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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Tadshikslcaya SSR p9radshik SS;Iff 55, Moscow Pages 1-228 TADISIX SSR TAUS 07 COMMITS Introduction 1. Natural Conditions and ROSWAreWil Belief Mineral* Climate Rivers and Lakes 4 Soil I. I. Narsikulow and 84. N. PiesaateeY Vegetation. The An11 World 2. From the Ristory of the Tadzhik People 3. Population end. Cu.'tare 4. Baonosty Aviculture InAlu.stry Transportatioa 5. The Regions of Tadzhikistan. The Western Part of the !orgasm Valley - a - Page 1 3 4 a 12 16 22 25 34 39 50 57 60 73 85 90 91 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ????? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ..:????????6 The Zeravehan Valley The Glaser Valley Southwestern Taashiki et= Southeastern Tadshikistan Central Todshilti et= Western. Pamir P.sstern Ponir 6. Bibliography 109 114 125 132 13? 144 149 161 1 A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 TADZHIK SSR Intrpfluctiu The Tadzhik Soviet Socialist Republic is situated in the southeast of Soviet Central Aldan It covers an area of 142,600 sq km and has a population of 1.8 million, predominantly Tadzhik. Tadzhikistan is one of the highest-altitude revablics of the Soviet Union. Included withia its borders is the vast Pamir highland averaging about 4,000 .m above sea level. Zxteading from Zest to West across the 1 entire territory of the republic are powerful mountain ranges, the Tien Shan and Pamiro-Alal mouatain spurs. Parts of the deserts and semi- deserts of the great Turanian, Plain are wedged into the republic's 1 territory on the West where they gradually rise to the foothills. It 1 is in that area, along the broad and well irrigated mountain valleys that the major part of the repablic's population is concentrated. Prior to the Great October Socialist Revolution, the territory of modern Tadzhikistan had been divided into a northern and southern part by a state border running along the Gissar mountain range. Northern Tadzhikistan was part of the Turkestan governors-generalship and beleaged to Russia. It had several coal aad oil extracting industrial enterprises, and cotton, fruit* and vine growing was developing on a rather small scale. The southern part was subordinated to the vassal of the Russian empire, the Bokharan khanate, and was in effect its colony. There was practically no cotton grown there, and agriculture was restricted mostly to grain growing. About 80 of the arable lend belonged to the emir him, self, his officials and large landewners while the &Wakens worked those lands -under conditions of seeiserfden. There were no modern roads and no large industry. There were no secular schools. The entire population was practically illiterate (one literate person for every 200 people). Sines the establishment of the Soviet government, Tadzhikistan has traveled far along the road of large-scale economic and cultural coa- 1 structiou. modern road. network was built in the republic. Arailroad was built extending into the Gilmer valley in the southern part of the coun- try. Hundreds of kilometers of automobile highways were laid across previously inaccessible highland districts. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 A socialist mechanised agricultural system has been established. Tadzhikistan, a cotton-growing country, has long bold first place in the Soviet Union in cotton crop capacity and second place in overall catkme production. The smahmax part of Tadihikistaa, situated in the dry sub.. tropical belt, produces such highly valuable subtropical and tropical cultures as long-fiber cotton geraniun, lemons, and many others. The Vakhsh practically rehabilitated from scratchamder the Soviet Government, is the largest center of long-fiber typos of cotton In the country. There is extensive vine and fruit growing, particularly apri- cots, on irrigated fields. Walmats, almonds, and peanuts are grown at varioms levels on mountain. slopes. Large areas of the mometain slopes requiring= irrigation are planted to grain, bean and oloogenaas cul- tures, wheat, barley, *curly" flax flen-kairyashg, sesame, and. others. Rverywhere in Tadzhikistan the collective and state farms take good advantage of the highland summer pastures and valley winter pastures for their pasture cattle. Revs they raise one of the largest breeds of mutton-tallow eheep in the world, the Gilmer sheep. Karakul sheep breed- ing Is well developed in the oemidesert districts. Silkworm breeding is an important part of agriculture. The country's subsoil is rich in a variety of minerals. Amenable on a commercial scale are coal, oil, polymetals, wolfram, arsenic, anti- mony, bismuth, tin, celestine, fluorspar, ozocerite (mineral wax), table salt, and a variety of banding materials. Up to 60 different minerals, found in over 300 deposits are successfully mined and used on a large scale. The power potential of the ceuntry4s mountain rivers, which account for more than half of such water resources in Central Asia, is very greet. The agricultural and mining raw materials represent a reliable raw- material base for Tadshaistan's loading industries. The following in- dustries were built: cotton-processing? oil-producing, fruit canning, wine making, flour milling, meat, silk, textile tanning, etc. The republic's heavy industry is rising to a osaspieuons level. This is manifested primarily in the production of coal, oil, polymetals, and rare metals as well as in the production of building materials. Large mechanical-engiumpring plants are under construction. The party and the governeent have outlined vast possibilities for the further expansion of the national economy of the Tadzhik SSR in the Sixth Five-Tear Plan. - 2 - Declassified in Part- Sanitized CopyApprovedforRelease @50-Yr2013/09/11:CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220007-A - A ??.1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ? Growing with the expanding economy is the culture and. material well- being of the population. One-third of the republics a state budget is spent anonally for national education. The schools are attended by all children of school ago. More than 30 colleges and special middle schools were opened. Six colleges were opened. in Stalin:11mi. The republic has an Academy of Sciences. The Sixth Five-Tear Plan has appropriated for the construction of sChools, hospitals, theatres, houses of culture, libraries, and. stadiums in the Sixth Five-Tear Plan. A television station and planetarium will be built. 1. IfATURAL CONDITIONS AID MISOURGES The Tadzhik SSR to situated in the southeastern part of Soviet Central Asia between latitudes 36?401 and 410051 N. The republic is on the same latitude as southern Spain, Turkey, and the northern half of the island of Honshu (Japan). Tadzhikistan borders on 2 foreign countries, the Chinese Peoples s Republic in the east and. Afghanistan in the South. The narrow strip of the HAfg)3an Corridor .R which is 15 to 66 km wide., separates the Soviet Panir from India and Pakistan. The territory of the republic, extendiag 680 km from tfest to Vast, narrows down toward the middle part to 100 km and. has an elongated ledge in the nartbatest. Tadskikittans s borderliaes are my sinuous. They were established over a period. of years. The eastern border with China was fixed, along the Sarykols skiy mountain range in 1894. The southern border, running along the ?emir, Pyandsh, and Amu-Darya rivers, was established. in 1895. The western and northern borders., separating Ta.dzhikistan from trzbedistan and Kirgizia, were fixed in 1925 so that the areas inhabited nrimaril3r by Tadzhiks were included in the then autonomous Tadzhik republic. The extreme northwestern ledge (the former Khodsheaskiy okrug and now part of Leninabad Oblast), with a predominant Tadshik population, was added. to the Tadshik SSR vadch was formed in 1929. Tadzhikistan is situated at the junction of the central Asiatic deserts and the vast central Asiatic uplands. The gradual topographic chance from the former to the latter tlattaiertilvek* 4 tgi MAAir wartieeoe natural condition*. -3- - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 211421. Tadzhikistan is mainly a mountain country. Sixty-two at its territory (according to the explication of the land la 1952) consists of mountain ranges, cliffs, rocky places, glaciers, etc, which cannot be utilized, for economic rposes. The irrigated valleys. In which almost the entire population of the republic is concentrated e aecovat for only TA of the entire territory. Mountain ranges aro the prevailing forms of relief. They belong to 2 grandiose mountain !systems, Tien Shan in the north and Pamir in the south, and practically cover the entire territory of the republic. Most of then extend from West to Bast. Their height is reduced at the ap- proeches to the western borders where they spread out fanwise maser& with the surrounding plains beyond the borders of the republic. Between the separating ranges of western Tadihikistan are broad habitable and economically useful valleys, some of Which are 300 m above sea level. Is easterly direction the mountains become higher and closer, some of than forming majestic mountain-peak concentrations foamy* u114,5. Some of the mountain ranges reach an average height of ,000-6,000w,whi3e certain peaks rise 1,500-2,000 m Above that. The high- est point in the Soviet Uldell is the Stalin Peak of the Academy of Scian- cc. Mountain Range; it is 7,495 a above ems level. The enormous range of heights and the highly diversified relief of the country account for the umaseally variegated landscape. Most con- spicuous are the differences between the following 3 group: of areas: intermountain depressions, uneven elevations, sad the flat upland of Last Pamir. Anong the vast low-depression areas in the republic aro; the western part of the ?orgasm Valley between the Itraminskiy and TarkestsnrktY ranges in the North, amd the so-called South-ladshik Depression, forming a triangle between the Gissarikiy mad Ilarvasskiy TINUPs ia the Southwest. The latter is made up of a number of valleys Gissar, Takhih, Their- nigenikeya, Xywylsoyskara, etc -- which are separated. by low mountain chains and. hills. The landscapes of the lergaaa valley and the valleys of the South Tadzhik Depression have madh in common. Their altitude is relatively low (300-800 s), their surface is flat, and their areas large. They are irrigated by large rivers. ?roe an econonical point of view they are the most important valleys in the republic. They are densely popu- latedandvell cultivated. The dominant features there are *culture landscapes! or eases. , -4- .- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Me bottoms of the valleys usually slant steeply upwards, turning into foothill pleiu.s. Tho latter differ in width, height, elope, and. diversity of relief, their only comon fast-aro being that they are zones extending into notustain areas. Some of the foothill plains are very large; the plain on the northern slope of the Turkestan. Range, for example, extends 50-60 las from the edge of the valley to the foot of the range, then rioes vertically from 400 to 1,900 m? These plains are usually intersected by small. rivers, which fors mall valleys, and temporary streests that form ravines. Low moun- tain chains rise in some places, and their slopes are covered with forests (of which there are few in Tadshikistes), The inhabited points are scat- tered in the form of oases along the mall river volleys. Most of the dry watereheds are covered with pastureland; where there is more moisture the land is used. for plaughi23g. The foothill pleans gradually rise to becone mountainous areas which cover the northern, central, and southeastern parts of Tadzhikistan, Rising to various heights, they are characterized by a very broken relief. To the north of the Fergana Valley there is a smell tsaustalzumrea con- sisting of 2 low mountain remiss, the Xuraninskiy Range and the Mogolten. Range; the average altitude of the former is no more than 2,000 et, and the latter no more than 1,000 a above sea level. These are the most ancient and the most eroded. mountain ranges in Tadzhikistan, an.d. they are very rich in mineral resources. Located. between the Fergana Valley and the South-Tadzhik Depression is the central TadiIdk mountain area. Converging in the Match mountain concentration are the Turkestan and. Zeravithen rases extending from the West and. the Alay Range frost the Nast (most of the latter 'belongs to Xirgizia), Batending from the Zeravehen Range in a southerly direction are the Oisaar aM Krategisskiy ranges. Their height declines from 5,000 m and. over, in the Match mountain-conematration area, to 3,000 m and below at the western borders of the repo:Clio. The largest glacier in the area, the Zerairshan Glacier, taeasaring 25 km in length, is located. in the Match area between the Turks stem. and. Zermates ranges. Rising to the South of Central Tadzhikistan and liorth of the South- Tadzhik Depression is the Pamiro-Dervasskaya la-plena. area, which is covered with the following bugs interconneeted Pettr Pervyy, Darvazakiy? Vanchskiy, and Tazgaesteitiy nag's. Abutting against the mountain v.04, of the Academy of Sciences Range at the eastern end., these mountains fotsa one of the most grandiose mountain massifs in Central Asia. The average - 5 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002-ion79nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 height of the Academy of Science,: range is 6,000 is, with some of its peaks rising to 7,000 a and. more. (Stalin Peak is 7,495 m high, Tevgezily Xorshenevskly Peak 7,105 so, Molotov Peak 6,852 m, and Gar= Peak 6,535 m). The glsciation process on this mountain massif is among the most inten- sive in the world.. The Veda/wink* Glacier, one of the largest v17- type glaciers in the world is located there (it is 71 kat long and. covers an area of 907 sq ka). Tarther Yorth, eeparated fros it by the deep Muksu River Velley, is the 2aalayskly Range with Lenin Peak (7,134 in); separated by the Bartow River Valley in the South are the parallel ranges of Western Thai?: Rushanskiy, Shagaenskiy, Shakhdarinski.y. and. Vakhaaskiy. The landscapes of the moimtain areas, though changing in different localities, are on the whole quite different fron those of the low valleys and foothills. The high rouges alternate with narrow and deep inter- mountain valleys which, as a rale, become open and wider toward the west. Tur'buleat rivers, hug* taluses? and precipitous cliffs, *ich make these valleys uninhabitable for stusy kilometers, and terraces with their nar- row alluvial fans irrigated by slope streaus combine to form the general picture of the major and secondary valleys of the meauktain areas. The wall Inhabited points of the skouetain valleys are located mostly on the terraces and alluvial fans iihere seall-scale irrigated, planting and fruit gardiceing are possible. The lower slopes of the val- leys, well moistened by precipitation, are used for irrigationless plant- ing, and. the upper parts are, as a rule, used as summer pastures. In point of surface structure, the east Pamir upland represents a special type of mountain area. Rilly conditions prevail up there, despite the high altitude, which is at least 3,600 a above sea level. Inordinately bread va3.1sy*, intersected.* slew-flowing striates, flat basin* with saucer-shaped lakes and relatively low ranges with rounded peaks and flat Asp*, severed with crushed rock are the most conspicuous forms of that *old, high-altittute desert. The territory of eastern Pamir is sparsely populated aud is used. imstly for griming ptasposes. The appearance of the soder* relief of sTadshikistan, the composition and. distribution of its niaerals, and its seismic 4:auditions are determined by the geological past of the country. The *ajar features of its various sections had, been formed. at different geo3-egAcal periods, free the Cale- donian. (Lower Paleoseis) to the Alpine period of mountatin-formation. The earlier the souatain ranges were formed, the more complicated, was their lifs:. they were deskaioyed, covered by the sea, and rose spin in that next moulatain-forming period. - 6 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : -- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 OS. The contemporary mountain relief of Tadzhikistan was created by the Alpine mountain-forsting movemer,ts, but that formation process WI ? different diff-srent places. The etattitst manifestations of plication processes occ-irred in the northern part of the republic, in the Kuranin.skiy and liogoltau mountain ranges. In the Upper Paleozoic era, these movements covered central. Tadzhikistan. The tectonic movements varied acoerding to the physical condition of the various parts of the earth= s crust. The sections eomposed of hard, rock were broken up into fault-blocks which were shifting at various speeds in a vertical direction; the areas con - stating of softer minerals were crumpled into folds. Finally, entire areas with a flattened. topography slowly and graduallY rose to a higher surface. That probably accounts for the plateau-like shape of the central part of the Itast Pamir Upland. With few exceptions, the country' s mountain areas are rade up of paleozoic minerals of various ages, measuring many thousands of meters in thickness. For a long period, of time, these minerals continued to rise and, disintegrate and their debris were carried by the rivers to lover altitudes where they formed huge strata. In the late ].pine Period, the mineral deposits accumlated in the depressions were armpit& into folds and raised to an enormous height (Peter Perryy Range, the northern slope of the Zaelnyskly Range, and. the southwestern part of Darvasskly Range), or they formed. the comparatively low mountain chain:), with which the South-Tadzhik Depression and. the Fergana Valley are studded. Recurrent volcanic activities, resulting in the formation of crys- talline rock nassifs and effusive rock covers, took place during the Paleozoic Period in what is now Tadzhikistan. Connected with the vol- canic rock is the formation of most of the mineral deposits which are found in the Paleozoic rooks. Ore deposits are very seldon found in the residues of the nesszoic and. tertiary periods which contain spotty nonmetallic and fuel minerals. Seismically unstable zones, noted. for their frequent earthquakes, are found between the ancient and more recent mountain systems, particu- larly within South Tadithi]dstan and Pamir. Ome of the most active earth- quake zones extends from Nast to West on the Earatag,l'armabad--Obi-Os.rm? Tadzhikabad. line along the contact line between the Paleozoic structures of central Tadzhikistan and the Kesocenozoic deposits of the South- Tadzhik Depression. Found in those zones are outlets of the deep hot- water, and frequently radioe.ctive, springs of Xhodzhi-Ohigare, Members (near Stalinabad), Obi-Care and a number of springs in the Pamir. These facts testify to the youthful age of the relief and. the continuing mounr- tain-building processes. ,?????????? - 7 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R00230022onn7_s Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Befoya the revolution, the mineral deposits in what is nov Tadshildstan had not been thoroughly studied. There were several types of minerals, but systematic exploitation was restricted to coal and oil masa*. Up to 50 different kinds of minerals have bee* discovered. under the Soviet regime, and 20 of them are being extracted.; the mineral reserves of 300 different deposit places have already been estimated. The minerals found in the republic consists of poly:riot:as, rare metals, and. nonmetallic minerals. The sine and, lead. reserves in Tadshi- Iciztan coopers favorably with many of the largest loch deposits in the Soviet Union. The list of rare metals found. in the republic includes strontium, antimony, wolfram, arsenic, bismuth, tin, mercury, miolyb- deans, cadmium, etc. The nometallic mineral; comprise a similar variety: fluorspar, asbestos, mica, mounta3.n crystal, optical fluorite, talc, barite. lapis lazuli, and. igany others. Almost all the known mineral ores are concentrated. in 3 mountain areas: in the north of the republic. in Central Tadshidistan, and. in the mountain ranges of the Pa:mir-Darvasskiy Mountain System:. Conspicuous from the viewpoint of the variety and. quantity ef mineral ores is the northern mining area (Kuraminsidy and. Nog?item rang). Here the most important minerals are poly:seta's (zinc and. lead) as well as rare metals (bismuth, arsenic, and wolfram:). Many of the ZurEetinspw . range deposits are complex in nature; their ore contains not mi. bat several different metals (for example, load, zinc, silver, and cadmium) requirisg complicated technologicai methods for their extraction. Me Kuraminsky Mountain Range, just like the Central Ural, is not high, and. its deposits are found. below 2,000 a of absolute height Prole*lataaya vysotag, in the *Igoltau Range at loss than 1,000 a. %Eat is why the Arabs considered. Xaramazar (the southwestern part of Inraminsidy Range) the center of the silver and. lead inaastry. The Russians became *war* of its riches in the second half of the nineteenth osmitarjr, but mo use was made of them at that time. ieremazarliss now become one of the largest mining industry areas. Rext in isportmao? is the central mining area (Oisser, Zaravshan? and Turketstaa Ba*Ve). Yound in that area were deposits of rare metals, coal, and nonmetallic minerals. The most important among them are the largo antimany deposits of Rshithikrat in the Oisear Range. There are also wolfram, arsenic, tin, mercury, etc. Meek interest was aroused. by the discovery of vast deposits of high-quality crystals of optical - 8 - r....?????? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043Rnn9mn99nnno_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 r fluorite, a highly valuable raw material for the optical industry, within the natural boundaries of Xuli-Xelua (Zeravshan Range). Au these deposits are ooaosatrated within a vast mountain massif at a high altituLle (in some places above 3,000 a) which makes access to them quite difficult. The iliskobekly fluorspar deposits,- found at a comparatively low altitude (1.650 m)? near Stalinebad, are some of the -rare exceptions. The development of that rich einiag area calls for the construction of a railroad line in its central part. Mere are several altersate plans for such a railroad line; the most feasible project would be a Samarksni- Takfan railroad. iia.). Still more incoavenient is the location of the third mining area, the Paniro-Darsavekeya. Optical oarts? mica, asbestos and. talc deposits were found. in the Vanoheldy, Darvasskiy, and Sbakhdarinskiy ranges. Lying at an altitude of 3,800 - 4,700 a above sea level, these deposits are axons the highest in the world. Gold. deposits are found. also in. the Pamir and on the eastern fringes of the South.Tadskik Depression. Connected with the rocks of the Mesozoic and the Tertiary Period. is the formation of fuel (oil, coal and. shale oil) and nommetallic minerals (salt, 13uilding materials, etc.). Most of them are located in lower- altitude areas and. under favorable economic conditions. In some places the deposits had. been raised. to considerable altitudes by Alpine tec- tonic movements, as in the case of the Bavatskii coal deposits, the largest in Central Asia. Among the minerals of that group already discovered aad prospected are coal, lignite coal, gas, oseoerite (mineral wax), table salt, phos- phoritess. shale oi3., peat, and numerous construction materials. The coal was formed. in the Jurassic Period when a were and humid climate prevailed. in. Central Asia and the shores of the sea gulfs and. lagoons were coVered, with dense forests of palm trees, giant ferns, and equisetums. Goal is found, in. many parts of the couatry, bat the major deposit* are cortoentre,ted in the valleys of the Zeravshan River and its tributaries. tghty peroeat of the several Milieu tons of the geological coal reserves are concentrated. in the Ravatakeye deposits in the Tagsib River Valley user Takfon, at an altitude of 1,500 to 2,500 a. /mother large deposit is the Iehtat-74atrameko7e located in the *MO mountain area and almost at the sum altitude. The coal fouad in these deposits is among the best in Tadzhikistauk with a very high thermal efficiency (7.5 - 8,5 thousand. calories). Most of the coal found is Ravat can be converted. into coke for aetallurgical purposes. Bu.t these deposits have not yet been exploited the to the lack of railroad. facilities. - 9 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R00230022onn7_s Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 .v 6 ;A- I 4eS. In the North, the Shurib is an important coal basin. It is situated at a low altitude aad is easily accessible (it is connected. with the Fergana railroad by broadgage rail tracks). the Sharab lignite, whidh has a high thermal officiemay(4.5ao to 5,500 calories) is being mined; it is used throughout Tadzhikistan. On the southern Slope of the Gissar Mountain Range are the Zidtaik coal deposits containing good quality coal (with a thermal efficiency up to 7,000 calories) bat those deposits are not exploited. because of the high altitude am& the lack of reliable roads leading up to thee. The other coal deposits are small and of strictly local significance. Oil &vomits originating from Paleogenic residues were found in the northern part of the reil4alic (the XXX and Wetealad oil fields) as well as ia the south, in the Takhsh River Valley (lisql-Tueshuk). Geological structures indicating possible oil reserves were found lathe same areas, and they will be prospected within the next few years. Mined near the KIK oilfields is osocerite (mineral wax) which is a paraffin-base oil derivative. It permeates the Shell rock and sandstone strata to a great depth. The salt deposits were formed under the conditions of the dry con- tinental climate prevailing in the middle Mesozoic and Tertiary periods. The salt reserves in the republic are fabulously great. The two bald mountains near tulyeb? Ithedthasartiz and. Zhodsbarasin, each about 1,000 m high or more? consist almost entirely of pare rock salt. The salt reserves of those mountains above the serface alone is estimated at vproximately 70 billion tons. But they have not been touched yet. Salt deposits are available aloe in other parts of the couatry, closer to the industrial centers (Xaayabkurgan? for example) where they are being exploited. Phosphorites, sulfur, and oil shale are fouad in a number of places in, the South-Tadshik Depression, but their reserves are not very large. Among the other types of raw materials belonging to the MOWil0A0i group and available in quantity are the following construction materia/s: gypsum, limestone, glass sand Lctekorniy peso/err, fire clay, marble, granite, an abundance of loess, gravel, etc. aistruction conbines and plants are operating in the country On the basis of these raw material*. The mineral water 'purees of Tadzhikistan. are found along the tec- tonic crags; the water is mostly hot, which it due to the dying volcanic activity of the Tertiary and. quarter3sary periods. The 2 femme hot water -10- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 .01"4"... -????????., sources in southern Tadshikistan are Ihodshi-Obigara, Worth of Stalinated (radioactive, with a water temperature between 420 and SIP), and Obi-Oars. Nast of that city, (bydrosalfuric? with a water temperature 'between 350 and.' 4e). SanataTia titre built near both springs. Pamir is famous for its numerous thermal springs (temperatures between 380 awl 850). Those springs are litcated in poorly-exploited areas, at absolute altitudes between 2.000 and 4.500 m, and are used in a primitive manner 'by the incoming population. A group of cold nineral-water 'springs was found. in the Ihodshi- Sangkitok community ea the southern slope of the Caesar Mountain Range at an altitude of more than 3,000 m. Only ORO of those springs, located near the Ansobskiy Pass automobile road, is being used. Among the highly valuable minerals are the medicinal muds. Very popular among the sufferers frost rheumatic and skin diseases is the ?kooks* Mud-and-Salt Lake, Northeast of losainelad; special sanatorium for stul cures was built there liecoming famous also are the salt springs springs at Ihodtdmamessist Mountain near Nulyab, teach are still used in a primitive way. The various ore and nonmetallic mineral riches are scattered all over the cotmtry, foraing 5 more or loss ontlinad territorial complexes: 1. Naramasarskiy polynetals, rare setae, fluorspar. etc; 2. Tadzhikska-Yerganskiy ? lignite, oil, ow:writs, rook oat, and. construction materials; 3. Zeravshanske-Gissarskiy rare metals, coal, firs clay, fluor- spar, thermal and nineral webers; 4. South-Tadshik -- coal, oil shale, peat, rock salt, phosphorites, construction materials, and thermal waters; 5. Peniro-Darvasskaiy ? optical quarts, asbestos, shale, rare metals, wad thermal meters. There are possilxtlities in these areas for the development of different branabas of the mining industries as well as industrial couple-tee. - U - 47-,k ????,..... Declassified in Part- Sanitized Co.y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDPRi nindqPnn?