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December 9, 2016
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November 6, 2000
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December 13, 1972
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? STATINTL WASEINGTON 'STAR a r13.& Approved For Release 2.opitp3/".. %.,[A-rw-rso-o1 menca eig "n ? : By JOHN BURGESS Special to The Star-News S BANGKOK ? "The flying is en-on-military; in other words, ' 'civilian flying. You are flying jor ? the U.S. government, that Is government agencies such as USOM, USAID, USIS, etc. While these agencies may be , under CIA direction, you don't i.know and you don't care. The 'government agencies direct ,the routings and schedulings, your company provides the technical know-how and you fly the airplane." e? Thus an unnamed American ,!.pilot describes civilian ? .flying" in Southeast, Asia ? for ;Air America and the lesser f. known Continental Air Serv- ices ? both private companies ; on contract to the U.S. govern- !;nient. The pilot's comments are part of a confidential, :,?16-page 'brochure available at ? certain Air Force personnel of- fires. It is shown to Air Force .;pilots interested in flying for one of the companies upon completing their military serv- ice. The brochure lists no author ,or publisher, hut it offers an :illuminating view into the in- '' qernal operations of Air Amer- eica, which has played a ern- 7eia1 role in the Indochina war 'theater since the 1950s. Air ?i:America, along with the other conipanic s, has airlifted 'troops, refugees, CIA agents, 'American politicians, war ma- - ??,terial, food and occasionally . 'prisoners all over Southeast :Asia. Extravagant Salaries ? The brochure, dated June 29, 1972, boasts that Air America 'ranked as one of the most 'profitable corporation in the United States in 1969, a year when most of the world's air- -lines lost heavily. Air Ameri- ca's customer is the U.S. government. . It employs about 436 according to the parripblet, of which 384 are working in . Southeast Asia. The center of Air America's operation is . Laos, where the presence of ? military or military-related 'personnel is prohibited by the Much-abused Geneva Confer- ence of 1962. Air America's profits are high despite the somewhat ex- travagant salaries it pay's for ' flying personnel. According to the report, a pilot with 11 ? years eftiotrOveilat rF UH-34D hetictpter based at Udorn air base in Thailand an average of 100 hours monthly, - will take home $51 525. All sal- aries are tax free. A newly hired pilot flying a C-7 Caribou transport based in -Vientiane, averaging 100 hours flying time monthly, would earn a minimum $29,442. The U.S. commercial pilot average is $24,000. Also available to Air Ameri- ca personnel, in addition to a liberal expense account, is life and medical insurance, two- weeks leave, tickets on other ? airlines at 20 percent normal cost, -PX and government mailing privileges and educa- tional allowances for depend- ents. Many Air America pilots are retired military men re- ceiving military pensions.' s`Good' Investment Americans can also become ' "air freight specialists", com- monly called kickers.. Their job is to push cargo out over drop zones. S a la r y is ' $100-91,800 per month. Quali- fications: American citizen- ship, air borne training, expe- rience with the U.S. Air Force. preferred. Air America, Inc., is owned by a private aviation invest- ment concern called the Pacif- ? ic Corp. Dunn' and Brad- street's investment directory .. places its assets in the $10-$50 million category, and rates it ! "good" as an investment risk. Air America itself employs al- together about 8,000 persons, ranking in size just below Na- tional 'Airlines and above most of the smaller U.S. domestic airlines. Formerly called C-zhil Air Transport (CAT), Air America was organized after World War II by General Claire Chennault, commander of the American fighter squadrons in Burma and China known as the Flying Tigers. CAT played a major role in post-war China supplying Nationalist troops. CAT also supplied, the French daring their phase of the war in Indochina. Air America is commonly considered an arm of the CIA. \ In Laos, the CIA for the past 10 year or more has' main- tained an army of -hill tribe- men, mainly Thai ad Lao mercenaries. Most ? of the air supply and transport needs for this army have been handled by Air America. Mil itary_ Assista n cc Wg Re19 gi99n1494#04o;sC not mention opium explicitly, it hints at the subject of con- traband:, "Although flights mainly serve U.S. official personnel movement and native officials and civilians, you sometimes engage in the movement of friendly troops, or of enemy captives; or in the transport of cargo much more potent than rice and beans! There's a war going on. Use your imagina- tion!" Air America works hand- in-hand with the U.S. Air Force. At Udorn air base in Thailand, Air Force mechan- ics repair the airline's trans- ports and helicopters, many of them unmarked. The Air Force has reportedly leased giant C130 transports when the planes were needed for opera- tions in Laos. In the section on Air America's benefits, the brochure lists in 'addition to normal home and sick leave: "Military leave will be grant- ed appropriately" an appar- ent acknowledgement that there . are military people working directly with AM America. One should not conclude, 'however, that the?salaries, ex- citement and tax -advantages mean that Air America pilots hope the war will continue. As the brochure's author notes in a typed postscript: "Foreign aid situation un- clear pending outcome mili- tary situation in RVN (Repub- lic of Vietnam), but it looks as if we'll finish the war (and peace terms favorable for our side); if so, it is expected that 'a boom among contract opera- tors will result when imple- mented, due to inevitable re- habilitation and reconstruction 'aid in wartorn areas.... Job market highly competitive and you'll' need all the help you can get." - According to Pacific News Service, the following men sit on the Air America board of directors: Samuel Randolph Walker ? chairman of the board of Wm. JC. Walker's Son, New York; director of Equitable Life As- surance Society; member of Federal City 'Council, Wash- ington, D.C.; member of Ac- tion Cbuneil for Better Cities, 'Urban America, Inc., and life trustee, Columbia University. William A. Reed ? chair- man of the board of Simpson Timber Co.; chairman of the 'Seattle First 'National 'Bank; director of General Insurance _ 'Co.; director of Boeing Co.; director of Pacific Car Found- I ry CO.; direcior of Nornem Pacific Railroad; director of Stanford Research. Institute. Arthur Berry Riehard.san ? foreign service officer in Rus- sia, China and England from 1914 to 1935; chairman of the board of Cheeeeborough 'Ponds, Inc. from 1955 to 1231; director of United Hospital Fund, New York; trustee of Lenox Hill Hospital. ? James Barr Ames -- law' partner in Ropes & Gray, Bos- ton; director of Air Asia Co., Ltd.., director of International 'Student Association; member, Cambridge Civic . Association and trustee of Mt. Auburn' Hospital. STATINTL IlAaRpP81 1 - ;11000050001-8 co.; irector t_irowe. ? son Timber Co.e director of BOSTON Aoproved For Release 2001/03/015TtlikiRDP80- , HERALD TRAVELER & RECORD? IMERI 9 AN Ec 9 197 D &S ? CIRC. N?A rmar fl ? II, t ti ,71 4tug /4 1,4 ??rad +,4 L.,47 By HARRY KELLY Herald Trir rec.,rcl American Washington Bureau WASHINGTON ? The, Gen- eral Accounting Office has reported to Congress that a jurisdictional conflict between Justice and Treasury Dept. agencies has impeded efforts to curb the mholesale smug- gling of heroin into the United States. Treasury's Customs BUreau and Justice's Bureau of Nar- cotics and Dangerous Drues .(BNDD), r the GAO noted, accused ea0i other of failing to cooperate or to share intelligence information. "Customs Is charged with the control of smuggling, BNDD with the control ? of narcotics," observed the GAO. "The interface of the two elements 7--? smuggled nar- cotics ? is a source . of conflict between the two agencies." The inter-agency battle, which has continued on and off for years, reached the point, the GAO found, that the ? White House stepped in to ; recommend guidelines and a 0 ff 01 r tr. I 7'i r:r n 1;111 k incea-,age ? involving the White House, State Dept., Central .Intelligence Agency, and Treasury and ?justice Depts. ? was issued last July 28 noting that the two agency heads "had agreed on the fullest possible cooperation." The BNDD cited the follow- ing case as the kind of problem its agents have had with Customs: A BNDD undercover agent arranged to act as a middle- man in receiving a package of narcotics from a seaman aboard a foreign ship in New York drydock for delivery to three other traffickers. The BNDD asked Customs to clear its personnel away from the dock area so that the deal could go through and narcotics agents would be able to arrest the three r r, t,??t, bt ?,_,A1 .allizational slill., Le rugged, uncontrollable. region '=?Inin''Ild `I :1?5/;:-1-7.6un Pri-' ,Srait Value of :';-.-.!-?17 million. 'the Ilsillg-L'-n iS 1:aPDY and the \cher, til.,?, ,full i,_,: 1,,,,,.., .,;,,.:illg_ vate. army thiit controls tli,-; old of 1 II -cii LA ; oui, eztr.l&. frOil) Burma. ?Pillin 1:1:01v0rE ;11.e haPP2''''' intik, route , from the . pop?i7y ,, _ _, . But Lot qolte. At any given 0112 iti it -,-,t'.01' it.;l:11,11'V and ,ijeids 0..,.1101.;.?,.0 i iii 1 iu the. ,i'n:, DON I (1.....?. ...a. ilic. ,70,..itint in u:tot:r Burma there ., ? . , ...? , 77 - ..,.,- lilt -,- I ??? , opium i 5 i'; ay 0 i: I ik' ? r ,., c :i.i.111,t ..o.,_1 .1 1,.? ,. it ip. I. ncinlc, . ? ;,-tre. at least Lail a dozen 1'I" '1 Aro:Tie:al narcotl,:s gencies under way. When the agents i.eis the first hill,: in ? lc"- inn 4''11.1 l'" (011ie.' ti.t ._, . , )7111 trilies aren't fighting the the devious drug cliain that. bc- 1 Imn '1'2-I.'? . " Iii 111-6ill1)`.!. kise furpate, ilrrily or the CorrInill- , gin s in the ponpy firlds oi the ter the el\l'orl- 111,11'-'?:et... nists. they're fighting each coldc,n Tri.23..,A, The, III 4,,r : ,. los youtier brother runs 1 ,.;t:eaches of iThrille., . o other, rkihind ; The 'Iachiloli end f the I stiff is corning through Thai- land," said a Bartjkok banker, "because. Thailnad is a natural conduit. And we don't deny that we have some crooked oT licials who are in on the ..and Laos -- and ends on rhe ?PeratiOn. ' streets Of New York. purc-i and simple," said a CIA . only major trafficker, La Ilas 1 . , ; agent, "and the Way it works LTIIOUGII his operations ; p.,-oved I:..... -it perhaps the racket. "But that doesn't mean that all of us are crool..s. And after VI-hat I've read your Nev.; ork City? police forc:;?, c:o:ft think you Americans are in a position to moralize. You're asking us to control the drug traffic 7:?,-11.:m you cim't control if yourselves. "We're tired of being picked on by visiting congressmen and 511 iii Why don't you ever Burma, is luau is where most of the stuff is coming from?" "IT'S AVAIII.ORD politics ? - Although by no means the are won 1111),,-.-ii, the elui,ive Lo . rims) determined and resource- ; ? the system. is self-perpetuat- , ! . has reiraincd F.0:1.1,:?tlitir! Cl n ful. Last yoar it. took him six ! .' "Without the opium, the 015 501 to both narcotics i months CO :nove about 70,1 00 I ,' warlords woulc.ln.'t be able to oc,:ilicr., Pounds of opium down fron1 ; gents and tile CIA, ,,,,hieli lizts . the poppy fields to Trtchilek. ' l buy g-dOs. .kni.-1 it 101 the /thrown its iT.1172.-...nce i guns they wouldn't be able to ; maintain their private armies. ts:ixon's .:ili,i1,e1 v, on tbe lidor- ,,a,,:linst hij:.,,c3:ers, co:nrmi.. . ; .:11(1. withent. t"-,e ..t.r.:7ies they nation.11 thug tr.:e. ' nist insur,:en;s and i.onietirne ) wouldn't be. ablo. to protect But Lo is no mystery to his the army. At one : turf." I former ScIleolt-vacilr, JimillY point he maile a deal with th?.. ,- ing re.`,1-11.ce2 inte Proniciii. "He Was fi;ihting all thci way ,Yang, a Shots cru:11 up-,7er Bur- Burmose fOrueS fltia who 1Uan1ig?es Rincome agaiusi.tli com1m1,1l.?ts : .1`17fote1, 1.1.111 tent for some trucks to replace ? THEANSWER to that ques- tion is that it (1oesn't do any . 01A-RDP86101501 R001000050001-8 ana he is not recentive to out- 1 I-side advice, there is very little) ) Burma's ``;ironn-ronii" 7-1111-7- ? 'his 51)1110 111110 c(""'111":11(Is a his :nide trill. on i,otta 1nnid ? Os Sid eApproydd r?riReteat1;2001110VO4 t s VIII)Amenc?? NEVI: It not on most irtop3 but facl7ilck is 'Where the opium comes from. , vi STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 CHICAGQ ILI:. NE" A'pproved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 E ? 434,349 OCT \f-1, 197a o Li Second in Cl series era 0 171 -11 cry". .By Keyes Beech .Daily News Foreign Service CHI I;.:NG MA I. Northern Thailand ? No long ago a vis- iting American congressman asked a U.S. narcotics agent in Bangkok if tie hill tribesmen of Southeast Asi, had any idea of the havoc their product, re- 'fined to heroin, was creating in the streets of Nev., York. For a momnt the agent was .speechless at the question. Then taking a deep breath, he - .replied: "Sir, they never beard of New 'Yu i-",;:" They never heard of Bang- kok, either. - The question is indicative of the wall of ignorance that sep- arates most Americans from the history am realities of the drug traffic M Southeast Asia. FOR FOUR centuries, begin- - n i 11 g with the aggressive prodding of greedy European colonialists, -ians have been cultivating the poppy that yields the camni that yields - the morphin, that yields the -heroin that c now finding its way into the [Anted States. Up through World War II and beyond, every Southeast Asian government had its opium monopoly. !Everywhere it was a ma or source of reve- nue, like whey government monopolies including salt and tobacco. In the middl2 in the last cen- tury the British fought a war to win the 1.12.t-,I? to sell opium to the unwillin7, Chinese. Bong . Kong - had its own opium "farm," Awl not until I9-4(3 did the llritkn outaw the drug -traffic in Bong Long. FOR THE ASIANS opium was, and so:I is, an escape ' front the pAm.; of 'reality just as alcohol is an escape for so many American. Some Asians become add4Js ? a growing number, in fact ? just as some American,: become alco- holics. Opium AppromegLFer Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 STATI NTL more ways 11.i-m one. An Amer- ican woman may sv:allow a pill to ease the pain of her menstrual r?riod. The hill tribe wmei-m of Southeast Asia's golt!.e.t triangle -- the upper reaches Of Burma,. Thai- land and Lao ? will smoke a' pipe or tu Of opium. Opium happens to be the only casa crop of the bill tribe people. ;_ileir only means of acquirin..-A some of the on nor luxuries of doe outside world. Their eeoporr, is as dependent on opium as the lowlanders are on rice. DURING all those earlier years, to ,1..00ericans opium was an Asian affair. But two years ago, wan heroin addic- tion hit enidomic proportions among American GIs in South Vietnam, tho .-`,sian narcotics traffic. became Amer- ica's business. Now the GI market almost has vanished with the with- drawal of American troops from Vietnaro. But the drug problem liffi:crs on ? a legacy of the Vietn.,.m War as the. her- oin trafficker,' seek new out- lets in the Unite(1 States to re- place their lk:st. Cl market. At the salon time President Nixon has declared global war on the internaoonal drug traf- fic. As a resuit, stopping drugs has become almost as impor- tant as storing communism a in on g L.S. objectives in Southeast Asia.. IN AT LEAST three coun- tries ? Thailand. Laos and South Vietnom ? all the re- sources of L.S. embassies have been thrown into the campaign to choke off the flow of heroin to the United States. _ tNow then, how to get the . bok in the public eye? What ? better way than to demand censorship rights over the riAMuseript. That would raise a?