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October 31, 1963
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Approve4 For -RDP80B01 76R60066Pi 30002-2 PRESS COMMENT 3 1 OCTOBER 1 9 6 3 INTERNAL USE ONLY Items in this Cross Section of the World Press do not necessarily reflect any par- ticular Policy or Opinion Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 . INDEX PAGE Sino-Soviet tensions . . . . . . . General . . . . . . . . . Eastern Europe . . . . . . . Western Europe . . . . . . . Near East ... . . . . . . . ? Africa . . . . ... . . . Far East . ? Western Hemisphere . ? ? New York Times Summary International In Mali's Presidential palace, the -leaders,' of Algeria and Morocco yesterday signed a-' cease-fire agreement, effective on Saturday, to end their undeclared Sahara border war:" Impassive in a rumpled uniform, President Ben Bella of Algeria shook hands after the. signing with King Hassan II of Morocco,, who smiled briefly. The compromise measure, reached after prodding by Mali and Ethiopia,..- calls for a neutral demilitarized zone and the reconvening of a meeting of 30 African for- eign ministers. [Page 1, Column 8.] South Africa's case against nationalist n leaders accused of 'using violence against the country's racial separation policy was thrown out of Supreme Court in Pretoria. The Judge agreed that the indictment was "fatally defective." [1:7-8.] Recent asurances to the contrary, it was' authoritatively reported in Paris that the withdrawal of a 5,000-man armored cavalry `,regiment from West Germany had been planned by the United States. Secretary of : State Rusk and Army Secretary Vance have both said that no reductions were'' contemplated. '[1:6-7.] At the United ,Nations, the chief Soviet delegate charged that Washington's plan for .a mixed-manned nuclear fleet was aimed to give nuclear arms to West Germany. [2:5.] Paris reacted with despair and frustration to Senator J. W. Fulbright's criticism of President de Gaulle's trade and defense policies. French sources said that the Sena- tor's outlook reflected "an enormous mis- understanding," and that he might not agree. to the necessary reciprocal arrangements with Washington. [1:5.] In four separate votes, Roman Catholic Bishops emphasized their own permanent collective status with and around the Pope. In so doing, they set the stage for an even-. tual increase in their authority in. relation to the Papal cabinet. [1:6-7.] Approved -RDP80B006R00060(4,130002-2 Approv,or Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RDP80 1676R000600130002-2 LONDON TINS 2.4 Oct. 63 SINO-SOVIET TENSIONS P-.EKING.~,.'..,-,C.A-.MPAIGN:',,;' ,TO DEIFY 1, "_'MAO ' 1TSE-TUNG . ;;.,RUSSIA'S , SCATHING ATTACK ' ON PERSONALITY CULT ,MOSCOW, OCT. 23 The Soviet Communist Panty today directly accused the Chinese Communist, Party. leaders of trying.-to form a ,new world communist movement under their leadership. The latest attack in the bitter ideological dispute between . Moscow and- Peking was Published in the Soviet Communist Party's leading theoretical journal Komnrunirt and quoted by the The Chinese were accused of trying to replace Leninism with Mao Tse- tungism and adhering to the person- ality-cult-7-the first time such a charge has been, made in' a 'responsible party journal.. . Western observers interpreted this charge as' an angry Soviet reply to- repeated per- sonal attacks on : Mr, Khrushchev, . which have been appearing in the Chinese-press. Fhe Konununist editorial article was also seen as a step towards outlawing the Chinese party from the world communist movement if Moscow considered the ,time ripe to do so. Next month communist leaders will discuss calling a world communist confer- ence,' where such an expulsion could be made. The leading article `claimed that the Chinese had moved on from their "splitting activities " and had decided to create " some now movement tinder their aegis ". China was inspiring and supporting "various anti- party and factional groups ". " The people in Peking are obviously try- ing to knock together an international block out of such groups and groupings, most consisting of people who were expelled from communist.parties all sorts of un- princirxled and corrupt elements ", the journal said. , Kumnrnnist said that the Chinese leaders needed to defend the personality cult because their internal policies were based' on its preservation: : However, 65 'of the world's 86 communist parties had expressed "dull solidarity" with, the Soviet position in the clash. IMMENSE DAMAGE" The article stated: " We are witnessing a campaign against tho very fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism such as has not occurred since the days of Trotskyism ". The Peking campaign against fraternal communist parties had nothing in common in its approach with a discussion among like- minded people. Immense damage is being done to the cause of socialism and the entire revolu- tionary movement; and every communist, in whichever., country' he may live and under whatever conditions he is fighting for his ideals, is in duty, bound to, carry out his international duty- to do everything pos- sible to halt the development of events in the direction which Peking wishes them to take, ' Tass said that the article exposed in detail' the special platform, created in Peking in the theoretical field, in the social-political life of the country, and in the field of foreign policy and relations with socialist countries ". and summed up the " faulty methods ".of the Chinese leaders. . "To achieve their aims' the Chinese. leaders, to judge by their actions, have de- demolish the international commu- nist movement and create some sort of a new movemcnt.under their own aegis.. As they see it the shortest way of doing this is to discredit the Soviet Communisst Parts." Koni nmiist accused Chinese leaders "of" resurrecting the ideology and . practice. of the personality cult. This was necessary because their !internal policy was based on' the Preservation of a regime of personality cult. Chinese leaders pronouncements against doing away with the Stalin per=? sonality cult were a call for the support of the' deification of Mao Tse-tung , in which Chinese ? propaganda 'is now strenuously engaged ", the article said. "The communist movementhhasmet with' an attempt to replace Leninism witch.' Mao Tse=tong-ism', The attempt to substitute, the ideas of' Mao Tse-tung for Marxism- Lenninism has provoked a resolute protest from all communists. Our banner has', been and will be Marxism-Leninism; We'.' have fought and will fight for.the,purity" .of Marxist-Leninist ideas. "The 'people in, Peking do not believe in the forces of world socialism, in their ability to. influence world development in' the interests of the revolution." ? Chinese 'propaganda limited itself to' " proclaiming .with fanfares the weld-know n Marxism truisms about the need of a?' socialist revolution and dictatorship of the proletariat ", but diverted attention from the pressing tasks of ' implementing ' these , immensely important principles. The theory,' of some sort of "special " common interest of the peoples of Asia, Africa; and Latin America invented by the Chinese propa- gandists . fully, contradicted Marxism Leninism: . . ' TROTSKYIST CHARGE ? . t "Such an interpretation of Afro-Asian' solidarity serves not so much as an instru, , ment of struggle against imperialism as an instrument for isolating the peoples of these continents from the socialist states." The article said that the political and ideological ideas of the Chinese theoreti- cians in, many respects coincided with those of the Trotskyists. One example was the Chinese view "that as long as imperialism exists the possibility of avert- ing war is an ' illusion ' " There was "often almost. verbatim . coincidence between the pronouncements of the Chinese theoreticians and those of the Trotskyists The Peking leaders were inspiring and supporting various anti-party, factional groups in other countries. "Thepeople in Peking are obviously trying to knock together an international block. out of such groups and groupings, mostly consisting of people who were expelled from communist parties, all sorts of unprincipled and cor- rupt elements, "When petty-tyourgeoise, ' nationalistic' revolutionarism, leftist phrase-mongering and leftist opportunism are forced on' a big communist party, especially one in 'power, they become no less a danger than' revisionism, not only for this Particular- party but ' for. the'entire communist, move- ment. The activity of any' political leader is 'limited by an historical period of time, He must realize his responsibility to history, to the peoples for the ? destinies of socialism; he must think not only of the present but also of the future'consequences of his present-day activities. ' - "No. one, not a single leader, has the right to split the communist movement, to undermine the friendship, of, the, peoples:. of socialist countries, born in battles against, 'imperialism, . 1. 11 . I "Communists cannot, have no right to, ,adopt nationalist positions.. to en?ann t., N;;'1 YORK TThES 30 OCT 1963 PEKING LINE PRESSED BY CHINESE IN SOVIET Special to The New York Times MOSCOW, Oct. 29-A Chi- nese Communist delegate voiced implied criticism of a number of'-Soviet views on Ideology and foreign policy in a speech here today. Chao No-chiang, ' "fraternal delegate" to the convention of Soviet trade unions, did not at- tack Soviet policies specifically, Hpwever, he reaffirmed some! Peking positions that led to the' ideological dispute with Moscow. ?Mr. Chao is attending the convention, which is closed to Western newsmen, as one of about. 80 observers from for- eign countries. From the accounts of persons at the session it emerged that tl)e Chinese delegate had in ef- fect attacked the foundhtions of tile Soviet Union's policy of co existence with the West. ,Tonight Tass, the Soviet press agency, published the text of a' telegram sent by the Chinese Communist leaders to the Soviet leadership thanking 'it- 'for its congratulations on the anniver- sary a month ago of the Chi- nose revolution, HINDUSTAN TI = 20 OCT 1963 e '. banans fleeing to . Yugoslavia 11. Belgrade, Oct. 19 (PTI)-- Hit by poor' living conditions and persecution, ' a large number of Albanians have been crossing the northern border of Albania into its neighbouring "ideological foe," Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav official news agency, Tanjug, reporting the exo- dus, said Albanian refugees were crossing over mainly from Scutari. Pishkopea and Kuks regions, The agency did not indicate the num- ber of persons who had fled Alba- nia in the last few days, but said they included intellectuals, work- ers and peasants. Circles close ' to the Yugoslav Government attributed the exodus to the "repression let loose" by Mr Enver Hoxha, the pro-Chinese Premier of Albania, on "Khrus- chevites" following deepening of the rift between Russia and China, Albania's "ideological ally" in the . international communist movement, Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 _- " tions and hailed the Moscowl .Shipboard Press 14leet ggraenient on the prohlbltlon 'of 0 nuclear tests. Needless to say.; ^Sinlrb-' Feud the Soon aand the Rep Chinese differ on all of these points. At the working sessions, held Under over a three-day period inWraps; m three as , from 40 to so membe rs rs each, the lid was also: tightly fixed on the subject.; By 31ASARU OGAWA The delegates from Mali and, Masaru Ogawp, managing edi- Cuba were quite conspicous in; tor of The Japan Times, and munist China was driticizea- ' their attempts to lead discus Koichi Ishizaka, director and see only once. And this was done sions away from. Communist' rotary general of the National ' by ' a delegate from Outer Mon-, China. Press Club of Japan, recently at- golia at the opening session at "Our task is to find points `? tended "the Third World Meeting Algiers. He' was promptly re of agreement to bring us closer; of Journalists held aboard a So- primandEd by the Algerian: together," the delegate from viet passenger liner cruising the `-chairman who pointed out that Mali, the Minister of Informs- Mediterranean Sea. This is the it was improper. to , attack a; ? tion ? Hamadou E first of a series of articles on the Seaside," conference and its sidelights.- country which was not present ' Gologo, Said. "Let us put aside; Editor .... at the conference, our .points of difference, W It Js, of course,. to be noted don't want a dialogue between rerences go, although the idea itself of holding meetings on a ship cruising the -Mediterranean Sea was quite novel and worthy of a bourgeoisie imagination. The occasion was the Third :. World Meeting; of Journalists, held from Sept. 19 to Oct. 3 aboard the Soviet "luxury". pas sen>er vessel, the Litva. ',Within that' two-week period, the Litva with about 250 journ-, alist.s on board sailed from Naples and touched at the ports of Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, Alex andria, Port Said and Beirut. The conference may not. have been 11111 to the Com-. inunists and the left-lined dole gates who completely dominated, the 'aff'air. But it was to the two of us who attended as. observers from Japan, because it did not take long for the con stant stream of fiery speeches '.denouncing imperialism, coloni. alism and neo-colonialism and calling for socialists solidarity, to become monotonous to our It seemed dull to us for yet another reason." We had at- tended the conference half-ex- pecting some public discussion of the Sino-Soviet differences. However, it seemed as if every 'precaution had been taken to keep the wraps tightly fixed on this subject. Communist China had, of course, refused to attend the' conference. This Red Chinese decision also kept other Asian journalists' groups under Peip- ing, influence from joining. Delegates who had attended pre. vious World Meetings from Japan and India were absent: North Korea, North Vietnam. Indonesia and Burma likewise did not send delegations. i It was Communist jou nalists were not willing to wash. their dirty linen in public-at least not at; this conference. ` But it was; also obvious that a great deal of lobbying was going on in private-with the African dole-- gates the main target of the, proselytizing process from the ! Soviet members. In the course of the several: ::plenarv sessions held, Com-j that Algeria and Communist capitalists and socialist's nor. a great deal of goodwill in?, `The conference has already ; Algeria for the Red Chinese, ' accomplished much. Let us not for We were stopped on the' .attack those who are absent.": streets on several occasions by The Cuban delegates also,'' smiling youngsters - calling,. asked for 'tolerance of