-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 91kmatt The climate of the Tadzhik SSR, as of any other country, is deter- mined by the general systen of circulation in the atmosphere and, to a large extent, by the relief. Tadzhikistan is located in the southern- most latitudes of the USSR, within the higher preset:re belt of the northern hemisphere. Precipitation is almost never formed within, that belt, anti the moisture coning from the oceans and seas is very limited due to the long distances. (High air pressure does not facilitate the formation of precipitation, as the air vapors coning down from the cold upper layers of the atmosphere to the lower and -warmer layers expand and. move away from the devpoint). The intensive solar heat to which the earth*s surface is subjected in the sumer months produces suck evapora- tion which is not compensated for by precipitation; that creates condi- tions for the formation of intracontinental deserts in the dry belt. (The tarakum? ZysyLiam, Takla-)(akan? Gobi, and other deserts extend along the high air presatume belt across all of addle and Central Asia). That is Wry the dry belt has left its imprint on the entire natural appearaaso? and. climate of the republic, which may be characterized. as highly continental. At the same time, the Tadzhik territory is affected by outside air ouxrents, mostly from the Northwest, utich, while bringing humidity from the West, also facilitate the penetration of cold. air masses from the North. Almost all the precipitation in Tadzhikistan comes from the direction of the Atlantic Ocean, the Sediterranean, and the Black Sea. It is brought in by cyclones in wintertime. In the stanmer, the weather in most of the country is dry, and there are no rains. Alt even in winter- time the hueidity is very limited as the air masses moved in by cyclones have to travel long distances before reaching Tadzhikistan, and most of the moisture it lost on the way. In addition to cyclones, Central Asia is periodically penetrated also by northern and. northeastern air masses originating in the Arctic, mostly dLtring the cold season, of the year when a powerful anticyclone movement is built up over eastern Siberia and, breach off to the West. These penetrations produce considerable though temporary cold spells in wintertime as well as early autuma an4 spring frosts. The climatic differences within the territory of the republic are determined by local conditions: altitude, exposure of the mountain- range s3.opes, and partly by the location of the various districts in ????????? 12 9;47 31.1 t:9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 r' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 the South or North of the country. Such differences are particularly pronounced between the lower valleys (iecluding the foothill valleys) and mountain arcao and the Beet remirlUnland. The fallowing fignres present a general characteristic of the climatic features: Localities Altitude Temperature range of Preeip- above sea extreme itation level (a) January July temperatures (es) (degrees) Ayvadik 340 2.6 32.2 65.2 140 rhodshi-Obigarn 1,807 -30. 22.1 52.7 1,389 Nergab 3,640 -17.7 13.6 78.0 73 The lower zone (Ayvadth) is very warm and arid, the mountainous (Ihodshi-Obigare) zone is temperate and considerably humid, and /het kamir is a cold, dry, and sharply continental area. The lower zone contains broad valleys, foothill plains, and in parts also low mountains. Its upper border runs at an approximate altitude of 1,000-1,200s. Prom the standpoint of climatic and vegetation, it is primarily a dry ribtropioal zone, which can produce themost valuable southern cultures under irrigatiam. The summers there are very hot, not less so than in Cairo (Bgypt): the mean, temperature in July dims not exceed. 280, and in some places 320. The duration of the freeness period. is 6 to ?months, and. Laval-- Sheltered valleys up to 8 mosithe. The total temperature for the period., when the average daily temperature i* not below 180, amounts to 4,0000 and the southernmost valleys 5,000?. (Cotton seeds usually begin to sprout under such daily tempers/me, and this figure is therefore taken as the beginning and the end of the vegetation period in the subtropics) That is Omit the temperature required by thin-fiber cotton, jute, sugar cane, and citrus fruit. The high Isomer temperatures are accompanied by a:higher degree of air dryness and en almost total lea: of Virifl for many months. The annual precipitation is less than 200 ma but increases to 400-600 me with rising altitude, so that in the upper part of the zone it is possible to engage in agriculture without the benefit of irrigation. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 1 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The winter in the lower valleys is humi4 and. yam The average january temperature is oonewhat above 0?, and. the daily temperature is usually considerably hidier. Such conditions do not facilitate the forma- tion of a pitisurgeut =v. cover en the ground atd are therefore favorable for the develops/Ant of 4 rasa husbandry, inasmuch as most of the cattle spend the winter grazing in the lower valleys. Xxisting along with the positive clinatie features of the lover zone are also certain negative features which tend to complicate the development of a etzbtropical type of agriculture. Cold spells in the winter occasionally reach -240 to -28?, and they happen to pemetrate the lowest subtropical valleys at a time when the zaountain slopes are not affected by such spells. This phenomenon is called. temperature inversion and the reason for it is that the cold air masses coming from the North drift into the lower valleys and do not rise very high from there. (A typical example of temperature inversion was recorded. on 13 January, 1949, in South Tadzhikistan: the morning temperature in Stalinabad was -24*? at the .ansobskly Mountain Pass -8?, and at an altitude of 1,700 m above Stalinabad lacessively low temperatures have an unfavorable effect on valuable perennial cultures. Late frost fret/us:03.y occurs in the spring and early frost in autumn. The late spring frosts are especially destructive after the warm weather has sit in and. the plants have began to grow and even blossom. Peculiar also are the winds in this zone. Very common are the teems, the dry and warm winds blowing from the mounta4ins down into the valleys, particularly in the cold season of the year. They rapidly warn the air, melt the snow, and. bring about a premature growth of tho vegetation which later usually suffers from the cold. During the foible season the weather is as warm in December as it is in summer. The Garmsils a hot wind, blowing ghostly in the lower valleys bordering on deserts, is a normal occurrence during the warm season of the year. The garment raises the temperatures to 450 - 470 in the shade. The extreme high temperature is accompanied IV extreme dryness (the relative humidity drops to 10% sat even 5% from the average of 40%). Under these conditions, the plants frequently lose their capacity to maintain a no real evaporation of moisture and dry up from the excessive loss of moisture. - 14 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA RDPRi-ninaqpnno Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Some of the winds are of local significance. The Afganets, which blows from the South. is a familiar 'phenomenon in the valleys of the Southwest, and the Pergenets, a western wind, blows through the "gates" from the direction of the Turanian deserts. These winds are very strong, they carry huge masses of dust, and frequently cause mechanical damages to fruit gardsus and young crops. The climatic conditions of the mountain areas axe markedly different from those of the subtropics. The sumer* there are cooler and the frost- free periods shorter. The winter temperature is more nniforn, without sudden changes to warmer periods or to cold slaps. The snow cover is stable and, in loose hi*); valleys, TUT thick- The aountaiz valleys, extending from West to East and sheltered from the cold northeien winds by high mountain ranges, are con.sidarably warmer than they would otherwise be at a similar altitude. Thus, in the Zeravehaa valley, at az altitude of 1,522 m (Ayni), the rammer temperature is 24.40 and the Waiter temperature -2.3.1, while in the Oust River Talley, at a 2,080 a altitude (Xitorog), the temperatures are, respectively, 220 and -7.10. These are eloeed-in valleys. Plants requiring warm weather can grow there at unusual altitudes; rice, no to 1,800 m; sesame and clover ffkleveshchinan up to 2,000 s; end. water melon and cantaloupe, um to 2,400 a. Fruit tress grow at very high altitudes; mulberry and apricot trees grow at altitudes lihich in the Alps are usually covered. with permanent spew and ice. ificroconditions are more important in the high-altitude areas than on the plains. Yer example, it is importaat that the collective farm* know whether to use the sunny or the shay slope for pleating, gardering, hay procurement, Dad cattle grazing. Wheat does not alwate ripen on tbe shady elopes, as they de mot get sufficient sunshine; 'bat the latter usually produce sore grass, better hay, and pastures than the miry slopes. That is why production is frequently distributed uneouslly on opposite slopes of one and the same valley. Precipitation in the motoitain areas is considerably better than on the plain*. The precipitation brought in by the cyclamate is intercepted by the mountains as by screens. As the air rise* and. condensation im- proves, the humidity rises up to 2,500 - 3,000 a and, then drops again. But even the mountain areas do not get an *quill a:omit of precipi- tation. The slopes of the outside mountain ranges lying in the way of the cyclonic air mass movements get more moisture, This is particularly true of the mountainous part of South Tadshikistatt located. between the - -15- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Giesler and Darvazskly ranges and representing a large corner open to the Southwest. Art annual procipitatioe of 600 Vinto 4000 i is natal in that area, and in some of its parts it goes up to 2,0(X) sm. Less moisture is received. by the northern elopes of the Turkestan Range (up to 400 mis) and. the half-sheltered valleys of the Zeravshan River asin (200-300 ma). Little pracipitation .reachaz the farat.,4, v.alleye of western Pamir (less than 200 sus), /Alieb are closed in by the inmate-ins. The relatively well-aoistened large part of the mountain area and. the precipitation occurring in the first half of the summer (inclu.ding June) are of great ?canonic importance. The lynd where the annual pre- cipitation is over 400 ma is under agricultural cultivation that requires no irrigation. The most moistened part of the south is covered by forests, and the upper bolt of the mountains by alpine and ihtbalpine meadows, which are excellent sumer pastures. The climate of the hi fea Pamir upland. is very severe. The average January temperature in Murgab is -17.76, and. at lake Kara,luli (the lowest temperature in Tadzhikistan). The minima temperature is -50e (at lake rars,411111). The summers are short. In Russell the frost- free period. lasts 2 months on the average, and at Lake Xara-Lilt it is practically nonexistent. During the simmer days, however, the lower layers of air get quite warm, and the sumer weather is warmer than could be expected. at such an altitude. The average July temperatalx. in Murgab is 13.60, and the highest temperature is 310. This makes it possible in SOUS places to raise certain cultures which have very short 'vegetative periods and. are resistant to frost. Zastern Pamir is exceptionally dry. Almost all of the air humidity is intercepted by the AcrAway of Sciences Range, the Darvasskiy Raage, and. others, through which the already dry air masses flow to the Pamir. The annual precipitation in Murgab is 73 max and at Lake rara-rult 62 sm. The major part of the territory is not covered. with meow MANI ia winter- time. As a whole, eastern Pamir is a vast highland. desert with year- round. pastures. Rivers and Leket Tadzhikistan is covered with a dense network of rivers representing the upper sections and. tributaries of the Amw-Derya, Syr-Darya, sad the Zerayshen. The rivers, as a rule, have an abundance of water, but only part of it is used. for irrigation purposes in the repablie. (In the ease of the Vakhsh river, for example, only 6% of its average monthly flew is used. for irrigating the Veldt& Valley fields). Most of the latter flows to Usbiai,:istan and. Turkaitaia, whore it is used. for irrigation, or reaches the Aral Sea through the large rivers. - 16 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The -1,...zars.cteriatic feature of moat the rivers is their steep drop. The rivers usually flow from altitudes of more than 1,800 - 3,000 a down to the plains, which are located. at altitudes of 300 - 1,500 n. They originate in the mountains as turbulent streams flowing along a common bed. among craggy vibble terraces or along corridors with precipitous rocky walls. Full-flowiag and sheer-dropping, these rivers contain an linfantoUs reserve of power. The Tadzhik SSR has about 1/2 of the potential hydro- electric power of Central Asia. The total capacity of the Tadzhik rivers, at the prevailing annual rate of water flow, amounts to 26.000000 kw. The deep canyons, resting on hard rock in a number of places, are suitable for the construction of large water reservoirs and power plants. The Tadzhik rivers vary as to their sources, behavior, and. economic importance. Host of them originate in mixed. glacier-snow sources. They originate in the glacier. and snow which are constantly accumulated in the high mountains. The Igamir-Darvas heights are almost entirely covered with glaciers. The major tributaries of the Amu-Darya originate there. There are Remy glaciers and snow masses also in the central mountain massif. The Zeravsh.en and some of the Syr-Darya' s left-side tributaries originate there. The rivers fed. by the glaciers and. *now have a high waterline in summertime when the glaciers and. snow begin to thaw. The largest increase in the water volume occurs in the period frost Jima to August and, the high- water mark, reached. in July, coincides with the tine when the irrigation of cotton and. other cultures requires the naximum amount of water. There is little water in those rivers in the fall, winter, and spring. The rivers which are not connected with glaciers and. permanent snow (there are few of them in Tadzhikistan) are small and. carry little water. They originate in the- low mountains and are fed by the winter accumulation of snow and by rains. The turbulent overflows occurring between March and. May are followed by sharp drops in ths water level during the summer months. The economic laportemas of these rivers is quite litsited,. They are found in the lorth, in the Ura-Tyube area, as well as in the Caesar and Kyzyleuyskiy valleys. This type of rivers is characterised. as the "salt" type. A "sell" is a liquid-mud-stone mass moving rapidly down the river bed to a broad valley and spreading out beyond the river bed. A sell usually occurs after a strong downpour in the mountains and sometimes causes enormous damages and hardships to the population. Of some importance are the - 17 - se..11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 spri-fed rivers flowing at the foothill? of the Eursminskiy and. Turkestan ranges, in the mountains between the Gissar and Ve.Vasli valleys and in the Bishkent Valley; they usually irrigate several dozen, and some- times even several hundred, hectares of crops each. Thenay- -Turkestan. Mountain Chain on one side and the Gissar Mountain Bang* on the other divide the country's river network into 3 systems: the Etyr-rfaiya in the North, the Zeravshan in the center, and the Aza-Darya in the South. Ilastern Pamir also has 2 betsine filled. with lakes and a small part of the river Markansu, which flows into China. The ,Syr-Darya outs across the length of the Verona Vtlliry. Prior to the construction of the Big 'Fergana Canal, that river had been used very little for irrigation imposes. At present, the Big Fergana, the North Pomona, and the VerkkmedaVversinskii canals and. a number of pumping installations are used to supply 50 ea a of water per second fro* that river for irrigation purposes in summertime. When the Kayrak. ken water reservoir is' completed., the emount of Syr-Darya water used for irrigation will be increased. many times. A major part of the cultivated land in the valley is now irrigated by the Syr-Darye. tributaries flowing doss the Turkestan and 'uremia** mountain ranges. Ths largest among the left tributaries are the Isfara, the Xhodshabakyrgan, and the Akesx. Compared. with the Syr-Derya, they are small rivers: their total annual draiaage amounts to 900 million. cut mt -whereas that of the Syr-Darya is 15 billion cu. m. These rivers are fed by- glaciers and snow and are almost entirely used for irrigation perposes during their midismimer hit? water level period. ?lowing town the Turkestan, Nano, in addition to the above-mentionit rivers, thins ere several other small rivers that are fed. by snow or soil water and are used. to irrigate such large oases as Shekhristan gat Ura-Tyubia. The water of thee* rivers is almost entirely used for irrigation purposes, but, since the amount is insufficient, a waiting-line has been established for its nos. Originating in the turaninekly mountains are small spring-fit streams which, are used for irrigation on an. area 'between, the mountains and. about 20.30 kat for the Syr-Darya. Springs ars found. also on the plain. along the river's right bank, such as the Sieger, which irrigates several tun- dra& hectares of crops. The upper part of the next large river, the Zeravsheet (Katcba), crosses about ZOO km ef Tadmhik territory. It originates in the Zeravehan Glacier atop the Match Mountain System and flows along a deep and narrow valley between the Turkestan and Zeravehen ranges. On the left side it - 18 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA RDP81 ninanpnn9-4nnoorwv-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ????"'"-14 is joined. by 3 large tributaries: the FamilaHrlytt, with its ova tributary; the Tagnab; the ltshtutdariyu; and the kagianderiya. They flow down the Gissar Range and. divide the Zieravehan Range into several massifs by narrow canyons. The Zoravahen Range is also the target of over 100 other smell streams. In the Tadzhik mountains, the Zerayshan oollects much of its water. Part of this it releases to the Penzhinkent oasis of Tadzhikistan, but most of it flows to the Samarkand and Bokhara oases in Uzbekistan; there the river is used. almost entirely far irrigation sad. does not reach the AzeL-Darya, whose tributary it used to be. The Zeravshan end its 3 major tributaries flow in deep canyons, which make it difficult to divert the flow by a gravity process. The agricul- tural lauds are irrigated by small-stream tributaries when much of the water on the elevated land, and open spaces has already be used up. The Zeravshan and its tributaries have 111101UOUS reserves of hydro- eleatrie power. Some places in the deep canyons among the precipitous cliffs are excellently suited for water reservoirs. The production of electric power in the Zeravshan Basin would be expedient in view of the variety of minerals available there and. the central location from which power could be transmitted. to other areas of the country. The southernmost river in Te.dahikistan? the upper part of the !a- Darya, collects 3/4 of the =face drainage in the republic. The 2 major rivers comprising theAlalti.?Derya are the trakhat and. Pyandsh. The latter, formed by the confluence of the Pamir and Vaidseutdary* rivers, flows along the USSR-Afghanistan. border. , It makes a gigantle curve and leaves the mountain area in the Moscow administrative rayon. In West Pamir, the Pyandzh is joined by 4 largo tributaries on its right bank: the Gunt (with its tributary, the Shakhdara), the Barton& the Ts.sguli and. the Vench. Between the Vanch and Yakhsh rivers the Pyandsh is joined by several other small but economically important tribataries. The gafirnigan tribataxy empties into the Amu-Darya in Tadzhikistan territory at a point below the Vakhsh. The mountainous portions of the ?yard& and the Zeraveham, are not Used for irrigation as they flow through narrow, deep valleys. Their water becomes usable for irrigation purposes only within the klyabskly Plain. The upper tributaries of the Pyandsh are fed by glaciers and, =ow, become flooded in summer time, and leave their beds. This makes some of the valley impassable during that pariod. The hiez, terraces are irrigated not by the major rivers, but by their tributary streams. Those - 19 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA_pnrDpi Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 steeply dropping rivers develop enormous power. (According to approxi- mate estimates, the average annual power capacity of the Pywndlh River and its major tributariee amounts to over 11 million kw.). The Bartang. ?unto and famir rivers originate in the lakes. The second largest river comprising the Amu-Darya is the Velchsh (which means ocavagen in Tadzhik). It ?originates inXirgisla and flows along the broad .z.layValle7 .ere It is celled Kiel-len; the next large portion of the river, between the tributaries Mukeu and. Obikhingsu? flows within the Tadzhik: borders and is called Sarkhobos, and the entire lower portion. Is called. the Vakheh. The total length of the three portions is about 650 km. (In the Alay Vslley the Vakheh washes away red chalky clay substances and sandstone which sake the water appear red, and that is why the largisians call their portion of the river ifysyleu, and the Tadahiks call theirs Surkhob. Translated, both of these terms mean "red water) The Vakhsh collects about 3/4 of the entire water drainage in the republic. Om* of its tributaries. the Muksu, gets its water from the Pedchenko Glacier, and the other, the Obikhingou, is fed. by the Garso Glacier, which accounts for the glacier habits of the Vakheh River. The fluctuation range of the Vakhih water discharge is enormous: in the summer it is 1.500 to 2.900 =spur second, and, in the winter 150 to 250 =A. Just like the other large rivers, the Vakheh and. its large tabu,. taxies flow in very deep valleys and their watercannot be used to irrigate the fields; the letterer* irrigated only by small secondary rivers. Only when it leaves the mountains, not far from the Pyandih River, does the Vakhsh become the only source of irrigation for the broad Vakheh Valley. As a power and irrigation source. the Vakhah is an. Important river in the republic. The deep canyons and rocky soil found along the course of the Vakhsh and its tributaries are suitable for the construction of reservoirs and powerful hydroelectric plants. The middle portion of the river could. be used as & suitable place for hydroelectric installations, particularly the slfarekikeyaretlye" Drurairskly Loaf' with its canyon-type banks. Unlike the Pamir rivers, the Takhsh cuts across southwest Tadzhi- kistan. which is better awe:Copia economically than the Pamir. Two large hydroelectric pleats, Perepadnare (on a canal) and 0010,Wat are aimed,' under construction along the lower course of the Vekhih. 