Czechoslovakia' was such a brazen act, and affection for the people of Czechoslovakia so genuine and strong in Russia, that there had to be some addi- tional explanations. Thousands of propagandists were sent round the country to tell people by word of, mouth: "West Germany was pre- paring to invade Czechoslo- vakia. If our tanks had not gone in, the Germap tanks would have been there the next day. But we managed to get there first and saved Czechoslovakia." I heard this said dozens of times. Information from the West does not reach the great mass of the population in the So- viet Union, and Russian sus-. picion of the Germans is understandable. But the im-. portant thing was that this false explanation was com municated in a sort of confi- dential form, whispered in your ear, so to speak. And the Soviet people are accustomed to a state of af- fairs in which, if what is said openly is usually false, what is said in closed meetings can sometimes contain a little tr. Itwas amazed occasionally to hear the most honest and apparently experienced peo- ple say with a shrug and a sigh: "It's terrible that we had to send our tanks into Czechoslovakia. But we had to save them from - the Ger- mans." . Briefing by Party Aide Among the Soviet politi- cians who made many journeys at that time be.. tween Moscow and Prague was the First Secretary of the Communist party, the "boss,"- of the Tula Region, Ivan Yunak. In October, fol- lowing one of these trips, he held a closed meeting to brief propagandists and edi- tors on how to speak and write about Czechoslovakia. I was' present. Yunak had just returned from the Krem- lin and was in a godd mood. His speech added up to this: "We have, comrades, dealt with Czechoslovakia. Order has been restored. It is true we have had to leave Dubcek there for the time being. But he is not, of course, the right man. He is not our comrade. When passions have subsided a little he will be re- placed. ,You can refer more fre- quently to people like Indra and Husak. As for Smr- kovsky,on no account: he is not one of ours, he is a shady character. "There will, of course, still be many difficulties, but it is already in the bag. It is our country. You Ought ax o- ciaily to stress the great dis- cipline and humanity shown by our troops, Only a single accident, which was blown up in the West: A woman standing near a window was killed by mistake.". GSring's Awkward Comment The writer Boris Polevol was at this time about to re- issue one of his books that was an account of the Nu- remberg trial of German war criminals. With a sarcastic gesture he told me: "It's enough to drive you madl The censor has demand. ed that I make some cuts. You would think it was pret- ty old stuff. - the book's been printed many times. But. it appears that I quoted a conversation of Goring when' they annexed Czechoslovakia in 1939. He said something like: 'Arrest the Government, compromise the others. Form another government. Then have them issue a program and make some 'declaration. And keep tanks at all the crossroads."' I asked him: "Are you go- ing to cut that out? After all, it is part of history." Polevol laughed: "I've al- ready cut it. Today that would be a trump card in the hands of our enemies. We mustn't put cards in the enemy's hands, so we have to cut things out of history. And it's right to do it. We must make use of such facts as suit our purposes and not the enemy's." Thus in the Soviet Union the truth is whatever helps the cause of Communism. Thinking people in Russia, and primarily the intelligent- sia, were nevertheless well aware of the true situation in Czechoslovkia. Yevgcny Yevtushenko, the poet, sent off a telegram of protest to the Soviet Government in a moment of rage but then went and took it back, or so I was told by an official of the secret police. Others were more consistent. And then, suddenly, some- thing unheard-of happened. People. started to refuse to vote at meetings. Slogans on the Walls Many letters of protest were written, bearing the signatures of well-known scholars, writers, professors and so forth. Slogans were Chalked on the wally in many towns and on tht statues in Leningrad: "Brezhnev out of Czechoslovakial" "Barbar- ians out of Czechoslovakia!" It had never happened be- Leaflets also began to ap- pear in large numbers. And finally a demonstration took place., . . . True, it was a very small demonstration -- seven peo- ple altogether: Larisa Daniel, Babitsky, Delone, Pavel Lit- vinov, Dremlpuga, Fainberg. and Gorbanevskaya. But in Russian terms they were act- ing in the same way as the Ch:'istian martyrs of ancient times, deliberately sacrificing themselves so as to "demon- strate that not all the cit-. izens of our country agree with the use of force "that is being practiced in the name of the Soviet people." They carried banners say- ing "Shame on the invaders" and "Hands off Czechoslo- vakia!' for a minute or two before they were seized. They are now in Siberia. Leaflets Circulated But all Russia- heard about them and respects their bravery. Tula, where I lived, learned about them from leaflets, or rather handwrit- ten notes, that were dropped into letter boxes. I photo- graphed one of them and brought it with me: "Friend! The Government has violated the Constitution by arrest- ing participants in a demon- stration against the occupa- tion of Czechoslovakia on Red Square. Long live free- dom of speech, of the press and of assembly! Please re- produce and circulate." The secret police have been really shaken by what has happened this year. They are. demanding permission to re- introduce Stalin's methods. There aee numerous dismis- sals from work, punishments, arrests, trials, imprisonments and the country is boiling with protest. Before I left for Britain I was given this advice at the central office of the Commu- nist party in Moscow: "If you are asked about Czecho- slovakia, don't say anything. Don't give . any interviews: say you are too busy. If you really have to, let you- in- terpreter ?do the talking for Approved For Release 1999/09/02 fCIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 tS"oiZelease 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-011.94A00050004000117A. CPYRGHT A. ANATOL (AnatoUi Kuznetsov), the Soviet writer now in Britain, reveals. the hopes and fears of ordinary Russians. What is the chance of a popular explosion? Do they believe their Press? What do they realty think of Communism? Are they afraid of China? Interview by DAVID Ell 0Xn ugust 1969 are all ' hawks'." With these words Ana- toli Kuznet4ov, the Russian writer who a few weeks ago evaded his siicret police guard and chose freedom in Britain, summed up his view of, the present leaders of Russia. Kuznetsov does not shard the view common among Western observers of the soviet scene that the men in the Kremlin are divided into "hawks" and "doves", into those who want to he tougher towards the rest of the world and those %,be want to be more friendly. As far as this intelligent and sen- sitive Russian can see, they are all " hawks ". Slat, then, was going to never happen in anystcha change Would for there the better, towards greater internal, reedom and democracy? : Kuz- netsov is not optimistic: "An explosion-that is to say, nation-wide revolt capable of verthrowing the present Soviet: egime---is impossible. The' machinery of oppression is tool owerful for that. ? Nor can I ec much hope for the gradual, democratisation' Of the regime,; ecause there is no real" litical life at all in the Sovictl nion in the Western sense of- e term. But there is the very al possibility of a new reign of rror, such as we knew under, talin and such as the Russian; eople have known so many mes in their history. "Many people still hope that, cre may emerge an intelligent vilised, humane leader, and hen, they think, all would be ell. But among the present .aders there are none --whoi joy any popularity with the ople as a whole. Nevertheless: ogle go on hoping. "I would be inclined to `say, vvever, that Russia is more ady for a new Stalin and a new ria Stalin's secret police ief]_ than for an intelligent and humane leader. In the course of-. history Russia has. been through many more bad than good and she is ready for anything. That is, of course, a pessimistic view.: I be very happy if I were proved wrong." Passengers to cln' The population of the SovietUnion, says Kuznetsov, play nopart at all in the making of policy. Policy is magicby a very small number ofpeople in Moscow, and the rest the population get to know their decisions only after. the event. The whole population is interested in politics but only in. the sense of wondering whaton earth the very small group leaders will think up and do next. " The attitude of the population of the Soviet Union to the policy- makers in the Kremlin is like of passengers on a shipwhose destination they do not know. The street has noS influence oat al he and doesn't believe be has any influence-over the direction of the' Soviet ship of state. He would very much like to have influence but tha for hi m. is beyond his wildest dreams." But did the ordinary people in Russia not have some say in' local politics? "Good heavens no, never. Whether it is a question of major issues of policy or small ones the ordinary citizen finds himself in the position-at best -of a person who is simply' informed what is going to be, with him. Sometimes, as I said, they don't even bother to inform him, about the few brave spirits who had dared to protest against Official Soviet policypeople like General Grigorenko Pavel Litvinov, Larissa Daniel and others? The further you go from Moscow the less is known about such protests, , and I have not heard of any signs of open support for them in other cities and towns. . But there have been other forms of protest in provincial towns. "For example, there is a very widespread movement in the Ukraine which demands national Periodi Willy e thefor re the is an out- burst of discontent in some town or other other, as was the case, for example, with the workers in Novoc herkassk. There were simi- Jar incidents in Tula, but on a smaller scale. . But on the whole the position' tion in Russia is just the same as it was described so vividly a hundred years ago by the great Ukrainian poet Taras S hevchenke: `All is silent , in all languages. ...: i But did the Soviet people not, make any use of the apparently democratic institutions they had? Officially, , on paper, every- ing th's fine. There are the so- called 'deputies,' the Supreme Soviet, local "Soviets, which in theory are supposed to direct the the foreign and domestic policy of the country. But that . is pure show. . All the deputies. are sim- ply uppets, p who vote obediently in favour of everything that is put before them." What then,do the of people Russia believe in? What-are they striving towards? Do they believe in "I a Communism? m afraid that 90 per cent. of the people in Russia no longer believe in any kind of ..Com- munism. It is a long time since there was any revolution or revolutionary utionary spirit in Russia. It is a firmlyestablished imperialist state of a special kind unknown in history. . Communism is taken seriously by practically no one; it only provokes ironic and sad smiles .. "All the same, the majority of people in the Soviet Union; con- tinue to use the term, simply because they have got nothing else. They argue like this: ` What is there left for us to do? -to turn back again to capital- ism? No-it has. been shown to be no good. And what can we do that is new? Maybe we shall find something. But I must say that our efforts to rind 'some. thing are not very good-nothing but stupidities and failures. But maybe an intelligent and decent leader will appear. Then every- thing will be all right.' crorife:zuasa cs Quit the way acsElecad "As for the more Intelligent, thinking people---hero you have a state of chaos and great con- fusion in Russia; Some of them believe that it still may he possi- ble to have, in the phrase in- vented by the Ciechoslovak Com- munists, a form of `Communism with a human face.' that is to say, a decent, more democratic, more liberal society, even though still ruled by the Communist party. Others pin their faith in science and the scholars -- that they will become so influential in society (scholars like Academi- cian Sakharov, for . example) that they will be able to find some solution. Very many turn "Nevertheless, the majority understand nothing and do not believe in anything. They simply see that everything seems to be going wrong, that there seems to be nothing very good ahead of them, and that there's nothing left to do but save their own skin, which is what each one does, as best he can, in accord. ance with his own principles and his own desire to live." Turning to Russia's relations with the rest of the world, Kuz. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 1 UIYF H I netsov emphas pmvedoF4fn `emeA1,99/tQ /Q2y: Soviet citizens were dependent are two monsters, and that on the State-controlled Press for nothing good is to be looked for all their information about for- from America. eign countries and that their ., Still others simply swallow opinions about those countries the official propaganda line that were conditioned by official America is a dangerous imperial propaganda. Their only lode-$ ist country which thinks of, pendent sources of information, nothing else night and day but' were foreign radio broadcasts which are heavily jammed by the now "to attack Russia and enslave, Soviet authorities. The attitude! her." "Thinking people believe most likely one to provoke a third world war and that America is only defending her- self and the_ Western .world. 'people and their Government are of one opinion. "The attitude of people in. Russia to present-day China Is. extremely cold and unfriendly.! That is, to the policy ? of the leaders in Peking. I personally' have not met a single person in Russia who can see even the TEXT OF ANATOLY KUZNETSOV. TELEVISION INTERVIEW (CBS) CPV aTmber 1969 CslArR[) 7i9ftoahi4 AQQ50QO4 QO$r7ducea a situation understand that China is not so in which Russia seems to have well armed as the Soviet Union. enemies on all sides and very But what impresses people is few friends in the -world. the ? vast population of China. "But the ordinary people "The way the Soviet man-in the factory workers and farm. the-street thinks is this: Of- workers--cannot see this. They! course, China would not suer, have absolutely no " objective` ceed in defeating us.' But those; information and, although they Irresponsible_ mad leaders of greatly regret that the Russian China may 'well attack the people's prestige and the repu Soviet Union. We shall defend; tation of the Russian soldier has ourselves and we shall be via been so shaken, they still be- torious, but it will be a tremen lieve that there was simply no dons, frightful war.' ? `other way out for the S'Oyiet "People in Russia are ter. 'Government's poand licy ish he onthe ly ribly afraid of such a war, guarantee of peace. And peace What's more, the less educated, s all the ordinary man wants." simple people are more afraid than are the thinking people. - . ?lf69 The Sunlay-Telerraph "The more intelligent people Reproduction in whole or in part in Russia realise that So' et without permission it strictly ter. bidden. ibis ma&s name is Anotoly Kuznetsov. Me. is o - old, one of the Soviet Union's leading novelists. On July 30th of this year, Anatoly Kuznetsov, on a trip to England, escaped from his Russian guard and defected. In the lining of his coat, he had sewn this film, copies of the original manuscripts of his novels. Kuznetsov(through interpreter)'That there is the whole of my life. These are my real books, not the ones as they are named to the reader. SAFER: This is the story of a man Who got away and there are men in th is `building who would like nothing better than to get their hands on him. This is the Soviet Embassy in London. Anatoly Kuznetsov will have nothing to do with it. 1an honest novelist and a Soviet citizen. Kuznetsov spent his adult life in a schizophrenic twilight zone, trying to both E 1 1. His best-known work in the West is the novel "Baba Yar", an account of the 'Nazi massacres in the Ukraine in 1942. Kuznetsov's story is made of the stuff of classic spy fiction. But it is brutally true. It involves the Soviet secret police, the KGB, a shabby hotel in the West End of London, the Apollo, a favorite place for the Soviet Embassy to put up visiting delegations, and sex, too, among the seedy strip clubs of Soho. It is a story of escape and betrayal. Like many good thrillers, a newspaper man is involved -- the London Daily Telegraph's Soviet Affairs Editor, David Floyd, the man in the middle. Someone had'given Kuznetsov Floyd's name. Kuznetsov now lives in hiding. He prefers to be called by his first name, Anatoly. Kuznetsov, he says, was the man who wrote what he was told to write, and he wants to forget him. But he emerged from hiding to tell his remarkable, sometimes sickening story of life in the Soviet Union. _ Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : tIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGHT he interpreter is David Floyd, the man who took Kuznetsov in from the cold.' ` I know that the Soviet Embassy was very anxious to.tplk to you, and you've flatly refused to do so, even in the presence of British Foreign Office people. ' INTERPRETER: I am afraid of them, even in the presence of British officials and. even at a distance, I am afraid of them. ANNOUNCER: This is a CBS News special. "The Ordeal, of Anotoly Kuznetsov" with CBS News correspondent Morley Safer: ANNOUNCER: Now, "The Ordeal of Anatoly Kuznetsov" with CBS News correspondent Morley Safer. last year. SAFER: Anatoly Kuznetsov, when did you decide to leave the Soviet Union? . INTERPRETER: The decision to leave I took on the morning of the 21st of August SAFER: That was when Soviet troops went into)Czechoslovakia?' ? KUZNETSOV: Da, da. SAFER: But there have been many things in the past twenty years and more1equally horrible. What was so special about Czechoslovakia? INTERPRETER: Well, probably for me, personally, that was the last drop.. After that I really didn't have any faith loft, or any hope. SAFER: All right, there you are, a Soviet citizen who decides to leave Russia. What do you do? INTERPRETER: Of course, it's very difficult to leave the Soviet Union. Very few people travel outside the Soviet Union. First of all, if there IS a dossier on you with the police, then you won't get out anyway. You've got to have a very good reputation at work. You've got to, make frequent- statements about your political loyalty, your love for the party and the government. You must be psychologically and nervously in good form, fit. If you've consulted a doctor, and especially if you've consulted a psychiatrist, you would never be let out. And then for five or six months you fill in a mass of different forms. You particularly have to put down what people near to you, close to you, you leave behind in Russia. A~bachelor has very little hope of getting out. A man with a family has better chances. Then he has children left behind and people related to him. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 TAPPVGv4dVrGctp Re *8304 911M V62 cda*A d# 94Qib194A QBOPWilP1-7 Sometimes they will tell you to follow the activities of the people who go with you because they very seldom out alone. You have'to'go out in a group. In my case, they attached a special personal agent to me. ? I had no permission to leave. I once made a journey in 1961 to France. Since then, fore ight years, theywouldn't?let me out. Foreign publishing houses invited me out. I was invited to Paris by a French publishing firm at their expense, with their "money. And it looked as though they were going to let me out. Then the secret police got in the way, and I wasn't released. Then I was invited to New York by the Dial Press publishers. They wrote a-long letter. They promised to put up five thousand dollars. And then once again, at the very last moment, they wouldn't let me out. So then I decided to get out at any price. I got ready to try and swim out underwater because it's very difficult, this tremendous guard on the frontier everywhere. I took a lot of chances, and I was very scared. I trained myself to do this. I trained myself to swim. underwater. I can now, for example, swim for fifteen hours underwater. Because what I had to do was to swim under the water and do it in one night and only if it were bad weather. I just got a letter from another Russian who actually did manage to do it by swimming. He got out to `Turkey in the end. There he met up with a Soviet frontier guard who had also got out to Turkey. And the frontier guard explained to him it was only a miracle that he had got out at all. Lots of people tried, but they all get caught. The Russian authorities don't only have radar equipment on the surface. Which is good enough even to detect a child's ball floating on the surface. But they also have hydro-radar locators, underneath the water. And they would have caught me. They would have detected me. SAFER: So you decided against swimming out, and you made one more attempt to come out hga I ly? INTERPRETER: I made my last, my third effort to get out legally so that !would - 1 decided to try to fit?in with what the secret police wanted. Approved For RPIPacP.1999/n9/n2 - CIA-RfP79-all 9dAnnn5nandannl-7. /; dt r l a~9 M~~8~081 t1 1A 14 PY&&M 9,~> 5Qp.49f - Dut at a very enncdarrnh1a nr:wn SAFER: What was that price? INTERPRETER: As I said, I had to demonstrate in",,,me bu m a i t t nx ? e * r r' , my willingness TO Work With the secret police. They Persecuted.-me for eight years. They demanded that I should inform upon my friends who were writers -- Yevtushenko, 'Axionov. These are all my friends. refused _ So'then they developed a great dossier on me. They got people to attach themselves me r t di b , p e en ng to e friends. They got women to try to-become my mistresses. A lot of these people told me what was happening and warned me about it. My telephone was bugged, my letters were opened. I think there were microphones in my rooms. They knew absolutely everything about me. I had two copies of the magazine "America". Suddenly some completely unknown person rang me up and said, "Why on earth do you keep those foreign magazines in your home? It's already written down in your dossier." So then, in desperation, I decided to show them that I had changed my ways, that I would improve -- behave differently. What you have to do, I said to myself, is to just pretend to yourself, believe that this is the Gestapo. I must escape from the concentration camp. What do the want in order that they should believe me? That I should inform on my own friends. That would .:' be fine. Let them have their informer. I composed what was probably the most strikin the most -- finest piece of writing in my Iife. g, I said that these writers, like. Yevtushenko, Axionov, and a group of others right down to some actors in the comedy theatre were getting ready to produce and publish frightful underground magazines. That they've got an underground print shop, that the 're gathering manuscripts together and money for the job. Y Oh, how the secret police were pleased with this, which was a pure fiction. I even thought I might put in that they were actually planning to blow u the Kremlin but then I thought that they'd see through that. But it didn't matter. T have no tense of humor. They took it all seriously, They SAFER: Then what did you do? INTERPRETER: l? decided to write a really persuasive application.' There's a ter rific campaign' .there going on at the moment preparing for the hundredth anniversary of Approved For Release ' 1999/09/02: CIA-RDP79-01194A0005000 CPYRGHT If you A PIVOYed 56610 R*40118 1@A/Igi3,: 9131AA6i1Pji +'8g'ig#A@&W0O46U01-7 wanted to write -a nova 1 about Lenin.and how he created the Communist Party in London. And I would just have to go,and visit all the places where he'd been in London. SAFER: You created a kind of phony project in a way? INTERPRETER: Well, I made it -- it was a very detailed plan, too. So then, they started to work with me and said that they'd let me go to England and that maybe they would give me some secret task to perform secret mission, that just before I left from -- left Russia -- I should telephone and I would probably get my secret instructions. But, you know, I took a chance and I didn't bother to ring up. SAFER: Anatoly, do you feel any guilt about what you wrote and reported about Yevtushenko and the others? INTERPRETER: Of course, I do. It's by no means excluded that they may have hod difficulties. I wrote about it immediately as soon a I was here in the Daily Telegraph. So that the KGB over there should know what I'd done. But it was a false project. Yes, of course. But this is such an ordinary, everyday thing with them that this isn't going to surprise anybody. SAFER: Yet, you know that Yevtushenko was once greatly admired in the West and many of his poems were against the Soviet system. So, perhaps, there were some grains of truth in what you reported to the KGB. INTERPRETER: No, of course not, he has no plans to start an under- ground print shop. SAFER: So there you. are on a plane with your shadow and you arrive in London. Then what do you do? INTERPRETER: Well, you find a room in a hotel, which was booked for us either by the Soviet Embassy or people who were very close to the Embassy. I don't have the ,right to choose a hotel myself. SAFER: Then you have a plan? INTERPRETER: We always, when 'we.come on these trips, have several sheets of paper containing the program of. what we are to do and .a copy of this remains behind in Russia. SAFER: What -I meant was a plan to evade the authorities. INTERPRETER: Well, that's a different question. SAFER: Tell me about that. Approved For Release 1999/09/0.: CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGHT, ftwww. Ivvrc, 54n, UYUS Orr me, INTERPRETER: Well, my firstproblem was to get a few hours of freedom when Approved