those "Chinois!" who hold differing/ views and', It cannot 'be ' determined ?stressed that unity was more" whether or not the Mongolian important than disunity. Sign i-' attack on the Red Chinese was ficantly, the Cuban delegation planned 'purposely for Algiers also abstained from voting 'on 'to shock the Algerians, but it the resolution approving the look to the Soviet. Union for, , Soviet differences did-notcneces.' support, 'the Mongolian delegate ' sarily mean that the Russians', regretted the difficulties faced '.were backing away from the is 'by journalists in North Viet--, ; sue. It may have been that the :nam, North Korea and Com-, Outer Mongolians did try toi munist. China. Peiping is try-: take up the cudgel for the So-i lag to divide the white and the viets against the Red Chinese' colored peoples and to drive a? as the Indonesian and Japanese wedge into the. progressive Communists did for Peiping at: ranks, he said. the Moshi and the Djakarta A A -At the Afro-Asian conference conferences. at Moshi, in Tanganyika, he It was revealing that 'the' continued, the Chinese and brakes were applied by Algeri-! their helpers, including Ind'o- an and m,1, i d th i gaga e e nto ests t)r are the two points where the ' the progressive journalists and Red Chinese penetration of' atm along to eak their color, Africa has been the sharpest. te y g the nes of What would have ha race and geography. Warning If the Communist Chineseehad ei in not to hbstru to the great the attended? Undoubtedly, It Would ' ' P task Communist Chinese actions a have been a more lively show.'' the Afro-Asian journalist con-. Chit ina was, was tce shadowly_ i of Red ference at Djakarta where the Ch conference-and nd the upon It .,moves were initiated to prevent was. missing. . . dea the spark the Soviets representatives from., ti+'asmdespite the con..' attending even as observers: stant flow of fiery oratory,. By not 'attending the confer- ence at Algiers, the Red Chinese : .have shown their utter con ,tempt of the moves toward solidarity. But'they cannot suc- ceed, the Mongolian stressed. And in conclusion, he called, for peaceful coexistence, health-` 1!ul cooperation "among 'all nad JAPAN TI MS 21 OCT 1963 2 Appro d For Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RDPI*01676R000600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80 1676R000'6001 k002-2 ? JAPAN TD4ES. 23 OCT 1963 , Shipboard Press Mee . .u -,%r V Ir 'k. 1'. din ei ~. 's Race Pitch This is the second of a series better than the Soviets. The' of articles on impressions gain- 'Chinese ? belong to the same ed in the course of a two-week colored race and they are now cruise on the. Mediterranean Sea. :in the same state of economic' on a Soviet vessel on which the development as many African' Third World Meeting of Jouznal- countries. The Russians are fists was held.-Editor whites and they are far ahead Top leaders of the Soviet 'in economic achievements. Thus, circles turned out in full ; the Communist Chinese would point out, Peiping leaders" en- force to the Third World Meet-. derstand African problems much ing of Journalists to emphasize better than the officials of the the importance-at least to the. Kremlin. Russians-of the conference. : Utilizing the. deep hatred felt which brought together 'about !'by many African Negroes to-, ,250 newsmen from GO,countries.' ward the whites, the Red Chi The sponsor of. the conference nese are apparently spreading was the International Commit-' 'distrust toward the Russians. `tee for Cooperation of Journal- among the African people. fists: with headquarters in Rome.' At Base With Asians It is an affiliate of the Interna-. In our own conversation with ,tional Organization of Journal-. Africans, we often heard them fists, based in Prague. - say that they feel more at ease' Both are. Soviet front organi-l with Asians than with' the zations which have been visi- 1,whites, whether they be Com= bly shaken ' as a result of the munists or not. One African,, Sino-Soviet split. .1 1 who was present at the A-A The ICCJ-sporsored World . Conference at Moshi," said he. Meeting was first held in Her. didn't understand the Soviet' sinki' In 1956; four years later anger over the events there., in 1960, it,was opened In Baden, Communist China and the So.- -Austria. These 'were times viet Union had the same num when all. was still sweetness and ber of delegates. "But the Chi light in. ,the Communist camp: ? nese were more popular because VIPs From Russia ' we just felt closer to them," he. said, adding with a motion, of The. fact that the four-year his fingers across the throat' stretch between conferences that he could understand Peip--, Was shortened to three years "to attend this at this time is indicative.,of the ing s reluctance conference. i vi t t i f eve o re r the So ets re o des . ground lost 'to the ' Communist Chinese at last year's Moshi Afro-Asian, Conference. in Tan- ?ganyika and this year's Dja- karta 'A-A journalists meeting in Indonesia. Among the "big names" as- sembled by Moscow for the -con- ;ference were Pavel Satiukov, Pravda chief editor and head .of the Soviet delegation; Alexei come this African feeling, -the this was a, great honor which Soviet delegates were quite , should be reserved for delegates. thorough in seeing that the "That is, a typical Japanese Africans present 'were not left answer," he said. And he was, at times that our conversations ' a moment later, "That with African delegates on' the . joke, of course." , decks of the Litva were being Not on Presidium i f tl b t d interrupte qu o requen y, y Later, he asked whether. we Russians who happened to be,,,,,,,,A hn .,Nino fn nla(P intct and son-in-law of Premier Ni- h*o Strings Attached kita Khrushchev; Dmitri Goriu- nov.. Tass agency director gen- Satiukov, at one. of the com- 1 mittee meetings, said pointedly .conference, the Asian represen- tation was quite meager. The. only. countries represented by delegates or observers were- 'Ceylon, India, Iran, Japan,.Laos, 'Lebanon, Mongolia and Nepal,. , 'The usual delegation from. Japan, comprising of Commun- ists and fellow-travelers belong- ing to the IOJ, declined to attend -and thereby paid, deference to Peiping. The absence of. this, group was doubtlessly a disap- pointment to the Soviet organi- zers of the conference, for the Japanese support of ? Red China at Djakarta was a sore point ,With the Russians. Japanese Observers The Soviets, however,' were obviously elated that we were attending, even though we were observers-and had been des- cribed by a Japanese IOJ leader- in his letter declining the in- vitatidn as "conservatives and,.' reactionaries." In their apparent, desire to show that they could work with Asians other than those sub= servient to Peiping,. the Soviet. delegation tried to place Japan, on the presidium-the highest committee of the conference. Although we declined ' a hur- -ried request by a courier. dur- ing lunch to serve on the pre- sidium "because we are observ- ers," my name was read off at the opening plenary session at. Algiers ,as a presidium member. We protested immediately that ,we could not serve because of.: our role as observers. This was "accepted. Later the same night while drinking beer at the bar in the'.' ship, we were asked by a Soviet editor why we had turned down, the proposal. We told him we our name on the presidium list, if he could persuade the presi- dium to allow us to : emain as, - observers 'and "with no strings drat, Boris Lai KOV, Novostl c rector general; and ' Mikhail that the Soviet Union knows ex-: attached." We promised to ,Kharlamov, Radio ands Televi- ploitation' through its past ex- think it over. And when we sion director: general. periences ,and will, do every- -failed to give him an answer, , This high-powered Russian thing to combat it. He stated : we were not included in the team, surrounded by a dozen that the USSR was ready to aid final presidium listing which in- others, moved quietly and effi- Africa and Latin, America. "We eluded 11 from Europe, seven ciently among the newsmen are not afraid of providing . each from Africa and Latin present with their friendly funds," he declared, "because it . ' America, two from Asia (Mon-, smiles and their show of will-, is . for peace." He called it, golia and Laos), and one from ;ingness to listen and discuss, "noble assistance," and said no North America (Canada). various problems in private. strings would be attached..- It would have been a real As an indication of the par But if the Soviets' were try-' . , feather in the Soviet cap to have ticular emphasis of the confer- ing to win' friends among the 'one of us from Japan on the ence, Satiukov absented himself African countries represented, 'presidium' not , only to spite .for a few days during the cruise they also showed the 'utmost. Peiping, and Its'lackeys In Asia,' ,to pay a flying visit' to Ghana consideration' toward' us, the ' but also to prove the ideological for talks with President 'Nkru- ' two observers from Japan. . unbias of their conference.', :mah- With Communist China. set- a`r Colored vs. Whites ting the pace "byboycotting the The Soviets are particularly enraged over the racial lines the Peiping propaganda is tak- g toward the Africans. At,' in- Moshi and Djakarta, the Red :Chinese were reportedly telling the' Africans that they under ,stood. tae problems of African Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676ROO0600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 SWISS REVIEW OF WORLD AFFAIRS OCTOBER, 1163 The Conflict in World Communism By Ernst Kux "Whatever the consequences the Communist conflict may yet produce, the contrasts between the free world and the Communist world are still greater than those between Moscow and Peking ... Only by serving its own future, not by opening the doors to Moscow, will the free world be able to profit from the schism in the Communist camp." Thus the Neuc Ziircher 7,eitung specialist on Soviet theory and practice concludes this summary-survey of the current quarrel between Moscow and Peking. Not very long ago it was being said in Moscow and Peking that Soviet-Chinese friendship was as ever- lasting as the Volga or the Yangtse Kiang; family- proud Mao spoke of "the big and the little brother," and Khrushchev based his predictions regarding the future superiority of the "Socialist camp" on, among other things, the Chinese population and economic potential. Today Moscow and Peking are locked in a battle waged with government declarations and party epistles, to the accompaniment of an increasingly violent propaganda fire. As during Stalin's quarrel with Trotsky or after Tito's defection, they are mutually accusing each other of "betrayal of Marxism-Leninism," "Goebbel's propaganda of lies," "racism," "pan-slavism"; Communist rivals are called "agents of imperialism," or accused of creat- ing antagonism between leaders and people. Dos- siers recording the past sins of the opponent are opened, long-secret treaties or. long-smoldering border conflicts are uncovered, past statements by the respective leaders assembled into monstrous documents. The two big Communist powers indeed are on the verge of a final break; two camps are taking shape in the East Bloc, ' and the quake spreads in waves to the Communist parties and front organizations all over the world. Stalin's Heritage Although factors of national and power politics are becoming increasingly evident in the quarrel, basically the Soviet-Chinese enmity remains a con-. flirt within Communism, and the theoretical and practical components remain intertwined. Within the totalitarian Communist system ideology is not merely a facade for national interests or the ambi- tions of individual leaders, but a factor of power in its own right. It is in fact the ideological character of the quarrel between Moscow and Peking that endows it with the irrationality and vehemence characteristic of religious wars. There was no need of the Chinese reference to the 2011, Soviet Party Congress and the advent of "de-Stalinization" to reveal that the differences began with the death of Stalin and that they must be seen in line with the revolutionary eruptions in Eastern Europe in 1953 and 1956. Moscow's author- ity as the moral and political center was first shaken by antra-Soviet power struggles for Stalin's inherit- ance, then moderated by the beginnings of the updating of ' Soviet rule. Khrushchev's attempt to transform Stalin's empire into a "Communist Com- monwealth" was countered by the Chinese demand for a right of co-determination and advocacy of "independence and equality of all Communist coun- tries and parties." Historical differences between Russia and China and the two countries' unequal development on the "way to Communism" increas- ingly conflicted with the uniformity of theory and practice that Communism demands. Mao was unable to keep up with Khrushchev's effort to modernize 11 party rule and mobilize Soviet society, because that would have endangered his still unstable system and thus damaged Communism in China and in the world. Very soon the dispute as to whether the slowest or the fastest member of the Communi t cam ld d i i s p wou eterm ne ts pace evolved into a dispute for leadership in the East Bloc and in world Communism. In addition to these increasingly sharpening internal contradictions between Communist theory and practice, world-political developments added fuel to the quarrel. Western capitalism was develop- ing in a way quite different from what Marxist dogma had prescribed for it. Not crisis and decline followed upon the second World War, but an unprecedented upward surge, not bitter and bloody rivalry, but far-reaching cooperation and integration among the countries of the free world. Stalin on the other hand left behind him an isolated and deteriorating empire heavily burdened by the crisis over Berlin and the war in Korea. The Communists reacted variously to this no longer deniable contradiction between their dogma and worldwide reality, sharpened by technical and social developments that Marx and Lenin had not foreseen. Through tactical adaptation of dogma and with the aid of "peaceful coexistence" Khru- shchev seeks to lead his country out of its isolation, to join up with the Western development, to even- tually surpass it in `-`peaceful competition" and thus to acquire the power necessary to "bury capitalism." Mao on the other hand clings to the idea of a revolutionary transformation of reality and inter- prets events in Asia., Africa and Latin America as "storm signals of the world revolution." Khrushchev and Mao These contrasts in strategy and tactic of the struggle for the ultimate victory of Communism, which both Mao and Khrushchev desire, has within a few years led to the