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December 14, 2016
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November 30, 2000
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August 20, 1953
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r Approved For Release 2001/07/31 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500170082-0 SECURITY IRFORMAT I O++ CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY INFORMATION REPORT Underground Bases of the Soviet Bomber Command PLACE ACQUIRED (BY SOURCE) 25X1A - DATE ACQUIRED (BY SOURCE) 1. It ie no longer possible to keep secret the location of underground air bases fo+ long range Soviet bombers. The long r?:nwaye going out from the hangars cannot be ,,.::cenled from air observation. The idea of underground bases is not new, !nut the fact that a nation has actually built dozens of them is somewhat unusual. 5'+?ntice know that such bases are extremely costly. It is also obvious that the arlweys must remain on the surface of the ground. But the oaunt erbalanaine fact 1.5 that it, is easier to repair darLaged runways than i,. is to repair damaged heavy barbers. The underground bases are mainly for the protection of the aircraft, not so much for concealment. 2. Th. Soviet Union has the problem of constructing enough underground bases to put her entire heavy bomber fleet under cover. The magnitude of this problem can be doterm.ined by taking a look at the number of known Soviet heavy barbers. There are 400 six :n_otor planes type 31 (also called TuC-75) and about.l,loo four motor planes types Te?-70 (or Tu-4) and Tu-709 bombers of the medium class. The lust model is of about the same size as the Boeing B-29 Superfortress and looks somewhat like the B-50, while the first model locks more like the Convair B-36 Conqueror. The underground bases built up to now in the USSR have an average capacity of 100 to 120 heavy bombers apiece. Many, however, have room for fewer aircraft, and, if we take into account the fact that each base will probably hove to accczmodate a number of escort fighters we can figure that the Soviets would have to build at least 15 of these bases. Besides this the Long Range Fomber Command (ADD) has to lv:vc: refueling points for each of its three air armies and the Arctic Fleet. We can e flume that some of these refueling points must also be underground for protection. Sixty '.i.nderground airbasee of this kind would be too few for the USSR. In U,,t on n_z USSR alcme, about two dozen ur.TiargrounC, ai bases can be cote^_ted. We can `r -:n 11-115 whet a terrific building program has to be fulfilled by the Soviets. 3. 'ih- ha1cars are built. with reinforced concrete. For small and lighter r, n:;t.ruct. o, b-:ck colt:-mne are placed under lighter roofs. In a few cases the II.S. Officials Only C CNF IDER' TIAL SECURITY I~IFORMATIO? Fel CISTR IOVT IO. vj~ ~r jARMY 9A11 AtR EV This report i for the ..3a within the USA of the Intelligence compunenta of the Departments or Aget:cles Indicated above. It is not to be transmitted overseas without the concurrence of the originating office through the Assistant Director of the Office of Collection and Dissemination. CIA. L Approved For Release 2001/07/31 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500170082-0 Approved For Release 2001/07/31 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500170082-0 CONFIDENTIAL/UTS OFFICIALS ONLY/ E'CLRITY It.iI? hangars are blasted cut of rock, and the hangar walls are formed by the natural stone. The capacity of the large bases is, as was stated earlier, between 100 and 120 long-range bombers of the four-motored models. Smaller bases hold up to 35 airplanes and have, usually, only one hangar. In one known airbase, ther- are underground hangars for. 50 bombers, and separated from these hangars are other hangars for 70 fighter-escort planes. In the repair shops, there is usually a capacity of between 20 and 50 4rplanes, Very often, there are also hangars on the s'irface nearby. The hangars are usually l-uilt in two or three groups. In one case, the underground facilities are ever~500 m long. The average length is 200 to 250 M. A specific hangar has the dimensions 200 by 50 by 12 in. The thickness of the steel-reinfcreed ceilings is estimated at one to 1.5 in. Over the roofs of the hangars there is often from five ',to six m of earth. The half-sunken hangars have roofs from 2.5 to si? m thick. The underground fuel tanks in one airbase are covered with one m of steel-reinforced concrete, and five m of earth. These fuel tanks are located several km from t.'he airport, and are distributed over 100 is. This fuel reservoir consists of fiftean 100 ton tanks. 4. Examples .2 Underground Maass: a) The :Military District of Leningrad: 1) Puthkin e T e D1ets,ove Se : 25 km soutu of Leningrad. Several hangars in the Puehkino Hills which border the southern side of the airbase. Ten concrete runways, some of them twolthousand m long. Underground fuel and ammo depots. The hangars are designed for 50 benbers and 70 fighters. The base has an area of six x four km. 2) rchlusse bt+ra: At the mouth of the Nev's. on lake Ladoga. The underground hangars are on the eastern edge of the 'seven r, three km airbase. 3) Tesno: 60 km southeast of Leningrad. Hangars with built-in catapult installations. 4) 1{raspgtvn rasa (f me Grit t.gchi_na): S km southwest of Leningrad. Several undor(rovnd hangars. 15 used for parachute training. There is a flight schoil in the vicinity. 5) o (pis] On the Sov_et-Eston1v..j t dor. Two groups of underground ha Lgar_ equippee_? with attached repair ar.,.po and fuel tanks and a narrcw- gauge railroad mach goes to the am?lunit~ion depot. The surface area is throe x 1.5 ion. There err two or threw concretc runwuyr and the hangers ttcco:nn:ocnto 1.00 heavy bombers. 