-?-guaranteed hue and cry ? the political spectrum because nothing?thank God? iseso sacrosanct in American sWety as the rights of a free ? press. ' ? "Fanciful you say? Not near- /W?So fanciful as half of the 4ns Alfred McCoy accuses the ;VIA' of in his book'. And look ..,at the results. The prepubliea- cenSorship was so weak Ithe publisher said .that he was "underwhelmed" by the '.TIA comments) that reported- .4-not a word was. changed in Alle'rnanuseript. The news of :VC:censorship was leaked to ? 'Abe:press and sparked editori- 1,114,in the New York Times, Washington Post, and A brand you can trust? rsits of CIA harassment?an ;article marred only by the ac- If you are naturally suSpi ? -companying editorial cartoon -Da showed the Pentagon grabbing an author's typewrit- or-But I suppose that the _Pentagon is better identified -in the public mind than Lang- leY where the CIA really _hangs its hat. ?The CIA, in effect, worked a clotible blessing. It insured r'high-le.vel attention and pub- licity on McCoy's book, which is being faithfully reviewed by most of the major publica- tions, and they focus public _ attention on the evils of government censorship. The taxpayers got their money's p . As James Markham point- . . , e e s er v c as well. According to James , When only the "heathen Chi- . Markham in the New York a/ nese" smoked opium, the U.S. Times, "a former CIA agent" was singularly uninterested in told Seymour Hersh that Mc- the problem. Coy's assertions are "10 per cent tendentious and 9() per Read McCoy's "90 per Cent v cent of the most valuable con- ; aluable contribution" that demanding that the United .States act as the policeman of the world in the Golden Trian- gle in Southeast Asia (how many divisions would it take to subdue the Shan States in -Burma that neither the Brit- - WI nor the present Burmese Government could police and Control?) ' . Disregard the sometimes ju- ,venile writing style---"In 'Xing Mongut (played by Yul Brynner in the King and 'bowed to . British pressure." That's like writing "At Get- tysburg, Abraham Lincoln (played by Raymond Massey) said . . ." McCoy also notes ."a brutal Chinese pacifica- tion campaign (in South China) rather similar to the one launched by the U.S. Seventh Cavalry against the Great Plains Indians." Why ? "7th Cavalry"? All they dis- tinguished themselves for was getting massacred at the Lit- tle Big Horn. It's racist of e to Mc- Coy ignore the all-black , . ? 10th Cavalry which played a much more important role in the pacification of the West. Disregard all that, for the :book does give valuable in- -sights into the mechanics of ? the heroin trade. McCoy's ex- -amination of the depth and scope of the Asian opium trade is particularly timely since this aspect was ignored until our own ox was gored. tribution I can think of. He's a . the CIA was kind enough to very liberal kid, and he'd like ?bring to your attention, but do to nail the establishment. Bu not be mislead by his conclu- t . sion. It is a con-out to say that "in the final analysisthe - program think that his re- some leading intelligence offi- ? cers inside the Government's - American people will have to search is great." ? . choose between supporting - e doggedly anti-Communist Not only that, but McCoy's book, which purports to attack the CIA, actually credits the agency with being 10 feet tall, of h aving history-bending governments in Southeast Asia or getting heroin out of their high schools." It is not that simple. Let me hasten to add that I claim no inside information on this caper. Maybe the CIA was just ham-handed enough to d in a n d re- ublication p p censorship without malice of forethought ... but I'd rather .scountles-A believe that our highest level 0or newsprers. they were merely stupid. n the ?Book Section on the :The Sta or-Rdf rweat k/apiMp powers, of saving (Godfather ed out in his New 'York Times forgive us) the Mafia from ex- tinction after World War II. Disregard the "tendentious 10 per cote?the rather puer- ile political judgements where McCoy wavers between con - derailing the CIA for being the policeman of the world, and IA-RDP80-01601ROV review, "American addicts - need only 60 to 100 tons of 'opium a year to feed their habits . :. This amount of opi- ? urn can be grown on five to 10 square miles of arable, upland country land?in Burma, in ; India, in Turkey, in Mexico, 0000600(618 . ?continued SAN FRAliCISCO, CA EXAM 71; E 20W989 Droved For Release 2001/0 EXAMINER & CHRONICLE ? 640,004 SEP 241$7 PAGE 38 Age:. her-ik608g2g6iiioNotigAt the evil of Communism and to fight: . . you must have money In these mountains the only Irhe 1)olirxs Of Heroin -n ap ed Reviewed by Thomas Lask THE POLITICS. OF HEROIN IN SOUTH- EAST ASIA. By Alfred W. McCoy, with Cathleen- 13. Reed and Leonard P. Adams if., Harper & Row; 464 pp.; $10.95. ? ALTHOUGH "The Politics of Southeast Asia" is packed with information, some of it of considerable convexity. its 'charges (for that is what its conclusions are) are sim- ple enough to be spelled out in a school pri- mer. Seventy per cent of the world's supply of heroin, the book asserts, has its origin in .Southeast Asia in an area of northeast Burma, North Laos and North Thailand known as the ."Golden Triangle." It is transported in the planes, vehicles and .other conveyances supplied by the United States. The profit from the trade has been 'going into the 'pockets of some of our best friends in Southeast Asia. The charge concludes with the statement that the traffic is being carried on with the :Indifference if not the closed-eye compliance of some American officials and there is no likelihood of its being shut down in the fore- seeable future. - Quick Controversy These conchi s o have een drawiL bv a Approlved ForRelease 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 continued money is opium ?A Taiwan gen yo.ung Ph.D. Scholar from Yale who st the subject for 18 nionths and who has ah ' been embroiled with the Central Intelligence Agency over them. ? -? Before publication, his book was attacked. by the CIA for what it said were unjust accu- sations that the agency knew of hut failed to stem that heroin traffic. After reading the gal- leys (which the publisher had made available) and sending off a critique to Harper's, the CIA took no further action. .if is difficult for ?anyone not close to the field to assess the accuracy of McCoy's mate- rial. But it must be said that his book is a serious, sober, headline-shunning study with - ? 63 pages of supporting notes, referring to a large number of personal interviews, newspa- per accounts, previously published .1) 00k S. Congressional committee hearings, govern- ment reports and United Nations documents. 'It is so filled with information that it vill take a great deal more than mere dislike of its 7, contents to demolish it. ?_ Official Aanowledgement Perhaps the greatest guarantee of its'accu- - 'racy is a cabinet-level report prepared by offi- cials ofj_CIA. the State Department and the Defense DeTT:iiiiMiir that confirms the main findings of the McCoy book. The report. dated Feb. 21, 1972. said that "-there is no prospect" of stemming the smuggling of drugs by air and sea in Southeast Asia and cited as one reason the fact that "the governments in the region are unable. or in some cases unwilling" to make a truly effective effort to curb the traffic. That drug smuggling is not a probleinre- mote from us can be seen from the fact that a shipment of the Double U-0 Globe brand, a 'bulk heroin manufactured in the Golden Triangle, was seized in an amount estimated by the police to be worth $3.5 million in the Lexington hotel in New York City last Novem- ber and another shipment worth by police esti- mates to be $2.25 million was taken in Miami. The politics of heroin ? and in this book the emphasis is on the politics ? is an artful one. McCoy cites the case of Ngo Dinh Mu, brother of President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, later murdered by his colleagues. . During his brother's regime, Nhu was head of the secret police and had set up a close STATI NTL Approved For Release 2E:F1/100t740 ?,. . ei. gifjifockoIll New and Recommended THE POLITICS OF HEROIN IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, by Alfred W. McCoy, with Cathleen B. Read and Leonard' P. Adams If. (Harper & Row, $10.95.) A. history of the post-World War II drug traffic in Southeast Asia that brilliantly unsnarls its tangled intrigues. _ STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 4k) ? - STATINTL CHICAGO DAILY NEWS VA/1044e IA9RD P80 -0 160 athloance with the .drivg WE POLITICS OF NEROIN IN SOUTHEAST ASIA, by Alfred W. McCoy (Harper & Row, $10.95). By Keyes Beech, HEROIN didn't 'always have -a bad name. Around the turn of the century it was hailed as a "miracle drug" and ap- proved by the AMA for general use. In fact, it didn't eveii have -4 name until Germany's Bayer chemical combine invented "Heroin" as a brand name and put it on the market as a cough medicine. But this fascinating bit of ? drug lore is only incidental to the .central theme of this dev- astating -book: that because of ? Its commitment to contain communism in Southeast Asia, the U.S. government helped create a generation of junkies. SOUTHEAST Asia's "Golden Triangle" ? where Laos, Thal- land and Burma meet.? has been an opium-growing area for centuries. But what McCoy and his fellow authors are con- cerned about is how within the. last 20 years the "triangle" has expanded its production until today it accounts for 70 per cent of the world's illicit supply of heroin. For this the authors hold the United States responsible. They specifically charee that In 1 heir clandestine _war against the Communists, U.S. agencies, notably the CIA, al- lied themselves with elements known- to be engaged in the drug traffic; ignored and even covered up the activities of 'mown drug traffickers, and allowed American military air- craft to be used to transport drugs. The charges are difficult to refute because, in the main, they happen to be true. McCoy has done his homework. Crit- ics may quarrel with some of his facts and dispute many of his judgments, but he con- A GI snorts heroin in-Vietnam. vincingly demonstrates, for ex- ample, that the G.I. heroin epi-. deride in South Vietnam could not have happened without the active participation of greedy generals and government offi- cials who owed their jobs to the 'United States. U.S. Involvement in the drug, FICH021: C71=00A MUM'S - COMPANY MAN by Joe Mag- gio (Putnam, $6.95). By George Harmon JIBE late Allen Dulles, quar- terback of our World War II spies and later chief of the CIA, scoffed at the nation of the American diplomat or spy being a closed-mind blunderer too cynical to play by any rules but his own. He criti- cized such novels as Graham Greene's "The Quiet Ameri- ? can". and Burdick and Lede- rer's "The Ugly American" for promoting "mischief-creat- ing prejudices." Dulles wrote that he pres 'erred "taking the raw mate- rial which we find in America ? naive, home-grown, even honiespun ? and training such a man to he a good intelligence _officer, however leag the pro- boys, If we are to believe re- cent news accounts, are trav- eling much farther afield than Dulles seemed willing to send them. THE BACKBONE of CIA ac- tivity apparently remains the clandestine listening posts and purloined letters which Dulles so loved.. But now the charge is often made that the CIA tries to foment change rather than merely report it; in Uganda, for example: in Chile, in Laos. So much is being written about the CIA, in fact, that its argot is creeping. into Ameri- can slang: a spy is a spool:, to kill is to ."terminaie with ex- treme prejudice." Now .arrives Joe Maggio, a mercenary-turned-writer, who says he worked off and on for the CIA in places like Africa and Laos. ?F. a TO UJA tin, a sort of comic book super- hero and former Green Beret A "home-grown" boy whom Dulles would have liked; he is recruited off a Florida campus by "the Company" (in-group slang for the -CIA), and works part time, training Bay of Pigs invaders and shooting up Africa and the Tonkin Gulf. There is enough bad writing to fill three pulp ? magazines ("steel split the air over- head"). BUT MAGGIO'S book has an aura of authenticity about it, and few readers know enough about the CIA to dispute him ? even though the question al- ready has been raised: Is Joe Maggio the Clifford Irving of the barracks set? , W. E. Colby, executive direc- tor of the CIA, disputes the publisher's contention that "Company Man" is "a novel of cess lasts." Those homespun His novel tells of _Nick Mar-- ?facts,"_prociaiming it a "taw- News editor and writer. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-Rb 80-01 Eraniac STATINT traffic was, as the authors con- tend,. an "inevitable con- sequence" of our involvement in Southeast Asia, where opium was a way of life. But it did not become an "American problem" until It touched 'American lives. THE BOOK is not quite the scholarly work that it pretends to be. It is as Much an In- dictment of the Vietnam war as it is a documentation of the drug traffic. The. authors sug- gest that all will be well if President Nixon is defeated and the United States pulls out of Southeast Asia lock, stock- and barrel. Maybe so. But the sad thing is that the book's thief victims are a handful of dedicated CIA men who went to Southeast Asia to do a job. That job was to fight communism, not re- form a society. ? Keyes Beech- is The Daily News' correspondent in Asia. . yqt ,4,11 a- - dry fabrication" filled with "lurid writing and innate con- tradictions." Ito denies that the CIA ever has carried out assassinations or has traf- ficked in drugs, as Maggio as- serts. Colby also says Maggio was "terminated for cause" during a six-month CIA training pro- gram and never went overseas for the CIA or undertook any of the "assignments" -Mageio says he performed.. But Mag- gio has obtained a government letter quoting the CIA as say- ing that he worked for the agency on contract: In any event, Maggio writes enough like a soldier to con- vince the reader he has been one. Be has produced an un- /Professional but good example of thriller fiction. George Harmon is a Daily THE BULLETIN Approved For Release 2001/038348eMAIRD STATINTL "LADIES and gentlemen," announced . the genteel British diplomat, raising his glass to offer a toast, "I give you Prince Sopsaisana, the uplifter of Laotian youth." . The toast brought an appreciative smile from the guest of honor, cheers and applause from the luminaries of Vientiane's diplomatic corps assembled at the farewell banquet for the Laotian ambassador-designate to France, Prince Sopsaisana. A member of the royal house of-Xieng Khouang, the Plain of Jars region, the prince was vice-president of the National Assembly, chairman of the Lao Bar Association, president of the Lao Press Association, president of the Alliance Francaise, and a member in good standing of the Asian People's Anti-Communist League. After receiving his credentials from the king in a private audience at the Luang Prabang Royal Palace on April 8, 1971, he was treated to an unprecedented round of cocktail parties, dinners, and banquets. For Sopsai, as his friends call him, was not just any ambassador; the Americans considered him an outstanding example of a new generation of honest, dynamic leaders. The final send-off party at Vientiane's Wa?tay Airport on April 23 was one of the gayest affairs of the season. Everybody was there; the champagne bubbled, the canapes were flawlessly French. and Ivan Bastouil, charge d'affaires at the French embassy, gave the nicest speech. Only after the plane had soared off into the clouds did anybody notice that Sopsai had forgotten to Alp 0010.bdieedif Wei reception. His arrival at Paris's Orly Airport on By ALFRED W. McCOY and KATHLEEN B. READ the morning of April 25 was the occasion for another reception. The French ambassador