20 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01041Rnn9qnn99nnn-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ???????""Ni The Kafirnigaa River, flowing west of the Vakhih, has a discharge rate of less than 1/6 that of the Vaktih. It originates on the southern slope of the Gilmer Hountain Range, crosses the eastern part of the Oissar Valley, and continues in. southwesterly direction until it empties into the Ana-Darya. its tritatariou, the Pashaabe and the 'Manske, together with the Karateg (one of the Inrkhadaeya tributaries) irrigate the major part of the Oissar Valley. But they no longer have *ancient water to meet the agricultural Waeands in that rich valley, and the plelui ng for improved. water supply will inevitably include the Kafirnigau. The lower Lafireigan will have to meet an increased demand. for water, particularly in the Beshkent Valley, where it is planned. to irrigate large tracts of new land. Among the other rivers, mention should be made of the Irzyleu and its tributary the Takhsa? Vhich irrigate southeast Tadzhikistan. These small rivers originate in the low mountains, are fed. by snow and rain and reach their highest water level in the first half of the summer. In the *scowl half they become very shallow, their water turning brackish in some places. That area has no adequate mmaely of irrigation water. There are comparatively few lakes in Tadzhikistan, and they vary in regard to origin, nature, ath potential economic value. Several lakes of tectonic-glacier origin are found in the large closed-in depressions of East Pamir. The largest of them, the rare-Mal, covers an area of 364 sq km and is located at 3,914 a above sea level; its shores are still covered with thick larers of geological (tertiary) ice, and, there is apparently ake life in it. Two smaller likes of that type, Lake Shorkull and Lake Renekule, located ia a different depression, are rich in salt and. fish. There are also Lakes of glaciermoratnic origin, sad one of them* Lek* Zorkull, is in the Pamir River Valley.. Rock-filled lakesffzevellars ozerag are found in 2 valleys along the border between East and West ?emir. The largest of them, Lake Saresskoye? cane into being in, 1911 in the Margot River Taller it vas deemed up by the slides from a huge mous- tain. That lake, over 60 km long and. 500 * deep at the 'dammed part, could. provide constant water pressure for a. hydroelectric plant of one million kw capacity. Another lake of that type bat of prehistoric origin is Lake Tashilikalt in the Gast Aver Valley. Located at the upper reaches of the flandsh river tributaries, all these lakes play an important part in the water system and. abound in fish. 21 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Co--" Approved for Release Y . C - ID Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Located in the Gissar Mountain Range, at an absolute altitude of 2,176 a, is the picturesque Lake Isbuinderioali. As a natural water reservoir of the landarya (Zeravshans s triba.tary) river system with an ,c4nreal discharge of about 600 aillion an a of weAer at the overflow point, it 01331 provide power for a large hydroelectric plant or a croup of thee at its cascades. There are similar but smaller lakes withia the Magiand.art (Zeravshants tributary) river system and. in other parts of antral Tadshikistan. Small salt-andAnd lakes are found. mostly on the foothill plains, and there are small molest lakes frozera-staritre abounding in fish and planktonic fowl are in the lower valleys of the large rivers. Soil The soil in, Tadshikistaa, just like the climatic conditions with vh.ich it is closely allied, is characterised by a high degree of diversity. As in the case of the mountainous relief, the major differeraoes in the soil structure can be clearly traced by the elevation zones, or belts, which frequently chase over short distances. The territory of the Tadzhik SSR may be divided, into the following major soil tones: (I) gray desert soil (aerosol) (the were's* seas consists of 2 belts, the desert and desert- steppe belt). (2) mouatein-stepps and. forest-steppe soil, (3) subalpine mountaiu-aes.dow and "midair-stoop* soil, (4) Alpine mountals-meadow and. meadow-steppe soil, and (5) high mountain desert and desert-steppe soil. The gray desert soil, most typical of central Asia, is the most important econonically. It covers the entire lower part of the country. bat zone includes more than 1.4 million ha of arable land which, accord- ing to estimates by soil experts, accounts for about 110% of all the arable land in the republic. The gray desert soil is formet ia a dry hot cliaate under.a cover of spring grass, which grows for a short ties and dries up rapidly. depositing an insignificant amount of organic residue in the soil. This soil cantatas_ little hams. The same 'morels derives from the gray color of the topsoil. A cress section of the country's relief shows that this type of soil is far from ualfore as far as its properties are conoerned. There are 3 types of grey desert soil: light, ordinary, and dark. The light soil, which is of varying mechanical consistemay, covers only the lower valleys up to 600 a above sea leivel; the Fergana. Vakh.sh, Zafirnigen, Kirovabad, and other valleys. Such *oil is no longer seen in the Gismo Valley, which is at an altitude of 700 a. The light eyerosem is almost devoid. of any humus layer (less than 11, buns). It has no - 22 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA RDP8-1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 definite structure, is somewhat dusty, and has a high lime cadent. But despite that, it is very fertile. That fertility depends on the high tesiperators of the vegetation period. Asa the microergamises convert the organic matter into minerals Which are accessible to plants. Thin high fertility, bowlines., is not an exclusive natural feature of the soil; it is brought about also by &number of agriculture' measurest irriga- tion, grassland. 4.top rotation (which., is inportaat for soil structure) and fertilisation. Light 'mazes soil is the gold. reserve of the re- public; it produces the long.-fiber varieties of cotton, jute, and the other southern cultures native to the country. That is why much atten, tion is devoted to the discovery of new suitable lands in the lower part of the syerosem belt. Such potential land is now available in the lower valleys in the form of swamps, salt menthes, large and umirrigated high- desert terraces, as well as other lands containing gypsum and gravel Which can now be exploited thanks to modern scientific and technological methods. Ixteading above the light wyerosem soil is the ordinary syerosen in the Zeravibaa? assert and Taman valleys and in still higher places. On the foothill plates of the northern elope of the Turkestan Bang* that soil rises to an altitude of 1,000 a. Covering the moisture slopes, which get an annual precipitation of over 300 an, that soil is richer in. humus (up to 2.5%) and has abetter structure than the light 'porous. ULM, the latter, the ordinary syerosen is seldom salines inessuchiss the mil- soil water of the higher altitudes is fairly deep. The land covered with ordinary we:boson is used for both irrigated and. =irrigated agri- cultural crops. The require4 humidity level. is 'unstable bat the avails,- Malty of vast tracts of land suitable for large-scale mechanised agri- cultural operations makes agriculture profitable. Still higher up is the dark eve:noses soil. It rises up to 1,500 above son level on the northern elope of the Turkestan housasin Rouge, and. even up to 1,800.a in the warn southern valleys. The annual pre. cipitationat that altitude is between 400 sad 600 an, Ala tends to increase theltemnis content (up to 3.5%) and improve the structure of the soil. The dark ammo soil belt Is suitable for agriculture with- out irrigation. True, it is semeehat less suitable for the use of machinery in view of the rugged terraia. It is possible to find additional land for agricultural production in the dark Amount soil belt. The grerosen mane is followed by a some of mounteimp-steppe and forest- steppe soil. lathe dry Berth, this sone is covered with de* grays dry- steppe *oil, it the more humid South the *oil is carbonate brown, and still higher it is of the ordinary brown mountain-forest type. The enamel -23- tr..= Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50 Yr 2013/09/ ? nnn,Jnnn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 precipitation up there is 1,500 - 1,800 mm. The soil of that zone has a good structure, contains nmch humus (up to 6% in the ordinary brownmonn- tain-forest type) and is sufficiently fertile without artificial irriga- tion. The land of this zone has therefore been intensively ploughed lap, particularly in places once covered by forests, In preparation for =- irrigated aericalture. The destruction of the forests has brought soil erosion on the steep slopes. The important problem in the zone is reforestation and the planting of fruit gardens even if some of the crop- lands have to be reduced for that purpose. The reserve ploughland has already been used up. The subalpine and alpine zones cover the highest parts of the moun- tains. Those zones include Large areas in the upper parts of the huge Alay, Pith. Perm, and Darvasikiy ranges and also parts of the West Pamir ranges. These are cool zones with excess moisture. The carbonates in those zones have, as a rule, been limiviated (they do not boil under the surface hydrochloric acid) and have a higher humus con- tent. Thayer* covered with tumor pastures. Pound in the subalpine zones are plots of unirrigated land where barley grows at altitudes up to 3,200 n. Pb. less lixiviated varieties of mountain-meadow and steppe land are used. for ordinary crops. The colder alpine zone is exclusively grazing territory withmoun- tain-neadow type soil; the peat-formation in that wail is due to the in- adequate mineralization of the residues of the once lush vegetation there. The subalpine and alpine zones can be used not only for crazing cattle in summer but also for its upkeep all year round, especially-with the sapport of nearby agricultural sources. The vast zone of high-altitude desert steppe and desert soil covers 1/3 of the repdblies territory. I includes the entire Bast Pamir up- land. and the mouatain-rangs tops of central Tadshikistan. This zone is characterised by little annual precipitation (below 100 mm) and low temperatures. Xmch of that wail is made unusable by each extraneous elements as glaciers, snow banks, moraine, end accumulations of rock tallus. The soil is, as a rule, filled with detritus and not very productive. Host of the Bast Pamir wail is desert-type carbonaceous soil vial& contaias little humus; it resembles the light syerozem soil of the lower valleys, but differs frost it in its biological properties and economic importance. The broad floodlands of the Bast ?emir rivers, with their .24- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 soil water close to the surface, are covered with peaty-meadow coil which is frequently saline ai4 produces fairly good grass. This is the better pastureland. of East Pamir. Aviculture on that land. is made very difficult tz, to cold weather, low preciaitation, and insufficient water. Vegetation Tadzhikistan's location in the subtropical zone, within the botanical- geographical area of the Ancient Nediterraneen, and its complex mountain which makes for sharply dissimilar soil and climatic conditions, account for the great variety of its vegetation. There are 4,500 species of phanerograns and sporophytes alone. The high-altitude sonality is strikingly revealed in the grandiose vertical profile of Pamir-Alsy, between, the absolute altitude of 300 and. 400 a in the South and. North of the republie end between 6,000 and 7,000 in the eastern areas and. Pamir. There the soil end botanical belts chhlige in accordance with the height and. location of the mountain ranges, and in accordance with the precipitation and falling temperatures. The deserts and steppe-Ifte semisavannaba yield. to peculiar deciduous forests which, in turn, yield. to moisture-requiring maple and. valnnt forests or to evergreen narcherair which, still further, is followed. by thistle- covered. steppes and meadows end. alpine wasteland extending to the plain- field area (nivalInaya oblast), Wedged into the Pzusir, which is shut off from humid air currents, between the alpine and plaimfield areas are the vast subalpine deserts, which rise to an altitude of 3,600 to 4,200 m. Despite the diversity of vagetatien in Tadzhikistan, just as in the neighboring Iran and. Afghanistan., the predominaat vegetation features are, on the one hand., ephemeral groups of semisevannehs which come to life in the spring ani, on the other drought-resisting grasses and under- brush which determine the surface of *tomes, deserts, tragacanths and. wild. thyme districts. Only about - 40 of the republic's area is covered. with tress and. shrubbery, hat even these, like the grass vegeta- tion, are dominated by drought-resisting plants. The contemporary cor- relations between arboreal ami herbaoeous vegetation as well as between mesophytic (moisture requiring) and xerophilous (drought-resisting) plants were conditioned. not only by the direct influence of arid con- ditions but also by the age-old activities of man who used to destroy arboreal vegetation on vast areas of the land.. The common feature of the arboreal vegetation, particularly the drought-resisting type, is its thinly scattered vowtb.. The vast spaces are dotted. with scattered single trees or equally scattered. groups of - 25 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 trees fcllowed by treeless areas. This type of forest structure is due not may to the influence of man, but also to its own biological charac- teristics. In dry. weather, when most of the precipitation, occurs in the winter and :spring, most types of trees develop a vast surface root :system which is ideal for intercepting the outface water and the most fertile particles of soil by its numerous root ramifications. This accounts for the scattered. growth of the trees, the lumimosity of the air among them and, consequezttly, also an abundence of fruit and AU t UM? grOVOS. The above-mentioned characteristics of the root system also serve to make tbe forests an important element in the prevention of soil erosion. The forests in Tadzhikistan are not enmereus, but they are highly diversified, consisting of about 200 different species of trees and brushwood. The latter are highly* diversified from an ecological point of view, and are found in almost all high-altitude belts. Even at altitudes above 3.000 a and. up to 3,500 :a, as in the case of the Gissar amdTurkestan mountain ranges, one still comes across creeping club moss, clusters of Gissar dog rose plants and. honeysuckle, While the Lashgar barberry is found in the Petit at an altitude of 4,000 m. The drought-resisting arboreal and brashwood-type plants, particularly jangel, shiblyak, and archovnik, represent a sparse vegetation typical of the landscape of largo open spaces. The jangals, or sandy forests grow- ing on ancient alluvial sands, consist of short black and white halexylen, cherkez, kaadyea, and sane? acacia. The ihortlived vegetation crowing there in the spring mostly sedge) represents excellent fodder for astrakhan sheep; the summer vegetation consists of a perennial type of feather grass and dantonia, adapted to growing on sand. The jangals grow in the lowest parts of northern and southern Tadzhikistan. Their total area is very small. The shiblyak or, as it is often referred to, Ilthia xerophytic forestal' 1$ found on carbonaceous brown soil between the Kerosine:kir Range in the North and. the low mountain plateaus of South Tadzhikistan. It forms a special forest belt at an altitude between 700 and 1,700 a (and up to 2,000 a), but in sew places it has been almost completely destroyed; the remaining scattered pistachio and Bokhara almond trees are mute witnesses of a lush vegetation in the past. In addition to the mentioned species, the ihiblyak includes also small-leaf maple, haekberey (iron tree) Judas tress, sumac. unibi (or chilon), pomegranate, fig trees, oderihi-derevo." etc. The largest pistachio forests remain in South Tadzhikistan, where they cover a total area of 208,000 ha. The grass cover of the shiblyik forests consists of a, variety' of annual and perennial vegetation. The uncontrolled grazing of Sheep and goats has an adverse effect on the self-reproduction of the pistachio trees, which are the most valuable Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 among the nut trees. Pistachio trees are predominant in the South Tadzhik botanico-geographical area, while the sumac and chilon are con- spicuous in the Gissar-Darvazskiy area. Natural concentrations of fig, pomegranate, and. Judas trees still remain in tht. southwestern part of the republic and at the western antl southern elopes of the Dervazekly Mountain Range. These warmest areas of Tadvt4t-leten are outstanding natural gardens of wild rowing subtropical plants. The most common type of drought-resisting trees are the archeiniks (savin trees). They consist of juniper trees which,. together with the steppes, form vast vegetation belts; they account for about 50% of the forest area. They may be clasoified? on the one hand, as warm-weather low-mountain forests consisting of Zevershan savin trees, now mostly destroyed., and, on the other, as frost-resisting "u.ryuk" and "saur" savin trees, growing in separate or mixed. forests at altitudes ranging from 2,000 to 3,0004,600 m. The major concentration of these forests is found in North Tadzhikistan? particularly in the Turkestan Mountain Range, but they are found. also in the Surseinekiy (mostly "kara" savin trees), Zeravshan, and. Gissar (on its northern slopes) mountain ranges. In South Tadzhikistan. the "kara" salvia trees are followed by pistachios at a 1,600-1,700 m altitude; they grow also on the low mountain ranges of the South Tadzhik depression. In Bast To.d.zhikistan the savin forests are less extensive and frequently consist of scattered. trees extending eastward. to West Pamir. Certain types of archevnik (savin trees) as the uryuk, for example, are found. all the -way to the alpine belt, where they form a stratified pillow structure on the su.rfsese up to 70-100 mm in height and. menage to last several hundred years. The savin trees, which are valuable not only as hies-caloric fuel but also as construction lum- ber, were cut down everywhere. That is why, in most cases, they now e.ppear as thinly scattered forests. They have been preserved along the secluded canyons of the northern slopes of the Turkestan Mountain Range where they grow in dense forests 16-20* high and 80-100 cm in. diameter. The destruction of the Gavin trees made their natural self-reproduction almost impossible; growing in their place are less valuable herbaceous plants, and in some places soil erosion processes have been observed.. savin trees are excellent for holding the topsoil and for regulating the drainage, and the snow-tkewing process. Their destruction impairs the 'Alter supply of the republic including the cotton-growing areas and facilitates the development of suid-and stens-carrying streams. The mosophytic arboreal vegetation, despite its scarcity, is hig;b13-- valuable economically. In the first place, it grows in the shape of broad-leaf, moisture-and-light-requiring forests in the central mountainous areas at altitudes of from 1,000-1,100 a to 1,800-2,600 m on brown soil, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50 -Yr 2013 . C nrIn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 forming a deciduous forest belt. It is more prevalent, however, in the Gisser-Darvazskiy area where precipitation is heavy. Dominating the lower part of that belt are greek: walnut tress (ohormaks it Tadzhik) which extend to an altitude of 1,800.2000 la. The dense and thin forests of these trees cover the third largest area in the republic, after the pistadhios and saving (about 29,000 ha.). The existing small nut groves or scattered trees are, as a rule, found. alone river banks and on eorthern slopes and represent the remnants of the vanished thick:forests. But large and dense nut forests consisting of tall trees still exist in some places, as in the North of Numinabad, for example. The nut tree usually grows in close proximity to Turkestan maple, apple, and plum trees, and sometimes poplars, and it accompanied. by various kinds of shrubbery, such as honeyseckle and igray, and, occasionally also by Semenev spindle trees. The trees are frequently intertwined with wild grapevines. The vegetation cover of the nut forest ground is lash and highly variegated and contains may shads-enduring plants. Commonly occurring in the nut forest areas is the exoohord, which often sppears as a separate overgrowth, sticky-leaf frvyasolistiyg almond trees, etc., as well as scattered trees and groves of another remarkable plant, the chinar. In Tadihikistan the vat tree is one of the most valuable plants. Which yields welI-known fruit and excellent lumber. Some of the wild,- growing varieties of thews nuts have a thin shell and contain up to 70$- 70 oil, Which is even higher than the oil content of the cultivated. nut trees. MuCh work is now being done in the republic to expand the area of such nut trees. The annual nut crop anaunts to about 100-200 tons but it could. be considerably tocreassd by a letter organization of nut gather- ing and improved naintenance of the nut trees. Among the other components of the deciduous forests are maple, apple, ash, and elm trees, etc. conspicuous place it the general landscape is had by the tugsys which consist chiefly of Tursag poplars, heterphylleus wild olive trees (jigta)? and tamarisks stidit grow it the lower reaches of the Vakheb.? Lafirsigsm4 rItylst and Syr-Darya rivers. These tress usually grow in proximity to the overgrowths of original savanneid *pee of plants consisting of gigantic grass species, kamys or wo4Viemardgrass, wild sugar cane frat 2 to 5 la hie*, kiyak or laperat? licorice, etc. Most of the tugsys have already been destroyed. Bet aside from its decorative 11,5015, when grafted on cultivated olive trees, it could produce a valuable and tasty fruit and serve as a source of valuable resit for the textile industry. Growing primarily in the desert zone, the tussle serve as natural protective belts for the adjacent cotton fields. Growing in small groves high in the mountains, in the savin belts, and. along the upper borderline of the deciduous forests and brushwood, are moisture-reqeiring and frost-proof birch and poplar-willow-type tress ??????????, - 28 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 riA_Rnpszi_ninAnr, II I rail Sanitized Copy A I ? roved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 trews," ? CIA-RDP81-01 043R002300220002-6 which are nourished by surfacing soil water and by the river valleys. Particularly large birch plantations are found in the eastern districts* such as those at the upper reaches of the Obikhingaa River, along the Oarmo River, and partly also in the river valleys of Neat Pamir viler* they are cut down and replaced by oblepikha overgrowths. The predominant features of the Tadzhik landscape are determiaed not by arboreal but by herbaceous vegetation and -undergrowth. The latter account for 50% to 60% of the entire area of the re blic? not if counting the "ntaW 0 niy areas an Athe abandoned lands roeovlysi zemlig covered with cliffs and nueerous slides. The her ceous vege- tation and. undergrowths fora a natural fodder base for the animal hus- bandry industry'. This fodder-type vegetation is favorable for grazing cattle since the duration of its growth varies with the altitudes and calendar periods. Among the major drought-resisting pastures are deserts and steppes, while the secondary pastures consist of tragacanthe and. wild thyme fields. The deserts, consisting of low undergrowth of twitted wormwood and stal- wort, are for the most part concentrated in North Tadzhikistan, Where they cover vast areas between the Xnraminakty range and the Syr-Darya Liver, partially extending to its left bank. Small concentrations of these deserts are found also in South Tadzhikistan. These low-altitude deserts, extending: up to 800-1,000 m are used as winter and, to some extent, spring pastures. Righland deserts aro found in some parts of Pamir, at altitudes ranging from 3,0004,600 a to 4,000-4,200 n, Where the annual precipitation does not exceed 60-100 as. Their major types of vegetation are the seeinadergrowth species of tereiken, wormwood, pillow-shaped kurtkoimik, tanacetum? etc, which are used also as winter and spring fodder reserves. The vegetation in the deserts is extremely sparse, and the fodder yield correspondingly low -- from 0.5 to 2 coma tners per hectare. The Tadzhik steppes are concentrated in the subalpine areas, at altitudes ranging from 2000-3000 to 3,400-3,900 sa on the northern slopes of the Turkestan, Zeravihan, Gissar and Dervasikiy mountain ranges as well as on Petr Perm Range and to W3MO extent in Nest Pamir. The turf grass cover of the steppes consists of fescue grass, meadow grass, koeleria, and different types of feather grass (particularly the feathery Kirgiz, Caucasian, and Turkestaa types) and the 011ga white meadow grass with anadeixtare of Leman, wormwood. Some of the east Pamir steppes have eparticularly desert-like appearance with their sparse grass cover and droaght-resisting mall wormwood varieties, -- both. the eastern types and those growing on pebble soil. Invest Pamir eclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Ap roved for Release - 29 - a StV 50-Yr 2013/nwi rs, ? '7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 u???????"4, and in some parts of the Darvasskiy mad Pot? Pervyy snowttain ranges the steppes are "choked" with prickly grass varieties. The turf-grass steppes are the major and. best highland. pastures in the summer, but their fodder reserves are not great in view of the fact that the tragacanth (thistle grass) plants are not eaten by cattle. These pastures are used. for 2-3 months. Found in some places, especially in West Pamir-Alser, are steppes whose meadow-type or thistle vegetation cover car.eists of Turkestan .adonis, catnip r1eotovnik2.7. oryseae, tarragon feather graes, meadow grass, Zoravshan milkwort. etc. Though highly mroductive of fodder (up to 10-15 centners per hectare). these steppes, just like the subalpine heteroherbaceeue steppes, contain an insignificant fodder reserve. The tragacanth (thistle grass) consists of pillow-shaped estareettes, trage_canth astragalus. kustovnik (acanthaceas lemon). prickly Xuziniya, otc., which grow mostly in the subaplin.e area of the western half of the republic. Just like the low-altitudes thyme fields, they consist of high undergrowths (kerovskiy, sage, and otostegiya), some of which contain volatile oils prefironosyg but are not valuable as fodder. The most valuable pastures and hayfields are those covered with mesophytic vegetation ? grass-covered swamps, meadows and, to some extent, semisavannahs. Their devolopasen.t is determined, by the high altitude and. fairly heavy precipitation or by the near-surface soil water, and is restricted, to the humid period. of the year. The semisavannahs (or subtropical steppes) cover not less than 10-15% of the republic' territory. Their vegetation is highly variegated, but dominated by perennial ester-bearing plants. The low-grass semisavannahs are found. primarily in South T.adzhikistan, in the light averages zone. These are the important major spring and, win- ter pastures of the republic. Situated. on ancient river terraces and hilly adyrs, they are covered with a variety of short-lived. plants (ennual brose grass, trischetinnik, goat's eye, barley grass, rogoglaeik, etc.) with a predominance of short perennial sedge and 'bulbous or viviparous meadow grass, which 'begin to sprout in December or January. -when precipitation begins. The short-lived vegetation grows very rapidly in tSarch and. early April. At that time the vegetation cover resembles the surface of a meadow and. is characterized by thick and light-green growths; its colors ranging from yellow goose) onion and white merensiera to red. tulip, poppy and reneriya or yellow crowfoot and 'violet malcolmi-am. The low-grass cover of the semisavannahe provides excellent fodder for all 30 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043ROO7Inn99nnn9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 types of cattle, particularly cheep and goats. With the onset of dry and hot weather, at the end of March or in the first half of April, the shortlived plants dry out and are replaced. by scattered drought-resisting plants, such as annual stelworts or haloxyloas (in rocky places; and wormwood, particularly in Xorth Tadzhikistan). This. dasert-type vegeta- tion, which in auaaer covers the same territory that produces meaopIrtic vegetation. in spring, is used for winter grazing of sheep and goats. The leuaaTass semitavannahs found at altitudes of 700-900 m is South Tadzhikistan and containing admixtures of large semiepheserolds? are followed by pistachio or stiblyak woods. Is the western part of Pamir-Alay and on the northern slopes of the Turkestan Mountain Range, where such woods were destroyed, at altitudes ranging from 900-1,000 m to 1,800-2,000 a, have now been covered with mach grass, awl the mere humid areas with bulbous barley grass. The semi-savannahs, producing large crops of tall graas (from 30 to 60 oentners per hectare), are generally used as winter or temporary pastures. The tall-grass semi-savannahs consist of large umbrella-shaped yugans, camomile or ferule, giant elecampene? or adz, etc, which grow in mountainous areas and frequently also at the juncture of broad-leaf forests and brushwood up to an altitude of 2,5004,000 a (as on the southern slopes of the Gissar Range, for example). Beginning in, April- Hay, their growth starts later with the rising altitade, and is com- pleted in July-Aagust, long before the onset of the cold weather. The tall-grass semisavannahs are classified as temporary summer pastures. The Tagam leaves skin-turning When fresh, make good fodder when mowed dry; that fodder is stored in large quantities for feeding cattle in wintertime. The major assophilous summer pastures are followed, by wastelands and meadows. The cryophiloas wastelands, often called Alpine meadows, are faand alaost exclusively in the Pamir upland areas at altitudes of 3,400-3,500 a and in its western areas at altitudes of 4,000-4,100 m. They usually appear in small scattered areas among rocks and rock waste (talluses). Small tracts of them are found also in the eastern districts and in Pamir. The wastelands Erpustoshig resemble steppes rather than meadows, and, with the exception of the Irspring" period (end of jun* and beginning of July), are not knows for their bright colors. The vegeta- tion there is Inal-adapted to the severe climate, particularly to low temperatures. This is manifested by the shortness of the grass cover, which frequently consists of turf grasses or soft and flat pillow-like undergrowth and a variety of other grasses. Typical of the turf-like wastelands also are various groups of kobrealya (Persian, Pamiroaner ? _ :- r.r,m, Approved for Release 0-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 t 41'41 rirSitt lefat4 -Z" Declassified in Pad- Sanitized Cop Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 dwarf types), rupture worts, short meadow grate, and. oryzees growing in undergrowth and. aeniscrub vegetation, including bulbous ostrolodka, astragalus. cinquefoil (snow fan-leaf types, etc), prolomniks, crowfoot (red. cup. black eclat Alai and Turkestan types, etc). primrose, sib- baldiya, etc. The kobresiya wastelands. 