emergence of two centers and Apped For Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RD101676R000600130002-2 's Approvor Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 ? SRJISS REVIEW OF WORLD AFFAIRS two camps in world Communism. The result thus far however has not by any means been an erosion of Communist ideology or dissolution of the Com- munist camp, but rather a sharpening of their ideological weapons and instruments, an increasing competition in world-revolutionary radicalism, and a new alignment around the Moscow center on the one hand, and the Peking epicenter on the other. No Communist party can avoid this polarization even if, as in Rumania or North Vietnam, it wants to wangle as high a price as possible for joining one or the other camp. Thus far Khrushchev has not been any luckier with his China policy than was Stalin. On the occasion of his visit to Peking in October, 1954, he courted Mao's support in the internal Soviet struggle for power and in exchange gave him not only some Soviet control positions in China, but a right of co-determination in the Kremlin, a right of which Mao decidedly wanted to avail himself in the crisis of 1956. By generous gifts Khrushchev wanted to win Mao for his modernization of the East Bloc, and not until too late, perhaps, did he realize that he was merely creating an opponent for himself. Whereupon with draconic pressure he applied all those methods against China for which he had condemned Stalin's rule over Eastern Europe. By the non-fulfillment of the secret agreement on the equipment of the Chinese army with Soviet atomic weapons, by the sudden withdrawal of Soviet technicians in the summer of 1960 and by' the promotion of irredentism in Sinkiang-where China has vital deposits of oil ind*uranium-Khrushchev was able to disturb China's development, but not to impose his line on Mao. His "big-power chauvinism" merely earned him the hatred of the Chinese, who felt hurt both in their faith in "Communist frater- nity" and in their national pride. Khrushchev's attempt at the 22nd Party Congress to isolate China within world Communism failed. While his Cuban adventure ended in an embarrassing defeat for him, Mao conducted his successful thrust against India, evaluating it as confirmation of his conviction that Communist thrusts can be made without giving rise to an atomic war, and which- certain observers in' Asia already describe as a first indirect attack by China on the Soviet Union. Cold War Between , Moscow 'and Peking The consequences of the Cuban crisis put Khru= shchev in a precarious situation in which lie found himself exposed to the Chinese water torture of ideological attacks. At ]ionic, lie had to face growing economic. difficulties and, possibly some opposition within the party leadership, while his quarrel with Peking wrought havoc with the international Com.- munist movement. In this situation Khrushchev however succeeded by the conclusion of the Moscow nuclear test-ban . m greement to initiate a successful counter-thrust by 'diich he hopes'to strengthen his position and to isolate China. Tacking the label of "atom warmonger" on the Chinese, he seeks to brush up his.own "peaceful coexistence." The Chinese did not hesitate to reply. They concentrated their fire on Khrushchev personally, describing him as "the ally.of American imperialists, Indian reactionaries and treacherous Titoists," and, for Western consumption, as a fickle politician and unfaithful treaty partner. Peking and Moscow, which until now had 'been enemy brothers, have become engaged in a full-fledged cold war. Already Moscow describes the Chinese dogmati- cians as "the principal danger," and it looks as if the predictions according to which the Soviet Union would have to ally itself with the West against China were to come true sooner than expected. But the Soviet leaders should not for that reason be expected to abandon the red banner already. Rather they have made it clear that they want to exploit the split in the Communist camp to bring about a split in the Western camp. Also, Khrusliclicv seems to harbor the intention of maneuvering himself out of the tiring two-front position in which he finds himself between Peking and Washington by getting the United States involved in a controversy with China, to enable him to emerge from the tangle as the triumphant third. By emphasizing the idea of a non-aggression pact between NATO and the Warsaw Treaty countries Khrushchev attempts to achieve the success and consolidation he urgently needs in Eastern Europe-and to thus preclude the possibility of Washington's and Peking's'pulling on the same rope, as they did in the case of Poland in the fall of 1956. Such a development would keep Moscow's back in Europe free against China and at the same time not exclude an involvement of the United States in Asia, for which conditions in India and Southeast Asia seem already set. ' Although in the United States and in Britain the Communist quarrel is evaluated primarily as a conflict between two big powers-to which one ought to react according to the classical rules of power polities-Washington does not seen dis- inclined to let itself be drawn into Khrushchev's ideological campaign against China. While the Soviet-Chinese conflict begins to shift the world- political fronts, it does not make, them simpler or clearer. Just as suddenly as a split of the absolute Communist dogma into two enemy components, each with its particular national emphasis, has occurred, a return to the common ideological foundations and aims may take place. The bonmot according to which Khrushchev's successor upon 'his arrival at the Peking airport will once again hail the "eternal Soviet-Chinese friendship" and attribute all respon- sibility for the quarrel to "that agent of the Vatican, Nikita. Khrushchev," is not without some foundation in view of the reconciliation with Tito, the heretic of 1947. Actually the Chinese leaders, full of hatred as'they are for Khrushchev, have repeatedly let it be 'understood to Western observers that they do Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 not expect the present quarrel to last shchev is to disappear before long. Free World Tasks since Khru- revolutionary assertions, a remarkably realistic appraisal of the world situation, as when Peking points out the superiority of the United States and the West as against the insecurity of Communist domination in Eastern Europe and Asia. While the duration of the currently deep Com- munist conflict remains uncertain, it would be rathdr dangerous for the Western powers to blindly adopt the Soviet assertions on Chinese "atom war- nmon Bering" and "racism" and at the same time to fail to recognize the real Chinese intentions and threats. It ought not to be forgotten that in 1956 it was Khrushchev who enabled the Chinese to play a political role in Eastern Europe, and in 1957 promised to give them atomic weapons, while now he warns of the "yellow danger." On the Chinese side on the other ]land there exists, for all the IITAIDUSTAAI TTIES 19 October 1963 Whatever consequences the Communist conflict may yet produce, the contrasts between the free and the Communist world are still greater than those between Moscow and Peking. Nor can it be the task of the free world to let itself be burdened with Khrushchev's failures in Peking. The history of the Soviet-Chinese conflict moreover clearly shows that the growing strength and cooperation of the West are of decisive influence on the break between Moscow and Peking. Only by serving its own future, not by opening the doors to Moscow, will the free world be able to profit from the schism in the Com- munist camp: Peking's Isolation London: THE Chinese Communists, who have become a sort of pariah among the nations after their split with Russia, are try- ing frantically to break out of their world isolation. But thus far their efforts have met with little success. When Mr Khruschev decided to get tough with Mao and to isolate Communist China from Russia, he was counting on the fact that the Peking regime has very few fri- ends in the non-Communist world. He presumably hoped that, when the Chinese' found themselves cut off from the rest of the world, both Communist and non-Commu- nist, they would be forced to come to their senses and reach an understanding with Moscow. Well aware of Mr Khruschev's intentions, even in the years be- fore the break the Chinese have been trying hard to draw people, parties and governments away from the Kremlin's wing. Their efforts have naturally been con- centrated in Asia, Africa and Latin America-areas where Mos- cow's influence is not always so strong. But the only success they have had so far has been in the specifically Afro-Asian "front" or- ganizations, which have a special appeal to the "have-not" peoples with yellow or black skins. It is this which has given the Russians some ,,rcunds for accusing the Chinese Communists of introduc- ing an element of "racism" into what started as a political and ideological dispute. -China's relations with the rest of the world on the conventional governmental level are not im- pressive. Peking maintains diplo- matic relations with a number of governments in Western Europe, including Britain. But, apart from their activities in Berne, the capital of Switzerland, by David Floyd where their mission is believ- little more success. It is on these, ed to be both a training and especially on the Afro-Asian centre for budding Chinese diplo- trade union organizations, that mats and the headquarters of their they are now concentrating their foreign intelligence organization, main efforts. This is where the the Chinese do not cut much of a next clashes are likely to take figure. place. Nor have they found many friends among the Communist parties of the rest of the world. Outside Asia only a handful of parties have even a pro-Chinese faction. The Russians admit the existence of such factions in the Communist parties of America, Brazil, Italy, Belgium and Austra- lia. But in the case of the impor- tant Italian party, for instance, the pro-Chinese faction is no more than a small group of dissident individuals. In many cases-not- ably in the Japanese Communist Party-a flirtation with the Chi- nese turned out to be just a way of fighting out an internal squab- ble. Next Clashes A sample of what the Chinese are aiming at was provided by their handling of the Afro-Asian Journalists' Conference, held in Indonesia last April. There they succeeded in rallying sufficient support to exclude the Russians as full delegates from the confer-' once and to secure the creation of an Afro-Asian Press Bureau and Journalists' Association which are now largely under Chinese direc- tion. Though these bodies have only just got under way, the next meeting of their Secretariat in November is expected to reveal the extent of their influence in Asia and Africa. ' But the Chinese are coming up against something more than purely Russian resistance-to their Until recently it had appeared efforts to build up an independent that the Chinese could count on base in Africa and Asia. There the support of the enormous In- are others who do not want to fall donesian Communist Party, or at in with Chinese ambitions. Indian least on its good will. But a trade unionists are not ready to lengthy stay by D. Aidit, the party's go along with Chinese plans. Mar- leader. in Moscow this summer shal Tito of Yugoslavia and Pre- suggests that the Russians are sident Nasser of the UAR have using all their powers of persua- other plans for the labour move- sion to correct this situation, ment in the "uncommitted" na- The Chinese cannot claim the tions. And many potential sup- backing of any parties in Africa. porters of the Afro-Asian move- In Latin America they have siz- ment are suspicious of what use able factions in the parties of President Sockarno may intend Brazil, Chile and Mexico. But the making of it. attitude of the Cuban party of Meanwhile, the Russians are Fidel Castro is still unclear. busy, notably through their own Though dependent on the Russians Central Asian posses ions and for material aid, Castro seems in- politicians. trying to scotch tent on pursuing an independent China's plans, The conference in course (he has still not signed the Indonesia, if and when it takes test-ban treaty), and he has, in place, may well turn out to be a any case, his own plans for Latin major defeat for Mao. It will America reveal, in any case, whether Mao In the "front" organizations, really has any real friends or however, the Chinese have had a allies in Asia.-FNS. 6 Appred For Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RD 01676R000600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80B01676R000600130Q02-2 CRIED IN PARIS; 0'9135 UPHELD ND,l YORK TIjrs 31 OCT 1963 FL8RIFI1 VIEW '.Senator Would Back Basis ? GENERAL Only yesterday Mr. Couve de Murville emphasized to the Na- !tional Assembly that although !France might be a difficult 'ally, she was a loyal one never- theless. The French insist that in the present situation, with France re-emerging as an independent power, it is impossible to have an alliance with the United French Voice Their Doubts States without some policy con. of Cooperation He Asks By DREW MWDLETON SPeclal to no New York Times PARIS, Oct. 30-Fren sources complained today th Senator J W F l ' ch . . u bright s attack on President de Gaulle's poli- cies reflected "an enormous mis- understanding" of the French Government's position. They doubted whether the Arkansas Democrat himself would agree to reciprocal eco- nomic and military arrange- ments between France and the United States that would es- tablish the sort of cooperation he seeks. An alliance In which the United States and its European partners Invariably agree on policy seems out of the ques- tion in the present circum- stances, qualified sources said. JIn their view the increasing economic strength and military potential of Europe make dif- ferences inevitable. Mr. Fulbright, who is chair- man ? of the Foreign Relations Committee, said in the Senate yesterday that for too long er can "France -has been a voice of who they think, have become negation and dissent" in the! accustomed since 1945 to view Western alliance. I European nations as clients or Sharing of Burdens I even vassals. The failure of France andl Europe's Growing Strength other allies of the United States1 At any rate, the position as it to share defense and foreign-I certseen ain critics srofcAmerican pol aid burdens and to end protec- icy in Bonn and Rome is that tionist trade policies could drivel Europe has now reached a point the United States out of Eu-' where its actual economic rope, the Senator warned. strength and potential military One reaction to the criticism strength entitle it to make its was a feeling of frustration and owTheolFrench maintain that defeat among responsible French they are not isolated as a result officials, of the drive for military and' After Foreign Minister Maur- political independence. Ice Couve de Murville conferred NeverthelessIng there is a giow- with President Kennel awareness that the new Secretary and West German Government is Cary of State Dean Rusk less willing to follow General earlier this month, the French de Gaulle's lead than was that believed that they had clarified of Dr. Konrad Adenauer. The and justified their position. most recent evidence was a statement by Dr. Gerhard France's Power Reviving Schroder, Bonn's Foreign Mini- This, they repeat, includes full ster, on West Germany's de. support of the United States vision to join talks on the es.. - In any crisis-that over Cuba tablishment of a nuclear choose oose was not forced to and Europe. surface fleet under the con- c between Paris and I This is a long way a year ago is always cited as I North He said it had French view g Y from the an example-and a common de- atrol lliance + lliance of the I`orth Atlantici chosen the nuclear force which wh; that the force . sire for peace securitd ,y an even 3 I Dr. Schroder emphasized in a tual disarmament. 