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December 9, 2016
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January 8, 2001
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December 12, 1971
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Approved For Release 2001/02-104zetARDPM01:6048003W4f$071:3 12 DEC. 1971 by Carol Dunlap LONDON. Anatole Carzov vvho flew a Soviet ,fl ( a rfteruher 0-1 the Soviet gated in the U.S: in 1949 was persuaded everal weer ,s ago, Oleg Lyalin, 34, plane to Austria and was then interro - supposedly - , t,$)ill Trade Delegation here, but in re.- by the then Soviet ambassador to the ?-L.') ality -a captain.in the KGB, the So- U.S., Alexander Panyush'Kin, to return _viet .security and espionage apparatus, to Russia. Panyushkin promised Barzo?% defected to the West. - that the Soviet Union woulcLforgive and . Lyalin fingered 105 Soviet officials as forget, that he could be together with Spies. tie also revealed to Belgian au- wife and son.When Barzov:returned to ..thorities those Soviet officials in Bars- .._ . Moscow, Soviet agents grilled- him . sels who., under a variety of covers, were about his American experiences, kept also spies. ? - ? - him in prison eight months, then,with- As a result Britain expelled 105 So- out ever letting him see his 'wife and viets for espionage,' and Belgium fol- son, shot him. .? lowed suit without revealing the num- ber0 of expulsions. . Tva0ing secreZs ? ? What will happen to Oleg Lyalin? , What in fact happens to any Soviet de- Penkovsky and Barzov were caught - lector who betrays his country for in the Soviet Union. Most Soviet "trai- asylum? ? .. . tors'' however, like Yuri Rastorov, Sec- At this writing, Lyalin is being de- - ? ond Secretary of the Soviet Mission in -: Japan, Peter Deriabin, a KGB section. -briefed by British intelligence under head in Vienna, Nikolai Khokhlov in ..maximum security conditions. When Berlin, and Vladimir Petrov in Sydney? i ihe British are finished with him, .our take a turn at interrogation. secrets for asylum. But they never feel defect while abroad, then trade .their ow'r) Central Intelligence Agency Will sure of escaphig the KGB's long arm of . -? gut olio day the intelligence agents ... retribution. . will drain Lyalin dry. Then what will most spectacular case of "KGB . happen to him? The British will "re- The . ward" him for his cooperation retribution involves Leon Trotsky, a ri- some money. They will offer him the with -val of Josef Stalin. Trotsky, an architect services of a plastic surgeon for facial of the Russian revolution and founder disguise if he so desires. They will sug- of an early Soviet espionage network, gest "lasing him" in Canada, Australia, chose political exile in 192b after losing out the power struggle to Stalin. Al- New Zealand, or some other friendly Al- though Trotsky never "talked," Stalin country. The trials and tribulations of Oleg Lyalin will begin only then, for as judged him a potential enemy of the ? 'the experience of former Soviet defect- regime, marked him for liquidation by . ors reveals, Lyalin's problems in adjust- the secret police. For 11 years Trotsky, . ing to a new lifewill be compounded lived in perpetual fear. Finally in 1940 . - by the omnipresent threat of KGB re- the special terrorist section (Spetsburo) , ? - of the KGB caught up ?vith?hirri in Mexi- prisal. ' . . - , _ co, bludgeoned him to death. Treason, of course, is a capital crime . . in every society, and the Soviet Union A year later the Spetsburo ' assassi- cleats -hardily and summarily with its nated General Walter Krivitsky, former traitors.: Colonel. Oleg Penkovsky, for chief of Soviet militaryintelligence for - example, a high-ranking member of the Western Europe. Krivitsky's "cover" was 1937, fearful of beingpurged by Stalin, Krivitsky defected to the West. Shipped to Washington he was debriefed by the FBI. Four years later Soviet assassins murdered him in his hotel 'room in Washington. --Ne4-vork exposed Some Soviet defectors have managed to elude KG,E3 pursuit. Perhaps the most famous is Igor Gouzenko, cipher clerk in the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa who on September 5, ?1945, defected to the West with 130 top _ secret documents describing in detail the Soviet espi- onage network throughout . Canada. The documents resulted in the arrest of 26-Soviet agents, the conviction of 10, and a Royal Canadian Commission re- port on espionage which revealed That a distinguished scientist.Alan Nunn May had given the Soviet Union its first sam- ples of uranium and a written report on atomic research. . . During the. investigation precipitated by his defection. Gouzenko took refuge with his family in military