to Laos, home for a brief visit, and the entire staff of the Laotian embassy had turned out to welcome the new ambassador. There were warm embraces, kissing on both cheeks, and more effusive speeches. Curiously, the prince insisted on waiting for his luggage like any ordinary tourist. and when his many suitcases finally appeared after an unexplained delay, he immediately noticed that a particular one was missing. Sopsai angrily insisted that his suitcase be delivered at once, and French authorities promised, most apologetically, that it would be sent to the Laotian embassy as soon as it was found. Sopsai departed reluctantly for yet another reception at the embassy, and while he drank the ceremonial champagne with his newfound retinue of admirers. French customs officials were examining one of the biggest heroin seizures in French history. The ambassador's suitcase contained 60 kilos of high-grade Laotian heroin ? worth $13.5 million on the streets of New York. its probable destination. A week later, a smiling French official presented himself at the embassy with the suitcase in hand. Although Sopsaisana had been bombarding the airport with outraged telephone calls for several days, he suddenly realised that accepting the suitcase was tantamount to an admission of guilt and erirnpriViCaeTiclikFROP8 e at y erne t tat it was is. ignoring his declaration of innocence, the French government refused to accept his diplomatic credentials, and Sopsai remained in Paris for no more than two months before he was recalled. DESPITE its resemblance to comic opera, the Prince Sopsaisana affair offered a rare glimpse into the workings of the Laotian drug trade. That trade is the principal business of Laos, and to a certain extent it depends on the support (money, guns, aircraft etc) of the CIA. Unfortunately, the questions raised by the prince's disgrace were never asked, much less answered. The French government overlooked the embarrass- ment for diplomatic reasons, the international press ignored the story, and the United States embassy demonstrated a remarkable disinterest in the entire subject. Over the past 50 years, Laos has become something of a free port for opium. The delicate opium poppy grows abundantly at high elevations in the northern mountains, and under a sequence of different regimes (French, American, Laotian), the hill tribesmen have been encouraged to cultivate the poppy as the principal cash crop. Opium dens can be found in every quarter of Vientiane, and the whereabouts of the opium refineries are a matter of common knowledge. The Laotian indifference to Prince Sopsaisana's misfortune therefore becomes easily understandable. The reticence of the American embassy, however, requires a few words of explanation. Sopsai had allegedly received his 60 kilos of heroin through the kind offices of a particularly 11331 100101r01513001Vtr Pao. yang ao also ppens to be t commander of the CIA secret army in boatinued STATINTL Approlzeid BIDE IRRipamw2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01 REGISTEa 1 - 250,261 S ? 15,710 SEP 22 19721 Cracking Down on Drug Trade President Nixon said he would comply fully andPromptly with the statute which requires him to suspend aid to "any government whose leaders participate in or protect the activiiies of those who contribute to our drug problem." Taken literally, the statute would re- quire him to suspend aid to South Vietnam, Laos and Thailand, all of which have leaders deeply involved in the drug trade. Formerly nearly all the heroin for Americans came from Turkish poppy fields via French processors and smug- glers. In recent years the United States has been paying Turkey to cut off opium production and catching the French smugglers. So the traditional Southeast Asia opium trade has greatly expanded, begun manufacture of heroin and gone after customers among American sol- diers in South Vietnam and in the world market. Burma is part of the chain, too, but Burma scorns U.S. aid. If the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency were a foreign power (sometimes it acts like one), the President would have to cut off support for it, too. For years the CIA. has tolerated the opium and her- oin trade of Southeast Asia in its search for "freedom fighters." The opium- growing Meos of Laos are C.I.A. pro- teges, and so, earlier, wetrIfftwifrium- growing Chinese Nationalist exiled guer- rillas in Burma. The chain of smugglers who brought the opium from the interior highlands to processing and distribution points as heroin included Laotian and South Vietnamese generals and officials. Unforturfately, all this is hard to prove in any individual case, though the gener- al outlines are well-known. The C.I.A. denies everything, and the Thai, Laotian and South Vietnamese governments do the same ? and occa- sionally co-operate in crackdowns to keep the White House satisfied. Still, the President would be wise to. keep his pledge on file and consider actually carrying out the threat. Amer- ica's "honor" and "face" have been hopelessly smirched by the long, cruel . Indochina war, but he could still salvage a little honor by ending the whole war (not just for Americans on the ground) out of refusal any longer to co-operate with those who are corrupting American troops with heroin. Approved For. Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 STATINTL Approved.For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-016011 FT. WAYNE, IND. JOURNAL GAZETTE SEP 2 1 197a 11. - 68,240 - 105,80 Heading Off The Drug Problem The country's fight against foreign 'drug traffic is developing, its own ver- .sion of a credibility gap. It was just about a year ago the administration an- nounced a ".significant breakthrough" in ,:an .agreement with Turkey to start ellininating.. opium production. Since then, however, there has been some new evidence 'to indicate Turkey was only a: part of the problem, Earlier this year, Secretary of State William Rogers reported to a Senate ,subcommittee that the countries in Southeast 'ASia also were cooperating to control the drug flow; But now there's: substantial doubt about just how willing those countries are to aid the I.T,S,. drive against drug importa- tiOn: A'neW report has emerged, com- piled by the CeRtral Intelligence Aulacy, the State Dellritment anThthe Mfense Department, which found the drug business from Southeast Asia is ' vastly large,r than had been estimated, and that, there ,is no foreseeable pros- pect of "stopping it. The study further blames :"cOkruption, collusion and in- ,difference" by various levels of gov- ernment in Thailand and South Viet- nam. ' AltImiugli administration spokesmen immediately discounted the report, still another investigation by the 'Strategic Intelligence Office of the Bureau Narcotics and Dangerous . Drugs. also emphasized the Amount. of high-quality heroin that is coming out of Southeast.: Asia. That report further said there is evidence piling up to.indicate organized crime is involved in the trade. There is at least enough information to remove any doubt about the inter. '- national scope of the hard 'drug pro.; duction and supply netwerk., It involves numerous countries, governmental cor- ruption, and a. wide range. of ,smuggling channels. It also means the hard drug . problem isn't going to come under con- trol with a-single approaCh., One alternative is to disrupt domestic supply Channels, Sand to make it diffi- cult for them, to do business. The ad- ministration is more nearly on target with its new proposal for a National Narcotics Intelligence- 'Office to help fight 'domestic drug, traffic, and for more money for addict treatment and - rehabilitation. Another part of? the effort is to' create the kind of educa- tional; programs that ,can help Youth's avoid. getting , involved with drugs. That's where the impact is the most im- portant,' and vvhere,,all the other so.cia complications can be avoided. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 -NpA:KM-TM Fcor,l,eleas 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01 CALIFOMZIA VOICE ,.("7.11) WEEKLY ? 12,500 ),---., :;-? I By Mrd-lis: lienriquer. . Almost universally acimov.i- /e.dged as something ailn to the great plague itself, it is often surprising to leorn that heroin Was once proclaimed to be the wonder drug of the age. The time was shortly he fore the turn of the centur, and the pittce was imperil Cermany Nvhere heroin Ind just been developed as a are for a more shiister addict )ri, that of morphine. As us( of the drug became more. vide- spread and its disadvantages more obvious, heroin oriekly lost its priveleged positica and the scientific institutims of the day renewed their search in other directions. - Quantities of heron first appeared in this cointry a- round 1930. The priniiple im- porters of the drug core sail- ors and other glol;t1 trans- /CW.5 whose artivi.les were confined primarily to the larg- er coastal cities. One ghettos for the roost past ronained un- touched. MORPHINE With the comitg of W W II the situation Inclement a radical change mci once more the use of inoplaine was in- volved. Standa:d procedure adopted by tin U. S. armed forces for the treatment of wounds receitod in combat in- volved immtdiate massive injections cf the drug to deaden tie pain- So wide- spread was he use of mor- phine durirg the war that many G. k's wore issued their own persosal drug supply and bypath' mic needle in the event that 3elf treatment be- came necesary. Despite the fact that norphine was known to have bon donrerously ad- dictive sone fifty years be- fore. the cathreak of the war, the drug had _become an in- tegral pat of America's war- time medcal machine. It was with the release of many oIthese wounded veter- ans Iron service that the specter of widespread drug addictim first appeared. No one., it f.:ems, had yrt develop. ed a cu-e for morphine addle- STATI NTL 1(-nn 1 '''''',- r4ri rt7', 1' - 1 l' - ( ', i , t I LO LI Li 1,... ...?,' Li .:_ii 4: 4:i i i ,....)I.i cLi.i' Li Li 41 li Freedom Party and even a fledgling Bloe'r. Panther Party (New Fork chapter) have all espoused this position at one time or anoilier. \\tin:ether or not this charge is valid in ord. of itself, there is a substantial body of eviileoce, to sug oert that the United States govern- ment has actively encouraged large scale heroin producticit to further its own political ends. The genesis of this intrigue began shortly befere the ac- don but heroin was a good substitute. Sailors soon found that they could make a lot more money selling horain than they could on any ship and the rush was on to secure the most lucrative markets and methods of production. FITECT Nowhere was the effect of heroin felt more dramatically than in the Flack community. Seemingly overnight scores of young men, whose only mis- fortune was to have served ft"--' ? . eritratttrrosTr."ZI ('. (-'4 ? kood 4. their country, returned home with only their wits between them and what was most often a slow agonizing death. Five years after .the close of W IV If the pusher was al- ready established as the new king of the ghetto. The post war baby boom, the newfound affluence of the ifties, and the Korean conflict in which even more Americans were intro- duced to use of narcotics all played a role in the rise of smack. As a result countless millions of young men and women, most of them Black, found themselves involved with heroin before reaching the age of twenty. Black power advocates were the first to allege that heroin addiction was actually en- couraged by this country's federal government as a means to further subjugate the Black population, and thereby avoid full scale revo- lution in the face of 'increas- ing repression. Stokely Char- michel, Bap Brown, the now defunct. SNCC, Peace and tual introduction of American troduction of American ground troops in South Viet- nam. Before the American army could embark it was necessary to determine the amount of local support they could e:Tect, Since the South Vietnamese army was barely on the edge of destruction and the civilian population almost solidly behind the Viet Cong, or just as solidly neutral, the search concentrated on cer- tain jungle tribesmen who in- habit the remote mountain areas that border Laos and Cambodia. It just so hap:pi-tin- ed that these Meo (pronotoec- ed Mao) and :ilantingotird Isibesmen troditionally c-rott. ag- -cti in resound eune and co,stiarin to the Inerotive markets cf Thialend and Viet Nam. As they V'ere olready de- log a booming hosiness on their own, some incentive was needed to tinesel into Cad uncertainties of war. It seems that since these triiiesmen had little or no contort with any government, political appeals were largely mc cause. COMPRO:illfZ . What evolved was a com- promise. Mo?tingyard and Meo tribes would fight and provide intelligence for A- merican troops it the Ameri- cans would, in turn, help them move greater quantities of opium and heroin. The details as to how this compromise has worked have been tile subjectof numerous articles appearing in publica- tions ranging from Ramparts to TDB NEW Air America aircrafi, a chart- er owned and operated by the CIA, certain aircraft belong- ing to the USAF, and in one case dOcninellted by CI3S, even the personal aircraft of the American ambassador to Sai- gon have all been involved in the trafficing of heroin. That a new generation of American soldiers becomes addicted while serving in Viet Nam is seemingly a small price to pay for the oppor- tunity of stopping the insid- ious 'red _hoards. _ Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 sticrAppsestecVror Release 2001/03/04 iCIA-RDP8 DEO SEP 2 11974 STATINTL E - 172,411 S 200,546) Commentary The CIA Loses A Boa ' STRIKE ? One thing is certain about the, US Central Intelligence , Agency: l\l'o one knows where it will , strike next. Figuring out where the cloak-and-dagger fellows will turn up ; is like guessing the number of jelly beans in a. jar or predicting when : they will finish the street repairs in - front of your house or when your in- laws will drop in for dinner the next , time. Of' course, there are certain events the CIA is NOT interested in ? apple pie bakeoffs, watermelon contests, a Burlington Liars Club get-together, an . apple bob, spin-the-bottle or a back- gammon game. When the fellows from the woodsy V' CIA campus in Langley, Va., get inter- ested in something they go all out. And when they do, their policies are right out of King Herod. It must have '? been a CIA operative in the crowd - who started shouting: "Give us Barabbas." VThe latest- example is the Central - Intelligence Agency's ham-handed at- tempt to stop publication of a book by Alfred McCoy, a Yale graduate stu- " dent, called "The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia." . McCoy's book charged the Central Intelligence Agency has known of Thai and South Vietnamese official involvement in heroin traffic, has cov- ered up their involvement and has ? participated in aspects of the traffic : . itself. By James Wrightson, Associate F.difor In an exchange of letters, the gen- eral counsel of the CIA asked to see the book prior to publication saying: "It is our belief that no reputable publishing house would wish to pub- lish such allegations without being as- sured the Supporting evidence was valid." Admittedly under fire in the book, the agency said it should have the role as the validator. The publisher, probably with the Clifford Irving hoax in mind, was su- persensitive to the axiom: A publish- er has the ultimate responsibility .for checking the reliability of the materi- al he proposes to publish. So overrid- ing the author's objections, it got the galley proofs of "The Politics of Hero.