'which aro cmcne the best bi- land. pastures for boii all and largo lireatcet (Yaks), are most wide- spread in Pamir where they cover vast areas but are seldom found, in the western part of the republic. The latter territory is doninated by wastelands covered. with ostrolocika and. rupture wort. Small wastelands covered- with large varieties of grass are found throughout the Tadzhik highlands, but mostly on the southern pebbly mountain slopes where the bustidity is higher and the soil better. There the multicolored. and. bright grass cover is formed. by svercia, Kashmir lagotie beautiful white wind, flowers, globe flowers, snow primrose, prolomnik, ate. On the southern pebbly slopes it is covered, with scattered 'hit tall over- growths of Glaser buckwheat flour, Kara-Ban whit* meadow grass, beach grass, etc. Despite their low fodder yield, these waotelands are valuable as cattle-fattening pastures since their fodder is rich in carbohydrates and. albumin. They are generally used. in August and September. The meadows of Tadzhikistan are mostly concentrated in the sub- alpine zone, above 2.500-3,000 m, but are on the whole of secondary importance. Only in rare cases are they extensive enough to fern a separate land belt; among such extensive meadows are the characteristic subalpine meadows covered, -with various grasses e.nsi. whose structure is somewhat similar to that of the oteppes. Growing alongside the typical essophilous plants, such as miscellaneous orchard grasses, Zeravehan fox- tail Turkestan and. Angrenskiy brone crass, anakerelis types of regneria, Bokhara meadow grass, toron, Alpine buckwheet. Thous= liga- lariun and, in some places, Zersarshan milkwort, are certain elements of the tragacanth and steppe vegetation. Pound occasionally along the upper borderline of the broad-leaf forests and brush-woo& are highly valuable meadows covered. with Gissar vetch, Popov fenugreek, miscel- laneous orchard grass. Totalling, and blue lucerne which alternate with clusters of beautiful endemic mulinak-vetchling. Wideopread also are intrasonal meadows resting on the moist soil of river and. lake vallcys (as in Iskanderkulo, for example). The basic components of the tall grass cover of these !meadows are a mixture of sedge and miscellaneous dicotyledonous grasses. In only a few places is the meadow vegetation used. for hey. Lying close to the meadows are bamboo marshes sazobolota"T, which are found "both along the foothills and on the uplanas where threat]. has a. high moisture content, but they are not widespread.'Among them are Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDIDFii_ni Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ow's.% . ???????-?ti the low-altitude grass swamps covered with high cane, reed. grass, reed. and. sedge, etc., which are of little soonomic value,bat are used for winter pasture (as for example, in the 3yr-Darya River Valley, along the Vattsh alter, etc.): as well as high-altitude swamps. The lattzr arc found at altitudes of between 3,000 and 4.000 st and. higimm and are favorite summer grazing land for all. types of cattle. Their vegetation cover consists of miscellaneous cryophilous (frostproof) sedge (black, round, small, and malodorous), blismus, narrow-leaf loobresiya and. other grasses (bristly !oxtail crass, hair grass, Alpine timothy, etc). Many of the bamboo marshes are found in East Pamir where they are frequently accompanied by Alpine waoteland. The meadows and bamboo marshes form part of the summer pastureland which is used. over a period. of 3-4 months. Despite the large variety of herbaceous vegetation and the valuable fodder it contains (especially in the low-altitude spring pastures and. high-altitude mummer pastures), the fodder crops vary a great deal from year to year; this and the relative meagerness of me sophilous plants and. the abundance of inedible plants (as in the case of the subalpine meadows) does not always insure a stable green-fodder supply for the cattle. A rational system of cattle grazing, pasture control, a thorough and. systematic utilization of pastureland, improvement and. irrigation of desert land, planting of the best local typos of grasses (already sus- comet:4.1y begun by sone kolkhozes and scientific institutions), the fight against weeds, and the implementation of timely hay-mowing all these are some of the measures required., but still inadequately carried out, in Tadzhikistan. Vast stretches of the republic, not counting the snow banks and. glaciers, lie at altitudes of 4,000-5,000 m, and sometimes lower, are covered, with rock and rock waste, and are deprived of any vegetation. Located up there are a few types of the above-mentiomot wasteland. as well as certain cryophytes. These so-called preglacial plants are wide- spread. in the area of permanent snow and. glaciers. This is a high- altitude silent ndeserton its rocky surface- is determined by the in- tensive physical disintegration process and. downward slides of the dis- place& surface formations facilitated by the melting snow. it is very seldom that one can see some plants sheltered. among the stones at alti- tudes up to 5,500 a. Further down, however, the cliffs are covered, with a lower-typo vegetation, mostly blue-green algae, which is highly viable under the intensive daytime solar irradiation during the short summer. Under these extreme Conditions of life, the algae, heterotrophic fungi, actinomycetes and. bacteria destroy the rocky soil and. form a so-called. primary fixes-grain clover Lcalkossag, which in tam produces various types of moss and Mellor vegetation. .33.. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R00230o77nnn9_R L Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ?PA WW1 Worl4 The main feature of the Tadihik animal world is its extreme qualita- tive diversity. This is to some extent accouate& for by the southern location and complex topography az veil as by the fact that Tadshikistanse fauna includes also spools:ens originating in several different zoo- geographical territories. This couatry was reached by the following Indo-African and Indo-Malayan specimens: the porcupine, Yews' flytrap, the Indian starling, the Indian oriole, the cobra, the monitor (largest of the lizard family), Danayda and Ithrisipp buttefflies? arcilyasis sobria? and other insects. Other forms of life came from the Southeast: the Eimalayan striped WW1% the Himalayan mountain bright tails gorikhvostkaL the siVria oak:wee (dUbonos) and the Rimalayan apnea from the sane direction were Tibetan forms of life: lone-ear pischakha, mountain turkeys, sickle beaks freerpoklyavg and the Tibetan sage grouse. lixotic for Tadzhikistan, these new forms lend a peculiar aspect to its fauna, which consists basically of animals from the North, the Aral-Caspian deserts and the Mediterranean. We shall review the Tadihik animal population according to the altitude belts, beginnieg with the lowlands, -which cover a small part of the entire territory. Most of the agriculture is concentrated in the lowlands, ami the animals living there are therefore worthy of special attention. It was not very long ago that herds of small antelopes (Dzbeyrans) consisting of several dozen head each, were grazing an the plains in the Southwest of the republic. Large numbers of the ibex and Afghan wild sheep (anal) were roaming the low-altitude areas. Some Bokhara deer still remain in the tugais; they aro now protected in the animal preserve called. Tiger Valley, lei& derives its name from the Taran tiger, the largest wild beast of Tadihikistan. still OSIM in some parts of the country. Riskin, the leopard still inhabits the high deserts. The striped hyena and jackal are frequently seen. in the low- lands. Another common inhabitant is the porcupine. Oatstanding among the birds are those which have almost been exterminated in the cultivated sone: the Tadshik pheasant, the decorative flamingo, the Indian the Indian or Afghan starling (mama) and the Indian swallow as well at the Venus' flytrap, which is found in the wooded mountain gorges. The desert abounds in a large variety of reptiles, Including such poisonous snakes as the cobra, the sand efa? the armor-jaw and curse and the none- poisonous racer snake and miniature steppe constrictor; the lizards are represented by agamas, gecko and monitors. Thera is also the tortoise. In addition to the Above-mentioned exotic animals, there are many other, less interesting, inhabitants of the ulains, each as the large groups of rodents combining Indian and Indo-African (nezokia and sand dwellers) ????????? Declassified in Part- Sanitized Co--" Approved for Release - 34 - Y ID Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 .0.?????? and Central Asiatic species (jerboas and house mice). The wild boars, already driven from the cultivated zone, used to be numeroas here. Found in large numbers everywhere are the badger, the wolf, the fox, and the Tolai hare. These, incidentally, penetrate very high into the moun- tains. There are very many birds of a nerthara origin from emus, sparrows, and snail insectivore to wild water fowl. There is considerable animation as the birds fly. past. Flocks of cranes, wild geese, ducks, woodcocks, and various small birds fly over the rivers, lakes, and deserts. Flying past also are bustards, which spend part of the winter there. Common among the fish in the relatively calm waters of the val- leys are shoat-nth, flatnose (lopatonos), sum, barbel, and zherekh. There are about 40 species of fish in Tadzhikistan, 46 typos of reptiles over 350 varieties of birds, and more than 70 types of mammals inhabiting the plains and mountains. The animal population of the mountains is essentially different from its lowland counterpart. There are few reptiles here, and their variety is limited; of the poisonous snakes, only the gyurzal and less frequently the armor-jaw, reach high elevations. The Indian and ludo-African forms of life are not common here; one of them, the Indian oriole, reaches highest into the mountains. The mountain fauna consists in the main of northern elements with an admixture of Himalayan and Tibetan elements. Of the hoofed animals, the Siberian eapricorne are still the most numer- ou43 in the mountains. Living in the osme area is the snow panther. The long-tail marmot and red npishchuldie inhabit the same altitudes. Living in the same area, ana even at higher altitudes, is the Himalayan %lee. The savin oakaose is common in the upper forest zone. The sickle beaks freerpoklynvg are, found along the river Shallows. The area between these and the lower mountain belts is inhabited by the brown, bear and, to a much lesser extent, the lynx. The ermine is found within a wide att. tail range. The otter is also found at high altitudes, along vict- flowing rivers. Martens maybe seen occasionally. The forest dormouse and Turkestan rat, WhiCh occasionally infiltrate bunan habitation along with the house mouse, are typical nUt-forest dwellers. Of the mouse- type rodents, the polevak and gray hamster rise high into the mountains. The ggas birds in the mountains consist of rare water fowl, slars? quails and mostly the Tien Shan kaki/kip Which replaces the Xyzylikum keklik at higher altitudes; the latter is not found beyond the limits of the southwest lowland and low mountains. There is a auserems group of forest birds including reels, tomtits, thrush, hoopoe, and woodpeckers which live in the plains. The alpine jackdaw is strictly a high-mountain bird. Among the large birds of prey living in the mountains there is the golden eagle, the black 4griffemn, which lives an carrion, and ordinary and. bearded. vultures. They are found also in the plains. Treat and ("marinka") are caught in the rapid. mountain streams and small rivers. to-7.11 35 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R00230o77nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The unique fauna of East Pamir deserves spacial attention. The number of the species, limited by the severe climate, is not large. That is why there are whole groups of animals which are not found. there, as for example reptiles and some of the birds requiring arboreal vegeta- tion for nesting, purposes. There are no Insectivore or stameals, and. the weber of rodents, especially :mall ones, is limited. Numerous among the larger animals are the Thlai haze and long-tall mar=t. There is the Pamir pishchukha which is replaced. by a different type in the western part of the republic. The ?richer is the only lag. mammal common in Pamir. Among the others are the Siberian capric.orn fkozerogg? snow panther, wolf, and fox. Bears are Very rare. The typical *birds there are: the horn lark, alpine jackdaw, vyarka, red duck, Binalevet ular. the Indian or mountata goose, which is not found in the other parts of the republic, the Tibet= ular, and the Tibetan sage grouse. On the whole, there are zany more types of birds in Pamir, particularly those flying over it. Some of Tadzhikistan' s animals have a certain economic value. The tiger* snow panther, leopard, and. ibex ars usually caught for the zoos. The fur-bearing animal industry still is not well organised in 1ad-0141d s- ten, nor does one take advaatege of the natural hunting seasons which are determined by weather conditions. The fur-bearing marmot, the most nu- merous type of all, is not used to the best economic advantage. The mina used mostly for commercial Intrposes is the fox and, to a con- siderable extent also, the marten; the furs of the reed eat Lificamysheviy kotwr and. jackal are of poor quality. till&ardual breeding is a pronising ingistry. The first step in this direction was the successful experiment made by the zoologists in the aoclimatisatioa and restricted open-space breeding of nutria (of the otter family) la 164P-1953; the animals biers then turned over to the Zagotshivsyryo (Association for the Procurement of Pura and Paltry) which has been producing commercial fur since that time. Of the destructive mammals, we should. mention the rodeats, gophers, jackals, and wolves which, while destroying agricultural products and other animals, are also carriers of diseases affecting Moan beings and domestic animals. The most destruotive of the birds are the sparrows -- Spanish and. domestic which cause damages to the grain crops. The scare-crow method is the way one used against then. te.t that requires much labor and entails a corresponding lass of crops. Destructive also are the pine-finches which exterminate the lees, and. the marsh hen- harrier, which preys on the meets of the water fowl. Nest of the birds, however, are useful ia that they destroy harmful rodents, weeds, and particularly insects which thrive in kat climates. Thieful also are the birds of prey which live on nice, cicadas, and locusts. The largest of 36 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01041Rnn7'Inn99nnno Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ??????-?44 them, living on carrion, are useful from a sanitary point of view. Game birds and. hoofed. Animals desert* the unstinted attention of the hunting community and. the commission on wild life preservation, as this very valuable game is threatened. by extermination at the hands of poachers. Thaaa --az; ra3vera-1 'Iaanslaaad type:: of vertebrate animals in Tadzhikistan., but the number of invertibrates runs into many thousands. We shall mention only some of the most important groups. There is a largo variety of worms in Tadzhikistan; as a rule, the most numerous of thee are those capable of becoming parasites in bum beings and agricultural animals. Outstanding in the spider family is the scorpion, which lives in houses and other buildings as well as under stones and sometimes under the bark of trees. The poisonous karakurt as well ae the tarantula are very common spider specimens. Cowen in the desert parts of the valleys and the central mountain belt are large spider-like Solpugida, or rfalangig Which are nonpoisonous but frequently frighten people Who are atnawirre of that fact. There are maw dozens of tick species in Tzar-Mil stem. Many of these spider-shaped. ticks are harmful to latmau. beings, domestic animals, and. plants and. they are also disease carriers. Groat damage to agri- culture is caused by moll spider-web ticks particularly by those living on fruit and berries. Responsible for serious damages to the cotton fields is the so-called. cotton weevil which, incidentally, damages also all sorts of agricultural products including many types of trees and. brushwood. About a dose& types of the /zone and argosid ticks (of which there are 30 different kinds) are carriers of diseases dangerous to hulk= beings (tick and. relapsing typhoid and. I.XIII* fever) and. agri- cultural animals (Remceperidia). The number of insect species is larger than the combined. total of animal and, plant species: there are more than 10,000 of them. The common termite, which is wide-spread in the tropics, is also found in some Tadailik valleys, but they cause no damage to buildings. Among the tropical insects are the palochnik, tree pilgrim' Pldreveszaiy logomolg, empuaa, and. certain crickets. Also the locust. inother serious agri- cultural pest is the Moroccan Mare lecast. Many types of Diptera are carriers of diseases dangerous to human beings and. animals. The Aaopholes mosquitoes, 'mach more 1112MOrcias here than in the central belt of the TISSE, are known as carriers of the 37 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 malaria disease. The ordinary mosquitoes which, like the Anopheles type, abound. in the desert areas of the republic and the mountains, are car- riers of mosquito fever, or pappatachl, and the pcndinakiy tticor. Mies are carriers of various serious diseases everywhere. Thus the Tadzhik market fly is a carrier of inftlatious conjunctivitis. Certain types of flies (the Wo'fart fly and. others) produce serious infections in liumen beings and animals' by depositing their larvae in the mucuoul membrane of the p,ii? se, eyes, and. ears or in open wounds; the larvae then pentrates deeper into the tissue. There are about 200 types of aphids in Tadzhikistan; WM. of them (mostly the cotton, melon, and black lucerne aphids) cause great damages to the cotton fields. The fruits are seriously d.amaged by the blood. and peach aphids. Belonging to the semicolepterous family or bugs (of which there are more than 700 types in Tadzhikistan), is the large black bug living in the northern areas of the republic (the ledchenko type); its bite is unbearably painful. The Hyswooptera comprise one of the largest families. The most numerous of them are the stinging and. parasitic Hymenoptera which are confined to the high altitude areas. Among the larger stinging types is the eastern hornet, which is harmful to bee-keeping and viticulture, as well as the nscolivan. Bumble bees are found, only in the mountains. Certain parasitic Bymenoptera are highly instrumental in. preventing the increase of such agricultural pests as the Turkestan 'brown-tail moth, the mountain ring bombyx, eta. Many agricultural products, trees, and. shrub vegetation are seriously damaged by different types of beetles. The =irrigated. -crops in the valleys and foothills of Tadzhikistan are seriously damaged by the, larva: of various cockchafers, narticularly the humid-land ribogarnie cockchafer. The city and. village trees are adversely affected. by the city long-horned beetle whose large larvae bor. wide passages through tree stems. There are at least 2,000 species of Lepidoptera, or hntterflies, in Tadzhikistan. There are 600 of them in the comparatively mall Vakhih River Valley alone. The types found in the tugai forest include the large tropical ephemeral butterfly. danayda Ihrisipp, and the gigantic Indian cutworm type, arctlyasis "'brie (or the Lendyr brashozik). just like the vegetation of the valley tugais, the butterflies are unique ani oriel ffsamobytnag. Unique also are the Lepidoptera of the sand desert. in the South of the Vakhsh Valley. Typical of the sandy areas is the Shrub pest called calligonnhkftdzbazgung, the caligonumixnabyx. as well as the medium and small call gonua cutworms, the anthracite pigeon and a variety of snout moths. The Vakheb. Valley abounds in 38 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 cutworm and. snout moth species. The butterfly varieties are coleiderably richer in the mountains than. in the desert zone. Among them is the large fruit pest called. peacock-eye Shenka. Among the ephemeral butterflies found. in the higher altitudes are the beautiful apollons, wallow worts, some anaemic types of Bpinephelidae, erebtuas, and many cutworms and snout aotha. T.he cotton cutworm and. Nitaradrina" are very dangerous pests in the lower altitudes and. the apple-tree moth the acantaLs 71.1V bom'brx,, the Turkestan brown-tail moth and the Tadzhik hooded moth are mountain area pests. Over 150 types of lepidopterous tree and. &rot pests are found in. the Xondara River Gorge of the Gissar Mountain Range alone. 