or a ease SAFER: You must have been a desperate man. INTERPRETER: No, ,no, no, I'd studied him pretty carefully. I knew his weaknesses. SAFER: What were they? INTERPRETER: We wont walking around London and he, like any young man, ho was simply amazed at the beautiful women, the pretty girls, the short skirts, the mini-skirts. I noticed the effect this had on him and I worked on him with a view to 'suggest that he should visit the strip-tease shows. You had to become a member and he. wrote himself in as a Yugoslav citizen. In Russia we are strictly forbidden to visit anything like strip-tease or get mixed up with women. We have to sign a paper' saying that We shan't do this. In this way, both of us, both I and my watchdog became criminals. So this introduced a.,certain amount of confidence between the two-of us. We agreed with each other not to tell''' afi each other. When he told that in the evening he absolutely had to meet certain people, that I should have to sit in the hotel than l said m h b t if , uc e ter I were to go and have a look at another st i -t a d f p r ease n i it looks all right, then we can both go along there another time. He hesitated for a nmment. Then, he agreed. And I said if I don't'come back for th ra er a long time, he shouldn't worry. And he went off and, while I went off to a telephone kiosk -- telephone booth. I tel h d th D il ep one e a y Telegraph, tried to get in touch with David Floyd who speaks Russi 1 d an. meanage to get hold of him and we meet -- we-met. SAFER: What did you say td him? 11 INTERPRETER: I told him I wanted to stay in London. Asked him to help me because I didn't know English, that I wanted to hide away from my watchdog, my K4B man. This was a very dangerous step to take The 've ot th i l . y g e r agents a l over the place, dl over the world. They used to tell. me with a smile that they had agents -in lri' t f h l a par s o t e wor d in the most incredible places. Just places you just couldn't, imagine. They suggested that I might perhaps go to a police chief and this police chief might i f t b S n ac e a oviet agent. This was just theoretically. So I looked for somebody in whom 'I could be Y of whom l co Id b ' certain. He quickly understood what was,the matter and he helped me? and and 1 shall be grateful to him for the rest of my life. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 7CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 / ' 8?'tha 9 w?91'mil'malan $iladrd 941P@(4 )O500040001-7 William "5tron have described what you have done as "despicable," both in informing y and, in fact, in leaving the Soviet Union. INTERPRETER: If Mr. Styron thinks that way, well, I'm happy to offer him my flat in Tula (?) =- let him go.and try it. They still don't understand just what the Soviet i U n on S. If Thomas Mann or Bertoit Brecht'had been faced with the dilemma of leaving Germany of living under Hitler, what would they.have said then? They left Germany,' after ll if th if h a , ey - t ey had had to save themselves at any:. price to get away from h G ;t e estapo, in any case, this is a question which. I myself can't decIdo. I ask myself, after all, what would pepple:say if they learned, say,, that,.~well, Dostoevski, say, . had written and informed, even falsely, but had informed on his I don't know what to, answer --, I can or ly say :that neither Dostoevski nor Toistoi nor Turgenev, none'of them lived in Soviet Russia. Yet Daniel, Sinyavsky and Pasternak did live in the Soviet.Union. So you would be advising. a Russian writer, simply because he's Russian , to live in a concentration camp. I have.a small hope that not living a concentration camp I m b bl s ' ay e a e to ay more. I don t know. SAFER: What were your fee[ings as a Sovietrwtiter during the ttials of Daniel _ _I A? 1 INTERPRETER: Horror. SAFER: Did you want. to speak out for them? INTERPRETER: I didn't have'the courage to do that. SAFER: And where would, you be today if you had spoken out? INTERPRETER: If I'd done it really actively, I should 'be alon side them w O g no , r ,I should -- they. would simply not have published me or I shouldn't have been able to come out of the c t V ry, oun SAFER: The-Soviet authorities said that you left-for the most tawdry of reasons, th l f at you e t a pregnant mistress behind. V INTERPRETER: Well, I learned about this from the Soviet ress. p I don't yet know what they're talking about. It was Boris Palevoy who wrote. about this. and apparently he k w b h no s more a out t is woman than I do. V SAFER: You know, Anatoly, human nature's a very.funny thing, No one really likes a,turncoat. How do you feel about that?. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 AWWQaE13 rSQQJl*S*1 1PPJQ ? q - fiJe%iReldlt9o4rem a9n a P 40 a? oward, a conformist? What can I do? I was born in Russia; I was born in Russia. I lived .there 40 years and I know no other life, And the moment came when I could no longer live .that way. What do you advise me to do? Commit suicide? 1 thought about that. ANNOUNCER: "The Ordeal of Anatoly Kuznetsov" will continue in a moment. ANNOUNCER: Here, again, is Anatol Kuznets with CB y ov S News corres- pondent, Morley Safer. SAFER: You know, Anatoly at the ve b i i , ry eg nn ng, a great many people outside ;the Soviet Union had great hopes for Communism. What went wrong? INTERPRETER: Communist doctrine, Communist teacing is very attractive. And it grow out of good convictions and beli f Bu lif e s. t e, it appears, is a good deal more "complex than it appeared to the founders of Communism. And we see ancient history being repeated again. The road to hell is aved ith p w good intentions. Thanks to Communism, ;that road has become many miles longer. l only have to mention the name Stalin and you'rebound to agree with me. If that is possible -- if it's possible to have millions of victims completely, senselessly, that moans that the idea itself is no good. SAFER: But how is,it that the Russian-people with their great sense of nationality, great sense of being Russian, how on earth were they so easily cowed? INTERPRETER:. Oh, there is in Russia along, long tradition of tyranny. See, if you were born in a concentration camp and your parents were born in a concentration camp and your grandpartents were born in a concentration camp, you'see? you no longer `imagine any other life. First of all, the czars oppressed Russia. Then came Communism. There was that littlo'short period, that intermission in 1917, between February and October,' that was so small that you can really write it off. SAFER: Wall, theme was another brief intermission, a tiny crack ~f light created by Khrushchev a few years a o Wh g . at went wrong: there? INTERPRETER:: No, no, That was onl j t - -- a y us didn't take that seriously. That was really just as I just make slightly more human conditions. INTERPRETER: You're banned from writi l r ng oite s and receiving parcels, say, ;and then, for a time, you're allowed to write letters and then allowed toreceive parcels'. ook it I - _p `411 se lousry. and rnought that very soon the doors were really going to open.. No, no, no, the Soviet regime can not possibly open the doors.. properly. It seems to me at the moment, when I think about it, it's like some nightmar, some frightful dream.' 9 It's like -- I e r Al 0e ~1% 7L io2I d9v . ~9649OAf Sobb4eoo1-7. lies me say ou ply : u at ou ou o sa There are, of course, some people who do say what they think. But these are just people who are not very bright people who are just using set phrases of official propaganda. But a thinking man finds it very hard there. And it's a terrible system of universal informing, universal following. You cannot trust a single person there. It's quite, possible for a son to inform on his fathers Or a wife on her husband. Not to mention what friends can do to friends. Ul-?SAFER: What gave you the idea, the sense that it might be any INTERPRETER: They isolate us all from foreigners but we read'books And som ti . e mes we're able to travel abroad. In order to know a little bit more about the world, I specially learned Polish. See, you can buy Poi ish` newspapers in Moscow and they tell you more about th ld h e wor t an Russian newspapers do. And then, after all, once I was actually in Paris. Nine years ago. Well, then, -'I also became a criminal. 1,90t away from my group once in Montmartre and got to know an-artist, who was painting modem pictures. I asked him wehther he was allowed to pain pictures like-that. He just laughed. I went home with -- he showed me his pictures, said he'd won some prizes' for them I aid thi i . s s s just a fantastic Iife. This Is. just trmendous happiness. He took me h to t e window. He lived up. in an attic, right at the top. He said,. look, it's all right here -- why-the hell do you want to no back t ' o Russia? Why don't you stay here with'me7 I'll paint what- I Iike and you can write what 1!11 You e. And a lasss of milk Will be -- g we'll have enough for a glass of milk. SAFER: Why,didn't you do it then? INTERPRETER: Pitifully frightful fora person who's born in a concentration camp -- it's too sudden. I'd left my wife whom I loved in Russia, my son. Son who was only N. just born then I listened t if it lak . o as was e a fairy tale, something fantastic, you sea. SAFER: Did you brood on that when you got back to Russia? INTERPRETER: All thinking people in Russia think about this and brood on it. See, it's very difficult. We Russians are very fond of our country. Every single emigrant is really suffering from a sort of nostalgia. And then, of course,' it's especially frightful for a writer to cut himsolf off from his people; ,SAFER:' Yet, as:a writer in the Soviet Union, ._ v ,you you were a member of a very select group of people. What I'm really trying to get-at Is that you sat around with other writers, thinking men, and intellectual people, what on earth did you talk about? Approved For Rplpagp 1999/119109 - CIA_RfP79_n119dA111111511111141111111 _7 h~E16 II~s-e+~i~Qld:4Av17~~ng ~al~~04ig ci~thom' say written 1 d h d n a ova an so t ey wont publish it. or else ;rte4k4-A.1 C- LL L h ' e s .~ . I.r..y desperate. SAFER: Isn't that dangerous, though? INTERPRETER: Yes. SAFER: Well, just where do you draw the lino in these conversations? Can you really ever trust each other? INTERPRETER: A hundred percent, you can't trust anybody. You have to carry on your conversations like this. Now, you say, this is Very bad and this is bad and this is bad but these were all. mistakes. But altogether, we are .Communists. We just think that there are little small mistakes committed in Russia. SAFER: Anotolyr I've read everything you've written and one word keeps coming .up in almost every article. The word cynicism." Could you expand on that? INTERPRETER: I am at this momenta very fortunate person. I am for the first time in my life saying what I really think. Many, many people in Russia think exactly the Sarno as I do. I'm rosponsiblo for my words. I know what I'm saying, Insofar .as we have to live in that theatre, every single person has a sort of collection of phrases which he speaks and says officially, publicly, and a corresponding collection of actions. Insofar as to a normal human being it's extremely difficult to lead such a double life. SAFER: What are the rewards for that cynicism? INTERPRETER: Well, of course, hd?gets the possibility of living more richly than others, be better off than others. He can buy commodities, special things, special shops. He will be, allowed to travel, travel abroad. He may.receive decorations, official state medals, state prizes. SAFER: Do any of your colleagues place any real value on these awards? INTERPRETER: No.. Can the whole, we'repretty cool towards the sort of rewards you get. My novel "Bobo Yar" was put forward for a`state prize'. They used to be called Stalin Prizes. But when this was reported in the newspapers, a lot of very decent people began to change their attitude toward me for the worse. Fortunately for me, I didn't get the prize. SAFER: The Soviet authorities were very unhappy with your novel, "Baba Yar". Now I know that book, and it's a simple account of how the Nazis slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Jews and Ukranians in the Ukraine. What on earth did they object to in that? Approved For. Release 1999/09/02 CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 ltWAF j9a: FT6'rRMftAr199gq~iect - b*bga841 94A000500040001-7 But in the first place, there is a great deal of anti-Semitism, in the Soviet Union. And "Baba Yar" is primarily concerned with the murder of Jews,.., The Soviet officials prefer not to talk about this. Then, my novel went rather further than this. It begins with talking about the beginning of the war and inquiring why there was such a terrible defeat at this time." The.truth of the matter Is that a great many Soviet citizens and'espcially t Ukranians waited for Hitler as a liberator. Then it turned out that the Germans were offering them the some kind of'terrorist regime as Stalin. So the people found themselves between two