- in in Southeast Asia" and a courier from the CIA headquarters went to New York and took them back to Vir- ginia. Apparently after a page-by-page re- view the CIA could not, try as it did, demonstrate the author's evidence did not support his assertions. REVIEW ? In a letter to the gener- al counsel of the CIA the publisher said: "Based upon careful review, it is our sincere opinion Mr. McCoy's scholarship remains unshaken and we do not see any reason for making any ' changes in the text." - That would end it, except for the fact this is neither the government's nor the CIA's first venture into the dangerous business of trying to im- pose prepublication restraints on words and ideas the citizens of this country are to read and consider. The memory of the Justice Depart- ment's outcry against .the Pentagon Papers is still green. The CIA has an unenviable record in this regard. In recent years the agency has tried to use its influence on Random House, Putnam, Harper and has gone into court to try to dictate what the people of this country shall read about the CIA. The supersecret agency just cannot have it both ways. It cannot be a su- persecret, never-to-be-spoken of, be- hind-the-scenes intelligence-gathering agency, then come storming out of the shadows when it believes it might be hurt by something printed about its activities. The CIA's action? in trying to stop the publication of "The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia" is about as helpful to the cause of freedom of in- formation in this country as the Stamp Act was to King George. ( DENIED 7- The CIA, of course, has \ denied all this. We are not concerned . here with the pinpoint accuracy of McCoy's book or his methods of re- search, although the CIA could turn - 1 IR no gross errors in fact. What is of deep concern is the way. the CIA, a powerful and )rcstigious yovernAppromed ForcRelease 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 I to Harper & Row not to publish the book Approved ?For Release 20011013WVAAtiFal3i0AEIIA91R0 TiC6 7:tra sEr gt 77,7 LL,4.?"1%. trO io.,? a By Act:, Anderson CueiTillag luta Dopts Intelligence reports charge that the Palestinian guerrillas In Lebanon are hampering U.S. efforts to cut off the ille- gal flow of heroin and hashish from the Mideast to America. "Turkish opium and mor- 'phino base is smuggled into Lebanon," says one report, "direetly or through Syria." From Lebanon, some ship- ments .are routed to South America, others to Rotterdam for transshipment to the United States. It's difficult to stop the dope smuggling out of Lebanon, suggests another classified document, because "internal security and the presence of about 30,000 armed guerrillas in the country pose a major threat to the government. ? "The police are restrained from proceeding against the hashish production and traf- ficking In the Baalbeck area as there is strong parliamen- tary involvement in the traffic," the report adds. ? In all fairness, the harassed Lebanese government has tried to control the Palestini- ans. But William Buffum, the American ambassador, has pointed out that "the Le- 'banes? authorities have not dared to set foot in any of the 'country's 15 refugee camps for the past two years." ? As evidence of the trouble .the guerrillas are causing in Lebanon, the Central Intelli- gence Agency has summarized r , " -,, r ...i ? t , . Y - A Li 1 i QJIJAL,, ili'V,'...J1-; cL) . e.Y ? the Palestinian offenses, nota--? , bly: "A. Customs evasion, rion-?:. payment of Postai and tele.' phone dues, flouting of 7 - des registration regulations. " "B. The presence in refugee ? camps of large colonies of.. alien squatters. "C. Refusal by individuals to comply with court orders, pay fines or answer summonses, : under the protection both of the camp pollee end of their fedayeen aliases. "D, Seizure and occupation of land outside the defined ? camp boundaries, "B. Specific incidents of ill. . discipline." Reports also persist that the Palestinian terrorists are 11C- Wally raising their- arms money by smuggling dope. The intelligence data hi. our - hands, however, fails to pin down this charge. The United States, mean- while, has brought quiet pres- sure upon the Lebanese au- thorities to crack down on the smuggling. Although they may be somewhat helpless to pre- vent it, the classified docu- ments recommend as a last re- sort that the United States - "expose Lebanon"--one of our few friends in the Arab sphere ? ? "in the world press as. source and transshipment country for hashish and op. ,-- iates respectively." 1572. United Feature Byndleara ; ? l'74) ((M. 74r0 fL L. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80:01601R001000050001-8 VET YORX REVIEW OF BOOK Approved For Release 2001/0Ep1IMR0P80-016 , On June 1 of this year an official of the US Central Intelligence Agency paid a visit to the New York offices of my publisher, parper and Row, Inc. This CIA official was Mr. Cord. Meyer, Jr. (now the CIA's Assist- ant Deputy Director of Plans; formerly the CIA official in charge of providing covert financial 'subsidies for organizations such as the ? National Student Association, En- -counter Magazine, and the Congress for Ctltural freedom).' Mr. Meyer urged sex- /era! of his old friends among Harper and Row's senior management to provide him , with a copy of . the galley proofs of. my history ,of. the international narcotics tat- ,/ fie, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast V Asia, In this. book I show the .complicity of various US iagencies?particularly the CIA and Ha; State Department?in organizing ? the SoUtheast Asian drug traffic since the ? early 1950s. ? ?Mr. Meyer presented one . of Harper and Row's senior editors with some documents giving the CIA's view on the Southeast Asian drug traffic. His manner was grave. said,. "You ,wouldn't want to publish a book that would be full of inaccuracies,' embarrass tha United ,States government, or- et you involved in libel Suits, would you?" . Harper and Row's management promised ? to consider -Mr. Meyer's request and sum- - napned me from Washington, DC, where -I was then testifying before the Senate Appropriations Committee on my findings after eighteen months .of research into the Southeast Asian drug traffic. This research included more than 250 interviews with heroin dealers, police officials, and intelli- gence agents in Europe and Asia. At a meeting in New York on the afternoon of June 8, Harper and Row's president, Mr. Winthrop Knowlton, and its senior vice president,- Mr. B. Brooks Thomas, told me that they. had decided to provide the CIA with a copy of the galley 'proofs Prior to publication for the follow- ing reasons: ? First, the CIA would be less likely to seek a temporary court -injunction barring publication of the book if the Agency were given- a chance to persuade itself that ? national security was in no way endangered by portions of my book; and secondly, .Harper and Row felt that a responsible .'publisher should have enough confidence in the voracity ,of any of its particularly controversial books to show them to any ??,'') 0'4 " "al , V7721 Lij Alfred VL McCoy the galley proofs to the CIA could set a dangerous precedent and ultimately weaker First, Amendment guarantees concerning freedom of the press. Moreover, in view of what I had learned of the CIA's operating methods in Southeast Asia I was convinced that the Agency wa& capable of using unethical means?such as coercing my sources into retracting statements they had made to me about US complicity in the international narcotics traffic?in order to induce harper and Row to withdraw the book from publication. After a week of negotiations, however, harper and Row, told me that they would not be villing to publish the book. unless I agreed to submit the manuscript to the CIA. Faced with what I believed would be lengthy delays if I took the book to another publisher and the prospect of losing my Harper and Row editor, Elisa- beth Jakab, with whom I had worked closely, I capitulated. ? Thus began more than two months of lengthy negotiations between the CIA, Harper and Row, and myself. Most of what happened during. these elaborate negotiations is in the corre- spondence reprinted beloW. I. have added introductory notes to explain some of ,the attending circumstances. -Considered collectively, this. exchange of ' letters provides us with another important reminder?perhaps the first since the Na- tional ; Student Association scandals .of 1967?of the contempt this most clan- destine of our governmental agencies has for the integrity of the press and publish- ing industry. As the CIA's letter of Jul' 28, 1972, Shows, it was unable to rebut effectively my analysis of its role in the international heroin traffic during the last quarter century. Since the CIA simply had no plausible defense against this charge, it ;tried to impose prior censorship in order to avoid public scrutiny of its record. If it was not already clear, if now should be obvious to publishers that the Agency cannot be regarded as a responsible critic when its public image is seriously threat- ened by what is. written about it., STATI NTL and Row by stating categorically that it could rebut all .my charges about its complicity in the international narcotics traffic. We were surprised, however, that the CIA made no reference to "national security" as one of -its concerns in.request- ing to review the manuscript. Rather, the Agency made its request purely on grounds of government privilege. Central Intelligence Agency Washington, D.C. 20505 5. July 1972 Mr. B. Brooks Thomas Harper & Row, Publishers, Inc. Dear Mr. Thomas: Mr. Cord Meyer has asked me to respond to your letter to him of June 30th in connection with the book, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, by Alfred W. McCoy. As you are no doubt aware, Mr. McCoy testified on 2. June 1972 before the Foreign Operations Subcommittee of the Senate Appropriations Committee. His teti- mony included allegations concerning .sup- - ; port of the international opium traffic by - ? ? 1 In this letter, Written after Cord Meyer, Jr.'s visit, Harper and Row asked the CIA. for official confirmation of their interest in seeing the book. Since the CIA had ?never before been quite so willing to defend ?reputable critic for comment prior to itself publicly, neither Harper and Row nor publication.' Approved .For Releatexnad1/03104nYCIATDRDP8040 . At first I disagreed strongly with Harper Agency. and Row's decision, arguing that submitting U. S. agencies, including the Central Intel- ligence Agency, and numerous other allega- -tions concerning participation in the opium traffic by both Americans and local per- sonnel in Southeast Asia. In the light of the pernicious' nature of the drug traffic, allegatipns concerning in- volvement of the U. S: Government therein ( be,leit ic' ation of American .citizens PAN 005000443 on ? hard , evidence., It is our belief that no reputable .ccriatinuGcl S8T0 0A-1116NoTiL e mit ji III 1111111 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-R p Headquarters EMPLOYEE BULLETIN #326 20 September 1972 PRESIDENTIAL COMMENTS ABOUT THE NARCOTICS CONTROL PROGRAM The President on 18 September 1972 addressed the International Narcotics Control Conference about the global drug problem. His remarks about the Agency's role in the narcotics control program were very complimentary and are quoted below for the information of all employees: "The men and women who operate the global heroin trade are a menace not to Americans alone, but to all mankind. These people are literally the slave traders of our time. They are traffickers in living death. They must be hunted to the end of the earth. They must be left no base in any nation for their operation. They must be per- mitted not a single hiding place or refuge from justice anywhere in the world and that is why we have established an aggressive interna- tional narcotics control program in cooperation with the governments In more than 50 countries around the world. That is why I have or- dered the Central Intelligence Agency, early in this Administration, to mobilize its full resources to fight the international drug trade, a task, Incidentally, in which it has performed superbly. Let me interject here a word for that much maligned agency. As I have often said, in the field of intelligence we always find that the failures are those that are publicized. Its successes, by defini- tion, must always be secret and in this area there are rna.ny successes and particularly ones for which this agency can be very proud. The key priority here is the target on the traffickers wherever they are, to immobilize and destroy them through our law enforce- ment and intelligence efforts and I commend all of you on the fine initial progress which has been made in these programs." DISTRIBUTION: ALL EMPLOYEES Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 BALTIMORE FAM Approved For Release 2001/03/04301AgRDP80-01601R Nixiir vc 4 II c 611 1 -11 koi 11",(J) c'''' e Central Intelligence Agency,' i4Aall which he said has "performed superbly" in helping fight the drug traffic. The agency has been accused, mostly recently in a book, of ignoring or ac- tually aiding narcotics activi- ties by some American allies in Southeast Asia. In the remainder of the nor- fly A M ES S. 1MA T WaVtington Vureazt of The Sun. ? . ? Washington----President Nixon cult," but he asserted that the 'threatened yesterday to cut, off administration is "beginning to all economic and -military aid roll up some victories in co un- cotics control conference which to governments that connive in try after country around the was organized by the. State - the illegal narcotics traffic to world and in the United States Department in the last 10 United States. as we days, the U.S. diplomats ?vill the ll." More federally financed drug hear .a series of brief speeches ---."I shall not hesitate" to in- yoke - authority granted him treatment facilities have been by high-ranking administration last year to take such a step, created in the past year than officials concerned with the Ni.. Nixon told a conference of in the 50 preceding years, the , drug traffic and will exchange ideas among themselves. narcotics control officials from President said. Arrests of drug the government here and from traffickers in the year ended some 50 U.S. embassies last June 30 was double the abroad. number three years earlier, he Some of the sting was taken added. And he cited again the from the President's threat reported rise in price of heroin when he singled wit for praise on the street as evidence Po- for the antanareoties efforts lice were squeezing supply taken by such nations as Pam- lines. guay, Thailand and Laos, na- tions that have in. the past. been -.considered laggards by some officials. One official cited Burma as the only nation still regarded as recalcitrant in the interna- tional fight against the opium trade, which reaches the U.S. in the form of heroin. But Burma receives no U.S. aid. The authority cited by Mr. Nixon was given him in an amendment last year to the legislation authorizing ship- ment of surplus agricultural commodities to needy nations. Mr. Nixon spoke just a day after, a sharp attack on his drug program by Senator George S. McGovern, his Dem- ocratic rival for the presi- dency. Senator McGovern con- tended that the administration has failed to deal effectively with the narcotics problem at home or abroad. Diplomats summoned Mr. Nixon's words were aimed at an -audience larger than the U.S. - diplomats who were summoned to the hastily organized conference which A White House spokesman said concludes tomorrow. the possible use of the provi-; Several officials who con- 1 sion had been invoked in pre.