installations under the protection of. the Canadian ? Mounted Police. Eventually, however,: the Gouzenkos had to resume some semblance of a normal life. The Cana- . dian Government helped then) to erase all traces of their past, providing them . with ?a fictional identity and a per- manent bodyguard. ? Gouzenko wrote an autobiography of sorts, The Iron Curtain, which became a best-seller and was adapted into a- Hollywood film. Starring Dana Andrews_ A few years later he penned a successful novel, but subsequently lost most of his book earnings in unwise investments. He and his family currently live in a small- Ontario town on $50 a month for each member provided by the. Cana- dian Government. Gouzenko also organization: ? re- Soviet intelligence apparatus who a relief organization in Geneva .named ceives .2100 a month from a Canadian passed top ApprOvedfortReileasec20011G3104-d CIAAIDRAO,(1160fial)00300340057-3 West for 16 months, was tried, con- food packages to refugee families.. In - victed and executed in short order in lune 107 Approved For Release 2001/834i : tl'.1 A-RDP80-01601R 7.! - I, d.."?'s !,71 _ , 'sae/ a A aci (Lei e-?-7S' ' - r, 1 9"?:?*11.**'` . ;:r%C.1 Survey Made in Europe to Discover Why They Go to West,-What Happens to Them BY RICHARD C:?LONGIVOF.2.11 : UPI staff writer ? ' ? To answer -these ques- VIENN.A---11 was 3 p.m. tions, UPI talked . with .on a mInnY Sul-1(18Y ailer-. government - officials and noon in Brussels when diplomats around Europe. An a tol Ch ot a rev. made There are no full ans.vers ; ?defection is a shadowy Borrowing a blue Scal world and the men who .dia sedan from the Soviet deal With it cannot. tell all trade mission 'where he they know. But broad out- worked, Chehotar eV lines emerged. 'dropped his Wife, Margari- For a man to defect---to ta, .off near the -Belgian ?forsake his country forev., Royal Palace, then drove era?is an extreme step un 60 miles north to Bruges .for a rendezvous. . ? The next morning, Oct. 4, the Soviet Embassy called the Belgian foreign ministry to repert that one of its employes had stolen . a car and disappeared. The Scaldia was found later beside a yacht marina :at 'smiling Russian.' ? a smoother; more ingratiat- ing envoy often indistin- .guishable from his West- ern counterpart. Of these, the KGB men ofteit. are the highest livers, the big-. gest drinkers, the freest .spenders in short, the, playboys. fl a U.S. Embassy ? has reason to think that a Rus- sian plans- to defect, it as- signs a diplomat, to Lover near him at receptions and parties, in case he wants to make contact. ? It is assumed by'outsid- ers that both. sides .use "dirty games"?blackmail, promises of money and other lures?to hook potential defector. If the West employs these meth- ods, however, no. diplomat will, talk about it; . . ? ? der?any circumstances. Most defectors either go. For a Russian, with his ex-. straight to American em- ceptionally deep ties to his basses or ask to beeturned country, it is traumatic, over to the Americana. 0 n e Western diplomat This is partly because do- compared it to suicide: fectiOn is alpolitiCal "A Soviet citizen knoWs -radical changing of. sides he can never go back and ?and the'United.States is is cutting himself off from as far to theother side as a, 'Soviet can get. Another reason is that it is easier for a defector to vanish in a vast country with many foreign-born -citizens and foreign-. ac- cents, thousands of miles from Russia. Most of te n, defectors show up unexpectedly, either at -einbassieS-or at 'police ? stations.. A :leading example was Svetlana.Al- liluyeva, Stalin's daugh- ter, whO marched into a startled American ? Embas- his family, who may suffer the coastal town- -of - -Zee; because , of his act," the brugge. .oefraet: diplomat; said. "For him, it's a radical step and so comes from an extreme emotion. - - "The one the. only'? common factor in all de- fections. is that the defec- tor has felt, rationally or irrationally, that all doer tact in 13ruges Was. . had closed behind him, Intelligenc Agent- that he bad no?