fires, between the hammer and the anvil. The ordinary citizen preferred his own, Russian form of terror. And the third objection on the part of the censor was purely literary quality. {My literary method. They considered that they knew better than I 'how I should write. Consequently, they did such an enormous number *of cuts and changes that the novel in, fact was turned upside down. And all my novels have been treated in the same way?. So I'm always faced with the dilemma of printing at least something or publishing nothing at all. But in the end it became so. objectionable to me :what they were going to print that I simply reject the whole of 'it. SAFER: Now, in coming out you didn't really come out'alone.You came out w th everything you'd ever written. How did you achieve this? INTERPRETER: I'm a bit of an amateur photographer. And I took pictures of all my manuscripts. I put them onto film. I'll show you some of them. I've got them here. That's roughly -- that's the sort of thing. Just ordinary film. I managed to get 'six sheets --.typing sheets onto each exposure.. You see, if- I brought it all out as-actual manuscript,- well, it would make something like five or six. cases, five or six -- so I squeezed it and wound it up really tight and it didn't take up much more room than a cizarette pack. But I hid it inside my jacket. And that really were the whole.of my possessions, the whole of my property with which I came out of Russia. And that the whole .of my life. These are my real books, not the ones as they.areknown to the reader. SAFER: You've left your homeland. As restricted_as it was, it was your home. Do you think you'll be able to find the things that you're searching for in the West or'. will you always remain Kuznetsov, the man who left? Approved For Release 1999/09/OZl? CIA-RDP79-O1194A000500040001-7 App dd FF RR &se 1999/09/0j CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 IRI~f~l~PR ERs course, . am ma rng an absolutely desperate effort'to turn myself into another person. I don't Iike it when people call me Kuznetsov. This is a compromise name.. Only the fiture will show whether I can be a real artist and writer and a person. SAFER: We in the West have all sorts of problems - Vietnam and other things that. are tearing our society apart. Have you ever- thought about any of these things? INTERPRETER: Yes, of course..' I consider that the war continues in Vietnam only because of the Soviet Union. As for America, there are a lot of thinking'people in Russia who think the some as I do. But rather less as for as Vietnam is concerned. SAFER: As a thinking man in the Soviet Union, did you regard : the United States'. as a threat to peace, as a threat to yourself? INTERPRETER: I've been living too short a time in the west and have too-little' information. I have no knowledge at all of America. I very much want to go there. But now, and for a long time, my *personal opinion is that the real aggressor in the modern world is the Soviet Union. They don't conceal their aims. They say that Communism's spread all over the 'whole world, that the - - after all, the Western world, including America, defends itself. SAFER: You know, even here in the West, one of the great conflicts at the moment for writers is a writer's commitment, a writer's involvement in politics. Do you feel that even here you must engage yourself? INTTERPRETER: Oh, God, how I'm tired of all that. I don't want to have anything You put me political questions, but my answers are the answers of a dilettante. I really like writing, writing literature. But. there I got to the point where 1' felt I couldn't live there any more; 1 couldn't d it th S ' o ere. o I m going to try to do it here. That's all I'm hoping-for. SAFER: You call Russia a concentration camp. Yet you left your own family back in that concentration cam D f f h p. o you ear or t em? INTERPRETERt ' Very much indeed. Arrrouarl Far Release 1QQQ109107 -'CIA_90P7Q-0i194AD00500040001-7 Aporii gd Ird pWeahbild 99%919FQduQWrj %TOQk0W AQPA N9P1-7 SAFER: Well, even here in the We NEW YORK TIMES 24 August 1969. . uz isorvB.ackS Sovieton China C" E. SALISBURY Epee+at tone NewYork Tama LUNUUN, Aug. u- ie o- viet writer Anatoly V. Kuznet-, sov celebrated his 40th birth day Monday and formally end- ed his career. The same day the ate'w non-Soviet writer, A. Ana- tol, was officially born. It was a sybolic act that combined deadly seriousness with irony. On the eve of. his birthday Mr. Kuznctsov, with a few friends, conducted a small me- morial service for the dead In .a quiet English villege. A jig- ger of vodka was drunk, respe were paid to the late author Comrade Kuznetsov, and a toast offered to his successor, Mr. Anatol. Thus, Kuznetsov - or Ana- tol, as he henceforth will call himself-has marked his de- parture,. for good or for bad, from the Soviet world he left three weeks ago and his entry; ie?o the non-Communist world, where he hopes his creative tal- ents can find a fruition denied by Soviet repression, censor- ship, fear, conformism and ba:; ,nality. I An Intense, Nervous Man Mr. Kuznetsov is an intense, nervous man. He has begun to lsmoke English cigarettes and: ,he lit one after another as he sat in a,'private dining'room of. the Royal Air Force Club on Piccadilly and spoke. in vivid and dmeripelye Fttissini , ti --I MIT W11-71 1115 d11115 Inalte + s ee no res onsib' ' i g. shoulders as he tries to make where'the responsibility lay. On He said he coolly accepted aJiterary career in the west. ' this question the Soviet press a shopping list "a yard long" His thick-lensed glasses and is telling the truth he felt. f n ep e A nn y to pea an artic a him to ;London so she would rubbing back from his forehead or two from ,Tenmin All. Pao, not suspect ,that he intended gave him more than a passing the Peking newspaper, to un- not to return. He recalled that resemblance to Dmitrl Shosta- derstand that China ? wanted he talked in detail about plans kovich, the composer. war. Mr. Kuznetsov said Mr. for a new novel,?about getting Seriousness is the word for Mao was a 'madman-like Hit-.' a-new 'apartment, so that no Mr. Kuznetsov. He pis serious lee. Thd writer said he had one would suspect his plans. as he relates the year's planning learned nough about Hitler in "It is no light matter to Leave that went into his break from the Ukrine, during World War your country," he said, rub- the Soviet. Union; serious' as II, bing a tear from his eyes with he points to his muscled shoul- The fiar of war, Mr. Kuznet? a clenched fist. "You have to ders and.tells how he trained sov said Is general ,in the So- think of many things. I was himself to 'swim underwater in viet Union. No one escapes it, cruel to my son. I reprimanded a harebrained scheme to escape he added, the ordinary people, him. I slapped him. He loved via the Black Sea- serious when the workers. the peasants. the me very much. I could nof_ he talks of friends and family writers like himself. He said the hear to do it. But I could not left behind In the Soviet Unions fear of war deepened the gray have' hitn mourning for me." serious when he talks of the outlook ! of Soviet society, the ::Mr. Kuznetsov said he did, hiilles and fears-the fears pre- hopeles., ness that he said per- not expect the West to under. dominating - that he says pre-, vaded the intellectual communi- stand easily what life was like' vail in his country. tv, the ~frusteation making the in Russia, particularly for a Critical of China life ot ordinary men and wrllcr:' To 'those who might The great fear of the ordi- women.; think he' should have stayed he- nary Russian today is China, Decsion Was Not Easy hind and worked from within Mr. Kuznetsov said. Russians, The decision to' leave was to, change Russia, he has a fear China, he said, and they. not taken lightly, he said. simple 'pnswer. fear Mao Tse-tung and fear that He whs close to tears when "I have road that the Ameri- Mr. Mao is intent on making. 11,- thld ow he deliberately set. can Writer William Styron war nn' Russia and that war about to destroy his 9-year-old thinks ;that I should not have cannot be avoided. The.danger, spin's lobe for him so that the left." he said, "Well, I have this he insisted comes entirely boy would not he heartbroken offer for him. My rooms in Tula from the Chinese-side. The. So- af'his diparturc; how he coldly are vacant. Let him take them net Union, he is cetain, would v.,.tlked,' away at the sta- and live in the Soviet Union never make war on China, but tion fr m his youngster. and ' for a year and then see what Mr. Mao seems determinedTtu the chi d's grandmother, not he thinks. Please, he is wel? attack. waving good-hy; how rudely he come."% When'his view of the situa- treated his wife, from whom he Mr. Styron, who visited the tion was mildly challenged. hex long been separated. to Soviet Union last year, said re.' Jntly that Mr. Kuznetsov's de.!,. Approved For Release 1999/09/0.4CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 PYRGHT fection' had "an overtone of Whites;' He was a policeman selling out." when he married Mr. Kuznet- Mr. Kuznctsov shook his heat ? soy's mother. Later he became a when he was asked about the' member of the Kiev City coun- charge made by his editor, Bor- cil but before World War II he is Polevol, of the you maga. separated from his wife. He zine Yunost, that he had "aban- spent the war in Gorky, work- : In there until h ti d H . e Boned" his wife and son and da e more re rethan two little died ie -1--1L- _.-_____ _._... ? _ p t he promised to marry." "You know," Mr. Kuznetsov said, "My wife left me three years ago for another writer. She went to study in Moscow. The other woman Polevol men- tions is my secretary =d very nice woman, a very good wom- an.. She knew nothing about my intention to leave. As for her being pregnant--that I heard for the first time from Boris Polevoi. I guess he had to put that in to add a little fla-1 vor to his statement." Mother Lives In Kiev Mr. Kuznctsov, who was born. In Kiev -on Aug. 18, 1929, was; 12 years old when the Nazis came. His mother once was a grade-school teacher. She still lives in Kiev, in the same cottage his grandfather built In swampy Kurenevka. It Is not far from Babi Yar, the ravine where the Nazis slaugh-, tered tens of thousands of Jews as' well as lesser numbers of Ukrainians, gypsies and others,, His grandfather, Fyodor, born in. 1870, the same. year, as .Lenin, and ? ,to. his dying days a rabid foe of the Commu- nistg, has long since died. So has his grandmother, Marfa, a woman who died illiterate but whom the ,grandson adored as a saint. A 'devout believer in the' Russian- Orthodox faith, the grandmother secretly' took her grandson to church and had :him christened, "I remember my grandmother with' great respect,' he said. "She taught me humanity." II`ather a Communist His father, Vasily, was an engineer and a party member., The boy Anatoly grew up in Kiev and lived by his wits as a street urchin under the Nazi occupation. While he, now repudiates his novel, Babi Yar, which'related the horror of the extermin?tion of the. Kiev Jews, he affirms that it is a documentary work. He maintains that every fact in it is a true fact; that every experience is a real one; that many Kiev' residents, his grand- father included, awaited the the Germans with intense an ticipation and welcomed their arrival. . . Mr. Kuznetsov attended sec- ondary schools in Kiev. In 1952 he was sent, with many of his comrades to help build con- struction projects of the Stalin era.. He worked on. the hydro- electric and irrigation project at Kakhovka in-the Ukraine for: two years. Then he went to Mo cow and began his literary :studies at the Gorky Institute,, finishing in 1960., 1 Was Married in 1960 That year he married irina Marchenko and they went. to live in the city of Tula, about 100 miles south of Moscow, once famous 'for its manufac- ture of samovars and cannon, now an industrial center of 400,000 population. - He had hoped to stay in Moscow, but that Is no easy matter for a Soviet citizen. Ei- ther he had to be, studying there, or to be born there, or to be ordered. to Moscow to work. He could qualify on none of these counts. So he went to Tula where he had the good fortune to get a three-room apartment In a building that had just been put up . from Kursk who joined the Red Tula, he-'said, is not a bad Army and, fought against the Place to live. It Is close enough to Moscow so you can dot same boat. No one can publish your shopping there. That isi anything worthwhile, It is a (much better than places farther: very gloomy outlook. people' in the provinces. feel they must save themselves Everyone in Tula, he re if they can. called, goes to Moscow for.any Yevtushenke in Bad Mond important shopping - clothing ' *Me. Kuznetsov describes the or household goods from GUM,. poet Ycvgeny Ycvtushenko as the department store on'. Red being in a "very had mood" and Square;. cosmetics' from the unable to decide what'to do. specialty shops on Petrovka or' What could he have done if ,Kuznetsky Most; food delica. he staved on