11.1 interview that his Gov. Approved Fc Release 20 flicts. General de Gaulle and his ministers foresee the eventual development of other Independ- ent European policies and, per- haps, of a collective European policy forged by those large states that eventually will con- trol their own foreign and de- fense policies. One basic French riposte to criticisms like the Senator's is that those who utter them do not understand that the path France has chosen, and wants Europe to follow, is the only realistic way to achieve a more even sharing of defense burdens in the Western alliance. The French believe that when the great powers of Europe are committed to building effective national forces; as France is to- day, their governments will feel greater responsibility for de- fense and , Europe will be stronger. . There Is a pronounced feeling that among Americans who, like Mr. Fulbright, protest against European economic pro- tectionism and the refusal to share aid and defense burdens, there simply is no understand. ing of what has happened in the last five years. Indeed, some Europeans doubt that there is 'any desire .to understand among Am i (is to be manned by seamen: United States, is anothe rmeans from the participating allies, { of tart' continuin th~ becyyause it provided an opportu f g American mili- nit -i lea o~~ achieved onl y (h~k~i~e-Can dependence of,theTJnited States clear forces on then French l model. BALTIMORE SUN 31 OCT 1963 Ally Twice Told At about the same hour the other day the Foreign Minister of France was ad. dressing the National Assembly and the chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee was addressing the United States Senate. They were concerned with the same subject, the relations between the United States and France, and although the two countries are allies the speeches did not sound much alike. Senator Fulbright does not speak for the American Government, al- though on this occasion he was undoubtedly giving expression to Ad- ministration thinking; M. Couve de Murville does not always speak for President de Gaulle-only de Gaulle does that-but his policy review must be taken as official. In essence, the Foreign Minister said that -France had embarked upon its own defense program, exclusive of NATO, because the other European members of NATO had been so sluggish in their own military precautions. They had tended to rely wholly on American power,, whereas France had made its own private atomic arrangements. By so doing; he said, France had "shown herself as having a national will, and as a ,result is a real ally." Viewing' the same developments an ocean away, Fulbright said that as an ally. France "has been deeply disap. pointing." De Gaulle, he.said, had been quick to offer agreement in principle while withholding cooperation in fact. France is on its way toward. wrecking the Atlantic alliance and may even drive the United States out of Europe, Fulbright? warned. The Western union, he said, depends upon political con- sultation, the proper disposal of mill. tary forces, economic cooperation and the lowering of trade barriers. The Senator saw de Gaulle blocking each of these goals. If Couve do Murville wishes to dis- cover the success of the policies he de- scribed to the National Assembly, he would do well to study Fulbright. He will not get it straighter than that from any American diplomat. The kind of plain talk now required of France's allies is not covered in the diplo. matic manuals, but its urgency is none tL_ i Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 WASHINGTON POST 31 OCT 1963 France and America Senator Fulbright's forthright discussion in the Senate and Foreign Minister Couve de Murville's review of foreign policy in the French National Assembly this week have at least revived the trans-Atlantic dialogue on the future shape of the Western Alliance. It is to be hoped that the French will not be .so annoyed at the Senator's blunt reproaches and criticism of, French policy that they will fail to sense the sweep of his constructive suggestions and the degree to which he spoke for a broad sector of American opinion. He was, to be sure, extremely critical. ? "For too long," the Senator said, "the voice of France has been a voice of, negation and dissent within the Western com- munity." He reproached France for an "excess of pride and assertiveness," for taking the posi- tion that America cannot be counted on to come to Europe's defense, for an attitude leading to disunity in the West. He warned that the United States will not abandon Europe but that it can be driven from Europe by isolationist trade and defense policies. Couve de Murville, on his part, asked for a reorganization of NATO with a new distribution of duties and responsibilities. He defended the French insistence on a separate thermo-nuclear deterrent, on' the control of its own forces and conceded that France may be a difficult ally, al- though still a loyal and sure. one. These accusatory and defensive maneuvers com-. pleted, the debate should move on to the area where constructive phase's could commence. If France finds Fulbright's scolding unpalatable, it should be able to approve some of his affirma- tive proposals: The necessary complement of a greater Euro. pean contribution to the alliance is a.greater European voice in its vital decisions. Europe can and should be brought into the strategic planning processes which govern the use of America's nuclear arsenal. Failure to devise the structural' changes of NATO that would permit this no doubt is behind some of the trouble in the alliance. It is not easy to move from the Senator's generalizations to concrete and particular command arrangements . to make them effective. Still, it needs to be said with more frequency and more emphasis that this country is ready and willing to. consider and debate proposals for giving these generalizations practical .effect. MANCHFSTER (AMIM 28 OCT 1963 South Africa to '. develop guided missiles From our Correspondent Johannesburg, October 27 South Africa is to establish a rocket'research institute near Pretoria, to develop a ground-to-' air missile. Professor Louis le Roux, vice-president of the Council for Scientfic and Indus- trial Research, said today "the Republic has been forced by events in Africa to enter the. missile field." He also announced that the institute would be sup- plemented by a firing. range l somewhere in the Republic." According to the Government l press, the cost of the missile pro..,, gramme will eventually run into millions. Key posts at the new institute have already been filled' by scientists, most of whom have been trained abroad. Professor le Roux said defence research,, which began last year, has already achieved some striking successes. Intensified search for natural oil and plans for further oil from coal projects are other moves for countering external pressures and threatened ;sanctions against South Africa. Senator Fulbright rightly said: If the Western Alliance is to remain strong and united, it must be built on more than bonds of friendship and high regard. It requires work- ing agreements for political consultations and the command and disposition of military forces, for economic cooperation and the lowering of 'trade barriers. The trans-Atlantic debate on the future shape of the Western Alliance is given a curious un- reality by the close correspondence of the ex- pressed views of the two countries and the wide divergence of these views from what each believes is the other's secret view. In this country, it is widely believed that France is in the grip of an emotional nationalism that menaces the unity of Europe and the solidarity of the free world. In France, obviously, it is very widely believed 'that the United States is still essentially too isolationist and too nationalistic to share in any genuine way the command of the nuclear forces of the free: world. The remarks of Senator ' Fulbright and those of Couve de Murville have the virtue of bringing these aspects of our mutual distrust into the open where.something can be; done about them. 8 Approveeor Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP800676R0006001300OZ-2 Approved r Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RDP80B0~76R000660130002-2 BALTIMORE SUN 31 OCT 1963 ?scowAsks BY PAUL W. WARD (Sun Staff Correspondent] New York, Oct. 30-Moscow's delegation today called on the United Nations Assembly to back Soviet Premier Khrushchev's pro- posal that an eighteen - nation summit conference be convened in Moscow within the next eight months. The 111-nation Assembly "would not he doing its duty" if it did not appeal. for such a conference, Nikolai T. Fedcrenko, chief Soviet delegate, declared. A meeting of the heads of all the governments involved in the disarmament conference begun at Geneva nineteen months ago is required to "lift it to the level of its task" and "produce a radi- cal change in the negotiations," Federenko told the Political and Security Committee. Successful Move Meanwhile, the United States and Soviet delegations joined in a successful 'move to arrest a drive by the Assembly's "non- aligned" majority to suspend un- derground atomic tests until an enforceable East-West agreement to ban them can be negotiated. The delegations got the eight "nonaligned" members of the Ge- neva Conference to join them in proposing a resolution that-de. void of any specific reference to underground tests - would have the Assembly simply call on the Geneva conferees to continue ne- gotiations for a comprehensive treaty. The eight nations are Brazil, Burma, Ethiopia, India, Mexico, Nigeria, Sweden and the United Arab R -M; Left Scat Vacant As participants in the Geneva Conference, they would be. in- cluded in Khrushchev's summit parley along with Britain, Bul- g9ria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Poland, Romania, the, So- viet Union. the United States and France, although it has left its seat vacant since the currently recessed conference began in 14larch, 1962. Andrei A. Gromyko, Soviet For- eign Minister, renewed Khrush- chev's summit proposal when he addressed the Assembly last month, but did not ask that the world organization support it. Federenko prefaced his plea to the Assembly with a 40-minute speech, reviewing East-West dis- armament negotiations to date. proposal not only before it wasp introduced by Abdel Fattah Has-` san of the U.A.R. but also before at least two of its sponsors had been notified that a backstage agreement on its wording had' finally been reached. Meanwhile, as the Political and Security Committee put off a vote on that resolution until tomorrow afternoon, there were these addi- tional developments at United Nations headquarters: Agreement Reached 1. The Assembly's stage man- agers arranged for ratifying, in a plenary session Friday, an agreement reached yesterday to end a contest between Czecho- slovakia and Malaysia for a two- year term on the Security. Coun. cil by awarding the seat . to Czechoslovakia for 1964 and to Malaysia for the following year. 2. They also arranged for be- ginning Friday debate on a pro-I posal to tap all available United Nations funds to aid in the re- habilitation of hurricane-wracked Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica and Trinidad- Tobago. Mindful of the fact that Wash- ington provides at least 40 per cent of the funds to be tapped, the United States' delegation was still trying as of tonight to get the pending resolution changed so that it would ? refer only to "the Caribbean area" instead of specific countries there. Report Prepared 3. U Thant, the Secretary Gen- eral, prepared for publication to- morrow a progress report on the world organization's efforts, -at Afro-Asian and Soviet bloc behest, to strip Portugal of all its African possessions. It is expected to an- nounce suspension until Novem- ber 21 of.talks between African delegates and representatives of Portugal. 4. Thant expressed his "gratifi- cation" that an Algerian-Moroc- can truce was reached today and his "hopes that this will lead to a final and peaceful settlement." He managed thereby to offset some of the embarrassment ear- lier today because - of a report on the situation in Yemen. The report to the Security Coun. cil concluded with an announce- ment that he must withdraw the United Nations force of 200 "mili- tary observers" and plans to sub- stitute for them "a civilian United Nations presence" in Yemen. Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 .1QT. ~'oBackSuin~~aitl He took stands diametrically op- posed to those Charles C. Stelle had taken yesterday for the United States. He avoided mention of Wash- ington's announcement last night that a group of accused Soviet spies had just been caught in the New York area, including three members of Moscow's United Na= tions delegation. And also neg- lected Moscow's ritualistic charge that disarmament inspec- tion machinery urged by the United States would open the So- viet Union to Western "es- pionage." Federenko repeated a charge made September 19 by Andrei Gromyko, Soviet Foreign Minis- ter, that the Geneva conferees have been getting nowhere due to "the unwillingness of the West- ern powers to accept real dis- armament." Most of his speech was devoted to that contention and building up to his ultimate claim that an eighteen-nation summit conference on "both disarmament and sep- arate measures to achieve the further alleviation of international tensions" is imperative. ' "Detrimental To Peace" He renewed Soviet proposals for turning various parts of the world into "denuclearized zones," which the American had warned, "would alter the balance of power in a way that would be detrimental to world peace." The Soviet Union insists on in- ternational control over "disarma- ment" and "cannot accept con- said. He also reasserted, after the resolution about atomic tests had been introduced this afternoon, Moscow's contention that "na- tional means of detection are suf- ficient to detect, verify and con- trol" any underground atomic tests that might be staged in clandestine violation of a treaty banning them. Speaking in support of the test- ban resolution a few 'minutes earlier, Stelle stressed the United States insistence that "national means". are technologically inade- quate at present and that, there- fore, international machinery is required. Besides proclaiming Moscow's persistent opposition to "on-site inspections," Federenko jumped the gun on the test-ban. resolution. He began speaking about the Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80B01676R000600130002-2 Manchester IAN Monday, October 28 Five minutes from destruction One year. ago this morning, the world seemed nearer than ever before to a nuclear disaster. As one of President Kennedy's advisers said afterwards, they felt in Washington that they could be "within five minutes of destruc- tion." By mid-afternoon, Greenwich time, the crisis was almost over. Mr Khrushchev had undertaken to dismantle his missile bases in Cuba and to let United Nations representatives verify the fact. On both Mr Kennedy and Mr Khrushchev the crisis must have left a deep mark. Neither will willingly venture so near the brink again. They had been brought to it by misjudgments on both sides-presumably, by advice to Mr Khrushchev that the Americans would not react so strongly to the placing of missile bases in Cuba, and by advice to Mr .Kennedy that the Russians would not be so foolish as to try putting offensive missiles there.' But the Russians tried it, and the Americans ,reacted. By October 28, eleven days after President Kennedy first 'heard what the Russians were doing and four days after the. blockade of Cuba had been imposed, a choice had to be made in Washington. Mr Khrushchev had been warned that, one way or other, the Russian missiles must be removed. No time limit had been stated, but f unless Mr Khrushchev gave way soon Mr Kennedy had to act-by,pinpoint bombing of the sites, by a parachute assault,, by a massive invasion of Cuba, or by a nuclear strike on the bases. Ameri- can forces, including a great invasion fleet off Florida, were ready for any of these courses. Throughout the world, at the same time, American and some allied forces were on a full alert-the first ever called, and so far the only one-while on the Russian side intercontinental missiles must also have been manned and ready for the countdown. But Mr Khrushchev saw ,the folly of persisting?and a settlement was quickly reached. It was a near thing. The most reassuring aspect was that both men, soon afterwards, made plain that they understood this. Out of the acute tension over Cuba, and assisted by the Russian breach with China, came the improved relations of the past year. The agreement on a "hot line " linking the White House and the Kremlin was one immediate physical result, and that line is now in operation. Mr Kennedy and Mr Khrushchev both knew and acknowledged that disaster was averted in October, 1962, only because they maintained, constant diplomatic contact-and because U Thant, on behalf of the United Nations, found a formula for giving both time to think at the beginning of the blockade. The agreement on a test-ban treaty wasanother. ,benefit that followed the crisis., President Kennedy felt bitterly that he had been personally' -" deceived by Mr Khrushchev, both over the nuclear tests moratorium in 1961 and over the missiles in Cuba. The test-ban treaty this. year was part of Mr Khrushchev's attempt tb.make amends-and within twos weeks of the Cuban settlement last year "Pravda" and " Izvestia " were showing plainly that he wanted to use it in this way. The lessons of the crisis are . many. Inter- nationally, we need to go on looking for..agree- ments. We need. also to remain armed--and ready to use force when confronted,,- though always the least force that will, be. effective. Russia was and is an expansionist Power: Mr Khrushchev has learned the risk of expansion ; his successors may not recognise it. Agreements, however, can help to .reduce the dangers" -agreements that, at the next stage,.. should move towards nuclear-free zones; towards a .thinning out of troops in forward areas, and towards eventually removing all nuclear weapons from foreign soil. There is also the, need to stop the spread of nuclear weapons tq,further nations. If the threat to the world was great when only three . nations possessed -.nuclear striking forces, it will be far greater when ten or twelve nations do so ; and it is lamentable that, in the past. year, no practical steps. 'have been taken, apart from the test-ban, treaty: Within the alliance, the chief lesson. is that Governments ought to consult each other and that decisions ought to be shared. In the last resort, in a fast-moving situation, one man has to decide ; and nobody now is likely to challenge the skill and sanity of Mr Kennedy in his action'. But the fact remains that senators frpm California and Arizona were flown back to Washington for urgent and secret consultations ; London and Paris were no farther away, but senior Ministers were not invited to take part in the. White' House discussions. For decisions to be shared, and for the European members of the. Atlantic Alliance to have full confidence in what is being done, ' a stronger system for planning and con- sultation is essential. Mr Dean Rusk yesterday pointed once again to the failing of NATO members to meet their commitments in- forces and to the uncertainty on " who speaks , for Europe." These are fair criticisms, and they were made at the time of the Cuban crisis. But the United States, too, in spite of the generous way it has shouldered a disproportionate burden within the alliance, could still show be more of a partner in taking, decisions. 10 Approve or Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RDP80A76R000600130002-2 Approv For Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RDP80~01676R000600130002-2 VE'd YORK T1ME8 31 OCT 1963 ,3 AT U. N. OUSTED iN SO VI1 SPY CASE Russians Must Leave U.S. Within 2 Days-2.Others Are Held Without Bail Three members of the Soviet mission to the United Nations were ordered yesterday to leave the United States within 48 hours. The expulsion order, Issued by the State Department, followed `accusations that the three were participants in an espionage 'ring that was said to have re- kceived data on a worldwide communications and control system being developed for the Strategic Air Commands A New Jersey engineer who was accused of passing the de- fense secrets to the Soviet diplo- mats and a Russian chauffeur, who lacks diplomatic immunity, were being held without bail in the Hudson County Jail at Jer- sey City. U. N.'Agreement Cited The Soviet mission called the ouster a "deliberate provoca-, tion" against those who sought .to better relations between the two countries. The State Department's note said the three diplomats had flagrantly abused their privilege of residence in this country and were subject to expulsion under an agreement between the Unit- ed States and the United Nations. The Federal Bureau of Inves- tigation moved against the ring on Tuesday night after seven months of surveillance. Four of the men were seized' at a clandestine meeting at the Erie-Lackawanna Railroad sta- tion in Englewood, N. J., dur- ing which classified information was said to have changed hands. The four were the engineer, John W. Butenko, 38 years old, of Orange, N. J.; ,Glob A. Pav- lov, 39, an aVtT he; Yuri A. Romashin, 38, third secretary of the mission, and Igor A. Ivanov, 33, described as a chauffeur at the New York office of Amtorg, the Soviet state trading com- pany. The third Soviet diplomat whose ouster was ordered, Vla- dimir I. Olenev, was said to have been present at earlier meetings of the group. He was not taken into custody. Had Top-Secret Clearance Mr. Butenko,?, a husky six- footer with black hair, had been employed since 1960 by the In- ternational Electric Corpora- tion of Paramus, N. .J., a sub- sidiary of the International Telephone and Telegraph Com- pany. The F.B.I. said he had a top-secret security clearance and was in charge of maintain- ing a master schedule for the Air Force project. Because the F.B.I. was aware of the spy plot and said it had shadowed Mr. Butenko at four previous meetings with the Rus- sians, it was assumed that the material that came into his possession had been altered to preserve defense secrets. How- ever, the Federal agency would not comment on this. Nor would the F.B.I. suggest a motive for Mr. Butenko's as- serted spying. Both his parents were born in Russia. His mother died in 1957. Mr. Butenko, a bachelor, lived with his father, a semi- invalid in his eighties, in a modest three-room apartment in a turreted private house at 366 Park Avenue. Neighbors there described him as a quiet, friendly man, but withdrawn, and apparently without major extravagances or expensive hobbies. His salary was $14,700 a year. He was born in New Bruns- wick, N. J., and -:served in the Navy for 11 months before re- ceiving a medical discharge in 1944. He was graduated. from Rutgers University with hon- ors in 1945. Before joining the Interna- tional Electric Corporation, he worked for the Radio Corpora- tion of America in Harrison, N. J., the Armed Services Elec- trostandards Agency at Fort' Monmouth, N. J., and the Civil Aeronautics Administration, now the Federal Aviation Agency, in Jamaica, Queens. } Constant Surveillance Mr. Butenko and Mr. Ivanov were being held In maximum security cells at the Hudson County Jail, under constant 'ob- 'servation. Both men were de- scribed as completely calm. Both pleaded not guilty at their arraignment, early yester- day and were held in $100,000 'bail each. But during the after-' noon David M. Satz Jr., United States Attorney in Newark, moved successfully to have bail revoked on the ground that both men might flee the country. Face Death Penalty Mr. Satz also pointed out that 'the offense carried the death penalty. The wording of the charge against the two is "de- livering to a foreign govern- ment information relating to the national ? defense of the United States." Mr. Satz said he hoped to present the case to the grand jury within two weeks. In relating the events that led up to the arrests Tuesday night, the F.B.I. said Mr. Bu- tenko had carried a briefcase to the meeting at the railroad station, as he had previously. When the Federal agents stepped from the shadows around the station, deserted af t- ler the evening rush hour, they found it in the automobile in which Mr. Pavlov and Mr. Ivanov were sitting. The car was said to be fitted with a miniature document camera powered by the cigarette lighter. Mr. Rom- ashin, who was said to, have acted as a lookout, was seized near by. All four were taken to the Hudson County jail, which is used for the confinement of Fed- eral prisoners in northern New Jersey, until Mr. Pavlov and Mr. Ivanov established their diplo- matic immunity to arrest. The F.B.I. reported that it had observed earlier meetings that followed much the same pattern in Closter, N. J., on April 21 and May 26, and near Paramus on Mar 27 and Sept. 24. The arrests marked still an- other episode In a year in which an unusually large number of espionage incidents has been made public around the world. A table compiled by The As- sociated Press lists 19 major cases. Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 EASTERN EUROPE BALTIMORE SUN 31 OCT 1963 Economic Decisions Linked To Control By Khrus4chev By LRNE'ST B. FURGURSOY [Moscow Bureau of The Suit] ! Moscow, Oct. 30 - Soviet' eco- ~nomic decisions to quit the moon ,race, buy Western grain and ex- pand chemical output are all major political decisions demon. strating how firmly Premier Khrushchev is now in control. There is little doubt among ob- servers here that Khrushchev's stated unwillingness to compete with the United States in sending men to the moon-if it is to be taken at face value- is primarily motivated by lack of funds rather than advance concern for the ,safety of those men. Enormous Cash Outlays There is even less doubt that the Russians would slow down their prestige-winning space pro- grain if it were not for the enormous cash outlays demanded by the other two decisions, which have been given foremost short and long-range economic priority. Khrushchev, although he has based his recent career on the promise of more and better things for Soviet consumers, probably would not-or even could not- ;have forced through those deci- sions as recently as seven months ago. Although they differ as to the genuine significance of the coin-1 cidence, close followers of Krem- lin policy note that a shift in the Premier's public attitude imme- diately followed the sudden seri- ous illness of Frol R. Kozlov, the party secretary who long was Khrushchev's heir apparent. Speculate On Backdown Last February, there was grow- ing speculation that Khrushchev was in trouble in the wake of' his Cuban backdown. In the view of outside experts as well as some Communist party members, the hard-line opposition to him was led by Kozlov. On February 27, Khrushchev told a Kremlin "election" meet- ing that arms spending would con- tinue to take priority over meet- ing the people's daily needs. "We would like to build more enterprises putting out things for the satisfaction of man's require- ments.... To give more good things to the people is the main aim of the Communist party.... On the other hand, life demands the spending of huge sums on keeping our military might at the required level. This fact dimin- ishes, and cannot but diminish, the people's chances of obtaining direct benefits," Khrushchev said. tinov, longtime arms production chief, was named head of the new Supreme Economic Council and joined Anastas I. Mikoyan and Alexei N. Kosygin as a First Deputy Premier below Khrush- chev. Another month later, Kozlov made the last appearance before his illness. He has not been seen in public since. Another Public Speech And exactly two weeks after that, Khrushchev, in another pub- lic speech, hinted at a turn in official thinking. He denied that Ustinov's ap- pointment meant the Soviet Union would "produce only rockets" and said one of his duties would be to oversee efficiency in the secret defense industry. "The defense industry is coping successfully with its task to cre- ate and produce modern arms, but it could be solved more suc- cessfully with less spending," the Premier declared to industrial and construction workers at the Kremlin. Again on July 19 Khrushchev told ? a Soviet-Hungarian friend- ship, rally that the expansion of chemistry would bring "increased production of beautiful high-qual- ity consumer goods." 