2. ?ROM MIA RIV9FtT 05` TIM TADZHIK PZ0P151 The most ancient states of the Tadzhiks, ancestors (the Baktrians and. Sogdiaas) who inhabited. the Pamir. the An-Darya mountain districts of Tadzhikistan and the Zeravshan and. rashkadarya valleys were Baktria and. Sogd. in the sixth to the fourth centuries BC, Baktria and Sogd. had. been part of the Akhessenide state created. by- the Persians. The Baktraisa aM Sogdian' were farmers, lived in. oases, and. engaged also in handicraft and trade. The predoninant economic system was the ancestral village community with large patriarchal families, but slave ownership also existed.. The working population suffered from arbitrary rule and. the numerous taxes levied by the Akheasaides. Which resulted in frequent uprisings in the coluttry. Weakene& by internal straggle and continu.ed wars of conquest, the Akhemsnide power fell under the pressure of Greco-Macedonian troops in 334-330 BC, though the Central Asian popu- lation continued their bitter resistance to the comqvarore. Approximately between 140 and 130 IC, the Greco-Macedonian power in Central Asia was completely overthrown by the ponelation of the agri- cultural districts of Warta and Sega and the Xasseget nomadic tribes. The Tokharistan state, formed. in Bektria, as well as see and. other Cen- tral Asian areas, waltsequently became 'Dart of the vast rashes, kingdom. The geographic positioa of the new independent state, located between the Near last and China. was very favorable. The Chinese cams there in search of allies against the Runs, and established trade and cultural relations with the Tokbars. Rateable across Tokharistan were ssilk routes" (several *silk routes* ren across Central Asia from South to North; the Pamir, Alay-rarategiask, ?organs., and. Semirechtmak; the southern routes had. bees the busiest at an earlier time, and the north- ern later on); silk was bought in the markets of the Tarim River Va114ty ???????", 39 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release SO -Yr 201 . CIA- r-1 'Don Declassified in Pad- Sanitized Cop Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 and taken to the countries of the Greco-Roman West. Tokharisten imported. glass manufactures (thin multicolored glass and, crystal glass) from Rome end the Byzantium; precious stones, decorative articles, etc from Cen- tral Asia, and spices, cotton, and. woolen materials fro* India. HaTibg their trading posts all along the route between Central Asia and China, the Sogdiaa serchaata acted, as the principal middlemen in the trade 'with China. Slavery existed among the peoples of Central Asia along with the village community type of government. The Chinese fouad great economic and. cultural achievements there, particularly the -production of lucerne, grapes, cotton, and. excellent horses, i?bich had, been unknown in China. Raying learned. the methods of producing lucerne, grapes, and. cotton, they in turn contributed to the develcrpment of silk production and the gun- smith trade in Central Asia. In the fifth centary, Baktria, Sogd, and other areas of Central Asia were conquered by the Rphthalites, or white Hans, and in the sixth cen- tury by the Turks. The backward. nomadic tribes come under the strong cultural influences of the Sogdian'. The ilLarkic population settled on the land. (mostly on the poorest parts of it) and. inter-mixed with the local population. That period. was characterized by the deterioration of the slave system and. the development of a new one -- the feudal system. Surther advances in the economic and. cultural life took place in the sixth and seventh centuries. Rey strides were made in the handicraft industry and. trade. The production of batter glass shifted to Central Asia from where it was copied by China. The production of minerals ? iron and cop- per, silver and gold, 'azurite and ruby ? was begun in a. number of places. The prefendal cities with their baadicraft industries underwent a chaage. Large-scale irrigation work was introduced, and the "Iyarizn type of irrigation (water brought in from outside) was practiced in arid, places. gdian was the principal state and popular language which spread east- ward to China. A rich literature was produced. in that language, but it was later destroyed by the Arabs. The development of feudal relations led to the formation of a. large number of ladependent and sentindependent local principalities. Such a seepontatioa of the country ne.de it difficult for the inhabitants of Cen- tral Asia to unify and repel the new foreign conquerors -- the Arabs. The Arab conquest of Central Asia in the seventh and. eighth centuries was a heavy blow to the high culture of Sogd, Toltharistan, and its other districts. The rich Sogdian and. Baktrian culture was to a considerable 40 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDIDFii_ni ueclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 extent destroyed. The Sogdian literary language began to yield to Arabic. Islam became the predomiaant religion, replacing the former creeds and cults. The population had. to pay a number of different taxes to the Arabs, and was subjected to forced labor in the construction of buildings, brid, gee, fortress walls, in digging canals, etc. The population of Tokharistan :Lad Sega were engaced in constant struggles not only against Arab domina- tion,, bat also against the local aristocracy. There were powerftl and long-lasting uprieings, sac& as the pant revolt headed by a tradesman. Nesbit the Hakim (Makanna) %Ali& lasted many years (775-783) and thriat- *nod to deprive the Arabs of all their conquests in Central Asia. It took a great deal of effort an the part of the Arabs to suppress that revolt. Those uprisings served to show that the caliphate woad be unable to keep Central Asia in subjection by armed force alone. This led the Arabs to include the local aristocracy in the administration of the country at aboat 750. But even that failed to strengthen the caliphate. On the contrary* the inclusion of the local aristocracy in the government and its growing role in the administration paved the way for the liberation. of Cen- tral Asia from Arab domination. It was under the local Samanid dynasty (874-999) that the actual liberation of Tadzhikistan and the whole of Central Asia took place. Tak- ing advantage of the people's struggle for independence* the Samanid* were the first* after the Arab conquest, to unify the disorganised country into a local state* almost independent of the Bagdad. Caliphate. In the heyday of its development, that state extended from the Central Asian deserts to the Persian Gulf and from the Indian border to the Bagdad area. The Samanids established a uniform system of state administration, with a centralized state apparatus. For over 100 years that state was not sub- jected to foreign:attacks, and that facilitated the development of agri- culture* cities, handicraft, industry, and. trade. The life of the city wean? longer concentrated in the ruler's fortress but in the open trade and handicraft quarters. The production of textiles, pottery, and metals underwent further development as did, in some places, gun. production. All the previously knawnsineral deposits were intensively exnlcited. Well developed also was not only foreign but also domestic trade, particularly with the steppe nomads. The circulation of trade and finance capital extended also to the feudal lords. The latter strove to lay their bands on as much of the irrigated land as possible, divide it into small plots, and rent it out. Made landless, the peasant became a share cropper. It was during that period that the Twist:ilk nation aseumed its final form. Its spoken language became the state and scieatific-literary lan- guage. The Samanid period was one of the most important periods in the Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release - 41 - 50-Yr2013/09/11 ? r14_Dninc,-1 9 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 development of Tadzhik: literatare as that epoch produced a =Ober of brilliant personalities. First among them were the brilliant founder of Tadshikpoetry, Rudaka, and the greatest poet of that period, Firdouei, the creator of the world-famous epic "shakhname". The scientific achievements were no less great than those in artistic literature. There was a large number of scientists in every field of knowledge at that time. Among the outstanding on;; vaa the world famous soieatist-encyclopedie4 of tte middle ge &bU ibn-Sino (Avicenna). The class antagonism, the struggle between the feadal lords, and the central government, the constant intrigues between the representatives of the court and the officials of various departments, and the friction be- tween the rulers of Samanid origin and. their military chieftains of Turkic origin combined to Shake the Samanid state which, unable to withstand the pressure from outside, fell ander the blows of the Karakhanides in 999, and the Gasnevides in the South (South of the Amu-Darya). The unification of Khorasan, Tokharistan, Northern India, Iran, and part of what is modern Tadzhikistan around a single center again Created certain prerequisites for the development of science and literature. Poets and scientists, including one of the greatest scientists of the middle age, the famous traveler Biruni, lived in the court of the Gaznevide Sultan Itakhmuil. That period was marked by an intensive feudal decentralization of the land. The practice of extending land grants, or ikta, to distinguished military chieftains became widespread. The big hereditary landowners, the dekhkans, were replaced by a new social group, the iktador-landowners. The latter proceeded to raise the taxes and increase the demands on the peasants, which made the conditions of the agricultaral population con- siderably more difficult. That period was marked also by the mass settlement on the land by the Turks. They crowded the native population off the better land. and soon thereafter Turkic-speskingsmtionalities predominated the plains; dif- ferent Turkic-speaking nations were formed indifferent areast Uzbeks between the Syr-Dary* and Amu-Darya rivers, Tarkmenians in the Trans- caspian steppes, etc. The creative works of such outstanding representatives of Tadzhik literature as Nosiri-Xhisrou. and Omar Ihayyam were originated by the and. of that period. In 1220-1222 Central Asia was conquered by the Mongols, who brought grievous times to the Tadxhiks? Uzbeks, Tarkmeniane, and other nations in- habiting that country. A number of the cities were reduced. to rubble by fires and. looting, their population was exterminated, and agriculture reduced to a state of extreme decay. 4,???????? ?????????51 - 42 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81 0-104?1Pnn9qnnoonnno a Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The Mongolian conquest placed Central Asia in the possession of one of Genghis ZhanIs sons. Chagatai, who famed ant almost his entire appanage to a rich Moslem merchant, Maimed. !slava**. The local aris- tocracy rapidly developed into a bulwark of the Mongolian conquerors. ThsrsonvItian princes leaned special documents or npaitze to the rich landowners and merchants empowering than to keep the population in a state of senivassalage. The isuyurga70, a differtantwrsioa of tha abava- mentiomed "ikt," became the principal form of owaerchip in Central Asia. The unbearable oppression by the Mongolian conquerors and local artistocracy gave rise to national uprisings. The greatest of these was the one led. by a tradesman, Mahlon& Tarabi, liekhara in 1236. That uprising was directed not only against Mongolia& oppression, but also against the local feudal. aristocracy. The greatest Tadihik poet of that period (eighth century) was Saadi Shirazi? whose maks became an integral part of Persian. literature. The 1460s saw the emergence of the Serially, one of the Mongolian tribes in Central Asia which had been brought there by Timar. In 1370 he seized. power in Ytaveramiakhr (interriver area) and. following 2 wars of conquest, created a huge power with Sauarkand as ite center. Resuming his military campaigns, which were to last 35 years, Timar strove to attain world domination. And while destroying other cultured couatries. this invader tried to improve the Central Asiatic areas. Be devoted much attention, to the constructioa of palaces, mosqmes, and memeoiemas. Under Timor Samarium& became one of the most beautiful cities of that time. The Central Asiatic agricultural oases, destroyed and. neglected during the period of the Mongol conquests, were restored. Irrigation work was begun, as was the development of Agriculture. 10,811 the economic and. political measures taken by Tiumr were designed primarily to boost the income of his treasury and to serve the interests of the aristocracy. The oppression of the masses continued as before. The economic development and the growth of the cities had their effect also aa the cultural life of the country. Great advances were made in astronowy, mathematics, history, literature, smote, and. in the art of miniature painting and calligraphy in Contra). Asia under Timor and his successors. Majoring world fame at that time were the poets Kamol nuishandi and Abderrekbaoa Debut, the Uzbek genius Aiiihee Ravon the astronomer Ulugbed? etc. Interdynasty struggle and the interference of the steppe nomads began to shake the Timor *spire. The international situation was also undergoing a change. Capitalist industry began to develop in %rope, sea lanes were opened. all ever the globe, and the major role in world. trade gradual/7 shifted to Western Murops. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220007-A ueclassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-R0P81-01043R002300220002-6 ???"'""1. At he 'Weaning of the sixteenth century, a considerable part of Central Asia was again wahjected to conquest, this time by the Uaboks under Muhammad Sheibani-khan. Internecine feadal strife reached its culmination, point in the Shisylani state, and the country broke up into separate, independent, and mutually hostile principalities; Sahara, Khiva and, later, reamed, as well as the mailer mountain-area possessions of Shakhrierabs, Gissar, Baan- etc. Concentrating the land in their hands, the rulers of these princi- palities strove to copy the system, luxury, and regal splendor of the khan courts. To that end, they subjected the working people to inhuman exploi- tation and burdened the...with various taxes and obligations. By the end of the nineteenth century, the Tadzhik nation was dis- united. The districts inhabited by Tadihiks (as well as by other Central Asiatic nations) were divided among different khanates and states. The majority of the Central Asiatic Tadzhiks lived in the Bokhara and lokani khanates (in the Pergana Valley and Zeravihan Oasis), in eons cities of the 'hive khanate, in the semiindepandent upland principalities of con- temporary Tadzhikistan (Karategin, Darras, 'ban, Shugnan, stc), and in the northern districts of contemporary Afghanistan and India, and in Khorasan.. Thus the period between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries was characterized by intensified feudal decentralization and endlest inter- nacine wars (particularly after the seventeenth century) which ruined the settled population and led to the destruction of the material values created by the people and paved the way for economic stagnation. Trade relations between the Russian state and the Central Asiatic khanates had been established back under Tsar Ivan IV. The commodity exchange volume was small, but the variety of goods fairly large. The trade continued later on, and by the end of the eighteenth century cotton fiber was for the first time included in the shipments of goods from Central Asia. Bokhara and Kokand became vassals of Tsarist Russia in 1868 and Ihiva in. 1873. A governor-general with headquarters in. Tashkent was appointed in 1867 to administer the Central Asiatic territories annexed to Bessie. Tsarist troops helped theRair of 3okbara to take over the independent principalities of eastern Bokhara. The peoples of Central Asia, including the Tadahiks, now found them- selves under the deal oppression of TearismL and their own feudal lords. prom an objective point of view, however, the annexation of Central Asia Toe. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? - 44 - 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? r?LA A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 to Russia was of progressive importance. It put an end to the inter- necine feudal strife and. constant wars which had. been a heavy burden on the working people. The Tadzhik*, as well as the other peoples of Cen- tral Asia, were given an opportunity to join the advanced cultural and revolutionary struggle of the Russian people. l'ollong its annemtion to Puesia. Central Acta vaz drawn into the world. commodity market. Russia used. it as a raw material base for her industry, particularly as a source of cotton and Astrakhan fur, and as a market for her own goods, mostly textile nanufactures. Capitalism began to sprout in Central Asia. Cotton-processing plants and. oil skills were built, and oil and coal extraction was begun in the nondzhent Okrug (northern Tadzhikistan.). A class of local proletarians, though not =? serous b.an to emerge. The construction of railroads in Central Asia began in 1870. The first railroad. line extended eastward. from Krasmovodsk; in 1897 it reached. Asdishan and. in 1899 it was extended to Tashkent; the Orenburg railroad line reached Tashkent in 1905. Navigation was begun on the Ana-Darya river. To obtain better raw materials, commercial capital had. to pay more attention to certain branches of agriculture. Higher-yielding cotton cultures (with an opening boll) and better potatoes and oats were intro- duced, and fruit orchards were improved. Bat the Ruasian capitalists did. not build, a large industry there. Nor were their capitalist-type plantations successful. The labor of the landless share cropper was much cheaper than hired labor. The profits derived by the capitalists were so high that they did not find it neces- sary to spend. money on irrigation improvements or machinery. They con- fined. their activities to making downeayments and purchasing cotton and other raw materials; the local bourgeoisie usually acted as middleman between the colonizers and the cotton producers. The kishlak (central asiatic village) underwent an. tutprecedented process of economic polariza- tion. Growing rich, at one end, was the bat who was buying up and, more frequently, taking away the land. of the ruined farmers; coning to the foreground, at the other end, was a class of landless sharecroppers and. farm hands working for the bai for a pittance. Such was the case particularly in the Ihodzhent district, which was part of the Turkestan governorship-general. Still more oppressive were the conditions of the people of the Bokhara kbanate where the Emir held unlimited, power in local affa3.rs. Rained by the war with Rassia, re- parations payments and. incessant internal disorders, the working ,...????16 - 45 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 population was also deprive& of all civil rights. The khanates wore divided. into weeks" (*blasts) and. cities, the "beks" into amlyaks (cola- ties), the latter into "kents" (townships), and the townships into kismaka (villages). Heading each administrative melt was an official teaoa glove)" working for the emir, received no salary from the treasury but lived. entirely on the requisitions taken from the perielatiar.. isinder the custom prevailing in. the Bokhara khanate, the emir would. distribate land, including kishlaks, among his favorite officials, and the people of those kiehleks wo-old, be obliged. to work for the meters of such land as serfs. The Tadzhik working people were without exception illiterate, and. the influence of the clergy on the masses was exceptionally great. The women had. no rights at all. Slavery, though formally aboliehed under the agreement with Russia, actually continued to exist. An the above-mentioned, conditions were a great deal harder in eastern Bokha.ra (now South Tadzhikistan) thich the Bokhara rulers con- sidered as their colony. The steadily riaing taxes and. various demands on the population gave rise to frequent uprisings in ditch the Tadzhik took an active part along with the other peoples of Central Asia. In. 1885 a Tadzhik revolt flare& up in the Boloduzhen "bed" under the leader- ship of a peasant named. Voce. Another one broke out in the same place in 1886 and, also in 1887-1888. An uprising took place in the Kalif "bed" in 1900, in the Denau. "bed" in 1901, and. in the Ku.rgan-Tubin "bed" in 1902. But even. in those hard. times (the second half of the nineteenth century) there were progressive personalities among the Tadzhika, as the edUcated. and. talented, writer Ahmad. Donieh, for elample. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the Reset= revolution inspired the activities of a number of other leading writers of Central Asia, including the founder of Tad.thik soviet literature, Sadriddin Ayni. The Russian revolution of 1905-1907 exerted a strong influence on the development of the revolutionary movement in Central Asia. In 1907- 1914 there was an increase in the number of bolsherik organizations en- gaged in revolutionary. work there. The mobilization of the local population by the tsarist government for labor duty in the rear in connection with the prolonged imperialist war, culminated, in an uprising almost throughout Central Asia in 1916. The Tadzhiks took an active part in 00 uprising in thodzheut, Kostakoz. Ura-Tube, and Pendzhikent. names =inertly a spontaneous peasant up- rising, poorly organized, and led ter inexperienced people. The tkoops of the tsar and the emir succeeded in suppressing it. However, it served to revolutionize the masses and le.ter played. an important part in. the na- tional liberation movement. ???????li Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co.y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDPRi ninaqPnn?-, rw-v Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The result of the overthrow of the autocracy in February 1917 WS the establishment of soviets of workers' deputies in a number of Turkes- tan cities as well as in the city of New Bokhara (Kagan). The Turkestan governorship-general was abolished at the ea of March 1917, But the February bourgeois-democratic tilvolutiou, did net materiatty chunee. the life of the Central Asiatic peoples. The former Turkestan governorship-. Patera was replaced. by a committee of the provisional government, which preserved the old. colonial regime and. did not even attesip. t to abolish national. oppression. In Bokhara? the emir managed to maintain his de- spotic regime until 1920. The victory of the arse& uprising of the .Pussian proletariat in October 1917 triggered the struggle for soviet power also in Central Asia, In. Novaaber 1917 the soviets emerged triusrphant in Tashkent and lat?er in almost all of Turkestan, including the northern districts of Tadzhikistan. The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established. in April 1918, as part of the P.TPSR. The government of the emir-dominated Bokhe.ra adopted a hostile attitude toward Soviet Turkestan from the very first clay of its existence,. aroported by the feudal aristocracy, the Moslem clergy,. and. the local bourgeoisie, the emir began to prepare for a struggle against the Soviet Goverment. In his preparations he also leaned on the support of the basmatch bands, the Bassi= White Guards, and foreign imperialists. The entre s struggle against soviet Turkestan was further facilitated. by the complicated and. difficult conditions of the soviet government in Central Asia. A general staff of the Tu.rkastan front was organized. in August 1919, under the command of N. V. Franss for the purpose of washing the counter- revolution as rapidly as possible. Important political, cultural, and economic measures designe& to strengthen the young republic were iastitated at the same time. The first Central Asiatic state university was opened in Tashkent during the height of the struggle against the toeir. It was at that time also that the Government of the RsrsR appropriated. 50 million rabies for the restoration of the cotton irrigation system in huicestan. The major counterrevolutionary forces in Transcaspia and Semirachys wire liquidated is 1920. Bat the civil wax was not over, as basmatch supported by the lair of Bokhara, were still active in a number of Uzbed. and Tadzhik districts, particularly in Fergatne- 47 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01043R002-inn29nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 But the successes of the Soviet Government in the Turkestan ASSR and. the activities of the underground organisations of the Bokhara Communist Party, established in the summer of 1918, revolutioaised the workers of the 33okhara khanate. In a umber of places (Charishou, Bokhara City) ant/glair uprisings broke out by the sad of August 1920. Acting on the request of the rebels, Bed Army units of the Turkestan front came to their aid. and, after a sekies a battle* lasting 4 days, the city of Bokhara was captured. by the rebels. The emir fled. In September 1920, the first All-Bokbaran national kurnItaay (congress) proclaimed the establishment of a Bokbaran People's Soviet Republic and. elected a governamt. The region was proclaimed. not a socialist, but a people's soviet republic since its economic and. political conditions were not yet ready for the establishment of socialist relations. This was accompanied by the institution of revolutionary measures in. the interest of the broad. masses of the working population. Freed= of speech, press, assembly, and trade unions was guaranteed. to the citizens of the republic; the cherch was separated frost the state; all the land was de- aerea, state property and used. for allocating land. parcels to the land- less and. land-poor dekhkans. Tbe strengthening and. development of the Bokharan People's Soviet Republic took place against the background of a desperate class struggle, Dethroned. by the revolution, the emir fled. to Du.shambe and there, sup- ported. by the bais, clergy, and other counterrevolutionary elemeats, or- ganizad an army of several thousand and. launched an offensive. The government of the Bokharan People's Soviet Republic, too week 'to defeat the forces of the counterrevolution, appealed to the RSI'SR for help. Acting on orders from the latter, the Turkestan front commend dispatched. the Gissar Expeditionary Detachment, which engaged the emir bands in battle in Yebruary 1921. Overcoming enormous difficulties, the detach- ment routed. the enies troops and captured Dushanbe, rulyab, end Gars in lobruary and March of 1921. But as soon as the major units of the aissar Expedition left eastern Bokhara, large beamate:h bands began to commit outrages in the Boliduzban, Zarategin, and Dams districts. Smell Bed. Army units, after repulsing numerous basmatch a.ttaoks end suffering from & shortage of ammunition and food, were compelled. to withdraw to Dash/mobs and later to the Termes-Shirabad-Bepoun line. A considerable portion of eastern Bokhara fell into the hands of the basmatchs under Use contend. of Saver-pasha. Enver proceeded to restore the prerevolutionary order, ruining and exterminating the working dekhken people in the process. The existence of the basmatchs in eastern Bother& made it in-possible to establish a soviet government through elections. The provisional soviet government in eastern Bokhara was an extraordinary -48- .- a??????"711 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 dictatorial commission of the A11-33okhara Central Executive Committee, with its local revolutionary committees, for the affairs of eastern Bokhara. The infiltration of hostile elements in the Bokharest People's Soviet Republic and the Bokbaran Communist Party made the struggle against the avowedly counterrevolutionary forces more difficult. A purge of the Bokbaran people' o government was carried out intiay 1922. A specially-organized. group of Bokikaran troops vent into action against Saver,. which resulted in the rout of his bands iz the summer of 1922. Enver himself was killed. The other large bandit units we ir,~iiiasholl by the middle of 1925 and a crucial blow was thus dealt to the basmatch movement. Organizing the struggle against the basmatchs, the party and govern- ment also made a major effort to restore the national economy and enlist the large-scale participation of the broad masses of dekhkans in the building of socialins. Heasures were also introduced which were designed to improve the material welfare of the working people of the Bokharan Noslel s Soviet Republic. Those meastrres included the exemption of the dekhkans from agricultural taxes, the extension of credits to farms ruined by the war, increased imports of industrial goods, etc. In 1924 the Soviet Government allocated. over 20 thousand. poods of seeds for use by the poor farmers. The construction of a network of schools, various courses, and. other educational and. cultural institutions got under taty. In 1925 the state of emergency was discontlxreed and the Bokharan People's Soviet Republic transformed. into a socialist republic. A decision was adopted. to divide Central Asia on a national-territorial basis, and the result was the formation of the tribed and. TUrir:Menian Soviet Socialist Republics and. Tadzhik ASSit as part of Uzbekistan.. The most important political and economic measure implemented in the northern part of the republic was the land-end-water reform under which the working dokhekans received land and water while the expUiting bate and usurers were deprived, of all privileges. This was accompanied by the liquidation of the remnants of the old. *air government apparatus (the amlakdar, or tax-collection, institute, and trial by officials) and a declaration was adopted on the emancipation of women, the introduction of the universal education of workers, etc. The large-scale economic and political effort initiated in the repablic led to steadily growing political activity and awareness on the part of the working dekhk,ans and. to the emergence of national cadres. 