-choice but e, to defect." Like many poteiltial sui- cides, many potential de- fectors give. hints in ad- vance. American dipl mats are told to watch out. for these clues, but often they go unheeded. . Playboy Symptoms .These clues . often take the form of. what one in- sider called ".aberrant be- havior for a Soviet abroad"--a social life out- Belgian police believe that Cbebotarev left Belgi- um- for Britain aboard a: small boat from the tciwn of Niewpoo'rt, 35 , miles away. It has not been .ex, plained how be got there, or who his mysterious eon- At 33, Chebotarev was, a ? member of the privileged Soviet elite allowed to live and work in the West. His calling: card, identified him as . as an official. of the trade :mission. Less publicly, he -also was an agent for the Soviet espionage agency, the ? KGB, or Committee for"State' ?Se-curity-?aThead- quarters on Dzerzhinaky Square, Moscow, with of- lice in all principal cities. - Now, Anatoli Chcbota: .side the tight Soviet circle, reir is a Soviet defector-- heavy drinking, an oh - one of the small band of. vious taste for the high -desperate men .who, by life, a Western girl friend. fleeing the Soviet system These clues; which often tor the West, have burned are unconscious, are par- all bridges behind them. ? ? ticularly hard to spot t2,- Who are these defectors? day. ? 'The dour; baggy- Whatpants diplomat of the Sta- 'United. StatIa lor makes them defect? Kuro. A lavrovroilfteteasea20.0003104 . c ? w is known as the How do .they do if?, hat _ happens to them tv sy in New Delhi in ,1967 -straight .from a quarrel with the Soviet ambassa- dor there. , ? Insiders say there is no set machinery for , han- , dling a defector. A Rus- sian:.who *shows up at an American embassy will, be passed on to a Central In telligence -Agency man at the embassy, - who will take charge of the case. . S o m Just .Variish :If ' the defection` takes place neutral nation, attempts, will. be made to get the defector ..to the Ibk I Um Smictimes. the hos country will first quiz th defector in a "safe house' .?a secure, unbugged loca tion---before passing hi on to Washington. Some times he will go to Wash- ington directly. Once in. America, ?some defectors "go public" by writing ? books or going into anti-Soviet work. Oth- ers 'simPly- vanish, With a' new identity?laornetimos' . ? even a now 'face, courtesy. of.a plastic surgeon.; ? ??? Homesickness can defeat these precautions. A diplo- mat Said Russians often long for contact with other Russians and eventually join an exile colony, where they are quickly ?spotted by KGB men who have in- filtrated the colony. In the old days, such a defectbr risked death. But the last known. KGB exec- ution of a defector took place in West Germany in. 1959. Today, .the defector will. he pr eSsured by threats against his fainily back home in Russia. . Any- defection makes waves. At the personal level, the defector's family is bound to suffer. But if he is a KGB mai,he may bring with him informa- tion that can change histo- ry. . Chebotarev is said to have brought .a list of 33 agents spying on NATO! Shortly after he vanished, one Soviet newsman and 15. Soviet ?businessmen abruptly went home; They panicked?none was on Chebotarev's list. But two other men who were 'have been asked to* leave the country. The most celebrated case this year was that of Oleg Lyalin, 34, a Soviet diplo- mat and spy who defected in London in early Sep- tember. LYalin brought along enough information 1.9 enable the British to de- clare 105 Soviet diplomats and businessmen persona non grata?one ? . of the most sensational mass' ex- pulsions in . peacetime his- tory, . . . 01601R000300340057-3 COntinuoa AHMED FMCS JOURKAL Approved For Release 2001/03/04 PCIAJRDP8OSCW6Tifg ? ???`,"'i r ? Better 'Deal for Service Spooks? WHITE HOUSE SOURCES tell The JOURNAL that the intelligence reor- ganjzation announced last month by the President means a better deal, not less authority?as the country's press has been reporting?for members of the defense intelligence community. ? Among the specifics cited: ? .0 More "supergrades" (GS-16. to GS-18 civilian billets) for Defense Intel- ligence Agency: O Assignment of top-caliber military personnel to DIA (which in past years has had trouble getting the most quali- fied tnilitary personnel assigned to it and proper recognition for their work in intelligence fields); O Better promotion opportunities for intelligence?analysts (who in the past have seldom been able to advance to top :management levels without first break- ing out into administrative posts that make little use of their an?alytical capa- bilities). This lass point stems from a major White House concern with the nation's intelligence product: "95% of the em- phasis has been on collection, only 5% on analysis and production," as one White House staffer describes it. Yet good analyses,.he points out, have faced major hurdles in getting recognition and advancement. Moreover, they have been "overwhelmed" by the amount of raw data collected by their counterparts in the more glamorous, more powerful, and better rewarded collection fields. The supergrade problvn has been of special concern to the White Flouse. A high Administration official, who asked not to be named, told The JOURNAL that the "White House [has] pledged to get Civil Service Commission approval" for a GS-18 billet which had been urgently