1 Dramatic Announcement Last week's broad-ranging 'in- terview with Communist and left- wing journalists, including the dramatic announcement that the Soviet Union would not race America to the moon, seemed to set Russia firmly on the changed course. Parallel to this ' shift in eco- nomic emphasis-and it is a shift in emphasis, rather than a drastic about-face-still more spectacular political events were taking place. The signing of the atomic test- ban treaty and the relaxation of the crackdown on intellectual ex- pression were moves in the same direction as the new drive for consumer satisfaction. And it was a direction Kozlov would not have liked. There is no public proof that Khrushchev was bound by a cabal Iled by Kozlov when he made his "guns-before-butter" speech in February, or that Kozlov's dis- appearance from. active politics freed Khrushchev to turn the other way. Events inside the party presidium are as secret as' those inside Soviet rocket bases. ,But the difficult decision tot spend Soviet gold on wheat! abroad, even though Khrushchev; said that with rationing the peo-; pie would have had enough to-eat ' in , this disastrous farm year,' could not have been made by a Premier in the same political sit- uation as the Khrushchev who: made last February's speech. f To cut back the rate of steel- production production increase, . and report-, edly oil-output growth as well, in order to fund plastics, fertilizers and artificial fibers, also is not .the., sort of decision a "guns-be- fore-butter" leader would make. Exactly how extensive the sac- rifice of more traditional produc- tion to boost chemical output will be'should be concluded at a party Central Committee plenum sched- uled for next month. :The fast-moving economic and .political developments of the past summer and fall, along with the projection of domestic and interT, national policies to ;follow them tip, also will be docketed at the plenum. Personnel Problems A decision on whether to retain Kozlov on the party presidium or remove him because of his last- ing illness may' be made, Other personnel problems . exist at the top party level. Mikoyan is reported sick, as is Mikhail A. Suslov, theoretician and presidium member; Otto V. Kuusinen and Nikolai M. Shver- nik, presidium members, are aging into inactivity. 'The political future of Ustinov, the former arms industry boss who by background would have been one of the main opponents of the recent economic shifts, may be determined. Soon after he be- came First Deputy Premier, there was a hint in Pravda that h would be moving into the top party hierarchy, perhaps as Koz- lov's replacement. But since then he has been in- conspicuous, while Kosygin, long known as a light industry advo- cate, has become more and more prominent on public occasions. Because of these pending deci-, sions, and because a stiff breeze' of change is blowing through the Kremlin, next month's party meet- ing will be a plenum to watch.' I L\\'V hll:IW lp1.L1, Lllll\lll 1.,VJ-' I App d For Release 2003/05/05 :CIA-RD1 B01676R000600130002-2 THE WASHINGTON POST A 2 7 Thursday, Oct. 31, 1963 Soviet Cuts Purchases From West. By Preston' Grover MOSCOW, Oct. 30 `(AP)-- Western businessmen in Mos- cow report a sharp reduction in Soviet orders for commer. cial products and industrial machinery. There is always a lull in the weeks before the annual So- viet budget comes out in late November or December, for the budget gives purchasing agencies a line on how much they can spend. But the lull is more marked than usual this year. . Some representatives here have been told frankly that there is a shortage of funds clue to the nearly $1 billion that has been s p e n t for foreign wheat to make up for a poor Russian harvest. "The hold-down is about 50 per cent due to the budget and about half due to the need to buy wheat" a West- ern diplomat said today. Fertilizer Machinery Sought One exception is machinery to make chemical fertilizers. A demand persists for that, though there is pressure for long-term credit. Increased use of fertilizers is one point in Premier Khrushchev's program to boost agricultural' production. { British, Italian, Japanese and West German firms are; among those feeling the pres- sure. All are chary of men- tioning figures. Italian suppliers have been told that much of their deal- ings must be switched over to fertilizer equipment. Orders.' for textiles, shoes and various chemicals were reported can-, celed. "They have told us to come around again at the end of 1964 or the beginning of 1965," one business represent. ative said. Soviet purchases outside' the Communist bloc normally, run about $1 billion to $1.2 billion a year. The United. States shares in only a few score million dollars of this Approv For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 ? Money Reserve Unknown Just how much spending, money the Soviet Union has is always a carefully guardedi secret. Gold production re- putedIy runs from $200 million to $300 million a year. That amount of gold has been sold annually on the Eu. ropean markets for several years to make up the chronic deficit between whab Russia sold in the West and what it bought. , Some diplomats were taken, recently on a tour of the Far Eastern Siberian gold mines.. They said production is being stepped up. The mining is dif- ficult and expensive since many of the deposits are in areas where the ground is per. manently frozen. Costs of mining gold in some places are estimated at about twice the world price of gold, but of course such costs are paid for in rubles, not in foreign exchange..- ' MANCHESTER GU.ARDI 28 OCT 1963 Mr K. puts agriculture before heavy industry . By VICTOR ZORZA Mr Khrushchev has proposed that the industrial 'development of the Soviet Union should be slowed down to make resources available to cure agriculture of its perennial crisis, but his views do not appear to command ,the full support of his associates in the leadership. The burden of Mr Khrushchev's argument, in remarks to a meeting of journalists published in the Soyiet press yesterday, is that agricul- , ---_-__ Mr Khrushchev's new tactics of advocating openly the slowing down of industrial development in favour of chemicals can hardly mean that his view has now prevailed. The language he uses sug.r"ts rather that the moment of decision is near, and that he is therefore going over to the attac': in public. Mr Khrushchev has used these tactics on pre. vious occasiorr,,, when he made public speeches advocating cer- tain policies on which the party Praesidium was still divided, 20,000 million roubles The Soviet leader said that the Provisional estimates of , the 11 enormous sum " required for the development of the chemical industry in the next seven-year plan period were put by econo- mists at 20,000 million roubles. . i He emphasised that the. development of the chemical industry was intended to provide consumer goods as well as ferti- liser, and indicated that the debate. about the allocation of resources also touched on the After this, when a sensitive subject of defence. He chemical Indust powerful did this by the usual Soviet. established it could serhad ve a been the device of attributing to the basis to make. th imperialists" some of the the developmentoof other indus- sews thbe t the Soviet leaders: lists fight. tries "which we have held back The seem to imperialists arguing ..a little." A more powerful mh think c h e m i c a l industry would that the Soviet Union was s going guarantee the accumulation of to spend large funds on the development 'funds " that would ensure more industry of the chemical rapid progress in other industries. Khrushchev ry and irrigation, d. Mr From the economic Point of wou whuld therefore n saidnot that it view," he argred, ot allocate "it is worth- money to armaments. Therefore, while to hold back the develop- they might reason " We will out- ment of some other branches." strip the Soviet 'Union in the Judging from hints Mr Khru- development of armaments, shchev has dropped in the past, . " But, 11Mr ' K h r u s h c h e v this is something he has believed . exclaimed, "this will not c-me for several years. Other hints off, Messrs Imperialists. Do not dropped by other Soviet leaders rejoice! We have done and are su ggested that his beliefs were doing whatever is necessary for not 'failureaofahe Soll of them. The defence. The Government already been built, etthey are- to adopt a policy Mr Khrushchev standing where they should."' has clearly favoured for so Iona Mr Khrushchev's argument .would appear to have been due does sound as if he were reassur- to the difficulty of coming to a ing Soviet critics of his policy. unanimous decision. rather than foreigners. tural failures of the kind that occurred this year could be' averted only by much g r e a t e r use of chemical fertilisers. , The chemical industry that could produce these in sufficient quantity could be built only if sore of the present industrial development plans were tem- porarily shelved. ? The indica- tions are that Mr Khrushchev favours the ? slowing down of industrial development !.i steel and engineering, and that this .has been opposed by some of his associates. Mr Khrushchev said that speci- fic plans for the development of chemicals would be discussed at the meeting of the Central Com- mittee next month. " Perhaps it will be necessary," he added, " to slow down somewhat the develop- ment of some branches (of industry) in order to give priority to the development of chemicals In the next three to four years." Rapid progress-later 13 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 MANCHESTER GUARDIAN 28 OCT 1963 . DIPLOMATIC COMMENTARY apparently of no consequence that 17 million Central Euro. h l ou Puns s d continue to be ruled by an alien tyranny. This,. ? they think, is either .'Hitler's o fault, anyway ",or a logical con- cession to political expediency: These people think that they can create a settled, happy' E urope on a basis of wrong - by Terence Prittie doing and evil. They are the present-day ":men of Munich.'". THE Ulbricht regime in East ls immediately suspect. Rightly Germany achieved its most so, for he needs to be as obsti- Less obviously cynical are the. brilliant success so far when on rate and determined as views of those who think that October 20 99.9 per cent of the Baalam's ass, or as brave as any all dictatorships are "bGd," and. people of East Germany voted Christian martyr. Is it surpris- therefore equate East Germany for the single-list candidates ing that only 0.10 per cent of , with Spain or Portugal (or even of the Communist ? drilled the East German population Gaullist France). Recently a " National Front." This did not acted in this way on October 20? correspondent ,;rote t^ me that ortu have the publicity it deserved East Germans are pressganged East Ger indeed an be d Pe actl l in this country. should to the polls. When they y' I think it was a pity that the there they are frighteneinto equated and that I would do British public was not more voting for the regime. Their well to mete outs f r Ulbri ht. fully informed of this event. votes will have no influence on cism for Salazar as for lbricht Walter Ulbricht, the dictator . the composition of the East The true answer to this cor of East Germany, was pre- German Parliament, or " Volks. 'respondent is as follows : sumably in his sixth heaven, for' kammer"; this has been settled Portugal is not a detached he had gone closer to achieving in advance. For instance, the part of another country and its, total conformity among his sub- ruling Socialist Unity (Com- people do not wish to be reuni jects than any other totalitarian munist) Party usually gets- 55 fled with that other part of their- ruler, Nazi or Communist, in per cent of the seats in the own country. East Germany is e fa fantastic figure if we believe "Volkskammer." This year it not, never will be a State in its the only a stone's gure of 99.9 e from per r will ' get 59 per cent. The own right, and Its people wish- cent, seats have been to be reunified with their 55. the end of the rainbow, the 100 divided up between puppet poll million West German brethren. per cent which eluded Hitler tical parties and purely Com- ' Salazar is not an alica dic and Stalin so much more easily. munist mass organisations." tator, installed by a foreign He stands today on a lonely Apart from all this, last week's Power. Ulbricht is. Nor would pinnacle in the annals of the huge majority of the Portu?' electoral forgery. East German elections were 11 guese people disown and reject' For one must analyse this 99.9 months late ; the Constitution Salazar, given free elections.. per cent result. In the first lays down that elections should The huge majority of East Ger place, East German electors , be held every four, years and mans would disown and reject have only the option of casting these were due in November, Ulbricht. Finally, Ulbricht has a vote for the single-list National 1962. driven more than 3 million East .Front candidates. Not only is One last fact about last week's Germans from their homes. Only there no legal political opposi- '. elections should be recorded. P few thousand Portuguese (it tion to the National Front, with The East German electorate . may only be a few hundreds) Opposition candidates, it is not continues to shrink. In 1958 it have suffered a similar fate. even possible to vote "No" to, amounted to 11,848,000 ; last Unreal equations can only Cloud the. National Front. It was week it was 11,604,000. In East ' issues. when possible to do this backed Berlin the electorate was down Mr Harold Wilson has his own cted ' from 916,000 to 873,000. You theory about the Ulbricht w n then bayonets and aa fan- fare of one-way play all sorts of tricks with regime. This is that its y propaganda- percentages'; even Walter were only able to secure a 60 Ulbricht has hesitated to invent like iete" t t ofd an recognised, per cent " Ja " vote. . Today e "that of an elephant." one may not vote "No"; one more subjects. This, again, is a false analo can only stay away from the The East German electoral: the elephant is a noble animal polls. system . has been described in and its existence is a fact whch detail before now. In fact, ora does not wart to challenge. This, too, Is only theoretically , . sheer repetition has dulled this' The Ulbricht regime is ignoble possible. In practice, all East . particular picture -of tyranny;, German citizens are registered, East German elections areo ' embodiment alofA Machiavellian and all are expected to vote. In longer "news." This is under- principles it is a threat to Euro-, order to ensure that they do so, standable, but it has led to some pean and world orities htroducomnunist spauthof fun, curious theories being pro.. 