49 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The successes achieved by the Tadzhik people in the field of socialist construction created the necessary prerequisites for transforming the Tadzhik ABM into a Tadzhik Soviet Socialist Republic in 1929. The re- public included. lhodshent Okrug, formerly part of the Uzbek SSR, but not within the Tadzhik ASSR. The capital of the republic. Dushanbe, was renamed Stalinabad. Under the five-year plans. Tadzhikistan. has growa tato P. pm.r.parcne socialist republic %lithe high culture and well-developed economy. The aChisvozlentt of the TadslAk $SR in the development of its economy and culture are discussed in the subsequent chapters of the book. PCAILATIOR AT =TURK According to the 1929 census, the population of Tadzhik SSR amounted to 1,484,400 people. Its present population is 1.8 million (according to the 1956 estimate). The average population density is 12.T persons per square kilometer which is higher Una in Kirgizia. (9.5) and Turkeenia (2.9), but lower than in. Uzbekistan (18). A mountainous country with an tatereected topography and large areas =Imitable for hums* life and OCOOMMIC development, Tadzhikistan is characterized by a very 'sums& distribution of the population. The bulk of the population is concentrated in the ware valleys:. in the western part of the Fergana T.Usy, in the Gissar, Yekitsh, and iafirnigan valleys as well as those of southeast Tadzhikistan. The average popu- lation density it the majority of the valleys Is 30-60 persons per square kilometer, and in sous districts the figare goes up to 100 am& scre. the mountain districts the population is found along the narrow valleys, while the watershed. areas are practically uninhabited; their population density is therefore considerably wiener. The -population density of most of the central Tadzhik districts, where the topography is pre- dominantly of the medium highland type, is 10-30 /Arenas per soar* kilometer, and in the western Pamir highlaads only 2/3 persons. The population of the severe upload of eastern Pamir is still sparser, 0.2 persons per square mile, despite its relatively level surface. Between 1926 and 1939, the population of the republic increased by another 50. But its growth was very towel' in different areas. There was a more rapid increase in the population of the valleys where wiz culture and industry are highly developed. The basic and most profitable branch of agriculture there is cotton growing, which attracted large numbers of new settlers from the mountains. In a. number of administra- tive districts, as in the Yakhsh valley for example, there was a 2-3 50 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002-ion79nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ;RI fold. and, even 10-fold increase in the population during that period. Some of the districts, on the other hand, were settled. for the first time. In the mountainous parts of the republic, where agriculture con- sists mainly of grain-farming and. cattle-raising, the population growth was slower than in. the cotton-growing areas, whereas the population of the central and. northern districts of southeast Tadzhikistan actually decreased. in view of the exodus toward the lower areas. A considerable part of the -population has been moving to the cities, whose growth is accelerated not only by the local population, but also by people coming to r.Earlzhikistan from various parts of the Soviet Union. The city population grows at a faster rate than the population as a whole. Two hundred and fifty thousand. people were living in cities in 1939, which at that time amounted to almost 10 of the reraublicls population. One third of Tadshikistanis present population is now living in. cities and workers' settlements. The old cities, like Leninabad, Ura- Tube, Kanibadam, felyab, and Penityb4irent, were greatly expanded under the soviet government, and. many new ones came into being. There are more than 40 cities and city-type settlements in the repu.blic at present. One of the new cities, Stalinabad, has a population of 191,000. The growth of the cities is indicative of the rapid d,evelopment of industry and the increasing working class and intelligentsia. The number of workers employed. in the heavy industry alone has increased several dosen times during the five-year plans. About 1/3 of the industrial cadres is made up of local national workers, including women. The Taillike, the indigenous inhabitants of the country speaking modern Tadzhik, constitute en absolute majority of the republic's popula- tion. A few small groups of Tadshiks living in heretofore inaccessible mountain valleys have partly retained their ancient languages and dia- lects. Among them are the Pamir Tadshilcs Vakhamtey, Ishkashintsy, Shugnano-Rushantsy, and Tazgalemtsy whose language is said to stem from the Saxon language, as well as the Tagnobtme who live in the Tagnob River Valley (between. the Maser and. Zeravehan mountain ranges); the latter retained. the dialects of the Sogdian language spoken by some of the modern Tad.sshiks' ancestors prior to the conquest of Central Asia by the Arabs, i.e., before the eighth to the tenth centuries. The Tadzhik* live everywhere in the country but they are in the absolute majority mostly in the mountainous areas of the republic. The reason for that is that during the period of political adversity and, the conquest of the country by the Tarko-Hongol nomads the native population was driven into the mountains by the neweemers where they were forced to live under severe natural conditions. The Tadshtks are also in the majority in all the cities of the republic. - 51 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 OferS, Under the Soviet Government* the settling of the Tadzhik? underwent considerable changes. Thousands of new settlers, mostly from the moun- tain districts, but also from the densely populated oases of the plains, came to the southern valley districts where virgin 831d. formerly irrigated. but abandoned. lands are now under exploitation and. new irrigation facili- ties under construction. Most of these settlers arc mauntain tradshiks now returning to the land once ithaliitael by their ancestors. There are 2 types of settlement land in Tadzhikistan:4 the ulalee and, the mountains. Predominant in the densely populated valleys is the oasis-type large settlement (kishlak), usually extending along a small river or large aryk (irrigation ditch). Some of the largest of those kishlaks numbered several thousand inhabitants in 1939, such as the following in Loninabad. ablest: Kostakoz 10.953 people, Ispisar 8.420, Nan 6.947, Chorku. 6.364, Un.dehi ,61,100. Vorukh 5.401, etc. (Some of those large settlements have now become cities or city-type settlements; for example Chkelovabad. (formerly Iostakoz) and Sovetabad (formerly Ispisar). Large kishl.elcs, though smaller in size and fewer in number than in the north, may be 1111011 also in the Gissar. Bakhsh, and. other val- leys of southern Tadzhikistan. The kiehlaks are surrounded by large tracts of cultivated. fields and orchards. A different type of kishlak is found. in the narrow mountain valleys. There is little lane suitable for cultivation there, and, the scattered plots of land. are often very far from this settlement and from each other. The mountain kish3.aks are usually small; 10 to 15 households. The houses are frequently built on steep mountain slopes, almost on top of each other, so that the roof of each house, barn, or storage building is used as a. platform by the house above it. When there is no house below to be Used for such purpose, the flat ground. in front of it is made into an artificial terrace of stone and. earth. An exception in this respect are the larger kiablaks, consisting of 100 households and. more, usually found on the large alluvial fans in the mountains or on the river terraces of the large valleys. Such are some of the kishlaks of the Obi3r.hingou. and &Lek- hob River Valleys in Central. Tadzhikistan, in the Yakhsa liver Valley, and la other places. Before the revolution the Tadahike houses were the same as those of other settled. nations of Central Asia, with some differences between the valley and. mountain houses. Most of the hewers in the northern part of the republic were frame houses reinforced with dry clay or raw brick, and. in the south the adobe-type house predominated. The mountain kiablak inhabitants built their thick house walls with large chunks of shapeless rock mortared with clay. The roofs of their houses as a rule consisted of beams covered with many boards and. poles which, in turn, were covered. - 52 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ueclassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-R0P81-01043R002300220002-6 0.?"""li with layers of earth of 'varying thicknesses depending on the exeunt of precipitation. Gable reed roofs were built in some parte of the southern districts. The type of heating used before the revolution in southern Tadzhikistan and in almost all the mountain districts W49 "chisneyless heating" /Furnoye otopleniym7? the heating system used in northern TadthikiiVaa was primitive Fireplace or "sandal" (a large stool -shaped. object covered with a blanket; the people sat around the stool under the edges of the blanket warming themselves in the heat ma:eructed by the live coals placed in a hole under the stool). The planning and construction of kishlaks have undergone great changes under the Soviet Government. They axe particularly conspicuous in the new kishlaks with their straight broad streets lined with trees. Sovkhoz, MT8, and frequently also kelkhoe centers are acquiring the features of city, typo settlements consisting of houses with glans windows, schools, tower plants, shops, mediae" stations, etc. In the old kishlaks themselves, even in the most isolated ores, windows are being built In the walls, the chim- neyloss heating system is replaced by stoves, and furniture and other fac- tory-made household goods are making their appearance in the houses. As in the past, the bulk of the Tadihik population is engaged in agri- culture:, land cultivation and animal husbandry. The Tadzhike have been farmers since ancient times. The traces of large irrigation structures and kyariz (underground canals for bringing the subsoil water to the our- face) as well as suspended visyachiyei mountain tamale dug on almost vertical canyon walls attestto the hi agricultural level of their ancestors. It is not accidental that the modern Tadshiks are the best Irrigation experts in Central Asia. All sorts of handicraft trades and *sell industries have been wide- spread among the Tadihiks since the remote past. The beautiful carved- wood monuments of the tenth to the twelfth centuries* remnants of highly artistic patterns on cloth found in the excavations of the Mug Castle, the last stronghold of Tadzhik resistance to the invading Arabs in the Zeravshan Valley, numerous finds of ornamented ceramics of different eras, remarkable paintings of ancient Pendihlkont? etc., still attest to this. The cities had their special quarters of weavers, ceramic workers, coppersmiths, blacksmiths, wood carvers* etc. Handicraft trades were widespread also in the rural commuaity. The Tadzhik woolen used primitive stationary looms to wasym napless woolen and cotton cloths with or with- out patterns. The men, worked on foot-operated looms, some of them quite complicated, with 4-8 pedals, produoing cotton, wool and silk:for clothes. Narthenware was made everywhere. In the villages, the Tadzhik women* working without the benefit of a compass, prodaced a large variety of Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 53 ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? r?in DrInr, A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 clay pottery by hand with highly symmetrical ornaments on them. The ancient trades, particularly the artistic trades, are now being revived despite the abundance of industrial goods. Artois for the production of ruga? patterned materials, felting, and other articles have been organized. Old morausents are being Skillfully restored and new structures decorated by fenous Tadzhik artists. The next largest population.voup are the Uzbeks, %to nit mostly tm the broad lower valleys of the North and South of the republic. Some of than live also in the cities. Were the revolutioa, the South Tadihik Uzbeks led a seninomadic type of life. They wore made up of nameroms tribes which differed from one another not only in name, but also in certain linguistic and ethnogrephic charactoristios. Some of those tribes (Karluk, Turk, Ala others) had apparently cone there la ancient tines, while others (Laker, Natagen, Mureen, etc) have lived there since the sixteenth century. In the past, the major occupation of the Uzbeks living in South Tadzhikistan was animal husbandry and uairrigatedZbogarnoyeg agricul- ture. The Uzbeks raised. & (Kuser breed. of sheep, key goats and horses, and. small herds of cattle to be used as draft animals in aviculture. The Uabed. women were famous for their production of felting, beautiful striped. and patterned cloths, sacks aad khurdz)mms (bags made of netting). Sur- vivale of patriarchal social relations, supported. in the interests of the exploiting tribal rulers, prevailed in the social life of the Uzbekz until recent times. These Sat* Uzbeke are now living in kolkhes settlements and engaging in agriculture (cotton growing) and animal husbandry. The Uzbeks living in Northern Tadzhikistan have not been much dif- ferent from the Tadzhiks of the plains, in point of culture and. occupation, either before the revolution or at present. Some of them moved. to South Tadzhikistan under the Soviet Oevernmeat. Also living in Tadihikistan are sone Kirgisians, razakhe, Arabs, Tarkmenians, gypsies, and other nationalities. The Kirrizians inhabit the Dshirgatallskiy Rayon and. eastern Pamir (ikurgab district of the MOuntala-Badakhshan. Autonomous Okrug). As in the past, the Kiresians engage in pasturable animal husbandry raising mostly fat-tailed sheep and yaks. The largiziaai from the Dzbirgatell- akiy Baron have engaged in agricultural work, and animal industry since ancient times. In. the past they used to roan for pastures with their cattle, spending their simmers in thick-felt yurtas; in wintertime they would move into large boas.* protected from the cold by flat earthen Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043ROO7Inn99nnn9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 roofs. At present the Kirgiz people are settled on the land, and only a mull part of the population (the shepherds) follow the collective farm cattle to the summer and winter pastures. Veit making, carpet weaving, and knitting woolen stockings in, various patterns are popular occupations among the Kirgizians. Living primarily in the cities, workers' settlements, and MS, and partly also in collective and state farmse is a large number of Russians and. Ukrainians. Almost all of them settled in the republic under the Soviet Government, with the exception of some who had lived in the northern districts before. It should be pointed out that the Daztiaas, Ukrainians, and other nationalities who moved to Tadihikistan from the central areas of the Soviet Union have played an exceptionally important part in en- hancing the culture and expanding the economy of the republic. Great are the achievements of the Tadzhik peoples tn the development of their culture, which is national in form and socialist in oontent. This can be seen in every field of culture and particularly in public education. Universal compulsory education, including sovenyear schools in the villages and 10-year schools in the cities, was introduced under the Soviet Government. There are about 2,600 public schools in the country, attended by approximately 340,000 children.-- roughly 1/5 of the population. A native intelligentsia -- specialists in every field of the national economy, science, and culture -- is rapidly coming to the fore in the republic. There are dozens of institutions of higher learning: the State Medical Institute imeni Abuali ibn-Sino, the agricultural and pedagogical institutes, etc. The Tadzhik State University with 5 facul- ties was opened in the capital of the republic in 1948. These schools are conoentrated in Stalistahed, Iteninabad? and Inlyab. Specialists of average qualifications:* trained in more than 30 special schools, technicums? and general schools in various cities and settlements of the republic. The number of college students, special sad middle-school students, Including correspondence-course students, is about 28,000. Soientific-research work was began in the republic in the very first years of its existence. That work has been developing under the following scientific institutions: the Committee for Tadihik Studies - 1930, the Tadzhik:Base of the Academy of Sciences USSR . 1932, the Tadzhik: Use of the Academy of Science* USSR:- 1944 and finally, the Academy of Sciences Tadehik SSR 1951. The latter comprises 24 solextific-research institu- tions, including 8 institates which are engaged in the study Of the natural resources and the history of the Tadshik people and the most important 4),??????? -55- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 problems relating to the deVeIopmeint of the economy and culture of the republic. The academy has a staff of over 700 workers including 120 Ma's and masters of science. Also in operation in the republic are nonacademic scientific centers engaged in the study of agriculture, in- dustry, public health, and. public education. Working under the Ministry of Agriculture are scientific-research institutes of animal husbandry, agriculture, and subtropical truit and vegetables, with numerous scien- tific-experimental bases. Tadzhik literature ana art have riten to a high level within a short period of time. Tadzhik literature, especially poetry, has a history that is more thes a thousand years old. But it iv only now that all the people, not only certain individuals, are able to read the works of such outstanding writers and thinkers as Rudaki, Firdausi? NOsiri-Xhierou, Saadi, 'Manz, Dzhami, Kama Ihundshandi, etc. The development of modern Tadzhik litera- ture is facilitated by the poetic traditions of the resat classics and the direct influence of the loading Passim writers. The remarkable books by the founders of Soviet Tadzhik literature, Sadriadin Ayni and the poet Abulkosim Lakhati, enjoy wide populati#. Accessible to the average reader now are the works of Soviet writers of the younger generation: M. Tursunzade, M. Mirshakar, S. Ulugzade, J. /kraxi, B. Bakhissade, R. Dzhaiii, ana maw others. Suffice it to say that more than 50 new works by Tadzhik writers will be sabmitted for discussion during the Ten Days of Tadzhik Literature and. Art to be observed. in Moscow in April 1957. Theatre shows, songs, dances, and national instrument playing per- formed. by itinerant artists or ordinary amateurs have always been popular among the people. Bat the greater theatrical art -- national opera, ballet, the drama, ana the comedy -- were not developed until our time. The peoples of Tadzhikistan hare now joined the world culture: they now see plays by Shakespeare, Ostrovskiy, and Corkin and listen to music by Tchaikovskin Borodin, Verdi, and Bizet in their own theatres. There are 7 large dramatic and musical theatres in the republic, in- cluding the Academic Theatre of rrsma and the theatre of opera and ballet as well as the State Philharmonic, which includes about SOO ereative workers. There are about 830 libraries in Tadihtkistan with a total stock of 3.5 million books and magazines, and over 1,050 houses of culture and clubs. - 56 ;c4p,t, Yen '444 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 riA_Rnpszi_ninAn, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Cinemas and radios can now be found in the remotest districts!-of the republic, Three hundred. and, twenty motion-picture installations are in operation. There is also a national motion picture studio of art and, news films. Paintings, drawings, soulpture, and. the new archi- tectural installations show a further development of the fine arts. The new socialist culture is beconing integrated. in the daily life of the people and, in their mutual relations. People of various nation- alities live and -work- together as friendly families in kolkhozes, workers' settlements, and. cities. There it a conztant cultural esob.anga ameee them; this is in part facilitated also by intermarriages, which were almost impossible in the past. Although the influence of Russian culture on the Tadzhik peoples is very strong -- the Uropeen clothes worn by the city people* the construc- tion of Buroptan4ype homes in the villages, the appearance of faotory- made furniture, utensils, radio sets, etc in the homes of collective farmers -- the original features of the culture these peoples have not only been retained, but are being further developed. Tadspikistan is equally concerned about the cultural development of the Tadzhiks and the citizens of the other nationalities. The Children are taught in their native tongue.. Many middle schools and colleges have their Tadzhik, Russian, and 'Uzbek 0.aups. The republic's newspapers and magazines are published in the Tadshik, Russian and limb* languages. The Tadzhik state publishing house publishes political, artistic, and. popular games literature and textbooks in Tadzhik, Russian, and Uzbek. The formation of a native working class, collective-feast peasantry and new intelligentsia, the development of national cultare in the best traditions, and the creative friendship with the Russian and other peoples of the USSR? such are the beeic results of the social and cultural transformation of the Tadzhik* who are consolidated into a united social- ist nation. XCONONT The restoration and development of the national economy of Tadihikis- tan under the Soviet government was begun 6-8 years later than in the other areas of Central Asia and carried out under very difficult condi- tions. The destruction left in the wake of the Civil War was particularly great. (The deterioration of the economy in Tadzhikistan, not including the Khodshent Okrag, may be characterised by the following figarest com- pared to 1914* the gross production of the national economy in 1924 was -57- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release SO -Yr 201 . C - r-1 'Don Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 44%, the irrigated area under crops 21%, an& the area planted to cotton 5%)? Even before the struggle against the counterrevolutionaly forces was over, the Communist Party and the Soviet Goverment undertook the job of restoring aed developing the national economy of the former peripheries of Raseia in accordance with the Leninist principles of a nationality policy which called for the full political culto.ral, and economic equality of all the peoples of the Soviet 'Union. Inasmuch as the former peripheriee of Russia had. been far behind the central area: in. economic and cultural development, they required effective and. prolonged assistance. The Govern- ment of the USSR did. everything it could :for the youeg republic; it appropriated. large sums of money and. sent machinery, specialists, and. workers who shared their scientific and production experience with the local workers. Until 1.936 the expenditures of the Tadehilc budget was Rade up largely of subsidies granted by the government of the union. (In sous years these subsidies accounted. for 90% of the budgetary expen- ditures of the Tadzhik SSR). Since the rate of development of the na- tional peripheries was still very low in comparison eith the central areas, the Oonamnist Party and the government provided for a more ri.d tempo of economic and cultural development in the First Five-Tear Plan. The needs and requirements of these areas were equated with those of the entire Soviet Union. Large capital invest:I:eats 'were made in the national economy of the republic; the latter were desigeed to facilitate its planned and. all-round develop:dent. During the first Five-Tear Plan and the years preceding it, most of the funds were invested in agriculture, particularly in the restoration eed farther development of irrigation. The various branches of agriculture in prerevolutionary Tadzhikistan had. not been in keeping with the natural. possibilities of the country. Grain cultures had. been raised even on irrigated. land.. The cotton-growing aria had been comparatively mall and concentrated primarily in the lierth. A similar situation prevailed. also in the case of the other branahes of agriculture -- orchards, viticulture, and silk prodemeaon ? which had been developed in isolated. districts. Under the Soviet Government, wide- spread changes were made in the structure, quality, and distribution of agricultural branches. Cotton became the basic crop of the irrigated. land in the lower valleys. Grain sowing was shifted to the mountainous areas where no irrigation was required. 'lost of the cotton is now raised. in southern Taezhikistan where there was practically no cotton planted before. This part of the republic is now among the leading producers of thin-fiber cotton in the Soviet Maim. The Tadzhik SSE produces about 40% of the cotton in the Soviet Union). Cpaatitative and qualitative changes were made also In animal basbandry. Astrakheat sheep raising became widespread in the southern valleys. A new breed of highly productive goats was developed. The teeed of local sheep, cattle, and horses is being improved.. Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? C A 1ni_ /le) t, ,?-? Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The development of the economy of the backward peripheries included also the development of their electric power, industry, transportation, and mining. Much attention was paid to the deyelepment of the republiess induetry. The foundation for an industry was laid during the first 3 live-Tear Plans (1928-1940). The rate of development of Tadihik industry in those years was Tarr high. (Compared with 1913, the total industrial output in 1985 was increased 38 times inKirgizia, 17 times in Turkmenia. 14 times in Uzbekistan, and 24 times in Tadzhikistan. About 30 different branches of industry Imre built in Tadvlikistan. Important from an all-union point of view are the cotton-processing, silk and cotton producing, and mining industries; the clothing, flomr-Talling, bread-baking, fuel-producing, metal-processing, building material in- dastries, etc are now largely capable of meeting the demands of the republic. Thus the Tadzhik 531 is developing mostly the industries for which there is an adequate supply of local raw materials. Supplying the other areas of the Soviet Union with cotton, Cloth, canned goods, wine, and. ore concentrates. Tadzhikistan in tarn gets fuel, fertilizer, menu- featured metal, lumber. machinery, and other industrial and. agricultural commodities. The following Tadihik industries will receive close attention under the Sixth Pive Year Plan; expansion of the irrigated. areas -- particularly those to be planted. to cotton -- and improvement of the cotton yield; expansion of the fodder base and the animal husbandry and the development of the power and other industries, particularly the light and food industries. Special attention is being focused on the major agricultural crops cotton- The production of cotton in 1960 will amount to 700,000 t. New irrigation ditches are being dug:and dams built in various parts of the republic, and the largest water reservoir in Central Asia. the Iayra-Kum, /sunder construction. 