6) jjgQ: 52 ,..n , :s,t southeast from Leningrad. Several underground hangars. Fuel and munitions depot lie to the eaetl of the field. b) Tha Special Diotr!rt . t :i ( nia, Ito+.via, Llthuan 1) 'Ihljin -Inanamae: Estonia. The underground hangars are blasted out of the li*nostone. The surface of the field his so hard that it can be used by heavy bombers witl?our, concrete pavine.i On the same rise in ground eastward from Tallin is the airbase of Uelemiste. Its underground hangars are designod for different models of aircraft. Because this airbase is on the sea coast there is a possibility that it is used for seaplanes as well. 2) RSga-Snilve, itvla: Three groups of underground or paittal1y buried hangars for two-motored bombers. The base serves also as a field for a r. ruby aircraft factory. The airfield had to be banked up to make it free fr :n floods. i a: Underground hangar:: und,>r construction. CONFIDE21TL1L/US OFFICIALS OULY/SECURTTY IrdF(RMATIO.U Approved For Release 2001/07/31 : CIA-RDP80-00809/000500170082-0 r Approved For Release 2001/07/31 : CIA-R~P80-0080I A000500170082-0 CONFIDENTIAL/US OF'FI(IAIS OIILY'SECUP_ITY UIFCFU?IATl0i: 4) Ventspils,atvia: Two underground hangars from 200 to 250 T, long. Underground shops. 5) *"eltzava, I tvia: A new base with underground hangars over 500 m long. 6) ustnils-Nord, loatyia: ii gars on the surface but covered with earth. It is actually a well-protectad fighter base. 7) Kaunas, I .thuania: Surface and under round hangars for heavy bombero. The underground hangars handle 35 four-motor bombers apiece, the surface hangars take 18 bombers each. A new base has been built northeast of the city. It has large underground hangars. c) The y1litarv D trict Qf Mo?,ccw: 1) Fodolak: About 40 Ian south of Moscow. Underground hangars, fuel and munitions depots. 2) Sebesc -East: On the Latvian border, west of Velikie Luki. Hangars dug into the ground and 15 underground fuel tanks. 3) Sherbakov (Ryjisk): On th Sea of Rybinsk southeast of the city in the direct vicinity of the new turbobomber factory and the old aircraft engine factory No 26. The underground hangars a:.d shops are 250 in long. There are also hangars on the surface.1 This base is used by four and two motored bombers. 4) Kal_vazi_n-South: On the right bank of Tithe Volga northeast of Moscow. The area is five x three Ion and there are several concrete runways with the underground hangars on the southerr.ad ge of the air base. The flying pfr sonnel are accommodated in a nearby estate. 5) Moscow-Sheherb aka: 20 Ion south of I?'oscov on the Oka river. Underground hangars for heavy bombers. Several concrete runways. Ai.rbase officers are in an old estate. 6) $;l la: 120 km southeast If Moscow, on the Oka River. Large underground fuel supply area. rtfteen 100 on tanks covered by one m of eoncrets and five m of earth. !oty di tance between tanks lOG in. Railroad branch. line. 7) Riasan-Dye " ev : Southeast of : oseocr, on the i%,oscow-Rostov P.ailway. Underground hangars capable Icf holding 100 heavy barbers. The hangars have catapult equipment built in. lately there has been two regiments (about 80 airplanes) of two-motor bombers and one regiment (about 40 airplanes) of four-motor barbers. The surface area of the airbaae is five x three kilometers. 8) T-a- .off-East : On the railroad line Moscow-Ryazan-Saratov. Two groups of underground hangars, one with a capacity of 120 heavy barbers. Underground ft:..i r,'ca in the vicinity of the hangars, with fuel being pumped to the hangars t`irough a pipeline 'y a pumping station, which is located four km away on the railroad line. The airfield, which is situated in a forest, is ;otu km long and two wide. Theo are several concrete runways designed' for use by heavy bombers. Statianod here are two regiments of flour-motor bombers, one . egiment of two-motor bombers, and two echelons of escort fighte? a. d) !elf?: y D1stt?ict of Ku~byshev_Unlnn 1)i ter i r_t ) 1) KuibvsbCv-NQrth: At the confluence of the Volga and Aanara. Underground i.cuigars noiuing about 50 fighter planes. Evidently, this airfield is connected with one of the underground aircraft factories in thf,1 vicinity of the city. CONFIDEI>ITALy/US OFFICIALS CI U/SE (IURITY INFCRMATICN 1 6__ !- Approved For Release 2001/07/31 : CIA-REP80-0080~A000500170082-0 Approved For Release 2001/07/31 : CIA-RDP80-00809A000500170082-0 Ca?FIAIIVTIAS./US OFFI011IS Oi1IY/SECURITY flIFat4 TION a) ~tar_ y District of Kiev? Ki wSouthwest: Capital of the Ukrainian SSR. Air force garrison with two airfields, both about five by two km. Both fields are equipped with underground and surface hangars. The new airfield, which is used by four-motor bombers, has concrete runways two thousand m long. The old field is used for the training of parachute jumpers, and has several runways 1,500 m long. 2) rAev-Shitomir: About 20 km west of Kiev o:. the road between Kiev and Shitomir, are several airfields. One of them has underground hangars. 3) Kallnovlkv: North of Vinn.iea. Cne of the largest airfields in the Ukraine;' Fquipped to handle heavy bombers and equipped with underground hangarsiand workshops. Military --t 1) Kobrin: East of Brest-Litovsk. Five large underground hangars, with attachediworkshops, More than 100 airplanes, mostly four-motor bombers, are of ton', at this field. The area is five km by thror km. l 5. There are also sa imples of the construction of underground airfields in the Satellite states., Such are the bomber bases in northeast Hungary, and in the oil fiolde riser Ploesti, Rumania. There also will be built similar fields in East Germany. Nn own are Tutow and the area ar ound Gottbus. l Approved For Release 200',1/07/31 : Cl