'pity that Mr Wilsonccannotsbe Towns, villages, and welen. pounded by citizens of Western ' clear about this. And it is tow v llage eandr whole ol corn- democracies who ought to know : equally a pity that all of us petitions with enter another in better. There are in this coun- were not told about Ulbricht's, order to be the oiret to record in try, for ' instance, some very 99.9 per cent " Ja " vote, a mile- order t eel, theffrst t r 100 c per a vocal Left-wing Labourites and stone of . megalomania which. completed, Communist function some more inhibited but finan- even Khrushchev -? in his: cent herd ommu from fu th- cially more interested Conserva? . present magnanimous mood-' homes at seven o'clock or even fives who want the Ulbricht apparently can no longer control. earlier on a Sunday morning, regime to be recognised. These drive them like cattle to the people want Germany to stay, polling booths, and see to it that divided: to them it.~ is they vote the right way when they get there. This Is done by employing overt intimidation. East Ger- man elections, according to We East German Constitution, are both "free" and "secret." Their degree of fr..;dom has already been indicated. Their secrecy is equally nonexistent. Not only' - are East German citizens forced to the polls. When they get there, they are invited to par- -ticipate in a "spontaneous," open declaration of faith; they ? fill in their forms publicly and hand them to an industrious ' Communist aye-teller. one ' 14 who refuses to ,loin in tree Appr d For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RD01676R000600130002-2 Appro For Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RDP8#1676R000600130002-2 WESTERN EUROPE WASHDOT ON POST 31 OCT 1963 ole of Soclea-ast's M*- C By Leo J. Wollemborg The Washington Post Foreign Service ROME, Oct. 30-A new chapter and possibly a new am in 4h. ,.C ..+..A....... e s.L1.ii Italy opened yesterday when the Socialist Party Congress social and aiministrative formally authorized direct structures was largely re- participation by the Party in sponsible for continued Com- ' a coalition government with munist gains, even though the pro-Western Christian- the country was experiencing Democrats, Social-Democrats unprecedented economic ex- and Republicans. pansion. As underlined by party Now, the outcome of the leader Pietro Nenni today, Socialist Congress offers at, this decision does not only last a concrete opportunity mean that the Socialists are for a departure in Italian' ready to start official negoti- ations for the formation of Platform Draws Opposition such a center-left regime as - To be sure, the platform, soon as Premier Giovanni: which has been approved by Leone's caretaker govern- meat resigns early' next the Congress and which re- week. It means that the ma- `fleets the views of almost 60 jority of the Socialists are per' cent of the rank and determined at last to join file, cannot be considered full satisfactor b th 1 d y jority of the Socialists have reaffirmed their support for the political and economic integration of Europe, which should include Great Brit- actively in the effort to turn y y e ea Government Awaited ors of the Christian Demo Italy into a modern democ- ; racy, without letting them- cratic Party and their al-. selves be hamstrung any lies. more by a doctrinaire "class'" . In foreign policy, the ma- approach. Time and again, since. the Socialist Party was first formed in 1892, its refusal to share in the government with the "bourgeois" forces was responsible for "lost op- portunities" to strengthen democratic institutions and promote the interests of the Italian workers-as Nenni himself acknowledged in his opening speech to the Con- . gross last Friday. Stand Helped Fascists That continued refusal played a major role in pav- ing the way for the Fascist dictatorship in 1922. After the downfall of fasc- ism, the Socialists partici- pated in the governments formed during the last months of World War II and its aftermath. But those were emergency coalitions, and had the support of all the anti-Fascist parties, in- cluding the Communists. . In the early post-war years, Socialists joined in a close alliance with the Commu- nists to oppose the demo- cratic and pro-Western coali- tion governments that ruled Italy after 1947. This in turn gave Italy's conservative forces a controlling influ- ence within those coalitions. The consequent failure 'to adequately modernize Italy's ain and pursue an outward looking course in economic and commercial affairs. They now accept Italy's member- ship in NATO and the con- sequent obligations. But the Socialists show a marked distaste for the whole idea of a multilateral nuclear force for NATO. In domestic policy, the ma- jority of the Socialists agree that the Communists must be excluded from the pro- jected center-left govern- ment's majority. They have taken further steps to loos- en their ties with the Com- of a faction within the so-' by Riccardo Lombardi, tor- - cialist majority which, on pedoed a tentative agree- several domestic and foreign ment on. negotiations for a center-left government. The policy issues, favors a line Lombardi faction, however,.. somewhat different from that appears to have emerged pursued by Nenni. from the Congress somewhat, Last June, this faction, led weaker than it used to be. NEv YORK TIMES 31 OCT 1963 ITALIAN CABINET EXPECTED TO QUIT Complex Negotiations for By ARNALDO CORTESI Special to The New York Times Rome, Oct. 30-Premier Gio- vanni Leone and his stop- gap Government are expected to resign next week, perhaps on Tuesday. The formation of a new cabinet is expected to be difficult. It is almost certain that the dominant Christian Democrats will first ask their party secre- tary, Aldo Moro, to form a new government. He is expect- ed to try to bring into being a center-left coalition that would include Pietro Nenni's left-wing Socialists. The 35th congress of the So- cialist party authorized Mr. Nenni yesterday to open nego- tiations with the . Christian Democrats with a view to part- nership in forthcoming govern- ments. Socialist participation, however, was made dependent on a number of conditions that the Christian Democrats may not accept. munists in the local admin istration. But they still hesi- tate to go all the way in that direction. Press for Reforms At the same time, the Socialists are pressing for speedy implementation of broad economic and social reforms which, while more typical of a modern democ- racy than of a Socialist society, are opposed, not only by the conservative groups. but also by many moderate forces within the Christian-. Democratic camp itself. Another question mark is represented by..the attitude, His Votes Needed Mr. Nenni will be in a strong position to negotiate with the Christian Democrats. The 260 Christian Democrats, 33 Demo- cratic Socialists and six Repub- licans don't have a majority in the chamber, which has 630 seats. They are in'absolute need of the 87 left-wing Socialist votes. On the other hand, Mr. Nen- ni's position will be weak be- cause his majority in the Cen- tral Committee of his party is not firm. Riccardo Lombardi controls some of the seats that Mr. Nenni includes in his ma- jority 'and it was Mr. Lombardi who last June rebelled against a Nenni plan to give parlia. mentary support to a govern- ment Mr. Moro was seeking to form. It will therefore be Mr. Lom- bardi who will be dictating the conditions for a left-wing So- cialist entry into a government. The negotiations to ' form a government will take place while the country is in a diffi- cult situation. Charges to Nenni Mr. Nenni is committed not to permit a policy of deflation. The Socialist Congress also charged him to organize a planned economy and to intro- duce major reforms in the or- ganization of the Italian state. The Christian Democrats will certainly find some of these positions extremely unpalatable. Despite the difficulties, the negotiations are generally con- ceded to have a 50-50 chance. Either they will succeed or Parliament will probably be dis- solved and general elections held. Deputies of all parties are strongly opposed to this ide 15 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 NEAR EAST Little of this wealth, however, program and electoral reforms, includ trickles past 'he politicians and bureau-, ing woman suffrage. Land redistribu TEHERAN. crats to the people. In spite of $750,- tion is the key issue by which the pro- 000 000 in A ri , me can economic aid over gam will succeed or fall. OHAMMED RIZA PAHLEVI, . M Shahinshah (Shah of Shahs) ? the' past decade, the average family The Shah's intention is that ulti-i of Iran, has stepped off his income is $170 a year. The population mately all farm land in Iran will be is 80 per cent rural (10 per cent live broken up into individually owned' Peacock Throne. That bejeweled em - in blem of pomp and empire is stored Teheran and 10 per cent in smaller plots ranging in size from a ' maximum away in a downtown bank vault. At the cities) and 80 per cent illiterate. The of 100 to 600 acres, depending upon its' palace, the Shah has. turned his at- countryside is sparsely and primitively fertility. The tention to the more plebeian matters settled. Roads and communications are former landlords are to be'' of what he calls a "white revolution." crude. paid - in 10 annual install- After 2,500 years time has run out A few tribes-the Lur in the west ments a Price based on and the Bakhtiari i for feud l Ir th t d th l Z Sh k THE NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE OCTOBER 27, 1963 agros s a an an n e cen ra e ah nows - former tax assessments, the 44 C+...v..,....., ,.. ......, r.. i,,...o t.:_ tho TIn..A~ .., ...:..t i...,.,..a,..... ... ' . ~~a..y wuecr.ea and try out of archaic stagnation and he - Azerbaijan and the Turkmen in the income derived from the wants to be remembered as the leader northeast Khurasan - cluster around peasants. The . farmers them- of that march, not as possibly the last isolated water holes or ? live a semi- selves are to repay the Govern- king of the world's oldest monarchy. nomadic life, fighting each other for ment over a 15-year period. He is determined to be his own Nasser. grazing fields and warding off outsid- So far, officially, the lands Whether the Shah will succeed in his. ers. But most rural Iranians are farm-. surrounding 8,000. villages, purpose of transforming Iran into a ers-or, more properly, serfs, working : with a tax value of $86,000,- self-reliant, self-confident modern na- not for themselves but for great ab- 000, have been purchased from tion in the Western mold Is still un-. sentee landlords. A few years ago, it former landlords, and those of certain. Undeniably, he has made could be said Iran was owned by not . 6,000 villages have been dis- T some progress, but even well-wishers 'more than 1,000 families. Their hold tributed to 230,000 peasant. feel his programs have been hastily ings were enormous. families, representing a popu conceived, and they have aroused bitter lation of 1,200,000. But Iran PP ele- has some 50,000 villages. 0 osition among many powerful HE Shah's father, - Riza Shah viousl H ments in Iran. y, only the surface has has Pahlevi, was not a rich man to begin been scratched. The fact that any reform program at. with, but during his reign he became' all has taken so long getting started is . Iran's largest landowner, with more a comment on Iran, its people and its than 2,000 villages. Others were not URTHERMORE, he place- political and social state, far behind. It was traditional for Min- of tlandlords dto take s must t he stab. Iran is a land of 628,000 square miles isters of State and Parliamentary Dep of the listed to supply be ea-about the size of the United States - t supply seeds, uties and Senators to come from "the fertilizer, equipment, loans and nd east of the ? Mississippi River - with thousand families.'. 21,000,000 inhabitants. Although about help in marketing. The de- three-quarters of the land is too moun- Feudalism was so fixed a tradition velopment of such coopers- 'tainous and and for that only five years ago the Shah found tives is not keeping pace with is pnot farming, overoptimistic the in esti- Shah it necessary, in the interest of progress redistribution, but without is probably ro, to invoke a decree ordering landlords helping hands the inexperi mating that his country could support to stop taking gifts, such as chickens,, enced able peasant 'three times our present population at eggs and "marriage dues" from peas- to use owner s land will not the European standard of living." ants. When a landlord's daughter mar-: ciently for several years. Fertile hillsides around the Caspian ried, it was the custom for all his peas- In that event, food produc- .shore produce excellent fruit, vegetables, ants to tion may fall, peasants be- rice and tea, although the area is more produce-sometimes in gifts for of good animals measure,and, come disillusioned and mil-' famous perhaps for the caviar that lions go hungry. The copse-' 'Comes from the sea thereabouts. The a month or two of labor. When a peas- ant's daughter married, her father paid quences could be disastrous to semiarid plains of Khurasan and Fars the landlord a fee. 'the Shah. The outcome will grow wheat, cotton and sugar beets. When he quarreled, be touch and for at least go with his neighbor, he was subject to five a fine to his landlord. ?1 i years. indication of the prob- water 'reserves Why the peasants did not revolt long 1 lems, there is the case of a have been largely unexplored but are ago is still a question. Certainly, they. village in Azerbaijan. Re- known to exist extensively. So, too, ex- ? , would not have stood such inequality formers from Teheran tried to ist deposits of minerals, notably iron much longer in these days of airplane introduce a modern combine and coal. And Iran is one of the world's . travel and transistor radios. The Shah harvester. The villagers, who major oil producers. The oil fields have. decided it would be better to act while ? for hundreds of years had been nationalized since 1951, under the been allowed to pick up the administration of the National Iranian he retained the choice of decision. gleanings, were enraged by' Oil Company, which deals with a con-, the machine, which left none. ? sortium of foreign oil firms. This year, HE "white revolution" is based on, They burned the combine. a record half-billion barrels of crude a six-point program. Briefly it calls One land-reform official was oil are in prospect and Iran's 50-50 for land redistribution, profit-sharing murdered in Fars Province share of the profits may well be' for factory workers, nationalization. of last winter. He may have been $400,000,000. forests, a literacy corps, the sale of a victim of bandits seeking. some state factories to help finance the & clothes and food, or he may 'JAY WALZ has been reporting from the Mid- have blundered into the rival dle East for The New York Times.