in the Soviet Un- cies either from Gastronom No. ion. Mr. Kuznetsov asked him- 1, the former Yeliseyev store on self?' Would it have made sense Gorky Street, or at the GUM for Thomas Mann to stay in grocery department. Hitler's Germany? Or for Ber- Local Tula facilities are prim- tolt Brecht. He did noth think itive, as they are in all small so. and medium-sized Soviet cities. "I don't want to go to a con. "You have to buy in the centration camp," he said frim- peasant market," Mr. Kuznet- ly soy said. "There is no meat What are Mr. Kuznetsov's or eggs in the state stores. Plans? The first is to learn But the peasant market is very English. He landed in Englad expensive. The average worker knowing hardly one 'word of In Tula earns the equivalent of English. Intensive English $3.30 a day. A pound of mea{ courses are first on his list.. That costs $2, a chicken costs $5.50, and the preparation of one of For 10 eggs you pay $2.20." his novels, in the original, on. City Has Four Restaurants* rrut, uncensore(f form for trans. I.ation and publication, Then, (o' The city of Tula has four Work. , ; restaurants - "one for every I He knows how difficult this .100,000 people," Mr. Kuznetsov will he. He recalls the statement points out. Privately owned au? of Boris Pasternak when Nikita tomobiles are virtually nonexl S. Khnushchev was 'trying to istent,?One device that he used force the poet In leave. Riissi i. to throw off suspicion that he after he hurt been awarded the was not returning to Russia was Nobel Prize in 1958. Pasternak to apply to buy a car. With good said he would die if he left fortune a person's name may Russia.' that he could not;?grlte move to the head of the wait- )outside hg a ing li,E within four or five. 1 But Mr. Kuznctsov 'believes ' years. that he can. He re(lalled the If the 11a1lmark of ordinary other Russian Nobel Prize win. So~: iet life is banality he re- ner for literature. Ivan l3unis, porf~, that of the Sr iet Intel. who went to Paris at the time lortunl, i, trunrrntion rani fr,nr, nearly half his life outside his, The mood of the intelligent- homeland. he said, "goes down, down, And he recalled, ton,' Alex? down, down. It has been that ander Herzen t R , ussian writ- he way since the trial of Sinyav- er, critic and revolutionary of sky and Daniel. Then came the 19th century who came to Czechoslovakia. That was the. London and founded the p+ubli big turning; point. Now what cation Knlokol (Thu Bell), which can .anyone do? What -can any. kept the cnu,^.e of fecdrnn alive one write?t' in one generation after another "When `two writers meet they of young Russians fighting to. say to each other, 'What are, overthrow Czarist oppression, you doing? What is your mood?'o There were, Mr. Kuznetso v But theanswer'is the same. The' 'thought, enough precedents - modd Is bad.. There is nothing' exile is hardly something new brie can do. Everyone Is in the; fora Russian writer. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 15 III . A.' DPJLY TELEGRAPH L fl N 1pptOyefl?F r Release 1999/09/02: CIA-RDP79-01194AO00500040001-7 : G um Soho ruse c7et 'to to 3P +~rIv, , CPYR&HT' By DAVID FLOYD, ommunist Affairs Correspondent ANATOLI KUZNETSOV, the Russian author who disappcarod in London on Monday, was granted asylum, lp Britain last night., He said he could no 4onper work as a writer in Russia and feared 'reprisals if he returned. The 40-year-old author who. vanished from his 'Kensinfton hotel ''on .'Monday . night was given permission by Mr: Callaghan, Home Secretary, for a " permanent stay" in Britain. The i?c me Office said::; "This is not political asylui . it does not apply in this case." Earlier yesterday the Home.Office had said that Kuznetsov was admitted for a short visit, " and until that visit is over'there is no reason for us to be concerned. There was no comment last night from the Russian Embassy. SENSATIONAL' BUSINESS cause he undertook to write a book about j,gnin. He ? would or allowed to come Kuznetsov made his way to Fleet Street, and The not have abroad for N less orthodox Daily Telegraph office, only to find no one available who purpose. He had made ample financial provision for them before leav- ing. But he was afraid they would be arrested and their property confiscated when it was known that he had decided to stay in Britain. Manuscripts saved Kuznetsov nianazcd to bring out of Russia the. complete manuscripts of all his works, which have so far been published only in censored version, 5s well as manuscripts of two' unpub- lisped novels. could speak Russian. But in the end he got through to Czeei shock a Russian-speaking member of the staff on the telephone xuznetsov said he finally and told him he wanted: to: see him urgently on mvdc up his mind to leave sensational ", business. 1 ussia a yea f ago when the Russian armies marched into He managed to give the correspondent's address to Czcchoslovaki , lie said the in- .'a taxi driver, and arrived at his home later in the varion shocke the +shoie of the Soviet intelligentsia, the great evening. He was very tense but' quite sure of himself. majority of whom were today He was not going to l'4otller left opposed to' the Soviet regime. When Kuznetsov left. his hotel on Monday afternoon determined to "..choose freedom " all he had to help him was the address of The Daily Telegraph in Fleet Street and the name of a member of the staff who, he was told, spoke Russian. He had spent the early part of the after- noon viewing. striptease shows in. Soho along with _George - And japan idze, aged ?2G, his translator and secret police .agent. He had convinced Andjaparidze that 'he was. a loyal Soviet citizen, and that his main concern was to find himself a prostitute. The two men agreed to go about their own business for the rest of the day. of return to Russia, he said. Kuznetsov l~s left his mother, Back `to hotel pa~?:'He es photographed of exts on hundreds reds film He had made u his mind 65, in I{fey. She has survived . p life under Sttt in and two years After arrangements had been and carr;ed the turn . sewn , into about this before leaving in Kiev occu~jicd by the Ger- made for him to go into hiding the lining of his jacl:c.t. He MOSCOW the previous I mans during tt-e last war. ' Kuznetsov made a brief return spent most of yesterday sorting visit to his Kensington hotel to the films out and preparing week. Kuznetsov described his nx? collect his typewriter ("my old them for processing. perience at that time in his favourite"), copies of his pub- I{uznetsov's great ambition is He was told that the deci? best known novel, "Bab! Yar:" lisped works and some Cuban to continue his writing. without atom to stay in Britain must Kuznetsov's wife left him some cigars (" they are so cheap in any of the restraint imposed by rest with him, and he was time ago, taking his nine-year-ofd Moscow "). He nart?owly missed censorship or Communist party warned thq the life of an on with her. A report from running into Andjaparidze. ;control. emigre was not easy. Moscow yesterday said she had In the period between goia?i gone on holiday in the south of He said ngthing would per, ss' suade h La. into hiding and being granted GrowlIl 120n to tq ~~~ s~totpr ~I ppu1 p ~t~py~ 11 where he fny d tau o"s Ste ~~LerA, tY;etMd t2per~t it7-an~ict, wa 3'r ific~ n- 0%4004;7Y reason to seek work as a wt, cr, mission to lcaye Russia only be- bers of his family left in ltussia,frecdom for his creative abilities l Apps in the W st. His stU401 0004 0 ovedfc F -; Russia s wcre c ~/02 : QI Rd 79e 1 'b94i>~Q.99~ Even those of . his works which were issued by the state publishing houses were printed only after large sections had been cut out by the censor. Like many other of the younger generation of Russian writers today, Kuznetsov was known to have written several works 001-7 ee visit. He was here ostensibly to collect material for a hook on Lenin's life in London. His visit was sponsored by the Society for Cultural Relations with the USSR and the British.Soviet Friendship Society, both Co. .ntrolled by the Communist Party. NEW YORK TIMIS 'I Aur-ust 19(9 Russian Defector P $Y p 1tEl SHENKER KUZNETSOV. the Soviet author who defected In Britain Wednesday, was born Aug. 18, 1929, hard by. Babi 11r, the ravine in Kiev where ens of thousands of the city's Jews were to be 'mas- acred by the Nazis In 1961. Although- the Soviet Govern- ment regularly Man memorializes the In the Nazis' victims, it Ncw~ . said little about Babi Yar and left the place Itself un. arked, as if there could be onpiaces as well as nonper. ons. it was left to a pair of on?Jews-Mt. Kuznetsov nd the poet Yevgeny Yev shenko-to assume the urden of mourning for Babt ar's Jews. In his ppoem "Babi Yar," evtushenko began by noting ;t at "No monument stands over Babi Yar," and conclud- e by admitting that "all a tI-Semites must hate me n w as a Jew-tor that rea.' a n I am a true Russian." ood Where Thousands Died He had written his poem ,I St a few days after visiting bl Yar with Mr. Kuznet- s v. "We were standing ere hundreds of thousands .o "Cope had once writhed a screamed In the throes of ,d th," Mr. Kuznetsov wrote of at that visit. e was 12 years old'when -th Germans came to );Clev. Hi father was a policeman. Anatoly Vasileyevich'Kiitinetsav and his mother, er, ecame a actory, cleaning woman. He shined shoes, sold cigarettes, and Worked long hours for a sausage maker. Several times' he was about to be deported to Germany, but escaped. Thel sound of machine-gun fire from Babl''ar lingered In his ears--"a dread sound that cuts its way Into my memory' forever." At 14 Anatoly Kuznetsov: (pronounced kooz-NYETS-off) began to write sketches of what he had seen, and pains takingly noted. all that he could remember of 'Babi Yar.: When his mother came across ithe. material he had hidden, she wept and said that one day it might be a book. Mr. Kuznetsov studied writ- 1ng in Moscow at the Insti. tute of Literature. In 1946 his short stories-which had ap. peared in PIonirskaya Pravda, the Communist party paper for. children--won a national prize. In 1952 he , went' to the Kakhovka Hydroelectric Pow- er Station in the Ukraine to work as carpenter,'btiildozer operator, and writer on the plant paper. He also worked (or a time as ballet dancer and artist. it was at Kak. hovka that he met Mr. Yev- tushenko. First Book in 1957 In 1955 Mr. Kuznetsov be- came a member of the Com- munist party, and the next Year went to Irkutsk. in St. -U944, to weri. mixer. s a week ago, Mr. Kuz- netsov's name turned up on the masthead as a member of the editorial board of Yunost magazine, which has a circu. lation of 2.1 million and is popular among the young in part for its flirtation with no- tions unpopular with Soviet officials. Change In the Masthead At the same time,. three prominent Soviet Writers were drn''ned from the board. ,One Yevtushenko, who cr:~ical of the Soviet of Czechoslovakia. Mr. Kuzn' most re? cent novel-" Ti;.: , i, ," deal= Ing with demoraliz: on in a town with a metal"wcr'..;._, was published. in the Ma ;r and April issues of Yunost. The book was criticized in a number of minor Soviet pub- lications for failing to - por. tray the "positive aspects' of Soviet life. 