- ceded - that the meeting would vious international discussions have little tangible result on combatting the 1)(7?1111 argued that the diplomats who trade. have been prodding foreign Speaking harshly of the drug governments for more stren- traffickers, Mr. NixOn'''called uous efforts to stem the flow them "the slave traders of our or heroin would be armed with time." Ile 'said the fight the President's strong words in against drug abuse, at home exercising suasion. . and abroad, "is - one .of the CA most important, the Most ur- Praised , gent, national priorities con- At the same time, the Com- fronting the United States mittee for the Re-election of today." the President tape recorded Mr. Nixon conceded that the the President's speech at the effort to halt the narcotics State Department yesterday trade - is `.?clierineus:13 difii" morning and advised any jour- nalists who may have missed it that they would hear it by telephoning committee head- quarters. The. President took pains to All but one of the speeches for the private sessions of the 'Conference are scheduled to last a half-hour or less, includ- ing time for questions. Many of the diplomats are of high rank, including a sprinkling of ambassadors or their deputies. STATI NTL th Approved Fdrralke1eeasie100111/0S/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 iVA6)..i.PUTUIN ivar Approved. For Release 2001/03144S:E81-7FiDPs810A91h91R Toni Era:deli ra4 .kriz _,,,,ieczasatiloiltii Li ' THE Central Intelligence Agency is under fire again, this time accused of engag- ing in the heroin traffic. De- spite our professed dedica- tion to , fact, we Americans arc not immune to mythol- ogy. Where the CIA is con-. "mad, we swallow almost anything. . For example, large num.- berg of Americans still be- lieve the CIA encompassed, the death of John Kennedy. The, accusation used to make Robert Kennedy. al- most physically ill, but he was never able to scotch it, .and you can still hear it whispered by those whose minds run to things that go "woosh! in the night." The myth that the CIA is responsible for the vast quantities of heroin which enter this country probably has a similar goblinlike origin, When tragedy hits us we search for a culprit. Since World War II, the CIA has been at hand: Unlike the death-of-Ken- nedy myth, to which no au- thor or scholar ever gave credence, the heroin myth has now found respectable upport. In a new book, t 'The Poliiics of Heroin in Southeast Asia," a young Yale student and antiwar ac- tivist named Alfred W. - McCoy suggests that the heroin tragedy in the :nation is the fault of the CIA. "AMERICAN diplomats and secret agents have been involved in the narcotics traffic at three levels," he writ es. "(1) Coincidental complicity by allying with groups actively engaged in the drug traffic; (2) abetting the traffic by covering up for known heroin traffick- ers; (3) active engagement in the traffic of opium and heroin. It is ironic," he adds, "that America's heroin plague is of its own mak- ing." If I may. adopt Mr. Mc- Coy's style for a moment, should like to be permitted the following comment: Some Americans who want to -change the policy in 'Viet- nam endanger their effort on three levels: (I) They at- tribute evil to those who are carrying out the policy. (2) As evidence of the evil, they offer the policy. To say the CIA moved certain farmers to get them off the battle- field and that. the farmers were forced to raise opium in order to cat is evidence that the CIA, like the Amer- ican Army, is engaged in the war. But that's all it is. Nor is it good enough to accuse an agency of the U.S. gov- ernment with importing her- oin by ?evidence such as "Chinese merchants report" or "according to several sources." (3) They thus con- tribute to the making of a dangerous myth. In di,smissing Mr. McCoy's charges it is important to admit guilt by association. Opium has always been a product of Southeast Asia. The presence of U.S. troops has increased its value. 'Therefore it is highly likely that the CIA, as well as the American Army, has from time to time gained informa- tion Or given support to in- dividuals or groups who were drug traffickers. More- over, there are times when dealing with drug traffick- ers may be excusable. lithe man knows where the enemy is hiding, you don't refuse to learn from him be- cause you know he beats his children. It is also probably true that individuals employed by the CIA have been guilty of transporting heroin, just as soldiers in the U.S. Army have been guilty. Would Mr. McCoy therefore conclude that the U.S. Army is ac- tively engaged in the trans- 'port of opium and heroin? THE FACT is that CIA Director Richard Helms will .,fire anybody in? the agency, who Is caught trafficking in drugs, and that the use of drugs by agency personnel is also cause for immediate dismissal. CIA's policy on drugs is far ? more severe? than that of the Army, More- over, Helms and the 'agency are deeply engaged in an effort to spot the sources? of heroin and identify the traffickers. But saying this will proba- bly not satisfy the mythmak- crs. Try citing the Warren commission to the next man you meet in a bar who tells you about the CIA and John Kennedy. "Oh," he will smile, knowingly, "the War- ren Commission. That's the cover story," 0 1972, Los AuEeles Times STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-R0P80-01601R001000050001-8 NEM YORK TIMES Approved For Release 2001/01/64gtIAADP80-01601R001 ; -` IL '17-V rts?-;.iirog?Tr?, _ rr t t4 By ROBERT B. SEMPLE Sr. Speclea to The New York Vines WASHINGTON, Sept. IS I ? alone but to -all mankind." lenged the President to invoke "These people are literally_ the authority of the foreign aid President Nixon, in another quick response to charges the slave traders of our time. 'i act end impose sanctions on raised by his Democratic oppo- They are traffickers in living the South Vietnamese Govern- death, They must be huntc.d to ment. , the end of the earth. They must! Administration officials do be ' le-ft no base in any dispute ord on narcotics control and nation I not the fact that the pledged to cut off aid to ihgolden -triangle" is now a ma- for their operation," be said. . any foreign government whose im source of supply. Bui. they The statutory basis for Mr. iirolle that Mr. McGovern's al-. leaders "protect" international Nixon to suspend aid to .foreign! legations of inaction are. out of (Irug traffickers. governments lies in .Section 481 daLo, - Appearing before an interna- of the Foreign . Assistance Act" force has made mil '11-1(iiaavilyanidnrota;sclks .,tional narcotics control confer- of 1971. Mr. Nixon. has yet tc.4" on drug, traffic and that the 'ence at the State Department invoke the authority grant,e.d: Central Intelligence Agency, re- this morning, mr. Nixon told a him, and despite his threat t.nls'versing long-standing policy, is group of senior officers from morning, there are few officials ?nov,, - moving aggressively United States embassies in 55 here who seriously believe that against traffickers in Indochina. countrie.s that his year-old he would order such strong In support of his position, ."war" on drugs had shown sanctions against the thais and Mr. Nixon also said this morn- measurable progress but that the Laotians while the war in ing- that Federal antidrug funds "we must sic more to win this Vietnam continues, had increased elevenfold since war and we must do it even At the same time, however, 1969, that arrests had doubled more quickly." the Bureau of Nareotie.s and in the same period and thata Senator George McGovern, Dangerous Drugs has helped or- recent sharp increase in heroin the Democratic Presidential ganize and subsidize a task prices on the East Coast sug- nominee, charged yesterday in force operating in northern usicd nit. i t "the supply is dry- a statement issued in West Vir- Thailand to intercept opium, in? up." ginia that Mr. Nixon had failed morphine base and heroin that. " to "crack down on the oar- flows southward from Burma Treaty Change Voted cotics trade in Laos, Thailand The bureau is now organizing and South Vietnam" becausela second such force in Ban ? N.N,7 ASH1NGTON, Sept. 18 (AP) Bang- 'the Administration needed "air 1 Itok. ,-," ?The Senate ratified today, 69 bases in Thailand, Laos mer-1 The President's personal re- to 0, a revision of a 90-nation i cenaries and Vietnamese sol- sponse to Mr. McGovern's treaty on narcotics. The ?I inter- lange diers to fight its war." charge fit the pattern of . Mr.. s designed to strengthen national control of drugs. Under the revision, the In- ternational Narcotics Control Board will be directed to limit worldwide production of nar- cotics to the quantity needed for medical and scientific use and to refer evidence of illicit production and drug trafficking to other nations and to the United Nations General .As- sembly. The protocol also provides for international extradition of drug offenders. i \ ere A CAO on the day the present Admin- istration took office," Mr. McGovern, campaigning in Cincinnati, said that Mr. Nixon's remarks this morning left "decisive questions - un- answered." Charging that. the Saigon iregime was riddled with drug Iprofitecrs, Mr. McGovern chat- Name Not Used Nixon's campaign. Mr. Nixon and his subordinates have ing, Mr. Nixon did not mention In his comments this morn- greeted nearly every McGovern charge, involving such varied Mr. McGovern by name, This has become ills custom. Mr. matters as the. role of women I government, the plight of :Nixon also did not directly flood victims in Pennsylvania :respond to the South Dakota and the broader issues of viol- Democrat's allegations, fare and taxes, with virtually He listed five countries ? instantaneous rebuttal. Laos, Thailand, Turkey, France and Paraguay?where United Remarks Taped for Radio :States officials, working "in Underscoring the political partnership" with local author- nature of the argument were Ries, had produced "important three ether developments late breakthroughs," including large today. The Committee or the heroin seizures and, in the case Re-election of the President of Turkey, a decision to eradi.- taped Mr. Nixon's remarks and cate the opium poppy. then made them available to ? In addition, Mr. Nixon asked .radio stations.? ? the embassy officials to convey. Aleanwhile, the McGovern a: "personal message" to the forces seized upon and distrib- foreign authorities when they Med a statement by a former returned overseas. l 'Member of the Administration, ."Any government," he said, John Finlator, supporting Mn "whose leaders participate in McGovern's allegations. or protect the activities of those 11,1r, Finlator, who retired last who contribute to the drug January as deputy director of problem should know that the the Burea.0 of Narcotics and United States is required by Dangerous Drugs, said that Mr. statute to suspend all American Nixon had allowed the "golden economic and military assist- triangle" of Laos, Burma and ance to such a regime, and I Thailand to be the major sup- shall not hesitate to comply plicr of heroin to the ellicit with that law where there are market places of this country Mr. NixorAPPK VidifiCY04114460s19001103/04 any violatim.c " 9 ed f 1" I hnt tional drug traffickers as "a; against drug abuse today than menace not just, to Americans( STATI NTL : CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R0031T3M0M001-8 CHARLESTON, S.C. POST E 40,715 SEP 1 8197#6 ; he General's Prophecy Retired Marine Gen. Lewis W. Walt's prediction that American society will be in big trouble a decade hence if drug trafficking and addiction are not promptly and effectively checked war- rants the attention of responsible government officials and citi- zens alike. The general's prophetic con- clusion was contained in a bulky, report he made to a Senate sub- committee which hired him to make a worldwide study of hero- in smuggling and use. As a for- mer Marine Corps commandant, Gen. Walt can properly be re- garded as a man given neither to snap judgments nor exaggera- tions. It is time to listen when he warns that if the current heroin addict growth rate continues, the impact on the U. S. will be of a magnitude that defies the imagi- nation. Gen. Walt offered several rec- ommendations aimed at curbing traffic in heroin. Among them were satellite reconnaisance of opium crops, more U. S. funds for international narcotics inves- tigations, a unified federal government structure to wage the war against heroin, and stronger laws. The death penalty for heavy traffickers would be justified, in Gen. Walt's opinion, because they engage in "geno- cide on a massive scale." The legal status of capital pun- ? ishment in the U.S. today argues against the death penalty recom- mendation, but senators should give full consideration to the list of Walt proposals. It is disturbing that about the same time Gen. Walt was wind- ing up his study, an American author was alleging in his new book that the CIA has been in- volved in cetirTrafficking in Southeast Asia. The charge-:- which the CIA denies?is not new. We make no judgment on its validity. Nevertheless, publi- cation of such allegations and the *almost simultaneous release of the Walt findings tend to ere' ate, the unsettling impressio that the U. S. government is not doing all it could or should to clamp down on heroin suppl lines and those who keep then busy. Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 ,1 ???." 18 SEP 1972 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDRAAThitt J1111111M, 0 , c?,), \r'\i/r--,:':N r1-71 ?I/Vk ?I 7.1,9-,AN rl - 1 1 C ' -3 i ; - ,,,? 71 r 11 4 : ? (1-"\:\ - k,./. ,, ? 1 ,,,,,:?,,f1 . . ' ? ,i7-7::`,N ,/,'77"-7?1 i 'I ,--r,-.4 ? ? j .;::::./ L_---y t: 1 ' I, Q11 En ,- i---,., t ,1( ,?. j 1, 0 ,. eac eis "Any government whose ?. ? ? ? , nrn 'file President's praise of the Lt U IdLi teet the' activities of those CIA role follows- claims and who contribute to ofir drug official denials that the ac:en- ? program should 'know that the CY'S America has helped transport heroin in Southeast By GARNETT D. HORNER, President of the United States ? - ? A ' Star?Nem Staff Writer ? President Nixon today ? warned that he will not hesitate to cut off all American economic and military aid to any government whose leaders participate in or protect the. drug traffic. . He also praised the Central Intelligence 'Agency for its role in fighting international drug traffic and said the agency has been "much maligned." ? ? He said the CIA has "performed superbly' , ! in fighting the international drug trade. 'In the field of intelligence," he added, "we always find that the failures are those that are publicized. Its successes by definition must always be secret. In this area, there are many successes, and particu- larly ones of which this agency can be very proud." ? Critics of the CIA have charged that the Agency has aided drug traffickers in Southeast Asia to help maintain alliances. He spoke of "fine initial progress" in immo- bilizing and destroying sources of drugs coming into the United States. ? He said, "France, Paraguay, Laos, Thailand and Turkey are just a few examples of the many countries where the work of American officials, from the ambassador down, in partnership with local officials, has produced important break- throughs ? huge heroin seizures, key arrests, or ? in Turkey's case ? the courageous decision to eradicate the opium poppy itself." The President said he considers keeping dangerous drugs out of the United States "just as important as keeping armed enemy forces from landing in the. United States" because the drugs can endanger the lives of youg Americans just as much as would an invading army. Speaking at an international conference on drug control at the State Department. he asked American off icials..from around the world to con- vey to fOreign officials with whom they deal :.1Tis persnal message" from me: is required by statute to sus- Asia. pend all American economicIn a book called "The Poli- and military assistance to tics of Heroin in Southeast such a regime. -Asia," that was published re- ''I shall not hesitate to corn- cently, Arthur W. McCoy ply fully and promptly with raised the question of whether that statute." CIA operatives knowingly en- Nixon said he has been gaged in such traffic to help 'cracking the whip" over goy- maintain alliances. ernmcnt agencies involved in lore specifically, McCoy dealing with dangerous drugs accused officials 'in govern- - I to get them to "quit fighting merits of U.S. allies in South each other and start fighting - the problem." cast Asia?particularly in Sai- gon?of profiting from the traffic. Citing some results, he said the number of arrests of drug traffickers in the last fiscal year was double the number arrested in 1969, and the sei- zures of heroin and other illicit drugs are at an all-time high. ."Very sharp increases in the prices of heroin throughout the eastern United States indicate that the supply is drying up and that the pressure is on the criminal drug trade," he said. Nixon's statements appar- ently were in response to a statement yesterday by Demo- cratic presidential candidate Sen. George S. McGovern. McGovern said the number of heroin addicts in the United States had doubled since 1968 and charged that Southeast Asia had bemne a major source of heroin because the administration would not crack down on the narcotics trade in Laos, Thailand and South Vietnam. Nixon made no direct refer- ence to MeGovcm's charges, hut his comments appeared to be a sharp counterattack. STATI NTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 THE WASHINGTON POST Approved' For Release 2001/03104ePtlAa STATI NTL THE POLITICS hEROIN IN SOUTHEAST ASIA .'Ey Alfred W.