requested by DIA Director LGen Donald V. Bennett. Bennett, he said, first requested the billet more than a year ago. Even though DIA has not - Our.Outgunned Spies A QUICK JOURNAL SURVEY of government-wide supergrade authorizations shows clearly that the Service side of the intelligence community, and DIA in particular, has been "low man on the supergrade totem pole" and makes clear why the White 'House intelligence reorganization is aimed, in part at least, at giving Service "spooks" better recognition and more attractive career opportunities. Ilere are typical (in some cases, ludicrous) comparisons that can be drawn from Part II of the Appendix to the Fiscal Year 19 72 Budget of the United States, a 1,112-page tome which gives, by federal agency, a detailed schedule of all permanent Civil Service positions: o DIA has 3,088 Civil Service employees, but only 15 supergrades?roughly one for every 200 spooks. o DoD's Office of Civil Defense has 721 Civil Service personnel, but 27 supergrades? one for every 27 employees, a ratio eight-to-one better than DIA's. O The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, with only 776 civil servants, has 36 supergrades'?one out of every 22, nine times better than DIA. The Peace Corps also outguns DIA nine to one, with 52 Foreign Service billets in the GS-16 to GS-18 salary brackets for only 1,188 permanent federal positions. O The National Security Council staff has a 23-to-one advantage, 73 staffers and nine supergrade (or higher) billets. Even NSC's one-to-nine supergrade-to-staff ratio, however, pales by comparison with the President's Office of Science and Technology, which has 23 superposts but only 60 people! ? Here's how the supergrade-to-people bean count for key federal agencies compares with DIA's (where authorized, executive level I through V posts are included in supergradc count): Defense Intelligence Agency 1-206 Office, Secretary of Defense 1- 95 Library of Congress 1- 51 Office of Management & Budget 1- 78: Office of Economic Opportunity 1- 54 General Accounting Office ? 1- 68 scn% crtipEonvnesl ofor Release-2001/03104 : CIA4RPFIA-0 Federal Maritime Commission 1- 14 had any authorization for 8, took almost 10 months for the paper needed to justify the single high-leve slot to filter through lower echejo administrative channels in the Pentago before they could be forwarded, with "str'ong endorsement" from Deputy De fense Secretary David Packard, to th Civil Service Commission. Ironically, just one .day after Th JOURNAL was told Of the Whit House's determination to help get th billet approved, it was learned that th Civil Service Commission had neverthe less denied the request. Instead, it of- fered DIA a choice of having an addi- tional GS-17 slot or of having a Public Law 313 post (which would require that DIA first recruit an indjvidUal highly qualified enough to justify the appoint- ment). DIA's supergrade structure, neverthe- less, is going to improve dramatically. For at least three years, the agency has been authorized only 15 supergrades, but will get 24 more under a plan just endorsed by Dr. Albert C. Hall, DoD's new Assistant Secretary for Intelligence. The posts are known to be endorsed strongly by both Defense Secretary Mel- vin Laird and Deputy Defense Secretary David Packard, -and apparently enjoy strong backing from. the White House as well. ?? By going from 15 to a total of.39 .supergrade billets, DIA will be able not only to recruit higher caliber civilian personnel -but to promote more or its own qualified analysts into these covet- ed, higher paying posts. Pres?s Mi5ses the Point Press reporls on the intelligence reor- ganization conVey. a much different plc': ture than the above highlights and White: House sources. suggest. In a 22 Novern, ber feature, U.S. News & World Report .noted in a lead paragraph'. that "The ' Pentagon appears to be a loser in the. latest reshuffle." Deputy Defense Secre- tary David Packard is probably the man most responsible for such interpreta- tions. In a 4 November meeting with Pentagon reporters, just one day before the White House announced that CIA Director Richard Helms was being given new, community-wide responsibilities with authority over all intelligence bud- gets, Packard said: "There have been people thinking if we just had someone over in the White House to ride herd on this overall intelligence that things would be improved. I don't really sup- port that view. ... I think if anything we .need .a little less coordination from that point than more ...." The White tlouse's determination to make the:defense intelligence field more 6gt?wprbigitidoA gai well as civil- MPsftrpA taken ear- lier this year by LGen John Norton, Commanding General of the Army's