'Mr. Kuznetsov has been living in Tula, about 100. miles from Moscow. As far as is known here, his wife is, still in Tula, She did not ac. company him to London. Dial Press, which published "Babi Yail' here, invited Mr.., Kuznetsov to visit the United States last February[, but he wrote to say that he was so busy with the forthcoming publication of "The Fire" that he had to drop plans for the visit. A spokesman for Dial Press said that the company Kuznetsov. ' . His 'first book. "Continu ation of a Legend: Notes of a Young Person," appeared In 1957. When it appeared in 'French translation he sued the publisher for distorting his book to make it appear anti-Communist, and for' It. suing the translation with. out his permission. He graduated from Gorky 'University in 1960, and the next Year Sunny Day,'Qa book for O chil dren, and "Selenga," a col. lection of short stories. "At Home," another novel by Mr. Kuznetsov, came out In 1964. Then he revisited Kiev. As the terrible memories of the massacre returned, he real. ized it was time to.write the book on Babi Yar. ? At first he tried-to shape the facts into a literary form, recalling the words of the novelist ?Honore de Balzac "as foolish as a fact." But t1 he began writing It been, and "Just 'Me way It had all that was it "n Thetresultn in w 1966 -- was a documentary novel in which "nothing 'was Balzac s foolish facts became a, soaring remembrance. Since no book is published in the Soviet .Union without Government permission,. it Coul be.en a an of. ficiat dmission 0f aprts that. Mr. Yevtusbenko had made a vnrta .?aoe.. growing hostility from the Kuznetsov arrived in London official critics. last Thursday with a visa for a two w k Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194AOOO500040001-7 2 ' -gVFor Release 1999/09/02': CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040(M1A7 1 August 1969 Soviet writers ire faciiw a nainf~l The strains of communist life Russia CF ft b OLD LA13EDZ Mr. Ana y Kuznetsov's decision to stay in Britain can' be best understood against the background of `Soviet literary history, particularly In its pre- sent phase. It is now a decade and a half since Ehrenburgs Thaw gave Its name to the hope4 of Soviet writers, and ' Poenerantsev's article "On Sincerity in Litera- ture" indicated their basic pre- occupation. Since then, there have been many ups and downs,' periods when writers were allowed a greater degree of lati-I tude alternating with times of, stricter party control of litera-! lure. However, these 15 years ofd cyclical ebb and flow have also witnessed the progress of dis- ;'enchantment among the literary intelligentsia, whose hopes were dashed as they became increas-I )ngly and acutely aware that they; were still facing only two pros-' peels: either to be the obedient, servants of the regime (with a somewhat greater degree of per tonal security than ' Stalin's " engineers of human souls '),' or to be its victims if they showed themselves too deeply concerned, with Pomcrantscv"s first pre requisite of the literary vocation. It is a cruel dilemma. During the past five years of "-collect; `.trvc leadership " in the Kremlin,, .continuous efforts have been (made to bring the writers to heel.. Their position was made more, `difficult by the tightening of cen- sorship, a more intolerant pub- lishing policy, restriction ? of foreign contracts, the persecub .tion ..of nonconformist writers like Sinyav6ky or Solzhenitsyn, ,and, not least important, a series ';of trials pour ddcourager les ourres. It should not be surprising that the earlier cautiously hope- ful mood of the more liberal Soviet writers bas given way to melancholy or even to outright despair. The idol of Soviet youth, the `' poet-cbansormier Bulat Okud.. z ava, who recently said in con- versation with an Italian jour- nalist that Soviet literary society was made up of masks, and complained bitterly that he was "tired of living",, reflects this more . general mood, which reached its nadir last year after the invasion of Czechoslovakia.; Like other ' occasions of this' kind, it has affected Soviet' writers profoundly. The decision to invade spelt the end not only of Czechoslovak hopes for a "" socialism with a human face" in their country, but also of hopes for some ' liberalization" in the Soviet Union itself. Soviet writers were-, torn be- tween their ipatriotic " and their " liberal" loyalties. Many of them realized the gap which existed between the attitudes to- wards Czechoslovakia prevalent among the more enlightened milieux of the intelligentsia, and those among the population in general. The hostility shown by the crowd to the courageous lonely demonstrators in Red Square led by Larissa Daniel, wasr not without wider significance. But if "' patriotic " fervour (or blackmail) inhibited some and brought home to others their iso- lation, it did not completely stop literary manifestations, however discreet, of disapproval of the in vasion. It took two months of intense effort by the authorities to pro-, duce an " open letter " (which appeared ' in Literaturnaya Gazcta on October 23, 1968) in which a number of second-.rate writers expressed their support. But the signatures of three members of the secretariat of the board of the Soviet Writers Union (all the others signed the " open 4etter "), were con- spicuously missing: those of Alexander Tvardovsky, editor of .the liberal literary mopthly Novy Mir, of its provious editor, Kon- stantin Simonov, and of the famous novelist, Leonid Leonov. Alexei Kosterin. a member of the Writers Union, had returned his party menbcrshr car - to free myself from party discipline which deprives one of the right to think". This was his last public act; shgrdy afterwards he died, Deprived of any outlet, even for expression in an Aesopian form, liberal protests are increas- ingly taking an unofficial form, either .as "underground" litera- turc, or as writings and docu- ments published abroad. As other avenues of expression have gradually been blocked, there has been a remarkable in, crease in the circulation of Samizdat, the literature being copied by hand and passed on from hand to hand. Some of these writings find their way abroad; but what has been pub- lished outside the Soviet Union is only a part of tho.innumerable stories, essays, poems. and letters of protest circulating inside the country. There is now a regular periodi- cal, distributed , clahdestincly, which trips -to 'keep track of the underground publications and unofficial materials, as well as of events not reported in the official Soviet press. It is'called Chron-' icle of Current Events; the first issue appeared on April 30, 19,68, and its most recent, no. 7, on April 30, 1969. The Chronicle provides infor- mation about matters which of- ten do not reach either the Soviet or the western press. For in- stance, the issue of December 31. 1968, (no. 5), gives a review of Samizdat for 1968 which reveals the extent to which the intensi- fied campaign to bring dissident intellectuals to. heel, and the harsh reprisals taken by the au- thorities, are being countered by. their boldest representatives. They continue their literary acti- vities and their protests despite the repressive climate ; the price to be paid may include the loss of livelihood, exile, or imprison- ment, or such mild rodtine meas- ures as forcible confinement :F-his atilhigpi16, _l.. to'warn the writers again and again about the limits'on their rights of expression. 'They wet?e reminded, that their " inalienable right of criticism" does not in- clude permission for " unrestric- ted fault-finding.of an anti-Soviet kind " or for "slandering sociad- ist reality and weakening the class-consciousness of thc.Soviet people " (Sovetskaya . Rossiya. May 29, 1969). There is a renewed in4istenco on conformity with the rigid in- terpretation of the doctrine of "" socialist rcali-sin with its prin- ciples of narodnost and par- tiinost, and. on the need for writers to create more "'positive heroes "--those paragons of vir- tue who make the readers yawn. Writers who in the past have shown a fendcnty towards less than 100 per, cent conformism, arc under pycssure or attack. The rumour* of rvardovsky's dismissal from, the editorship'of Novy Mir pcr~ist. So far, despite pressure, he has refused to resign. That other " liberal " journal Yunost (Youth), which has now lost 'from its editorial board not only Vasily Aksionov, ?Evgcny ,Evtushenko and Victor Rozov. but also- Anatoly" Kuznctsov (nominated as one of their sue- ccssors), is unlikely to continue for long on its old lines. There arc many othct straws in the wind, such as tho sharp critic- ism by Pravda (on June 30, 1969) of the editors of the Short Encyclopaedia of, Literature. Pravda was particularly incensed by the cncyclopacdia's entries on Boris Pasternak (which mini. tinned Doctor Zhira,t'o without any abusive comment) and on Osip Mandclstam (which men- tioned that he was twice arrested and " perished after his %ccond arrest "). -Like the editor of Yunost, the chief editor of the encyclopaedia, Alexci Surkov, was a Stalinist who mellowed somewhat in the post-Stalin period and came to be regarded Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 1 CPYRGHT Annroved For Release 1999/09/02: CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 by his more diehard colleagues prising that some of them are as a defector from their camp. finding their relaxation in drink- In general, the present climate lag more than is good for litera- has emboldened the diehards like, ture. Kochetov, Sofronov, and For the time being this policy Crakovsky, who have control of of cool repression has a some- Important journals and maga what contradictory effect on the zines (Oktyabr, Ogonyok, Litcra- younger writers. The earlier, turnaya Gazeta). The more rosy expectations having failed, liberal "official "writers have to those of them who write for censor themselves even before Samizdat have no longer any the work' is done for them by need for self-censorship or the official. censor. It is not sur- Aesopian language. They can, THE OBSERVER REVIEW 3 August 1969 therefore. be more explicit, abandoning that Inevitable Orwellian ingredient of the Soviet-style printed word, doublethink. They may come to realize the full meaning of the verse by Akhmateva: To lose the-fresh nes3 of worde- and the singleness of feeling is for us the same as for the painter. to_lose his eyesight. If the Soviet authorities were to clamp downon'Samizdat, the All the time he would be under heav y, naggi)g, sometimes threatening pressure to write' the sort of books and articles he did not wish to write, books and, articles designed to present the official image of the Soviet Union, which has no :orrespondence with any sort of truth.' u AN C$ W ULNETSOV is an exotic. ,sounding name. To-English ears it seems not quite real. It belongs to another world : anything might happen to a man called Kuznetsov. But to the Russians it is one of the 'Commonest of names. Kuznets. means Smith. On the face of it, this Russian Mr Smith, Anatoly Kuznetsov, was more comfortably circum- stanced than many of his fellow writers in the Soviet Union.' His ovels, 'Babi Yar' and t Fire,' ade quite a stir and had a reader. hip of hundreds of thousands-not t all unusual 'in Russia. but nviable by Western standards. At 2 het was an established member . of an admired and respected elite, enjoy;ng the luxury of a room of his own in Nf,).,cnw and a proper home in the cumnaratively easy- going provinces well away from the .bl;ghting shadow of Iii. ~:rernlin. It is true that he had been under fire for ' ideological laxity ' an.l for dwelling too much on the scanty side of Soviet life; but these were only warning shots across the bows, not broadsides to sink and destroy : the sort of thing that all Soviet writers of any distinction encounter from time. to time and know how to take in their stride. And, as though to emphasise that he was being rebuked more in sorrow than in anger, more for guidance than for -punishment, he was recently number of literary defectors might increase. Unless, of course, guided by the internal logic of censorship, the Soviet Govern= ment were also to avert the occasional visits of Soviet Writers to foreign countries. In which case the words of Zamyatin will become once again topical ? he said in 1921 .tbat so, long as Russian literature has to tremble at the sound of every, heretical word, it will have ;"only, one future, its, past ".' appointed to the editorial board of Yrnrost (Youth), a magazine with a circulation of more than two mil- lion and a good record for resisting the grosser imbecilities" o? a re- actionary establishment., He was: luckier here than the spirited and brilliant Aksionov, who was dis. from tile 155-7=7 tho 62,M101 time-as was Yevgeny Ycvtush- enko, now, for all his marked talents for running with the hare and hunting with the hounds, con- fined to kennels.. On top of all this, at a time when the Soviet Government is, thinking more than twice. about allowing writers out into the West, Kuznet sov was sent here to collect material about' Lenin's life in London. The world was at his, feet. Provided he was careful about what he published, he could have gone from strength to strength., profiting from. the lessons spelt out by the bitter experience of a number of respected colleagues -- the in't- prisonment ' of Sinyavsky . and Daniel, the silencing of Solzhenit. Approved F.or Release 1999/092 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGHT. ? Y Approvea or a ease syn, the slow crushing of the meteroric poet, Vozncssensky. Yet now, by his own choice, he embarks on the life of a rootless. emigre in a foreign land whose. way, are alien, perhaps in some particulars repellent, and whose language he cannot speak. For all practical purposes. he finds himself, a visitor to another planet. He is cut oft from everything he has ever: written about or ever felt about. He` has to speak and read through ate interpreter; he has to :write. through a translator: and he knows nothing of the people for whom he must! now write. It 'was a terrible decision. Since he felt compelled to make! it, evidently the reality of his situa-' lion was very difTerent from the picture presented to the outsider looking in on his career only a few. days ago. And indeed this is so. No matter what he may himself tell us of the reasons for his great dcci-. Sion, anybody with any understand- ing of the current, situation of the Soviet intellectuals and artists knows that the picture was false in detail and in general. Kuznetzov was published and admired---but everything he pub. lished had first to be carefully. censored by himself, then mauled by the official censor before it appeared. Almost without a doubt it was only a part of his output that, he published. He will have written other books for his own satisfaction and to circulate by hand among his friends and admirers-a