- McCoy With. Cathleen B. Read and Leonard P. Adams II Harper &Row. 464 pp. $10.95 By LAMIENCE STERN Most profitable illicit businesses, opium and heroin trail is heavily cano- pied with underworld and official se- crecy. In the Golden Triangle region of northeastern Btirma, northern Thailand and northern Laos, the principal Opium growing and processing area in Southeast Asia, the traffic is fed by highland tribes, minor warlords and paramilitary sol diem, and it is controlled by highranking officials of the three countries. This dL- tribution system fed heroin into the veins of American soldiers in Vietnam and into the international heroin' stream that sur Tog death" with which the UflInese coo- lies escaped their wretched life cycle of toil, poverty and disease. The French established their own monopoly and con-- Verted the Mee poppy .harvests into an important cash crop which was taxed and sold to the growing addict popule,:- tion of Indochina. By the beginning of World 'War. Two, according to McCoy's research, there were some 2,500 opium dens in Indochina serving about 100,000 addicts. ? The Viet Mi?.11 lyar of independence _ , event nally became a major elialinge to French political role and a drain on the coloniid. economy, In countering their ' guerrilla movement. the French turned to the Moo tribal peoples in the ':Laotian. highlands and to their poppy harvc:sts, Meo opium became an important factor both in financing the war and in cement- hig the loyalties of the tribal guerrillas Lighting on the French side. b`leCoy re- lates the case of the French li:xpedition. say Corps' "Operation X," a top-seerct project for the collection and transport of Moo opium into the Saigon markets where it was turned over to the Binh Xuyen, an underworld secret society which the French occupation authorities .permitted to take over civil authority in 'Saigon. By the time American influence replaced the French military presence, the poppy was the main cash crop in the Golden Triangle, the opium economy was fully developed, and there were well- rutted patterns for dealing with the tri- bal mountain guerrillas who had been e?listed by the French in the war against the Pathet Lao and Vietnamese Commu- nist insurgents. Here the argument begins. McCoy as- serts that Central Intelligence operations became heavily involved in the opium. heroin traffic. He says that some of .tho Agency's chief- Asian operatives a.nd?.cli- ents controlled it and that the CIA's con- / tract airline, Air America, moved it to- ward the ultimate markets. All this has long been a matter of conventional wisdom and. surmise in the bars and embassies of Vientiane, where wags spoke of Air America as ,"Air Opt- um," but McCoy seeks to document the, ? case with interviews (alas, sonic of the " LA.URENCL STERN is the roving foreigi correspondent of The Washington Post faces terminally in the ghettos and cull. tabs of the United Slates. McCoy has done a sturdy and compre- hensive reporting job. He has inter- viewed American and Southeast Asian sources who either played a direct role In the opium traffic or are highly coin- ,. petent to talk about it. It is his argument that when the United States embarked on the geopolitical objective of trying to contain Chinese and North Vietnamese power at their borders in Southeast Asia, it slipped inexorably into the narcotics traffic. The international market had been created long before by the European co- lonial powers, chiefly Britain and France, Great Britain in the late 18th century took the first big step toward internation- alization of the Asian drug traffic by establishing a government monopoly over India's opium harvest, helping_ fi- .nance the regime of the Raj by taxing the product, and beginning the massive export of Indian opium into China. When Chinese imperial authorities tried to stop it, Britain, with its gunships, blasted open the Chinese ports to European trade and Indian opium during the Opium War of 1839 to-1.842.- Under the forced infusions of opium from British-ruled India the Chinese im- ports rose from a level of 340 tons in the first decade of the nth- century to 6,500 tons by 1880. It was in this period that the Chinese began. a large-scale pro- gram of domestic opium production, much of it in the outlying provinces of crucial .ones anonymous) and hard evi- Sze.chwan and Yonan. By the beginning of the 20th century China had an addict der"' One of the most sensational allega- Chinese migrations into Southeast Asia population of 15_ The wave of (ions In the book is that Meo General spread the scourge of addiction south- Vang Pao, the roost important field corn- ward. . 'Bander on the Royal Lao government The French played a similar role in side' arranged for the delivery of 60 kiIos.of high grade Laotian heroin (worth expanding and monopolizing opium pro-. duction under colonial authority. Cell- million in New York) to Prince - n- Sopsaisana, ? the Laotian ambassador- tunics before the French arrived the Meo "ORDINARLIA"II l IS 'AGENCY does not respond to public criticism," the CIA's general counsel wrote the general coun- sel of Harper & Row, publishing coin- pany last July 5. "However in this case we are under the strongest directive to support the U.S. govermnent's effort -against the international narcotics traffic and are bending every effort to do so. We believe we cannot stand by and see baseless criticism designed to undermine confidence in that effort without trying to set the record straight. . . ." The subject of this extraordinary letter was The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia by Alfred W.? McCoy, a doctoral ?candidate at Yale University. Harper ez ilow provided the CIA with advance proofs of the book and after receiving a statement of rebuttal covering several of lieCoy's allegations of Agency involve- ? went in opium traffic, the book was published. ? If the intervention had any' effect, it has probably been to boost the sales of McCoy's book; certainly it turned its publication into something of a cause colebre. Perhaps the Agency would have .better served its own interests by follow- ing the time-honored intelligence precept of maintaining silence in times of adver- sity. Public accountability has never been strongeAtertWed Fp!' Relesetg tiosycgit-istiki 1310}101?5A 1971, sop. ?By its na e as one o wor s um, nit more as b. ceremfgrintoxican.: ? - trato'S after French than to achieve the stupefaction of "iiv- continued. 'cf ,0 0 BIRMINGHAM, MICH. -4 ECCENT4 ? ? rcived?F,or Release 2001/03/04 :.CIA-RDP80-0 111411. - WEEKLY ? 32,629 STATINTL Black .viewpoint 'The Choice links ? By JIM INGRAM The relationship between even "successfull" blacks and their government is appalling, whether one views it through the government's eyes or those of black people. With the U.S. government spying on black leaders whether they be Nixon sup- porters or not, and as moderate as Roy Wilkens or Dr. Ralph Abernathy, creeping paranoia is one result. Ask any black man or woman under 30 "Who killed Malcolm X?" and the reply will invariably the "The CIA" {Central Intelligence Agency) Sam Yette's book, "The Choice" strongly raises the possibility of Anglo-American genocide here and abroad and more and .more black people have begun looking closer now, rather than laughing at such notions among black intellectuals. Many in the inner city believe strongly that, con- trary to newspaper headlines of recent vin- tage which proclaimed blacks were "in con- trol" of local drugs powerful whites have to ? have ultimate control, since blacks do not control U.S. borders, ports of entry the U.S. Customs department, nor the trans- portation industry. * * * AND IF HARPER and Row has its; 'way, this idea may get added credence, among growing numbers of Americans.; The New York publishing firm is releasing. a book on heroin and opium traffic in: art ;fie to CI Southeast Asia, which strongly implicates CIA involvement in the traffic itself, with the CIA strongly involved, also, in at-- tempts to make sure the book doesn't get published. Another "Pentagon Papers" fiasco? Per- haps, but "The Politics of Heroin in South- )The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia, east Asia" already is interesting reading would "do a disservice in the fight against for the CIA's general counsel, Lawrence narcotics trafficking in Southeast Asia." Houston. Houston was so interested that he obtained a copy of the work two weeks ago, then later penned a letter asking Har- per and Row not to publish the book. Now, what does the all-powerful CIA have to hide? * AFTER PORING - over the CIA "critique" of the book, Harper and Row let it be known they would proceed with re- lease of the book as planned. The CIA harps that "No responsible publishing firm would print" the book. Researcher Alfred McCoy, author of the book, has scored CIA agents for "harassment" of the publishers and contends that he's been included in such tactics as the target of "visits, phone calls and letters." According to McCoy, the CIA could only criticize "Two per cent of the manuscript". The book documents the movement of op- ium from the Golden Triangle in Southeast Asia with the use of CIA operatives and equipment. McCoy said that, even with the CIA criticism of his work, they admit that a CIA agent was involved in heroin produc- tion. they are, the ranks of those "just short" of being white radicals are swelling, too, as confidence in the American government re- ceives an unhealthy "downer" from these and other observations and revelations. The CIA actually came out and said that * * * McCOY WENT on to say that the agency admitted that one of its mercenary army commanders, General Chao La, had kept a heroin laboratory in Northwest Thailand between 1966 and 1971. All this according to McCoy, with the full know- ledge?and admission?of CIA officials. Strong charges that bear explaining? You bet, and the fact that the CIA now reports that General La's heroin lab was destroyed last year does not mitigate the seriousness of such charges as those raised in McCoy's book. At Eccentric press time, the book ought to be in area bookstores. But i' blacks are .* A BLACK MAN on a street corner who had been talking with .a white youth, re- cently summed up, I suppose much of the black view when he said: "If you had a race of people .that you really didn't want to be totally free and wished to destroy them, wouldn't YOU use some form of chemical genocide as heroin? Where else but in America can you find people robbing and killing to purchase their own suicide?" To which the white youth, supposedly radical, added: "Yes, and when you look at this in the context of the U.S. holdout in signing the U.N. genocide agreement, the hysterical detention of over 10,000 Japa- nese-Americans during World War II, and the current level of dope available despite all the busts the government keeps an- nouncing you KNOW something's awfully wrong." Perhaps.. * * * IT IS HARD to believe that a govern- ment rich and powerful enough to beat the Russians to the moon, a country so technol- ogically advanced that is can readily trans- fer part of its litter problem to that part of the universe, cannot find the necessary funds, technology or personnel to crack down on the International drug traffic. Who ?vill we believe? Despite the immensity of the American public relations and propaganda machine, a government led by people ivho admit that they have lied to the American public be- fore, now has a hard time ahead in clearing the air on this one. Further, although there is evidence that SOME media barons were intimidated by Spiro Agnew's repeated at- tacks on news media, some journalists and broadcasters have not slowed their work at all in ferreting out and questioning our government's real role in this and other is- Approved For Releas0200/1403/04delAbR'Dp804)11601R9010000800.01-8. STATINTL Approved.for Release 2001/034441;/WORDP80-01601R0010 14 SEP 1972 - CIA "secret army" crumbles in Laos VIENTIANE?Units of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency's "se- ? eret army- of Meo tribesmen in northern Laos fled from the Plain of Jars Wednesday after coming under heavy attack by the Lao Pa- triotic Front forces. The four columns of "secret army- troops were reported about 12 miles north of the big CIA base at Long Chong. According to informed sources, the Meo tribesmen complained of . a lack of U.S. air support and said that this justified their somewhat hasty withdrawal. But other observers said the Meos are being af- fected by the recent reports of CIA involvement in opium-smuggling L, in Southeast Asia. The entire Meo tribal economy is based on opi- um-smuggling. except for the CIA funds they receive. Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 STATI NTL 6 c 2') STAT I NTL A.TION 19 4 c.?1A7 P80-016 STATINTL FREED 3. COOK - ? Mr. Cook, a long-time contributor to The Nation, is the author of many books, including the recently published The Nightmare Decade: The Life and Times of Senator Joe MeCarthy(Random House). -7 . . The, most damning document to come out of the war in - Vietnam has now struggled into the light in this election year.' It Was indeed a struggle: the disclosures were squelched for years by the highest arms of the American bureaucracy; the pith of the message was ignored by the Senate subcommittee, headed by Abraham Ribicoff, which exposed the PX scandals; the revelations were verified by one of Life's top journalists--Tand pushed aside in favor of the incident on the bridge at.Chappaquiddick; the truth ?set forth was too much, for major American .publishing houses, and in the end was published in Great Britain, .coming to the American market on the rebound through the David McKay Company. This bombshell is .The Greedy War, 'a 2.78-page book Written by the British journalist James Hamilton-Paterson and detailing the Vietnamese experiences of Cornelius Hawkridge, a dedicated anti-Communist who spent seven and ,a half horrible years' in Russian and Hungarian prison camps before escaping' to the United States. Hawkridge and Hamilton-Paterson call the war greedy and' the con- tents of this book fully justify the epithet. Hawkridge was born in Transylvania, the son of a Hungarian mother 'and a British father; a. colonel in the Hungarian police force-. His passionate hatred of communism and the Rus- ,sians led him into protests and guerrilla actions----and into those long years in prison. He dame. to America believ;ng all the dogmas Of the cold war and eager to aid as a secinity offiper in vhat he considered a holy crusade. The Dominican upheaval in 1965, in which Hawkridge could not find the Communists President Lyndon B. John- ? son assured us we were opposing, was the first disillusion- ment. Then Came Vietnam. Hawkridge's first day in the field there in 1966 was a shocker. He.hadhis nose rubbed immediately in the stinking squalor of the refugee camps of Qui:NI-ion. More than 2,000 refugees were living in pa- per shacks built largely of discarded American packing cases Three contaminated wells provided the only drinking ? water. There were no sanitary facilities. "The inmates . defecated between the rows of paper homes and the slow' seep of ordure crept up the pulp walls." Hawkridge asked a 'priest what had: happened to all the USAID. "Stolen," the priest said simply. "It's taken by the ',Vietnamese Gov- ernment'? Hawkridge soon discovered that virtually everything was being stolen. Only the smallest trickle of supplies and war mate.riel being shipped to Vietnam in such prodigious, multibillion-dollar amounts ever reached their intended destinations. The Qui Nhon marketplace, an- area Of a good-sized block next to the refugee Camp, was stocked with "C-rations, K-rations, drink, clothing, guns, cannons, shells,. eases of grenades, television sets, washing machines. . the mounds seemed limitless." So Hamilton- ? Aiwroved For Release 2001/03/04 :CIA-,RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 Paterson .writes &seri scoverie dering what limits there were he asked a Vietnamese siallholder whether he could buy a tank. Tanks are, a bit difficult right now, this man admitted, but how about sonic armored personnel carriers? Or helicopters, of. course. Or how abont a heavy-duty truck?" 