-since 1959. grazing claims of local tribes. Appro4p For Release 2003/01%05: CIA-RDP8*1676R000600130002-2 Appro For Release 2003/05/05: CIA-RDP881676R000600130002-2 The Shah considers him a martyr to reform. For their part, the land- lords are far from reconciled. Charges abound that the Shah is a traitor to his class, ex- ploiting the peasants for poli- tical expediency - that he is promising the peasants more than he can deliver and will suffer disaster when they be- come disillusioned. The land- lords are supported by some Teheran bankers when they complain that the Government will not - indeed cannot - keep its promise to pay the landlords for so much land.. This, they say, is just one tragic consequence of having rushed into land reform, pell- mell, without careful planning. 000 men. His American mili- tary advisers argue that a ,smaller force could be more efficient. Many Iranians be- lieve its real function is "to protect the throne." One veteran observer of the imperial court says he is dis- But a new seriousness has come.over him. The lines of his face cut deeper grooves than they used to. His thin lips move tautly, his gaze sharpens and his voice becomes more authoritative as he discusses his plans. It is perhaps only natural that the landlords should pro- mayed by the Shah's "almost "My job is to prepare my complete reliance" on the . country for democracy," he army and on his secret police, the Savak,. for information. Too often, it is feared, the generals isolate the Shah from unpleasant facts and close his ears to constructive criticism. During the past crucial year, for example, the execution of the reform program has been., in the hands of the mild Pre- mier Asadollah Alam. He was chosen for the job largely be- cause he is a completely un- questioning supporter of the Shah, a friend since their school days together. Some critics declare the Shah's only interest in reform is his hope of perpetuating the monarchy for his new, son and heir. Certainly the Shah's ? new approach has been more evident since the birth of Crown Prince Riza three years ago this Thursday. But any king naturally hopes to per- petuate the kingdom. Skepticism is frequently voiced by educated Iranians in places of responsibility in government and the pro- fessions, partly perhaps be- cause one Iranian is always reluctant to trust another. They fear the Shah has plunged blindly into an ad- venture of political fortune. Not a few doubt he intends to fight to the finish; they pre- dict he will relapse once he has reaped the rewards of showing himself "a hero to the peasants." "This land-reform stunt was ill-conceived and not planned at all. It will not work," said a Teheran businessman bit- terly. test they have not been paid fair prices for the land taken from them, but the Shah pooh-poohs their, cries of an- guish. "What do, they expect?" he asks. "The Government is paying them what they them- selves let the land be as-A sessed at for years, when they paid their taxes. They never complained before that assess- ments were too low." Landlords - and bankers - are not the only opponents of the Shah's program. "Black reactionary" is an epithet he uses with increasing frequency these days, and it is directed most vehemently against the Shiite mullahs, the ultracon- servative Moslem leaders, who ? not only oppose land redistri- bution but say that the emanci- pation of women defies Islamic law. It is generally agreed that the mullahs provoked a demon- stration last June in Meshed, Iran's most holy city, in which a policeman was killed. THE Shah makes much of that incident, but he is not inclined to discuss the rioting that broke out a day or two later in Teheran's old bazaar -the hotbed of conservative merchants and usurious money lenders. On this occasion, in- fantry and tank-corps men, under orders, fired point- blank into a mass of demon- strators. The estimate of 100 killed. and wounded is con- sidered conservative by wit- nesses. The army's show of strength - coupled with the jailing of several of the Shah's more outspoken critics - effectively decided the course of the campaigning . for this fall's Majlis (National Assembly) election. The Shah's hand- picked slate won almost in its entirety. The consensus in Teheran is that the voting was more on the up-and-up than usual-a reform in itself. But that the election was far from "free" by Western stand- ards was all too evident. The size of the army is a frequent source of criticism. With United States aid, the Shah has built it up to 200.- a * ? THE Shah turned 44 yes- terday and may be said to be near the midpoint of his life and career. He began his reign in 1941, a bright, hand- some youth with a European, education and a supreme lack. of confidence in his own abil- ity to fill the shoes of his dom- ineering father. He retains his youthful and athletic leanness, although his dark, wavy hair ' is graying, but he has devel- oped an air of complete self- assurance. ing. Doing away with stuffy ' formality, he walks around his .desk to greet visitors with 'a smile and a handshake as they enter his office. To an Amer- ican, he speaks vernacular English, punctuated with an occasional slang phrase; "So what?" he will say when ho .takes exception to something.. told a recent visitor, "but we cannot yet have democracy- American or British style. It is not the time. "I suppose in time we might' have a monarchy such as they now have in Britain or Sweden -when a king might play a different role [i.e., reign not rule]. But our people are not ready for that. Our people need the King. Without the King, Iran would have been gone long ago. "Some Western correspond-, ents who come here do not re- alize that discipline is still re- quired in my country. Without discipline we, cannot have a revolution like this.' He speaks passionately of land reform: "It will be com- pleted because the people de- mand it. We have started it. We cannot turn back. The peo- ple will not let anyone, even those who give lip service to . reform, stop it." IS journeys around the country have obviously con- vinced him this is so. Every- where, peasants have greeted him with wild acclaim, and such popularity is a heady brew. The sour opposition of landlords and mullahs and Teheran skeptics has not spoiled his enjoyment of his new friendship with the mass of his countrymen. It can be argued that the only way to accomplish land reform is to plunge into it as the Shah has done. I; would take years to prepare Iran completely for this desperately necessary change, and then . it might well be too late. The Shah has many supporters who believe that action - abrupt, sometimes mistaken, often fumbling, but action - to right the injustices of its ancient system of landholding is Iran's greatest need. THROUGH it all, the Shah, if he really wants to win his "election" as leader in fact as well as in name, must build new confidence among his people in new ways of life. For "black reactionaries" have not been the only enemies of reform and change. The tradi- tional Persian cynicism and apathy have been a paralytic 'disease for centuries. To get Iran moving, the Shah will need to ride a white charger of 'mythical endurance and speed. 17 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 Approved For Release 2003/05/05 : CIA-RDP80BO1676R000600130002-2 NEW YORK TEES 31. OCT 1963 CHIEFS OF ALGERIA' AND GIOROCCO SIGN i 9A meeting of the foreign,' ministers' council of the 30- ination African Unity Organs- :zation "as soon as possible" at Addis Ababa, capital: of Ethiopia. CEASEFIR1J PACT , Arbitration Group Planned The council would set up; an; Ben Bella and Hassan-Yield to Selassie-Shooting Will Stop Friday' Midnight" PLAN IS REACHED IN MALI Neutral Zone Will Be Set Up in Disputed Sahara Area -New Meeting Slated: By PETER BRAESTRUP Special to The New York Times BAMAKO, Mali, Oct. 30- Morocco and Algeria agreed to-, night to a cease-fire in their border hostilities. It is takeef- feet at midnight Friday. President Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria 'and Bing Hassan II of Morocco signed a delicately drawn 'compromise. The fight- ing has cost both sides several hundred casualties in an area 300 miles southwest of Colomb- Bechar. The first incident in-the dispute was Oct. 8. As Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, the prime architect of the compromise, looked on, the Algerian and Moroccan leaders signed the accord, and? then' shook hands and parted. Hassan smiled briefly while .. Mr. Ben Bella remained impassive. Terms of Accord Listed Mr. Ben Bella was clad- in the same rumpled olive-drab uniform that he wore on his arrival yesterday. King Hassan wore a business suit. The sign- ing took place in the Presiden- tial Palace of Modibo Keita,, the chief of state of Mali. The agreement was reached after considerable pressure had been put on the negotiators by the Ethiopians and Malians. The accord calls for these de- velopments: qThe cease-fire. gThe establishment of a com- mission of Malian, Ethiopian, Algerian and Moroccan repre sentatives to set up a neutral, demilitarized zone in the border , area from which both sides would withdraw. 9Supervision of this zone by_; Ethiopian and Malian officers. arbitration committee. This committee would seek to deter- mine which side was at fault for' the outbreak of hostilities and would inquire into conflicting: border claims and submit its conclusions to. both sides. In addition, both Morocco ;and Algeria agreed to cease all propaganda attacks by press or radio after Friday and each side; reaffirmed a policy of "nonin- terference" in the affairs of the other. Each side gained and lost "cer tain points. King Hassan gained ap agreement by Algeria to the , principle that the frontier prob-; lem and the Moroccan demands for Tindouf and Colomb Bdchar should be negotiated. The Algerians won Moroccan agreement to the conference of?. the African Unity Organization.. which Morocco had opposed: The neutral zone under the.. accord gave the Algerians as- surance surance that their condition for a cease-fire-the withdrawal of Moroccan troops-would be met even if it meant withdrawal of Algerian troops as well. However, Western observers warned that such pacts'in the Arab world, as elsewhere, had collapsed quickly before. Neither side seemed overjoyed by the agreement. When the signing ceremony ended there was a burst of applause from Mali officials. The Presidential Palace, an imposing structure on a hill, overlooking the Niger River, was protected by United States trained paratroopers wearing green berets and armed with submachine guns made in Israel. The entrance to the. palace is flanked by two enormous stat- ues of crocodiles. The three visiting chiefs of state were lodged in the palace after their arrival last night. Emperor Haile Selassie was given a suite between those of Mr. Ben Bella and King Hassan. The Algerian and Moroccan leaders met separately yester- day with the Ethiopian Emper- or and their Malian hosts. The members of the Algerian and Moroccan delegations carefully refrained from mixing. The Algerians were clad in baggy ? olive-drab uniforms in a show of their country's mobili- zation against what they term Moroccan "aggression." AFRICA -Madrid 11~Q'L~To .' c1 9PAW, i- G;Firaltar t~C~e6 =f' 4fCs+ndie iti4t~ O, can. Grain Crc' Rabat ? Casablanca 0 ?~0 9uig Marrakesh Df~OC CO ? CorBedvr' i!~R.o -lassi Beida ?T b W i-Jou t s 0T1ndouF ' AILGE1 UA, Re9gan o' ,The New York Times . ' Oct. 31. 1983 SAHARA TRUCE IS SET: Algeria and Morocco have agreed on a cease-fire near Tinjoub.(cross), in the disputed border,region.' Rabat Awaits Text Special to The New York Times RABAT, Morocco, Oct. 30- There was' no 'official reaction in this. Moroccan capital tonight to signing -of the cease-fire. Government officials said they would await receipt of the text of the accord. , Algiers Busy With Plans Special to The New York Times ALGIERS, Oct.' 30-Algeria's celebration of the ninth anni- versary of the beginning of the' war of independence 'against France appeared tonight to be likely to turn into a peace cele- bration as news came of the cease-fire accord. . For two days there has been practically no reports of any, ,fighting on the Algiers radio. All efforts are being devoted to the two-day celebration planned for Friday and Satur- day. Delegations have been ar- riving and a four-and-a-half- hour parade is to he held Friday. Thant Hails Accord Special to The New York Times UNITED NATIONS, N.' Y., ? Oct. 30-U Thant, the Secre- tary :General, hailed the cease- . fire accord today. He said he hoped the agree- ment would 'lead to a "final and peaceful settlement" of the border dispute. He paid tribute to King Has- san, President Ben Bella, Em= peror, Haile Selassie and Presi- dent 'Modibo ?.Keita for their parts.. Delegates Go Shopping While their chiefs were talk- ing, members of the Moroccan and Algerian delegations went (shopping in Bamako, a city of 100,000, mostly black and most- ly Moslem. The visitors bought masks and alligator-skin bags in the tumultuous market on the Ave- nue de la Nation, a street of tin roofs and graceful, brightly clad womens where a beggar of two sighs in the heat. After shopping, the exhausted delegates went back to the Grand Hotel in their official cars, which are requisitioned taxis, past the decaying villas left by the French. In the hotel they sat in the cool lobby and shook their heads wanly 'at thei newspapermen and waited for developments in which they had no part except as window dress- ing. Outpost Reported Captured MARRAKESH, Morocco, Oct. 30 AP-Defense Minister Mah- joubi Ahardane said today that Moroccan. troops had captured 35 Algerians in an all-night battle around the outposts of! Merkala and Oum el-Achar,? near Tindouf. 1 Moroccan officers said the troops had seized Oum el- Achar from its Algerian garri- son. About 40 Algerians were said to have been killed in ac- tion around Tindouf yesterday. The Defense Minister said fighting also had broken. out around Figtg,^1ar