rractice institutionalised almost into an industry under the name Saiurzclat, self-publishing. And all the time he would be under heavy, nagging; sometimes threatening pressure to write the sort of books and articles he (lid not wish to write, books and articles designed to present the official image of the Soviet Union which has no correspondence with any sort of truth. Even when not writing, he would he required, day in, day out, to connive in a sort of officially inspired conspiracy of lies -lies designed for no other pur pose than to sustain in their; positions of authority the ruling gang and their innumerable do-; pendants and supporters, the party. functionaries, the apparatus men. There are only two ways to avoid entanglement in this conspiracy : to be silent and thus abandon any hope of building a career, even of making a living except a menial one; or to protest openly, at the risk of probable imprisonment and certain exile to some remote region. Others beside Kuznetsov must from time to time have been ,tempted to cut themselves off from Russia. but until lately they could still hope for better things. It has been only during the past three or four years that the pressures on the independent mind have -gathered crushing weight. it was only with the invasion. of Czechoslovakia a year ago that it became finally clear to those who hoped that the new repression brought about by fear. and,"uncertainty in a mediocre and divided leadership might be a pass- ing phase was, in fact, irreversible for as long ahead as could be seen. Czechoslovakia was the closing of a door to all ideas of 'socialism' with a human face,' in the Soviet, Union as well as in Prague. The experience was traumatic for many socialist intellectuals. It meant the end of a dream that had been sus- ,tanned with greater or lesser optimism for the 15 years since Stalin's death. Under the collective government presided over by Malenkov, then tinder Khrushchev, exciting things had, happened. Some who had been silent for years found their yokes; many who had compro- mised at last spoke out truly and .firmly about the shamefulness of their compromise; young men and women, poets above all, sprang up in numbers, reproaching their elders for their pusillanimity and declaring, in effect, that the only thing to fear was fear itself. Stalin- ist hacks with a vested interest in the repression of their more gifted colleagues withdrew into them- selves and sulked. There were still plenty of them about, typified by the scurrilous and almost unread- able novelist, Kochetov; by Cha- kovsky, who was to come much later to England and explain on BBC Television how necessary and desirable it had been to. confine those well-known traitors, Sinyav- sky and Daniel, to the camps. . At first they kept quiet. Hope rose *, very strongly. . The Soviet Union was waking up. Khrushchev himself needed the writers, the whole of the intelligentsia, in his own fight for power and in his desperate efforts to break the coun- try out of the Stalinist paralysis, and harness its best minds to the job .of making a success of the economy. The writers in particular he needed for the support they could give him in his de-Stalinisa- lion campaign, which was also a campaign against those colleagues who wanted to pull him down. It was for this reason that he person- ally encouraged Solzhenitsyn and allowed him to publish his first short novel; 'One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich; an exposure of the penal labour camps, pre- sented by Khrushchev as Stalin's camps-and Molotov's and Maien- kov's and Kaganovich's. But Khrushchev, who had the sense to see that unless the Soviet Union saes to stagnate until it be- came a backwater of history he must allow the mind to expand and drag the best thinkers, the best dreamers out of hiding, never had any intention of giving them a, totally free rein. He aimed at a sort of Stalinism without terror. And except for one or two direct and, crudely threatening interventions,' which usually occurred when, he himself was under extreme pressure from the opposition in the Kremlin, he tried to achieve a sort of balance by allowing the liberalisers a little rope, then, when they threatened to . take too much, encouraging the Kochetovs to fight back. So it went on, two steps forward, one and a half steps back, for 10 years. Things were happening all the time. Things were said and done, books were published, which would have been unthinkable under Stalin; and although from time to time the party came down heavily, there was no real fear. Above all, the intelligentsia was sorting out its ideas, discussing freely. preaching decency, and responding in a greater or lesser degree to the im perious demands of the very young for something more than decency. I remember during this time being worried by the complete openness with which the young would speak, even to total strangers and foreigners at that. Again and again 1 would ask: ' Is it really wise for you to talk like this? Shouldn't you be more careful?' And always, by these youngsters who had never known life under Stalin except as schoolchildren, I would be regard.-d. Approved For Release 1999/09/02 CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 with amused or indignant patron- age. ' How can you be so dense? Certainly things are far from ? all right. We have a long way to go. But we know where we're going. We have to fight bureaucracy, we have to fight obscurantism. Very well, we shall right. But they will never be able to hurt us again.' I am speaking of young men and, women who were in their late' teens' and their early twenties in, say, 1955. Some of their contem- poraries are . now in prison or in exile after mock trials held in secret. Kuznetsov would himself . have been 25 in that year. Perhaps:he felt like that, too., The mood- per-listed at least until 1.963, when Khr.ushchev, fighting for his own political life. clamped down. After 1964, when Khrushchev fell, things went dead. Nobody knew what the new Government would do. The new Government did not know itself. For nearly .#wo years they fought and manoeuvred among themselves, tried to sort out the muddles' in the economy, and marked time. There were no policy initiatives of any kind. But in this period of uncertainty the security police, the KGB, were assuming a new authority. And in February 1966 they made a demonstration with the mock trial of Sinyavsky and Daniel, who had been arrested some time earlier for publishing books, impossible to publish in Russia. under assumed names in the West. We know what hap- pened. They were savagely sen- tenced, and the transcript of the trial. which was smuggled to the West, and published as 'On Trial' in 1967, showed the world the new mood the Soviet intelligentsia was up against:" Many of their colleagues, and any other members of the Soviet ntelligentsia, scientists. engineers, niversity professors, protested vith'. various degrees of emphasis nd publicity. For Stalin's laughter, Svetlana, it seems jo have een the last straw which deter- ined her own decision to break ithh Russia. But the real protest ame chiefly from the very young. nd it took a special form. Under hrushchev the protesters had emandcd freedom: Pomerantsev, ith his celebrated declaration on Approved For Release 199.9/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 sincerity in literature; Tvardovsky, who held open the pages of the review Novy Mir for the 'best of the young writers (at this moment he is under great pressure to resign); Ilya Ehrenburg, many more besides, argued the necessity for freedom of expression if litera- ture was to live, and the Soviet Union to mature, almost as though it were 'a new idea to be carefully and lovingly explained, nurtured, cherished. The young men and women of the protest movement in the sixties argued differently. Ginsburg and Galanskov, who protested against the Sinyavsky-Daniel trial and were themselves arrested and con- demned for their pains; Kaustov and Bukovsky, who protested against this action, only to be arrested in their turn; the young Litvinov and Daniel's wife Larissa, who protested against everything that had gone before and were finally arrested and sent into exile for demonstrating against the inva- sion of Czechoslovakia; a group of young people in Leningrad who were sentenced for, distributing books published abroad; the Ukrainian journalist Chornovil, who lucidly protested against the trial and sentencing of Ukrainian patriots-all these and many more who have suffered in the last three years did not bother to argue about- the desirability of freedom of ex- pression. They took this for granted. They did not bother to argue about the crassness and imbecility of the party bureaucracy; they took that for granted..One and all they based their stand on the written Consti. tution of the Soviet Union, Stalin's hollow mockery of a Constitution with which he successfully con-. fused the world in 1938. This was a new approach. It did not get them very far. They were permitted to discuss and argue and agitate among them- selves. but as soon as any of them got together to appeal to the public at large the police closed in. And the public at large did not help. Materially, things are better than they used to be; further, people no longer get taken away in the middle of the night and shot or sent to rot in the camps for grumbling among themselves or making subversive jokes. They are safe provided they do not kick demonstrably over the traces. They have suffered much in their life- times, and they are content to he alive, with-enough to eat and some consumer goods to queue for in the, shops. They want only a quiet life. in their comfortable philis. tinism they have no' sympathy for, these hotheads and silly idealists with their vapourings about free- dom and sincerity and self-expres- sion. Live and let live and the devil take the hindmost is the unheroic mood. The dissident intellectuals soon found that they were very much' alone. Most of their university contemporaries were intent on making some sort of a career, which meant keeping their heads down and doing what they were 'told. The highly paid scientists. engineers and all the rest might, and did, and do. criticise aspects of the regime with extreme bitter- ness and sympathise warmly with the young protesters; they might hope that one day there would be enough of them in positions of influence to shift the balance of power in the Kremlin. But they knew that they could do nothing now when it came to the crunch. How lonely the protesters were, their sympathisers, too, was borne in on them with intolerable impact by the crushing of the Czecho- slovak movement towards the light. Many were appalled. Many refused to sign the obligatory letters declar- ing solidarity with the party and the Government in this action. But to the mass of the Soviet people in the cities (the peasants have barely heard of Czechoslovakia) it seemed that the Czechs deserved what they got. They were a nuisance, irritat- ing foreigners to be put in their place. And they showed what they felt when Litvinov,and Larissa Daniel and a handful of others demonstrated in Red Square : the demonstrators were set upon and abused by ordinary Muscovites even before the police could got to them.' They were committing the worst sin. They were rocking the boat. The. last notable flare-up was that remarkable letter (first re- Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For.:Release 1999/09/02 CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGHT ported in ToE OnSERVER on 15 June) addressed to the: United Nations by it group of fvatriotie Russians who had formed them- selves into an Action Group for the Defence of Civil Rights ,',n the Soviet Union, listing, as examples, of the movement back towards Stalinism, all the trials mentioned above and many others. This sort. of movement will go on, at any rate underground. But activities of this kind, so long as the present Govern- merit holds together and card keep the masses quiet and marginally content, are doomed. This is the depressing and come plcx situation on which Kuznetsov decided to turn his back. He tried in his books, as all his bent oon temporaries are trying, to improve Soviet society by exposing some of its corruption, not to overthrow the system. He failed, as they are fail, ing, and came away. NSW YORK T IV. C. 12 Atat 1969 P. '. e 'ongress May Discuss Censorship:, of Soviet Writers By HENRY RAYMONI' The Soviet-Government's re- pression and censorship of lib-. eral authors, described In the recent series of articles by? Anatoly Kuznetsov, is likely to emerge as a key subject of the; International P.E.N. Congress; to be held next month in Mon-[ ton, Prance. Arthur Miller, the Pulitzer, Prize-winning playwright who; is international president of P.E.N. -- an organization of; poets, playwrights, essayists! and novelists--said In an inter-i ;,view yesterday that he would: press for an extensive debate! .of the conditions that led tol .Mr. Kuznetsov's defection to; the West. The 39-year-old Soviet au? thor, who received asylum in Britain on July 30, denounced the Soviet authorities for hav {=ing forced him and other lib erals to adapt their manuscripts to Communist party guidelines and to spy on one another for the K.G.B., the state security services. Mr. Miller said he would sub- mit the issue to some 700 authors from more than 50 Countries, including several from Eastern Europe, who are expected to attend the congress. Some Opposition Expected "I think that Kuznetsov's articles provide an urgent rea-, son to examine freedom of ex- pression all around: the,-world, not only in the Soviet Union,". he declared. Though there might be offi- cial opposition from some East- ern European delegations, Mr. Miller anticipated overwhelm- ing support from the AE.Nr membership for a broad discus- sion of the Kuznetsov case. Mr. Miller has just completed a book on his meetings with the intelligentsia during a, trip to the Soviet Union last year in which he -recounts some of the fears generated by Govern- ment surveillance. The book,. "In Russia," will be published.; by Viking Press In the fall, It will contain 100 photographs' I taken by Inge Morath, Mr. Miller's wife. William Styron, another au-, thor who visited the Soviet` Union last. year, reluctantly; acknowledged yesterday, to "rather mixed feelings" about, Mr. Kuznetsov's denunciationl of the plight of Soviet writers for fear of the consequences it may have for the liberal dis-+ senters who remained behind.! "I agree ? 