'What the hell goes' on?, Hawkridge thought. And he ? rushed to' tell American authorities what he had ..found. They were. bland, uninterested. Washington,- in ,its holy- , crusade delusion, had concluded agreements with the South Vietnamese that tied the hands of any security agent who tried to put an end to the national-, pastime? wholesale looting. Two provisions were critical: trucks could be driven only by South Vietnamese drivers; and only South Vietnamese police could make arrests. Even if an Aniericarr security agent 'like Hawkridge trapped hijackers. in the act, he was forbidden to lay a finger on them; he had to call in the South Vietnamese police. And when they arrived, they-simply collaborated in the looting. Here, in capsule form, are some of the .things Hawk- ridge learned and some of his experiences: ? 11South Vietnam all but sank into the sea under the weight of the tons of black-and-white televiSion sets, radios, spin. driers, untaxed .diamonds and other com- modities produced by a society of conspicuous consump- tion and -shipped off to Vietnam to win what must be one of the most curious wars in history. - IThe ,port of Qui. Nhon was clogged with shipping, a fleet that spread out to the horizon. Some of the ships waited for .Months to unload; meanwhile small boats plied out to than in the night and' sometimes in the day; and so, when they finally reached a pier, some 60 per cent of their cargoes had vanished. liThe United .States shipped enough cement into South Vietham to pave the entire nation, but there was a chronic shortage of cement to extend airfield runways and erect facilities., And the Vietcong always had a superabundance with which to build their individual bomb shelters. 1;011 one occasion a truck containing several hundred TV sets was hijacked, tracked down in Tu Due and turned .over to the South Vietnamese police. Hawkridge went to reclaim this .U.S. property, but was told he would have?to- get a ,Vietnamese driver to take the truck away. By the time be had found a driver, the truck had been stripped of its contents right in the police compound. Wile night Hawkridge was following a hijacked truck, .mystified because the Vietnamese were ripping open pack- ages in disgust and tossing them into ditehe,s at the road- side. Hawkridge kept stopping and picking up the packages. They were a consignment of aircraft parts for fighter squadrons at Bien Hoa. When Hawkridge arrived at the air base, he was hailed almost as a savior because ,several jets had been grounded for lack of spare parts. nother time, Hawkridge chaf-ed a hijacked truck right into a compound belonging to the South Vietnamese Security Police. The panicked driver sped across the com- pound,?forgetting there was a river on the other side, and braked to a halt at the last second with the front wheels 01 b-ontinuea Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R601-1166M0001-8 LORAIN, OHIO JOURNAL SEP 9 1972 E & S 35,960 U?Se lanes Carry ISo THE U.S. government has insisted for and Province Governors," says the report. years that its unofficial CIA-run airline, Air America, has not been running opium in the Another document, complete with a secret mountain-bound Asian land of Laos. CIA map, reports unequivocally: 'Most of the refineries in Laos operate under the pro But now from the files of lb CIA a)ld-,teetion of the Royal Laotian Armed other ? U.S. intellignce agencies, we lave ev- Forces Some reports suggest that a son- idence that U.S. ground and air equipment for Royal Laotian Armed Forces officer ?if not U.S. personnel?has formed the may hold an ownership interest in a few of backbone of the Laos opium trade, these facilities." "SELECTED ROYAL Lao Army and Royal Lao Air Force units, utilizing air and ground equipment furnished by the U.S., provide the means for protecting, transport- ing and processing of narcotics," reports one intelligence summary on Laos. ? `"A broad spectrum of Lao society is in- volved in the narcotics business, including Generals, Princes, high-level bureaucrats To .end narcotics running by the highest echelons of Laotian society, the document propose drastic action. "An important target group will hollie air force generals and other Royal La 6 Air Force personnel who command and operate: the transport aircraft involved inishipping ? narcotics." Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 WASHINGTON POST ? Approved For Release 2001/03/049: gp4-ROP80--01601 ;LT i gton ]illrerry.Geo-ktointil - [ - Il 11 - i S 1--, at, e-cAl_POn,e or I 3 By Jack Anderson The U.S. government has in- sisted for years that its unof- ficial 'CIA-run airline, Air America, has not been run- ning opium in the mountain- us Asian land of Laos. But now, from the files of the CIA and other U.S. intelli- gence, agencies, we have evi- dence that U.S. ground and air equipment ? if not U.S. per- sonnel ? has formed the back- bone of the Laos opium trade, "Selected Royal Lao Army and Royal Lao Air Force units, utilizing and ground STATINTL aos /04ii 7:146-f! :430 To end narcotics running by armored car and courier in- the highset echelons of Lao- clustry, a collection of 'small tian society, the documents companies all over the coun- propose drastic action, - try: The banks would like to "An important target group will be the Air Force generals swallow up the industry, and and other Royal Lao Air Force the Fed has been deliberating personnel who command and whether to grant permission. operate the transport aircraft Unwilling to play Jonah to involved in shipping narcotics. the banks' whale, the armored car and courier companies are "Officials high end low who are found to be involved fighting back, As part of their in a substantial, way will have counterattack, one courier to be removed from positions firm. hired Dun & Bradstreet of influence," urges the memo.. to survey how good a job the It recommends curtailment of courier companies do. some aid to Laos. They decided to survey the "This is aimed specifically Fed's own outlying banks, fig- equipment furnished by the at eliminating the use of all uring that if the Fed!s own United States provide .the U.S.-owned aircraft Operated branches liked the courier means for protecting, trans- by the Royal Laotian .Air service, this would be convinc- porting and processing of nar- Force or U.S.-leased aircraft, Mg argument that the inch's- cotics,". reports one intelli- including U.S. support items, try deserved to survive. gence summary 'on Laos. in the transport of narcotics." Dun & Bradstreet gathered "A broad spectrum of -Lao in recent months, Ameriea's ZO interviews with Fed banks 'society is -involved in the nar- spokesmen claim , . a new Lao- before their bosses in Wash- cotics business, including Gen. tian anti-heroin law is having ington got wind of the survey. erals, Princes, high-level bu_ some effect. But, in fact, only Off. went a peremptory tele- reaucrats 'and Province Cover. lowly opium hustlers are ar- gram. -"It appears inappro-. nors," says the-report. rested; the generals and priate for officials of Federal Another' dOcument coin- Princes go untouched. ' Reserve banks and branches plete a secret CIA map, to express any opinions about reports unequivocally: "Most. JOnah and the Whale courier services," wired Board The Federal Reserve Board Secretary Tynan Smith, noting is supposed to supervise that a Fed decision on the banks, not do their dirty work, takeover was pending. But recently the Fed aided the To make ab:solutely sure the banks in an attempt to take courier survey was stymied, over an entire industry. Smith added: "Please keep us The victim of this power informed if you are contacted play was suppoSed. to be the for such information." This so of the refineries in Laos oper- ate under the protection of ,the Royal Laotian Armed Forces ? . Some reports sug- gest that a senior Royal Lao- tian Armed Forces officer may 'hold an ownership interest in a few of. these facilities." ? intimidated the regional F(...-d officials that Iwo of them, who had already given interviews, tried to withdraw them. Other officials insisted their replies be totally anonymous. Although the survey was aborted, the courier services did get some use out of it. 11,1sed? on the incomplete re- turns, it showed the Fed banks were generally satisfied with the private courier services. No Spanish Allowed A top anti-poverty official has scolded subordinates for speaking Spanish at a recent meeting that included Span- ish-speaking officials.. "I was appalled," wrote op- erations chief James Griffith, "to. hear a meeting of in-house (anti-pvoerty) people closed with a statement in Spanish and answered in Spanish. This was absolutely uncalled for and taken as a direct insult by the persons in attendance." Griffith's rebuke was di- rected at migrant staff official Pete Merilez. Asked for an ex- planation, Griffith told us: "We poor gringos who don't speak Spanish sometimes get embarrassed when we hear others speak it. We get the feeling they're speaking be- hind our backs." C?) 1972, United Feature Syndicate Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 LOS ANGELES TIMES_Ai-inrri Approved For Release 2001/93#0 :iptA-RDP8IY101601 Nuevo Laredo rSpetializes' in D ; . lugs. Deaf 1 ,,,w of veteran Aareoties officials become the min- , BY LAURENGE STERN eipal narcotics pipeline be- '. Exoustye. So 'the Times from cause of the tightened sur- the Washington Post exiCan- connection" along the 1,900-mile Texas- -Mexican border for the sinuggling of heroin, op- ium. c o c.a i n e and man- in a 11 a into. t h e :United States. - ? Mexico itself has in the ? NUEVO LAREDO', Mex. ? ? Oblivious to the vi- olence, the American tour- ists tramp though the sun-- baked early Metro-Gold- Mayer main drag, Guerrero Ave., pushing their way through the ba- zaars heaped with tax-free .? liquor, cigarets, . cut-rate ! -jewelry and handcrafted' ? Most of them are un- .ware that tivd other spe- ' dallies of.this- The Grande ? border town are mutilated corpses arkl narcotics intr. Grande can easily be for Mc. The relationship be- d- ? twech. the two is more ed by a determined man than a casual one. - with a backpack. The machine- gun -and ? ? Easy Access the nuichete.- have taken There are many points. .the lives of some 85. Mexi- at which cotton grows and can Police, customs offi; cattle graze in the river- cials, -dr U g pushers and bed and a truck. can d riVe hapless' Americans within ! across its width. Hundreds ? the-past year. It has mat- of small, private planes; used for crop-dusting and ranch-to-ranch transport can easily be -converted into drug conveyers. . Within the past year the Nixon Administration has sought to prod the Mexi- can government into stricter enforcement ac- vity In. an area where police officials have tradi-. tionally tended to wink or deze. or enrich themselves. President Nixon has conferred Nvith MexiCan President Luis Echevar- ria. Director John E. In- gersoll of the 'justice De- partment's Bureau of Nar- cotics and Danger. on f:4, Drugs has met with Mexi- border. But at the open tional le.Vel?bn the streets of Nuevo Laredo the frustations of the law. men, both 'American -and Mexican, are con?'?H'able. One narcotics ficial, speaking ? of recent, re? verses in. the joint cam- paign to reduce the drug flow across the border, re- fers despondently to the veMance of the Ports of -?!'Mexrcan dis-connecti0." entry along the American Such is the setting in Eastern seaboard and the which the violence has Canadian border. flourished here for- more And Nuevo Laredo now than a year between police lies along a major narcot, and rival gangs, such as It's thoroughfare that runs the Reyes Prunedas and northward from Mexico the Gayton Clan who once City and Monterrey along feuded fiercely for control lighway 85, funneling of the lherative drug Into the valley of Texas. stream that flowed along ? '1'he border region is a Highway 85 past their sieve to smugglers. Thou- ranches.. sands of cars and pcdestri- Principal Figure ans swarm across the in- ternational bridge .into Police on both sides of 1.--tredo, Tex., each day. In the border as well as many places the -Rio knowledgeable residents of NueVo Laredo identify as the principal figure in the town's underworld el- ite Francisco Javier Ber- rpl Lopez, who seems to relish the two nicknames that the press has con- ferred'upon him: El Padri- no (the Godfather) and El Abogado Del Diablo (the Devil's Advocate). Bernal, an attorney,. is a heavy- set, moustachioed man of impoSing presence who habitually carries a gun in his belt and some- times a .45-caliber machine gun at his shoulder. He openly acknowledges that his clientele consists of drug traffickers as well as seized-in Nuevo Laredo in the tough ? pistoleros, or the previous quarter of a century, according' to nar- cotics officials, including a fromi the interior's, farm-. kilo -of heroin with a retail lands to make a quick dol-? value of 8200,000, three lar and others engaged in tons of marijuana and what is not conventionally caches of cocaine and opi- cd what one Vocal journal- it l'psychosis of terror" in Nuevo Laredo. 'Day after day the news- papers have published 'photographs of the blood- spattered or decapitated bodies of the latest victims of the violence. One of the newspapers, El Manana, ' plant machine- gunned a n d its presses sabotaged late last year as ? an admonition ? a 0. a i ns t Identifying o c ati hood- : Aims. ? Violence has long been endemic to the Mexico' border,. where men still- . -Slouch at the .bar. with a .guh tucked under their belt. ?. . ? .. ? can Atty. Gen. Pedro J. Dope at Root. . , ? - Ojeda Paullada. Ojeda's Put the recent bloodshed soh summered 'this year has.' far Surpassed even with the family Of 11.5. - Nuevo Laredo's gory. stan- Atty. Gen. Richard Klein- dards of tolerance.- dienst. ; The underlying .reason ? The amity, at least at the for the violence of Nuevo highest level of official- Lar Afs privedi (FieldEsas eh 20 04103/01?sel gelled .as t h e principa? thick on both Sides o the . "He is the-only'one with the brains to run the orga- nization," said one high- -ranking Mexican- law en- forcement official sent here to bring the lawless state of affairs under con- trol. "The rest are illiter- ate hoodlums." Bernal denies the accu- sations. He replies that the CIA and FBI were respon- sible for some of the kill- ings. "I do my work. And my work is defending peo- ple," Bernal said at a re- cent street corner press conference. On Aug. -29 he walked into. the federal building with. .tWo bodyguards to answer a subpoena issued by a special 'attorney for the government., Salvatore Del Toro Roaales. Authori- ties questioned Bernal, for more than two hours on events that led up to the assassination last July 28 of Federal . Police Com- mandant Everardo Rios, who has 1.1111 an ag- gressive campaign against drug smuggling during a six-week tenure that end:. ed with his death. Signal Event - The murder of Pera'les, who was sent to Nuevo Laredo to head the Mexi- can federal policy pre- sence in the state of Ta- maulipas, was a signal event in the border drug war. During his short-lived incumbency Commandant Perales hauled in more d r ii 'g s than had heen considered as upright en- terprise. Bernal emerged froth obscurity smite 10 Months ago to preside over the feuding criminal factions in this border region. Po- lice and Mexican federal authorities ascribe to him an important role in governing Nuevo Laredo's 0101396Ijoi 'eldoicaboosoctort--4 of cotics pulled him back .above the border. ? As the pace of his anti- smuggling activities picked up momentum there were threats both against Per- ales and against an Ameri- can narcotics agent work- ing with him along the border. Word filtered back: that a $3,000 contract had. been issued on the U.S.- . acient's life and his superi- t!flY11-1 STATIN1 Approved For Release 2001/031104LYGOARDP80-01601 '6 SEP 1g72 erec ; VAIL'sf WORLD) SS...I: '9?1 Approved For Release 2001/03/04 : CIA=RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 '?) STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01 WASPIINGTON POST 6 SEP 1972 By Stanley Karnow Washington Post Staff Writer American narcotics special- ists are privately expressing ,concern at the 'prospect of an increase in the illegal flow of iheroin into the United States :from South and West Asia as, the supply of drugs from, other foreign sources dwin-. dles. Confidential studies pre-: pared by the Central IntelII-- tenee Agency and other U.S. ? government bureaus warn that the halt in Turkish opium cut-, ? tivation may spur internation- al drug traders to tap fresh, sources of narcotics in India, Pakistan, 'Afghanistan and: Iran. Turkey's legal opium pro-1 duction is scheduled to end this year as a, result of U.S. subsidies aimed at encourag- ing Turkish' farmers to grow other crops.. Most h'eroin reaching .the United States is refined in France from opium ? of Turkish origin. . The CIA studies, made available to The Washington Pest by columnist Jack Ander- son, estimate that about half of the total world raw opium supply of 2,500 tons is pro; duced in India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Iranian output has jumped to 156 tons in 1971 from eight tons in 1969, when Iran legalized opium produc- tion.. Until . .now, little . of the opium. grown in South . and, West Asia ? has served as the raw material for heroin smug- gled into the United States. But according to the CIA "the withdrawal of Turkey from the illicit world market" .threatens to attract_ narcotics merchants seeking. - new, .sources of supply. ?The U.S government studies .calculate that India produces ..:about 200 tons of illegal opium per year. Most of this opium 'enters a domestic- black mar- ket serving some 300,000 In- The studies caution, how-, ever, that India. could become ? a supplier of the U.S. market unless the New Delhi govern- ment acts to suppress its in- ternal narcotics trade. Or as One of the reports puts it: "India is frequently cited in United Nations bodies as a model for controlled opium production and distribution. From the U.S. standpoint, this myth has been detrimental even though India is not a. source of U.S. heroin supply.. ? "Because the' myth absolves New .Delhi from dealing seri- ously with its own addiction and traffic, it has been able to strike a pose of moral superi- ority internationally. This blocks. U.S.-Indian cooperation on narcotics matters and di- verts India from a potentially useful role in developing effective multilateral pro- grams in the United Nations,1 which is a focal point .of U.S. policy strategy." The U.S. report urges that actions be undertaken by the Nixon administration to "ex- pose the existence of India's illicit markets," adding that "the United States might lose some good .will in the process of exposure but not on a:scale to offset the likely gains." Turning to Pakistan and Af- ghanistan, the CIA studies as- sert that "laxities in law en forcement" in those countries "appear, to offer a trafficker easier access to tribal produ- cers" of opium than in other parts of the world. According to another classi- fied -U.S. government report, Pakistan produces about 175 to 200 tons of illicit opium, per year, most of it cultivated in the country's northwest, tribal regions.. . ? ? The report blames the Pald- stan government's failures to suppress the drug trade on inefficiency and "official cor- ruption." It also points out that the Pakistan authorities are unwilling to tackle the dian addicts. So far, the stud- drug problem because they les say, IncliAa c not -significant m Igt/Mt r?1*04101MPIMATC; e tier tribal areas." Recalling that "a number of diplomatic representations" made by the United States to the Pakistan government have had DO "apparent effect," the report recommends that the Nixon administration apply "pressures and inducements" including a halt in U.S. aid to persuade the Pakistanis to deal with their drug output. According to the U.S. stud- ies, Afghanistan produces be- tween 1.00 and 125 tons of opium a year, cultivated mainly by Pushtun tribesmen in the eastern parts of the country. Most of Afghanistan's narcotics output, a 'study states, is exported illegally. "Smuggling is a way of life in Afghanistan," it says. The study further warns that drug networks operating put of Afghanistan are ripe to be taken over by international traffickers because the Afghan authorities take a benign atti- tude toWard narcotics traders. The U.S. 'study attributes the continuation of the Af- ghan narcotics trade to "offi- cial corruption" as well as to a lack of interest on the part of the country's authorities. The report warns against. vigorous . U.S.. actions that' might increase "Afghan de- pendence on the Soviet Union. It further concludes: "It is un- ealistic to expect ? Afghani- stan, which suffers little from the narcotics problem itself, to* give . its solution the highest priority in view of the ek- tremely limited human and fi- nancial resources of the coun- try,,, A CIA plcinorandui,,i if_Tued on June 9, meanwhile, voices alarm ht the growth of opium production and addiction in. Iran. The memorandum stresses that Iran could become a transit area for illegal- drugs moving ? from South Asia to- ward Western Europe and the United States. Some 170 tons of illicit Afghan and Pakistani opium are currently smuggled diAtAtOgne,014001000050001-8 , a man prince who accompanied I Mr/ if:fp (T4 Shah Muhammad Reza lavi was recenlly charged by the Swiss authorities with carrying opium to Geneva. After a 14-year ban on opium output, time Shah legal- ized, the production of drug in J969, partly in order to stop a drain on the country's ?forciah ? currency reserves throu eh smuggling. His decision was denounced by the United Na-, lions at the time as "traaic",, for both Iran and other na- tions. ? Since then, says the CIA ? memorandum, Iran has regia? tered about 90,000 narcotics,. addicts. But this represents.. only one-fourth of the esti-' mated 400,000 drug users in. the country. This year, the memorandum calculates, the demand for. opium in Iran will total about 350 tons?roughly two-thirds of which will conic from 00-? mestic production and the rest from contraband supplies, . The CIA document esti- mates, however, that Iranian opium production should soon' satisfy and even exceed inter-' nal needs. At that point, the, memorandum warns, the coun- try could become a narcotics exporter and also a ..drtig, transit channel. . ? Approved: For Release 2001/03/04 : 'CIA-RDP80-01 ASUNCION POST ' 5 SEP 1972 The Vi'asitingiou. EierryaaNnotred By Jack Anderson , . 0E111 11,5 STATI NTL the Western traffickers," re- network in Afghanistan and ports the CIA. . - Pakistan could be used to , , President Nixon's herculean "Tribal producers in ? Af- send substantial quantities of effort to stop drug smuggling ghanistan and ,Pakistan un- opium westward," warn the in- has at last slowed the flow of doubtedly would be willing to telligence documents. Afghans heroin from Turlccy and sell to W e s t e r n already. have "professional Southeast Asia. But a tr affickers ? . ? The potential and sophisticated" means of - new tidal wave is rising in Afghani- for substantial diversions of getting hashish by air to Teh- stan, India and Pakistan. opium westward exist . . ". ? ran, Beirut and Frankfurt and Even our midcastern ally, "Laxities inSouth Asia by sea to Karachi. Some has Iran', has started to grow its would offer a distinct advan- reached the U.S. own opium under government tage to international traffick- As for. India, the documents control, but the government ens if they should decide to say it now produces about may not be able to stop illegal tap the South Asian opium three-quarters of the world's shipments from being diverted market." ? legal opium for medical nun- to America. poses. The- widely held view its opium production This is the Warning of the Opium Gum that India is effectively con- Central Intelligence Agency, ' In Afghanistan production tr?11-ing Which has ? also reported orni- is .Up. Starving peasants, "lack- is a "myth," the docurnents,a1- nously: "Rumors persist that ing adequate food supplies be- lege. somemembers of the royal cause of recent droughts, have family and parliment are nar- resorted to chewing opium cares users. Swiss authorities gum to ease hunger pains." recently charged an. Iranian In Pakistan, too, production Prince, who accompanied the "may have risen sharply since. Shah to Switzerland, with hay- 1969," ?says the CIA. In both ing transfefted pure opium." countries "penalties for nar- Secret documents from the CIA and other intelligence agencies describe dangerous opium buildups in South Asia. This could be a shot in the -arm for the Mafia, whose sup- plies in Turkey and the Thai- land-Laos-Vietnam area are slowly beginning to dry up. The new smuggling menace was raised by the CIA's Direc- torate 'of Intelligence in memos dated June 26 and June 9. "Whether or not substantial quantities of South Asian opium are diverted to the 'U.S. and Western Europe will de- pend, in the final analysis, on hearings on a bill to give State Department workers an ind& pendent grievance hoard. Two present and one former foreign service officers ale breaking the gentleman's code of silence and spilling 'their WOOS. One witness is John Hemen- way, a conservative diplomat who 'claims he was fired be- cause he argued with his bosses over U.S. policies in: Berlin. A present foreign service of- lien, John Harter, who fought and won an appeal ?against shabby treatment from the de- partment, has told his story in a letter to Hays. Even State's, ? Iran still doesn't produce grievanceboard upheld enough legal opium for the Harter, urging that he be pro- country's registered addicts, muted, given a new job and who receive the drug under a reimbursed for his lawyers': national program. But the fees, opium harvest is increasing. The State Department, how-- Meanwhile, allege the doeu- ever, has largely ignored the. ' cotics violatiens are minimal." men--ts , 'the estimated 100-300 recommendations which are The intelligence documents tons currently being smuggled now eight months old. also suggest that the., Mafia into Iran, that could become While the . Hays hearings . would have no trouble cor- le exceeds the total have made the State Depart- opium equivalent. needed to merit anxious over what fur-.. supply the U.S. market.' (her horror stories may sur-...` face, some of their fears are Diplomatic Grievances unwarranted. Hays has Diplomats at the State Be- fided that he does not expecte. partment have been complain, a bill out of his committee: ing about undiplomatic treat_ until the next session. ment from their bosses. This This means that the Senate week the ,squabble among the would have to go through the , striped pants set will boil over entire process of passing their into a House Foreign Affairs version of the measure again subcommittee. before any grievance board is Chairman Wayne Hays (). set up outside the depart- Ohio) is ?finally yielding to ment's own j,urisdiction. ? Senate, pressure and holding rupting officials in both coun- tries. In Afghanistan, the docu- ments report, "official corrup- tion including high-level pro- tection of narcotics dealers is . . . a problem" and "smug- gling is a way of life." In Pakistan, "official corrup- tion is reported to be a serious problem" among the Land Customs, Sea Customs, provin- cial police and para-military forces. Worse, "the existing hashish ; : Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601R001000050001-8 TIME 4 SEP 1972 STATINTL Approved For Release 2001/03/04: CIA-RDP80-01601 earth and esiiro T a third-floor window of a Lower Manhattan hospital, a team of fed- eral agents huddled behind a battery of cameras. Below them, other agents ? strolled along the sidewalks, or cruised ?down Gold Street in unmarked cars. One group waited in a windowless mini- bus parked across the street. Not far away, another group, posing as an emer- gency crew, sat under a yellow canvas work tent over the open manhole in , which they had set up a communica- tions center. Precisely. at 8:40 p.m., two undercover agents drove up Gold Street in a green 1970 Cadillac. They pulled to a stop in the No Parking zone in front of the hospital?and waited. Minutes later the hidden agents ?there were 4Q? in all?got the word ? over, their short-wave radios: "Suspects are proceeding down Spruce Street, headed for Gold.v In the third-floor ob- servation ? post, one agent cracked to .Ti ME Correspondent James Willwerth,. "The Chinese are very punctual." So they were?right on time for the most important narcotics bust this summer.. At 9 p.m., two wary men walked up to the gran Cadillac: Kenneth Ka n- ? kit ? Huie, 60, self-styled "unofficial mayor of ,Chinatown," and Tim Lok, 35, known to federal agents as "the General" for his ramrod-stiff posture. The four mea?ltwo undercover narcot- ics agents, and the two "connections" whom they had been trying to nail for four months?wasted no time. The agent S oPened the trunk of the Cadil- lac and showed the Chinese the con- tents of an olive-drab attach6 case in- side: $200,000 in $50 and $100 bills. he War ^:et. UNDERCOVER AGENTS SHOW HOIE & LOK $200,000 IN TRUNK In hollowed-out heels, false-bottomed suitcases, cars, girdles and boa constrictors. Then the General led one of the agents off on a meanderjng excursion that end- ed-up in a Chinatown sportswear shop. There it was the agent's turn to inspect the wares: a cardboard box packed with 14 plastic bags containing 20 lbs. of pure No. 4 white heroin from South- east Asia. Street value: $10 million.. The agent and the General then went back toward Gold Street in a taxi, followed in a gray Dodge station. wag- on -by a third Chinese, Guan Chow- tok, bringing the heroin. But Guan, owner of the sportswear shop, doubled ,.,..12As ?, ? 0,1 CANADA Montreal 'e'vV-York S n Antonio , . 0, S,,.............,,,Z,....,...???? ,,, 4?Ittevo. miam' ? laie_do k MEXICO -1 JamaitN? , Martinique PANAMA (Staging and storage circa) . ECUADOR Mau Mau 0405?.45 PERU \ liaiti Bogot;,5 COLOMBIA Cocaine producers BRA;Lil BOLIVIA C.; / ?," CHILE. - Buenos Aires j ,0 New HO - U.S. Bureau of Narcotics in South America ARGENTINA ar- 'as WEV CERMANY.. ' Munich FANCE TURKEY fOpium N