100 per cent with) what he had to say," Mr. Sty- ron said from his summer home in Martha's Vineyard. "Cer- tainly the Soviet Union Is the last place on earth where a writer can live With any sense of, freedom or indpendence. "Yet I cannot help wonder- Ing what effect his actions will have on the other writers who are still there. Perhaps betrayal is too strong a word, brit the whole thing. has an overtone of selling out when his fellow suf- ferers are likely to face increas- tng repression as a result of i own liberation." 'Desperate to Get Out' Mr. Styron, who won a Pulit- zer Prize last year for his novel "The Confessions of Nat Tur- ner," said that during his three- week trip to Moscow and Tashkent he had found the op- pression of liberal writers so intolerable that "I became des- perate to get out again." . But he said he had decided not to write about his experi. ences because he believed the Soviet Government would level reprisals against any author he had associated with during the Visit. "In evaluating, Kuznetsov," he said yesterday, "it is impor- Itant to keep in mind that such courageous writers as Alek- sanr Solzhenitsyn, Yevgenia Ginsburg, Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel, .are dc(ving censor- ship and rcpressilon in their own way and even. willing to suffer imprisonment for 'their convic- tions." Approved For Release 1.999/09/02 : C IA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 MANCIi T R GU.:aDz ?r 21 tt{ wt .1469. __ PYRGHT to live in the West in April, 1963, has disclosed that he does not feel safe` in returning to Russia. Mr Ashkenazy, one of. the world's foremost pianists, broke a six-year silence about' his personal status in an exclusive interview with the 11 Guardian" Ile contradicted as Vladimir As?hkenazy, the Soviet pianist who was granted permission. travesty of the truth!' a, Russian claim that he can move" freely in and out of the Soviet Union, He and his wife, e said,, were kept in Moscow against their will for some weeks " in a state of acute anxiety and distress " during their first-and last-return visit in May, 1963. said that he and his wife subse?, at the Moscow Conservatoire quently realised they had fallen, that he was forced to play in into " what you could call a kind the 1962 Tschaikovsky inter of trap ", by accepting the visas. national competition, which he They were subjected to a.' won ; This was less than two months after he decided to remain in London while__ on a concert visit. At a holiday bungalow in Palea Epidaurus, Greece, he said he believed he was probably ,only able to return to London from Russia because of the personal intervention of Mr Khrushchev, then Prima Minister. Since then he had been "completely unable to trust "? the authorities to let him leave, ,Russia if he went there again. Air Ashken'azy, now 32,, repudiated "carefully - fostered ilction " that -he spends half of each year In Russia, but he ,stressed that he only decided to take this step after the Soviet claim was reported in the' ' Guardian " on August 1. " When .an official Soviet spokesman says I move freely between' Russia and the West, as I only wish I could, it is a gross and unfair distortion of the truth." In a fetter to the." Guardian sent soon after the Soviet claim,, he sai(I that he and his wife's guaranteed exit visas were not honoured in ltloscow. They had lived under the "very real fear' ,that we wnald never be permitted to leave ae;aln. Despite the fact; that our child.(Vovka, then two, years old) was in London at the time." Invited to clarify this during: the Interview at Epidaurus ho bureaucratic cat and mouser game as soon as they reached, ;Moscow. ire was told by the then head of cultural relations at the= Ministry of Culture, Mr Stepanov " You are a Soviet citizen. You may not go." Ile was reminded. by implication that the visas were "bits of paper." Ile "lost all hope " of leavinyg, and, deeply depressed, played unscheduled recitals td order. But he was braced to persist'in his appeals to the Ministry of. Culture by his wife Dody "who gave me an incredible example: of how you can behave under stress." Finally the Minister of Culture. Airs Furtseva, let them go--by' the " kindness " of AIr Khrushchev as a senior unnamed source later told him. Talking during the interview of his earlier life as a pianist in Russia and of what led to his decision to leave, Mr Ashkenazy said : he was " tried" at the Ministry of Culture after his first American tour in 1958, accused' by his tour escort "who was probably briefed by the KGB " of expressing a liking for modern painting and music- and banned from further foreign tours for three years; that the ban was renewed in 1962 after his marriage to a non-_ Soviet girl he met as a student that his wife was compelled by a threat to his career to take Soviet citizenship and become a " moral hostage " for. him ; and that what tipped the scale in their decision to leave was a last-minute attempt by the authorities to stop his w i f c joining him on his 1963 British' visit. He said Since 1 always had a bad conscience about my wife's sacrifice of her freedom of .move-' our marriage would have' been distorted and under stress had we stayed in Russia." A prodigy, Mr Ashkenazy's Seat as a young prodigy iii 'coming second In the. Chopin international '.comrpeti tion in Warsaw at the age of 17? and winning the Queen'Elizabeth international piano competition, at Brussels at 18, and the Tchai- kovsky competition, is still cen- tral to the world prestige of Russian music. Even in the West, he has remained one of "good boys" among Soviet artists abroad. Ile maintained from the start-and convincingly Insisted at Epidau- rus-that his motives were non-. political and entirely, centred round his family. The main motive behind his detailed repudiation of the Rus- sian claim appears to have been a sense that Russia was not matching his own reticence-and was, indeed, exploiting it. " I will be glad to know that people who care know the facts." lie said. Ile did not feel that his father, mother, or sister, who still live in 1lloscow, would be endangered by his action in " putting the record straight." He said : "These are not Stalin's ;times in Russia any. more." His father is a successful, variety pianist-:accompanist. His sister is studying to be a musi-. ciao or music teacher at the. Pedagogical Institute in Moscow. `Access' to Russia The text of Alr Ashkenazy's letter was Dear Sir. In the " Guardian" of August 1 an article appeared regarding Mr' Kuznetsov's decision to remain in England. In this article reference was made to my own free "access" to and from the USSR. The relevant paragraph read as follows : "The Russian argunient is that Mr Kuznetsov would ' probably' have been granted a period of residence abroad if ho had applied in Moscow. The recent examples cited arc Valcriy Tarsis, a far more savage critic of the regime than Alt' Kuznetsuv, and the pianist Alr Vladimir Ash? kenazy, who moves freely between Aloscow. Iceland. and Britain." Since the statement a)lout my movements is s4bstantial4y Approved For Release 1999/09/026: CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 CPYRGFdT ' Approved For Release 1999/09/02 : CIA-RDP79-01.194A000500040001-7 . incorrect, I feel it is desirable for the record to he put straight. I left the USSR for the last time on July 2, 19(;3. and since that day have at no . time returned, There would always liave'been the strongest emotional reasons for we to do so since I ltave left behind me my parents and sister. But, I have not yet felt satisfied that the S o v 1 o t CP ' tYORKER ember 1969 authorities would allow me free movement. to and from the Soviet Union. ; T& indicate. that this has not been'.sheer alarmism on my part,; it should,'be.pointed out that my last ant] only return visit to Moscow after il' had decided' to stay in - Britain (May 14 to-July 2_1963) 1963) was. undertaken only after;_.the Soviet', Embassy rib S OME months ago, Mr. Kingsley Antis was informing readers of the letters column in the London Times that the Soviet poet Yevgcny Yevtu- shenko had behaved dishonorably to- ward Olga Ivinskaya; now Miss Lil- lian Hellman tells its, in our Times',. that Anatoly Kuznctsov, the Soviet novelist who recently sought political asylum in London, behaved dishonor ably toward Yevtushenko. Mr. Wil- liam Styron, meanwhile, has -wondered in an interview if Kuznetsov's defection wasn't a "selling out." We wonder if writers enjoying .the freedom's of the United States and the United Kingdom shouldn't refrain from passing judg- ment on their brethren in Communist states, who must try to function and survive under bizarre and tortuous, re- strictions unimaginable, to a Western writer. A simple sigh of thanks for our blessings might be more in order. The plight of the artist under Communism, never pleasant, is worsening; the only thing going for him is the enthusiasm that difficulty engenders, and the knowledge, that he is--whether' or not London had issued for my-wife again in spite of the tact that and me a guaranteed -exit visa our child was in London at the' -fromAhe USSR with.the?endorsc? time, No sane person would wish,' anent that we would be allowed to ;to. run such a risk a second time.l leave whenever we. wished: ,Today, therefore, that' I " move' ? This Visa was not honoured: for freely between .Moscow, Iceland, some ,'weeks and we spent this lied' -Britain,'." ? Is certainly period In. ;tiloscow? in a state of travesty `oif, the truth, acute% anxiety- and distress with Yours faithfully, the very, real fear that, we would. ,, y never again be permitted to leave Vladimir' ?Ash,kcnazy IV.'E. he falls short of the heroic standards upheld by Miss Hellman and Mr. Amis-a ? custodian, for millions, of a certain human . flame, of certain human capacities for expression, ex- altation, formal control, and creative joy. We are moved - to these remarks by a letter that has been passed on to us. Its recipient is a young American writer, its sender a Czech girl now living in exile who happehed to like a book the man had written. "There in Prague, we used to exhibit our paint-' ings on Charles Bridge," she wrote him. "Our paintings were probably bad, because we were just seventeen or, twenty, but we loved them, because through them we were perceiving the world. And there we discussed life and. death, eternity and matter, and the confluence of things, and everything. We were so terribly happy there in the midst of the paintings and the light, on that stone bridge saturated with cen- turies of history. It was as if we were watching, the sea; everything was as if grown together with the' earth-it had the same kind of symmetry. I do not know whether you can imagine all this. -but it was immensely hcautiful. So beautiful that one did not sense other people or life, and felt removed from one's own body and sensed only the words, surrounded by the, paintings. Or those crazy chases when the cops tried to prevent us from selling the paintings. (Because Czechoslovakia is a Communist country and only the state is entitled to sell and exploit.) 1 t used to be a happy chase through the crooked streets of the Little Quarter. We .shouted out of slicer happiness at seeing the clumsily moving cops. And the immense feeling of happi- ness when we ran, tired, into a pub, clutching our paintings, to; our! breasts. That was our world. It was not necessary to read so much in those times, because one could learn about the world through one's friends." 4, Approved For Release 1999/09/02: CIA-RDP79-01194A000500040001-7 7