'Under consideration also is the expansion of the other branches of agriculture, particularly animal basbondry. The favorable natural con- ditions will be utilized for the development of fine-wool and semifine- wool sheep as well as the fodder sources. One of the measures designed to secure sufficient fodder far the domestic animals will be the irriga- tion of Over 2 million hectares of pastureland. during the five-year plan. ,1???????? ?59- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA RDPRi-ninaqpnno Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Si-pending rapidly is the power industry. Large hydroelectric power plants will be built on the Azra-Darya River, on the Vakb.sh Canal, anti the Vokhsh River. A larger thermoelectric power plant will be commis- eioned in GU'Inaba& The output of the industry 1411 be increased 1.4 times and. even more in some of the branches of the industry. The production or olectric power, for exempla, will be increased 4-fold, and cement 13-fold. The light and. food. industries will be reinforced by a few powerful enter- prises. The textilecora-Aro umier construction in litalinabad, for example, will produce over 30 million meters of cloth annually, and the oil-and-fats combine 1411 process over 130 million tons of seeds, i.e., approximately as much as is now being processed by all the oil mills of the republic. The problem that needs solving in Tadshikistan as in the other republics of the Soviet Union, involves the creation of an abundance of goods for the population and raw materials for the industry. Aszicu.lture Before the revolution, the northern and. southern parts of Tadzhikistan, though differing from each other in their economic development, were back- ward and primarily agrarian areas. Their socioeconomic inequality was very veat, especially in eastern Bokhara where over 90% of all the irrigated lands belonged. to the trear,-,....-7, the charch, and the est? (55.0 of the eastern Bokhara lands belonged to the treasury, 24.2% to the church. and. 12.1% to the emir). Only a small portion of the land was privately owned, mostly by the bats and, the emir' s officials. The overwhelming majority of the dekhkans owned tiny plots of lend. and were compelled, to work on government, church, and. bat land for a small share of the crop. Many dekkkans were deprived of their personal land to cover their indebt- edness, as a resat, they become tarn hands. But Tadzhikistan bas been an al.?;rietatlusal country since ancient times. Despite all the difficulties and. adversities. the Tadshiks developed may" remarkable types of plants and. breed.'" of animals adaptable to the natural condition.* of this mountainous country. Suffice it to melte s011e of the rare types of apricots and grapes, the Gissisr sheep, the largest in the world, and. the very light mountain bores. The farmer developed a hie' skill in the cultivation of the small plots of land and the construction of irrigation ditches in the high-mountain sz-cas., lut his labor was indentured, and his agricultural inplements and his irrigation and raising methods methods remained primitive and substantially unchanged since the -60- - Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01041Rnn9qnn99nnn-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 hoary past. Ploughing was done with a. wooden plough, harrowing with a bundle of dry branches attached to a log of wood, grain gathering with a toothless sickle, grain threshing by the hoofs of animals walking over it, and all the earth and. construction work was done with a hoe. The Great October Socialist Revolution changirod trio politick and socioeconomic situatiou lu the country. The land-and-water reform in- troduced in 1924 made the dekhkans the complete mastw's of their land. and. water resources. Pat agriculture was still technically backward.. It took an enormous effort to reconstruct agriculture on a socialist basis. Two hundred thour.And tiny individual farms were merged into 3,000 collective farms between 1920 and 1937. The :heavy industry built by that time in the Soviet Union provided a 'variety of machinery for Tad.shikistant s agriculture. The NTS end the state farms became the vehicles of tech- nolocr and. organizers of socialist agricultural -production. (There are 71 NTS in the Tadzhik SSR). The major work processes in the field have been mechanized. In 1950 the small collective farms began to merge into larger ones; in 1955, there were 400 large collective farms. After World War II, electricity became available for daily use in the villages and for agricultural production. More than 100 village power plants were in operation in 1955. A large number of collective farms are also using electric power from the rayon Science also came to the aid. of agriculture: dozens of iastitutes, experimental stations and. fields, nurseries, botanical gardens, and. experimental animal-breeding farms are now in the service of every branch of agriculture. Irrigation gets particular attention in view of the dry climate. The primitive methods of prerevolutionary irrigation were based on utilizing the small swift-flowing rivers* Little use wag made of the large rivers requiring complicated installations, anti considerable stretches of usable land therefore remained. desert-like. Characteristic of the soviet period vas the utilization of the large rivers and. the irrigation and cultivation of the previously untouched vast dezert-like land. areas. Large irrigation installations had loon built in Central Asia before the Great Patriotic War. Among them are the Large Vergana and. Northern Jorge= canals 'which made it possible to irrigate time of thousands of land. plots in Uzbekistan and the northern. part of Tadzhikistan. The Vakhsh Valley is now irristrtal for the first time with the aid of a ..m.????ir ????-"Ii 61 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01041Ron7'Inn99nnno Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 large irrigation ditch and water-retaining dam. The newly-built Largo Gissar Canal has already irrigated many new lands and improved the irriga- tion of the old ones. Similar projects were completed. in other parts of the republic. They were 'built as national construction projects, with the parki.eipatiou or the broad massee of oollective farmers. Mee* people performed real miracles of labor heroism. For example, the 270 km, long Large Fergana Canal was built in only 50 days. Tadzhik agriculture is highly diversified and includes cotton raising, fruit growing, viticulture, stock breeding, silk production, and the pro- duction of grain, oleogenoms, vegetable, and citrus cultures. These cul- tures are of varying commercial values. The kolkhozse producing the bulk of the commercial agricultural products get the largest Dart of their income from cotton raising. The Tadzhik kolkhozes get a considerable income also from the other branches of agriculture which rate high in the national economy: animal husbandry, silk production, vegetable and fruit growing, and the prodnction of citrus cultures, geraniums, and tobacco. The economic activities of the population in different districts vary with the prevailing natural conditions. In the lower valleys. cotton is the major crop. Grain production, animal husbandry, silk production, fruit growing, and. viticulture play an important part GA the mountain elopes and in the melt -altitude velleye. These ineuetrtAA Also extend to the high-altitude valleys, but there they yield in importance to animal husbandry. In Bast Pamir, animal hasbandry is the sole occupa- tion of the rural population. The Tadzhik collective farmers are becoming wealthier from year to year. The income of the cotton-growing kolkhoses is particularly high. The average income of a cotton-growing kolkhoz is now about 8.5 million rubles. Some collective farm families make a considerable income. The income of the kolkhozes and sovkhozes net producing cotton or other valuable technical cultures is considerably lower. That iDAMSO has been increasing since 1953 when the state =Debasing prices of animal products, potatoes, vegetable, and other agricultaral produce were raised. The best way to improve the welfare of the waiting; people was to resettle Dart of the land-poor upland collective farms in the cotton-growing By cultivating the new stretches of virgin land, the rssettlers have become wealthy within a short period of time. Many tens of thousands of small farms have thus been resettled in the postrevolutionary period. Many more farms will be moved from the uplands to the lower valleys in view of the cultivation of new lands there. The mountains and uneven topography restrict the use of the land for crops, aAimal hasbandry, and other branches of agriculture. Two thirds of the land are unusable. There are about 4.8 million hectares of land -62- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 suitable for agricultural purposes, but only 1.3 million hectares of that land is adaptable for ploughing. The total crop area of the republic is now 800 thousand. hectares which is about twice as watch as in 1913. Thus the ploughable lend of the republic is to a large extent already in use. Herein lies the diffcreatee between mountainous Tadzhikistan and flatland Uzbekistan, particularly Turkmenia, where only a small part of the entire area is suitable for ploughing purpoees. Radical changes have been made in the structure of the crop fields. In 1913, grain cultures accounted for 89% and illdu s trl al cultures for 8% of the entire crop area; in 1953, the corresponding figures were 5'7% and 35%. The major industrial culture now is cotton. In Tadzhikistan, as in the other republics of Central Asia, crops are raised on both irrigated and unirrigated ribegarniyeg lands. The former account for approximately 1/3 of the satire crop area. Most of the irrigated land is in the valleys where precipitation is low and. the climate is warm. These lands are used. for the most valuable cultures: cotton, jute, volatile oil plants, as well as vegetables, rice, and. fodder cultures. Most of the unirrigated. land. is on mounted slopes where the humidity is high, hat the growing season is short. The unirrigated. land. is used. primarily for grain (wheat and barley), bean and. oil-bearing culturee (f1=, sesaae, aud safflower). The unirrigated land area is twice as large the irrigated, but the importance of the agriculture under irrigation is immeasurably greater. The leading item of Tadzhik agriculture is cotton. Compared with 1913, the area planted to cotton has been increased more than 5-fold, and. the total cotton crop 13-fold. The bulk of the raw cotton is produced. by the collective farms. In the South the state farm* plaiz an important part in cotton production. Some of the collective farms not only grow industrial cotton, but a3. so produce superior types of seeda for the eollective farms. There are 5 large cotton-growing state farms in operation at present. The 2 kinds of aotton produced. tnTadshikistan are medium-fiber and. thin-fiber cotton. The production of the latter was started in the republic in 1929 and. it now accounts for 1/3 of the entire cotton crop. It is distinguished for its high quality. The fiber cl this kind, of cotton is about 1 times longer, stronger, thinner, and. silkier than the medium-fiber cotton and is used for the production of cloth for high- vality *lathing and. ether industrial materials. 3u.t this cotton requires a warner climate and is therefore planted. in the lower and. warmer Yalisys. The medium-fiber cotton is planted up to an altitude of 1,000 a while the thin-fiber cotton area does not exceed. 500 m above sea level. - 63 - Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release p 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81 ninAwnn9qnn-,-)nririn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Pour-fifths of the cotton growing area is in southern Tadzhikistan. Almost all the thin-fiber cotton is concentrated in the Vakhsh, rsfirnigan, and Kirovabad valleys, where the sun total of the temperature for the period with a daily average of below 150 is between 4.0000 .and 5,0000. The soviet seed-selection experts are developing original types of cotton adaptable to the continental conditions of Central Asia. Raving undergone eolitant improvement, the quality of: these grades of cotton is now higher than that produced elsewhere in the world. The selection of various cotton grades is designed to increase their yield, and their fiber length, achieve early ripeness, make then disease- resistant, and make their growth sufficiently compact for machine-harvest- ing, etc. Bngaged in the development of new grades of cotton is the Tadzhik Zonal Cotton. Bzporimental Station in the Vakhsh Valle/yes well as a wide network of cotton grads-testing and selective seed-growing farms. Various grades of cotton in Tadzhikistan have been completely replaced. by superior grades in the past 25 years. Most of the medium- fiber cotton grades produced in the republic are 126-P, 123-P and. 108-F, and the most popular among the thin-fiber grades are 504.3, 2363-B and 5904-1 (developed by Turkmenian scientists). New grades have already been developed to replace these, as for example the new thin-fiber cotton 5010-11 or 5-6017. The latter has a nuMber of good qaelitiest it ripens early, has mininam brandhing, is resistant td certain di:eases (gannotis and fesariosis) and, what is particularly important, it requires no chemi- cal processing for the removal of its leaves, as it shedo them by the end of the crowing season. Practically all the labor processes connected with cotton growing are mechanized. The currant problem is that of mechanizing the most labor-consuning operation of picking raw cotton. Cotton picking machines which raise the production output and make the work of the cotton farmers caster are now in operation on, the fields of the rep-ehlic. The leading cotton workers in Tadzhikistan are constantly improving the technique of cotton growing and finding new methods of raising the cotton yield. They developed a method to reduce the spaces between rows on ootton fields, which led to an. increase in the quantity of cotton plants per hectare and a considerable increase in the yield. By narrowing the distances between rows from ?0 ea to 60 cm, it became possible to raise the cotton yield by several sealners per hectare. A farther narrowing down to 45 cm, produced a considerable additional increase in the yield. The narrow interval method is now used exclusively in cotton planting as is the progressive square-cluster method. Used. besides the 2 mentioned methods is the additional surface feeding of the plants and more rational irrigation method, etc. - 64 - ?????-", Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Pad- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ...?""ne All these measures made Tadzhikistan second in the Soviet Union as regards the total volume of the cotton crop, and first in cotton yields. The yields derived from one hectare in the republic in 3.954 amounted to 28.1 centners of medium-fiber cotton and 23.4 centners of thin-fiber cotton. Great problems connected with the improvement of cotton growing in Tadzhikistan were outlined by the Council of Van/store USER and the Cen- tral. Committee CPSU in a spacia.I decision published. on 6 June 1954. By 1960 the average cotton yield is to be raised to 32.7 contners per hectare: medium-fiber cotton to 34.8 and thin-fiber cotton to ZO centners per hec- tare. Various measures for the successfui solution of these problems have already been developed; foremost among them is the expansion of the land under irrigation, already mentioned. before, and. the further mechanization of production. Among the other southern industrial cultures raised in increasing quantities on irrigated land, are various types of volatile oil-bearing plants and tobacco. Tadzhikistan is an important center of volatile oil plants in the USSR (geranium, the kazanlyk rose, etc). Geraniums had been raised here even before the Great Patriotic war, but now hundreds of hectares are planted to that culture. Volatile-oil-plant growing is concentrated in the Gilmer and Vakhsh valleys where the oil is extracted from those cultures in special plants. The ti?atirzairin of the tropical bast fiber plant, jute, was started in the republic several years ago. The ju.te fibcr is naed for making ship rope, canvas, sugar sacks, and other products which do not absorb moisture. Jute is raised, on the irrigated fields of the warmest valleys in South Tadzhikistan. It covers comparatively small areas and is raised in the collective and state farms of the Kirovabad and Moscow REarons. The great possibilities of raising vegetable and melon cultures in Tadshikistan. are well known: in the warm lower valleys one can raise 2 crops of potatoes and. vegetables a year. These cultures came in for a great deal of attention. In 1940 the total area planted to these cultures was 4 times as largo as in 1913. it this branch of agriculture later began to lag behind the growing demands of the population and industry. In 1952 the total potato, vegetable, and melon area was even smaller than the prewar area, and the yield. lower. Ilu.t vegetable production has been getting more attention since 1953. The party and. the government charged the agricultural workers with the task of producing potatoes and. vegetables in sufficient quantities to wet the demand of the population and the processing industry as well as the demand of the animal industry for pota- toes. gew potato-vegetable zones have been established, hot house combines are under construction, and special vegetable-growing brigades are working around the cities, Industrial centers, and. canning plants. 65 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RnPRi_nine nnnonnnn^^,^ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 -P4... Crop planting on unirrigated land. is an important part of the work of the rural population. Five hundred thousand hectares of grain, bean and olive varieties are watered by precipitation alone. The unirrigated. crop area begins at a 600-800 m altitude and. eitends lip to 3,400 a above sea level. Vast tracts of such land are concentrated on the relatively flat northern slopes of the Turkestan sountain range, in the (Asses Valley area; Etna on the southeastern hilly plains. The annual precipi- tation of 400 ma is sufficient to maintain stable crops. The major portion of the =Irrigated cultures consists of grain, particularly wheat, Second place is held by barley, thi-filby cleagenone matures, and. fourth by beans. In the mountains of Tadzhikistan ordivary, or "soft," grades of wheat are grown isktioh are drought-restatant, crumble-proof, and have a high albumin content. But the grain itself is small and the yield con- parativel,y low. A dialler situation obtains also in the case of the other local unirrigated cultures ? grains, beans, olives, and lucerne. This prompted the government to reorganize the whole seed-raising business. A wide network of state seed-selection and seed. development stations was opelled for that purpose, including a number of rayon seed fares and. seed- testing plots. After several years of bard. work, the selection specialists succeeded in developing s. Ember of pod. grades of cultures requiring no irrigation. Well-known are the outstanding achievements of the selection expert I. G. Stikhobrus, who managed within a short time to develop high- yielding grades of ialteat, barley, lentils. Ottoiliallis and other matures which are now grown on a large scale by the collective and. state farms of the republic. The yield. of the new cultures he developed. (nSurkbah 5688" winter wheat, 0lEhodshrau-18" barley, etc) is 1$%-20* higher than. that of the grades they replaced. And. now a,lnest the entire unirrigated ploughland is pleated with high-grad. seeds. Mother important agricultural practice, hitherto practically wiknown in the Barbara khanate, is the plant- ing of winter crops on unirrigated. land. Most of the wheat and part of the barley are now plaited in autumn and produces a crop times as large as the summer crop. The mast popular of the oleaginous cultures is the oil-bearing or curly flax frlyea-kudryashg (*icier.'" in Tadzhik). Crowded. off the lower valleys by the expanding cotton plantations, this flax is now groat. in all the mountain districts. Comparatively wall areas are pleated to the very valuable oleaginous cultures, sesame and safflower. BOOM* is raised. in all the warner low-mountain areas but safflower only in Xorth Tadzhikistan. Tractors are used towitork most of the =irrigated. cropland, and the grain is harvested. with combines. Draft Aelmals are used only in high- altitude districts Where the crops are scattered in snail plots or on steep slopes, and the harvesting is done sennalln, -66- - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Horticulture and viticulture ba.ve always been profitable branches of agriculture in the republic. Tadzhik canned. and dried fruit dried. apricots, okuryages, currants, as well as various grades: of wine -- are famous throughout the Soviet Unioa and. abroad.. There are more than 20,000 ha of orchaird.s and. 8,000 ha of vineyards in the republic. Apricots are the major fruit used by the local canning inbastry;. and dried apricots are used for exports. The most unpretentious of all fruit eater's. the apricot tree, grows almost everywhere in Tadzhikistan except in Faast ramir. Bat most of he aaricct crAlAts, are concentrated in the Fergana and. Zeravshan valleys. The other fruit varieties grown in the renublic include peaches, apples, pears, plums, cherries, Tames. wine berries, and. native plums. Grapes have been grown in Central Asia since times immemorial. Horti- culturists have been selecting and. developing the best grades of grapes, particularly of the raisin variety, and achieving remarkable results. 33u.t the vineye.rds are not evenly distributed over the republic; about half of then are concentrated. in the Ura-Tubinskiy Administrative Heron. The Gissar Valley is becoming an important viticultural district. A large number of orchards and vineyards were planted. after the October Revolution Seven new fruit-and-grape state farms were established in the southern part of the country for the purpose of supplying the expanding canning and wine-making industries and the population with grape* and fruit. Fruit nurseries opened in many parte of the country are su.pplying the collective farm orchards with planting materials. The kolkhozes and sovkhozes have begun to grow lemons and oranges in special trenches. Rat the progress made in this branch of agriculture is still inadequate. The population's desani for fresh fruit and, grapes, and. the canning and, wiue-asking industries' requirements of raw materials have not yet been fully rest. Animal husbandry is a well developed. and profitable 'breach of avi- culture in Tadzhikistan. In 1956 there were 3.6 million head of cattle of all types in the republic. Four-fifths of that amber consisted of sheep and goats, and. the rest were cattle, horses, donkeys, and. camels. Three-fourths of all the animals are concentrated on collective farms. Bach kolkhos has its own cattle liel poultry fame; mew kolkhoses have all* pig-raising farms. Much attention has been focused on the problem of increasing the herds, particularly in the postwar years, and such increases have indeed. been very rapid (in 1952 the )colkhoz herds were 4.5 times as large as in 1939). One-fourth of all the cattle arrx IA the animal-raising state farms and, in the personal possession of tolkhozniks. . 67 . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA_Rnpszi_ninAn, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Borticultyre and viticulture have always been profitable branches of agriculture in the republic. Tadzhik canned and dried. fruit -- dried apricots, okuryage, currants, as well as various grades of wine -a are famousIhrughout the Soviet Union and abroad. There are more than 20,000 ha of orchards and 8,000 ha of vineyards in the republic. Apricots are the major fruit used. by the local cantle* indaetre, and dried apricots are used for exports. The uost unpretentious of all fruit cultures, the apricot tree, grows almost everywhere in Tadahikistaa except in Mast Pamir. Bmt most of the apricot orchards are coetentrated in the Fergana and Zeravshan valleys. The other fruit varieties grown in the republic include peaches, apples, pears, plums, cherries, quinces, wine berries, and native plums. Grapes have bem grown in Central Asia since times 'memorial. Horti- culturists have been selecting and developing the best grades of grapes, particularly of the raisin variety, and achieving remarkable results. But the vineyards are not evenly distributed over the republic; about half of then are concentrated in the Ura-Tabinskiy Administrative Rayon. The Gissar Valley is becoming an important viticultural district. A large number of orchards and vineyards were planted after the October Revolution Seven new freit-and-grape state farms were established In the southern part of the country for the purpose of supplying the expanding canning aad wine-making industries and the population with grapes and fruit. Yrult2-ars:ries opmed in many parts of the country are suppladaer the collective farm orchards with planting materials. The kolkhozes and sovkhozes have begun to grow lemons and oranges in special trenches. But the progress made in this braze& of agriculture is still inadequate. The population's demand for fresh fruit and wept*, and the canning and wine-making industries requirements of raw materials have not yet been fully met. Animal husbandry is a well developed and profitable 'branch of agri- culture in Tadshikistaa. In 1955 there were 3.6 million head of cattle of all types in the republic. rour-fifths of that namber consisted of heep and goats, and. the rest were cattle, horses, donkey*, and. camels. Three-fourths of all the animals are concentrated on collective fares. Bach kolkhes has its own cattle and poultry farms; gamy kolkhoses have also pig-raising farms. Much attention has been focused on the problem of increasing the herds, particularly ia the posteexytare, and such increases have indeed been very rapid (in 1952 the kolkhos herds were 4.5 times as large as in, 1939). One-fourth of all the cattleara in the animal-raising state farms and in the personal possession of belkhozniks. - 67 a Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA_pnrDpi Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The historical and natural conditions obtaining in the different parts of the republic tended to proem,* different breeds of domestic animals. Some of the districts raise highly valuable breeds of such animals. Vaa raveous aszar eargrp var. developed nevera1 centuries ago In the southern districts, vbsre rich winter pastures &TO abundant and exeellent suarner pastures axe available nearby. The Caesar sheep is the most nroductive breed, in the world as regard.s of meat aba. fat. The average live vete% of a Giesler ran is 100 kg, and of a ewe 80 kg. The tail of the average Oisse.r ram weighs 15-20 kg, while that of the larger breed. of Giesler rams ney reach 40 kg. This breed. is the nost common among the herds. Mother local breed of sheep. the Darvas, was developed. in the moun- tainous areas of central and eastern Tadxhiki.stan, which in the past were isolated from the winter pastures by natural sad political borders. These are among the smallest sheep in the world. The71ive weight of a Darra% sheep is about 30 kg, aad its yield, of comparatively coarse wool is only about 500-700 ga. Valuable astrakhan sheep ars raised in the seeidesert southwest districts of the repablic.. Astrakhan fur production is an important item in the republice s economy. Most of the goat herds, particularly in the mountainous districts, are of a local general breed. Nit the mutter et Angora goat cross-breeds has been increasing Sine* 1936. The republic is justifiably proud of its Lokay horses, This breed was developed. from the Mongolian hors. bat its present qualities have been acquired under the difficult conditions *1 aiantainoue to-yograpkv. It is mainly a pack and saddle hornet. trader saddle, it is kaown for its fast trot, the Hdahurga." It can travel vith a 6-7 rood pack up to 80-100 ku a dray on steep siountaia paths. The laralleir bree& of horses is raised in North Tadshikietan. The Narabayr breed. was developed, on the plains; it is heavier than the isokay breed. and is used. mostly as a. draft horse. Yaks are raised in the open spaces of last Pamir at altitudes of about 4,000 At above sea level; the yak is the only transportation animal capable of working at inch altitudes, and it produces milk with a very high fat content. The upkeep of the animals, particularly sheep and. goats, consists in the utilisation of available pestures and, the use of cameo fodder in the winter. There are about 3 million hectares of natural pastures in Tai )10r1 S- tan, but the area under hey and planted grass is less than 150,000 ha. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R00230o77nnn9_R no, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Fran the seasonal point of view, the paiturslands In the republic are divided into 3 kinds: summer, winter and spriweruhmmilpsstares. The summer :pastures, abounding in fodder, are located in the high-moun- tain districts and. are accessible 3-4 months out of the yes?. The winter paztures are fewer in nakber and the fodder there is rather meager; most of them are concentrated in the valley-and,foothill zone and are used 5-6 months during the year. There are few sprieg-euttaan pastures, and they are used as intermediate grazing laud. The seasons for driving the eattle to different pestures vary with the different parts of the country. In South Tadzhikistan the cattle spend the winter in the pastures of the lower valley's and feothills? and the summer on the cloves of the Glaser Petr Pervyr, and other zit:mantel:: ranges. Following is the schedule of large-seale cattle shifts to different vastures during the year. By the end of November, laaadreds of thousands of head of cattle, mostly sheep, are concentrated, on the winter pastures of South Tadzhikis- tan. This is not only local cattle; 'keep are also driven here frost Central Tadzhikistan (formerly Oars Oblast) hundreds of kilometers away, from the Crieser Talley, and even from the Zeravehen Talley. The grass here is rather meager, but the absence of snow makes it iasily- In the coldest months the eaime3.4 are also provided with hay which has been prepared in the spring. The new grass begins to grow in Februetry. And that is also the laabitig and sheep-shearing season. The herds are then gradually driven northward, and. by May the winter pastures are completely abandoned. The mountain pastures are reached by the sheep in June. They are fattened on the subalpine and alpine grasses and their tails increase in size; the lambs bora In the spring multiply their weight 8 to 10 times in the summer. At the end of September, when the cold sea- son begins, the flocks of sheep are driven back to the winter pastures. The kolkhozes of Sarth Tadzhikistan, vhere seasonal pastures are fewt. drive most of their flocks to the neighboring republics of Kirgizia, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan,. Large pastarelands were set aside for the kolkhozes in the Iyzylkum desert where near of the North Tadzhik cattle herds spend the whole year. The kolkhozes of western Pamir, where pastures are very ecarce? drive part of their cattle to Fast Pamir for the summer period, but keep them on their ot lattAin wintertime as there is little snow there in the winter. Nuch of the West and Nast Pamir cattle is kept all year round. in the Alay valley (Iirgi.zia). - 69 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Animal husbandry gets a great deal of attention in the repehlic. Muth work is being done to increase the herds and raise their productiv- ity. There are 11 animal-breeding state farms in the republic; swots them are sheep-breeding farms specializing in Gissar and Astrakhan breeds, cattle raising fortis wriaro tho local lov-aprodactive cattle it "Ming im- proved, and state farms where yaks ant horses are raised.. State farms were opened in 'various districts for the development of pedigree cattle, and pedigree animal departments were opened also in the collective fangs. Fine;?and medium-wool breeds of sheep have been developed in recent years by crossbreeding the mountain merino with the Marvaz sheep. The crossbred sheep weighs twice as much as the Dervaz sheep and its mgh- grads wool is 5-6 times as valuable. Kamy of the mountaiskolkhoses are now beginning to breed their own profitable fine-and medium-wool sheep. Farther efforts to improve the breed of Glaser sheep have been made H since 1947; the large epeoimens of OW69 already developed weigh up to 120-130 kg, and rams up to 150-160 kg. Raised on a, large scale in southwestern Tadzhikistan is the Astrakhan sheep, of which there had been very few before the revelation; thorax.* now raised on 4 large state fares. Several male Ahdiora goats were brought to northern TadwkIktetan in 1936, and An:gora crossbreeds can now be found in every district. The high..grade wool yield of the hybrid sheep is several times that of the local breed of goats. One of the most complicated problems is to raise the productivity of large horned cattle. The enrage live weight of a local cow is 200 kg, but her annual production of milk, which has a:high fat content, is only 300-500 1. This low productivity is due to iagafficient fodder and to the fact that many mows are kept on the pastureland and get very little hey in wintertime. Placing, the cows in stalls, MI- or part-time lead to a sharp increase in their milk:production. In ease of theTovk hoses (Germ, Stalinabad, and Kuybyshev) amd progressive kolkheses where the cows are kept in stalls, full- or part-time, their annual 'milk pro- duction has gone up to 1,500-2,000]. per *ow. An improvesemt in the breed of long horned cattle aloe Unds to raise its productivity: the cow* wired by the *Weitz* buil are li-2 time. heavier and their milk output 5 to 6 times greater. 33ut it is inpossille to improve cattle productivity without improving the fodder base and mechanizing the cattle breeding industry as a whole. lb* government hat been appropiriating: large Sands, alIocating an& - 70 - ..??????, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-0104'1Rnn9qnn9onnno a Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 machinery, and. mobilizing scientific and technical forces with a view to solving that problem. The mechanization of the stock-breeding industry is facilitated by the MTS, which are equipped with the necessary machinery for hay mowing and baling, fodder stinging, well digging, electric sheep- shearing anti cow milking, etc. Electric shearing facilities are now used for ilvet of the sheep in the republic. Much bork is now being done to improve the natural pastures and hay- fields; many kalkhores and sotchotes are irrigating their winter pastures which were little used. previously this to thc lack of 'mter; some of the winter pastureland is planted to grass and. grain cultures; experiments on pastureland rotation (alternating between the use and improvement of such lands) are being conducted. in southern Tadzhikistan. /al these portant measures are designed to solve the fodder problem (since it is precisely the winter pastures that limit the qualitative and quantita- tive improvement of the herds), and. they mast therefore be considerably improved. Particular attention should. be focused on the dairy cattle, for which the winter pasture and the usual emoted et Med. fodder in the win- ter months are insufficient. This cattle requires a large variety of succulent fodder: concentrates, silo, hay, planted. grasses, and edible roots. There are Imlay possibilities in the republic for prodnkling such fodder matures, pertioularly corn which yields 400-500 sentsers of cobs or 35-40 centners of grain per hectare of irrigated land. Silkworm breeding is another important brand' ofairriv--cature. recent years Tadshikistan has been producing up to 2,000 t of cocoons anomaly, which is more than ait times as much as in the prerevolutionary period.. An the cocoons are used. by the local silk industry. Silkworm breeding is more advanced in the lower vallerys, particularly in the western part of the Fergana Talley, an old silkworm district* which produces more than half of all the cocoons. That district, however, has been yielding in importance to southern Tadzhikistan, where silkworm breeding3 especially ir.? the m.,---mtain areas, is becoming one of the most profitable branches of agriculture. Silkworm breeding calls for such it and skill. It involves the following basic processes: the revival of the grain* (silkworm eggs), feeding the caterpillars umtil they reach the stage at which they begiu to weave their cocoons, starving the immured caterpillars to death and., finally, drying the cocoons. The other processes ? ,anwis.ding the cocoons, spinning the thread and weaving ? are performed by the indu.stry. 71 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA RDP8-1 ninanpnn9-4nnoorm,-,-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 t I 1- For a number of centuries the methods used for +silkworm bre-Oleg were very primitive; the grains purchased. by the agriculturists vere handled under domestic conditions; the caterpillars were- fed in the house and the cocoons dried. in the sun. All. that was changed under the Soviet system. Plants desieeed to raise cocoon grains were built in Xhodshent in 1919 and in Stelinabed in 1932; state incubator house's for reviving the grain* and. a large =ober of cocoon-drying installatioas were opened in many places. Considerable success was achieved by the grads-testing stations which developed a more productive hybrid grains. Progress in the development of silkworm breeding depends largely on the food base. In the prerevolutionary period., the only mulberry tripe cultivated in Tadzhikistan was the tal-stes: type. The laaborry trees growing on the fields and linin.a the hisleinsys were a familiar feature of the landscape. The bush-like prim stowsia5 mulberry tree, introduced ?oader the Soviet Government, produces leaves on the second or third year after it is planted. Nulberry-tree nurseries were organized for supplying the kolkhozes with seedlings. These measures have made it possible to get a larger number of cocoons out of the grains pod. (The grain pod weighs only a few dozen. grans while the cocoons obtained. from it igsizh iv tab mylifkrIll &melt kilt:semis. The average ou.tunt of caftans per vains pod in Tadzhikistan has been fluctuatieg, bat the overall trend. has bean toward an increase: 23.4 kg-in 1913, 16.9 kg in 3.932, 28.3 kg in 1938, 31.1 kg in 1940, 38.7 kg in 1942, 43.8 kg in, 1953, seri 39.1 kg in 3.955. lly using scientific sothodi? the most ekillfUl khekhes sericulterists get as much as 100-120 kg of cocoons per grains pad.) t despite all the achievements of agriculture, the favorable natural conditions of the republic, the technical equipment of egricultere, the achieresteats of science, end the outstanding productive skill of the popu- lation are still poorly utilized.. Some branches of Tadshik egricultere are developisg slowly. Lagging 'behind are Vali production, vegetable avaa potato growing, fruit growing and viticulture, and particularly some branches of animal basbeadry. The main problen now is to step un the overall preiaction of grain for knew consumption and. fodder -purposes. This may be achieved by laipeading the areas pleated to these cultures and ineree.sing their yield. Corn mat become oas of the major fodder items as it is possible to raise, 2 corn crops a year on irrigated land. There is usually a big aortas& of potatoes, which the Tadzhik cities have to import from: the central districts of the USSR. The experisaces of many rears have silo= that there are favorable conditions for potato 72 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release p 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81 ninziwnn9nn-,orinry, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 graving even in the siountainous districts of the republic. Thus in the Surkhob River Valley near Stalinabad, for exam-pla? potato raising could be developed into an important branch of agriculture. The old. orchards and -'rineryards co/won:trate/1 en. the -etch especially in the northern districts of the country, require a great deal of improvement; commercial orchards and vineyards should be planted around Stalina.bad, Kurgan-To.be? and other cities of the southern districts as soon as postale. The republic's animal husbandry is faced with the important task of doubling and tripling the output of meat, milk, and other animal products during the Sixth Yive-rsar Plan. This problem could be realized if the fodder resources were considerably increased. Since the natural pastures are the major source of fodder, they should get the most attention. The grazing lands should be watered. The winter pastures should be planted to erase and, vain cultures to provide better fodder and. hay. One of the major targets in the development of the cattle-raising industry is higher cattle productivity, especially higher milk production. The time has come to adopt the tried and tested system of feeding the dairy cattle in stalls in wintertime and in part-time stalls in the sum- and.??0 impastrre their breast at the same time. Tim methods or raising fine-wool sheep and fur-bearing goats should be improved by cross-breeding the Darras sheep with the rams of the local mountain breed and the local goats with male Angora goats. Silkworm breeding is also legging far behind the demands of the expanding silk industry in the republic. It has beams. urgent to improve the system of caterpillar-feeding, to introduce acoelerated methods of such feeding, to plant more stelberr, trees, and take other measures. The collective and, state farms of Tadzhikistan have all the possibili- ties for d_eveloping, a diversified economy to include highly profitable branches of agriculture in addition.- to cotton raising. laidaidxs, Central Asia has been famous for its comparatively high level of economic and cultural development since the most ancient times, particularly by the end. of the first thousand years Al) (in the era of the Samanid state). A considerable portion of the popala41on WWI at that time settled on the Land, and comparatively large cities, handicraft and trade centers* existed everywhere. Many of those cities are still in *Astaire*: Leninabad - 7$ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 (formerly IhodshenA), Ura-Tubb, Samarkand, lhiva, etc. There was a well- developed and highly diversified handleraft industry: the artisans prodnced a variety of household and. luxury goods; mining was also an important pert of the handicraft industry. That the peaceful economic developmeat of that region ins inter- ruptod, by the frev.ant invasions of Central Asia by various coactuerors. This resulted in the destruction of the irrigatioa systems and cities and the plunderiag and lootieg of the pope3.ation. The internecine struggles led to similar results. The annexation of Central Asia to Russia in the second half of the nineteenth ceatury changed the economic life of the region, particularly in Tadzhikistan's Lenisabad Oblast, which was then under the Governor- General of %Acosta*. The soononic development was YAW deterained by the colonial policy" of tearime; major attention was focused on the branches of the *meow latch were of interest to the merchants, , in- dastrialists, and bankers. Pro/mess vas made is cotton growing., horti- culture, silk-worm breediss, and industry ceenected mostly with the proc- essing of agricultural raw materials. A nalber of small cotton-process- ing plaids, a silk-weaving all, a glass making pleat. and. several urini- tire oil mills were isailt at the mad of the past and the beginning of the prssent century' in the city of Ihodshent and. its outskirts. Coal veining and oil. extraction were startet on a small scale on the Shnrab coal fields and the Soll-Bakho oil, fields. The inclusion of Central Asia's economy, as well. as the economy of the northern part of what is now Tadshikisteut, into the sphere of iii- fluenon of the mare advanced *cows" of Russia created, close economic relations between Central Asia and the mother conatary. This was greatly facilitated. by the construction of a railroad line comneeting Cantrell Asia with Central Russia. The region was gradually dram into trade relations with the outside staket. There was an increase in tb.? exports of raw cotton to the cotton industry teat-era of /lassie. lxportea also were large quantities of dry fruit, cocoon, and silk products. Ship- ments going in the opposite direction consisted ef increasing quantities of Russian manufactures: cotton goods, rubber footwear, metal products, and other mass-consumption goods. 33ut neither expending industrial uroduction, nor increased imports of industrial meaufactures were sufficient to meet the domed* of the region for industrial goods. The local handicraft industry was therefore the major source capable of meeting that demand. That latter oonsisted of a number of branches such as oil millisg, confectionery' asking, flour milling, and soap making as well as cotton, wool, and silk production. -74-. O..... ....sr.,' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Among the other well-developed branches of the cottage Industry were iron productions cast iron melting? blaaksmithing and guasmithlog, carpentry, pottery, and brio k making. There was a large nnOber of leathers foot- wear, clothes-asking and other shops everywhere. The paimaipal centers of the handicraft industry inprerevolationary Tadihikistaawere in the cities coannnitiee of Ibodzhent, Cra-TdOe, Kanibadam, Peolhikent, Kulyabs Gissar, Dashaebe, Keratags laxgaz,labes Germ, itrad some meastiaities of Panir. Xhodthent, Ura-be, and Oistar bad amore advanced handicraft industry than the othor centers, Its aatpat was desieeed both for the home market and for export. There were over 300 he:mac:oaf% Industry enterprises in Xhodibent in 1911 with a total annual output of almost 400,000 rubles. Larger industrial enterprises in Tadzhikistan were considerably fewer in, number. In 1913 there were only 6 suah enterprises in the northers districts of Tadzhikistan, which were then part, of Russia; 4 cotton processing plants and 2 fuel-naking enterprises with, a total pro- daetioe of 855,000 rabies and. eeploying a little over 200 workers. In *aster* lokbara (now Swath TadZhikistan) there were no large indastriel enterprises at all. lavorable conditions for the oriosnization of heavy industry and the transition from handicraft production to modern mechanized enterprises Tailehtiriatfin were created. after the victory of the Soviet eystma. The restoration of agriculture, ruined during tbe Civil Wars was accem,. panied by the constraction of a new industry. An electric power plant, a flour mill, a ootton-Trocessing plants an oil mill, &Ada seal-making plant bad been built in Dushaebe by the end of 1926. Fiftema cooperatively large industrial enterprises with a total production emanating to 6.3 million rubles were already in operation in 1926. The total 'umber of workers employed was 420. The growth of the heavy industry was accompanied by a restoration ana reorganization of the cottage industry on a cooperative basis. At the end of 1928 there were am:mai cooperative industrial arteIs prodaciag building materials, agricultural implements, and various consumer goods. The indastry built ia those years was not very large, but bearing in mind the fact that it had been built from scratch on readiest land, where building materiels had to be brought An by peek animals and lumber had to be dragged in, its achievements become more conspicuous. The Tadshik West'sy was expanding at a rapid tempo during the prewar five-Tsar plans, That was determined, by the policy ofthe Communist Party, desigeed to inftstrialize the 'backward avarice districts of which Tadzhikistan was one. 16 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50 Yr 2013/09/ ? nnn,Jnnn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Bight3r three- nillion rubles, most of it taken from the all-union budget, were invested. in industry during the First Five-Tear Plan when the republic' a domestic income was still insignificant. More than 10 different branches of indn.stry, supplied by the abundant reserve of local raw materials, grew up -within a. few years. The leading industries were cotton-processing, fruit canning, flour milling, as well as metal processing (mostly for repair purposes in connection with the e2panding mechanization of agriculture, irrigation, and road. construction). In 1933 these $ industries aecoaatod for almost 70% of the value of the entire industrial output. As a result of the implementation of the First Five-Tear Plan, industry began to play an important part in the national economy of the republic. Built daring those years were each large enter- prises as the Lenimebad Silk Combine and the leached/1m and. Leninabad fruit-canning combine*. A total of about 100 large enterprises went into operation in the repe.blic. The 1933 output of the entire industry amounted to 66 million rubles (reckoned in 1926-1927 prices). Alnost 200 million rubles were invested in industry during the Second Five Tear Plan. The industries built during the period were ex- panded and new ones added. New mines and enriching plants, including the rantory Polymetal Plant, were built near the rich Karmasar mineral deposits. A power industry came into being. The Vezorb Hydroelectric Plant, the first in the republic, went into operation. The newly commissioned. enter- prises were larger and better. mechanised. Many factories and. plants were under construction in sauth Tce_whtktottan. particularly in Stall:ma:bad. The iwlastrial output went up to 228 million rubles (measured in 1926-1927 prices) in 1938, and the number of large industry enterprises to 220. Close to 330 million rubles were invests& in industry daring the Third Five-Tear Plan. The outbreak of the Great Patriotic War prevented the implementation of the planned program, but despite that, the total volume of Tadshikistan's industrial output in less than 4 years of the Third Fire-Tear Plan was increased by more than. 1 times. Several dozen large new mechanized enterprises went into operation; among them were the Stalinabad Meat-Packing Plant, the Stalinebad Cement Factory and the nechanised mines of the Shurab coal basin with an annual production capac- ity of 500,000 t of coal. A total of 600 million =blots was invested in industry during the prewar five-year plans, the investments in industry grew at a more rapid pace than those in agriculture, even though agricultural development was also very rapid. The enterprises underwent constant improvement: the capacity of the power installations, machines, apparatus, and mechanical transportation was steadily growing. The use of electric power (per worker) during that period was increased almost 5 fold. 611???????? - 76 - 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 This resulted in the creation of a meltibreuch industry in Tadzhikis- tan during the five-year plans, producing hundreds of different types of maw-factures (as against 10-15 in 1928) both for consumption and. produc- tion purposes. During that period. the number of industrial enterprises was increased. 18 times and. the number of industrial workers over 50 times. During the Great Patriotic War, most of the enterprises were con- verted to war production, but industrial construction in Tadzhikistan was not interrupted. In addition to many others, the following new enter- prises were built in Stalinabal: the first combine of cotton plants and. the first large metal processing plant, the "Traktorodetal% the con- struction of the most powerful electric power plant in the republic, the Ilislu3.evarsob State Power Plant vas begun. A =mbar of large industrial enterprises went into operation in the northern and southern districts of the republic. Immediately after the enl of the destructive war, Tadshiki St= launched a large-scale program of restoration and further development of the national economy. The republic' a industry we.s developing at a fast rate in the First Postwar Five-Tear Plan, as may be seen from the dynamics of its overall industrial output in that period (increase of the preceding year): 946 1251 1948.. 1942i 95C) 28 20 13 10 In 1947 the industrial level was already somewhat higher than, before the war, and in. 1950 the prover level was exceeded. by 50%. The Kenibadam Foundry and Maahiae* Plant. the Take!, Combine of fluorspar plants, the Vaklisb. Combine of building material plants, and. the Sisluseversob State Power Plant went into operation. The industry of the repablic miccessfully completed. its Fifth Five- Tear Plan. The following new indnetrial enterprises were built during that period: the conoostration pleat of the 'assay Polymetal Gonbine, the cotton processing plants in Shaartus and. Ordshonikidzebed, the meat packing plant in Taloesha.r the brewery in Svetabad, the siechanized bread- baking plant in Leninsbad, and. 7 brick factories and. a canning plant in the Oheptura settlement. etc. Much was done in the rifth Y-ive Tear Plan to increase Tadzhikistan' power industry. The rara-run, or 'friendship of People" Tlydreelectric Plant on the Amu-Delya river, the largest in Central Asia, will begin 77 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 producing power for North Tadzhikistan as well as neighboring Usbeicistsn at the end of 1956. The Perepadmwra State Electric Power Plant on the Vakhsh Canal to be commissioned in 1957. will produce almost as mach power as is now being; produced by all the hydroelectric plants IR the republic. In 1955. Tadshikistan's industrial outpmt volume exceeded the prewar level (1940) 2.8 timee. Daring the period ender the Soviet Comment, the Tadzhik industrial output has been increased several dosen times. A large contingent of quelified industrial and engineering- technical workers, uubering tens of thousands of people, has been organ- ized. There are great prospects for the further development of the republic's industry in the Sixth rive-Tear Plan, to be leplemeuted according to the decisions adopted by the Twentieth Congress of the arsu. The total volume of industrial production will be increased 1.4 times as compared with the 1955 level. Dozens of large highly-mechanized. enterprises will go into operation, among then the second part of the Stalinabad Textile Hill Combine. the Stalinebed Oil and. at Combine, the Kanibadem 011 Eztraa- tion. Plant, and a new cement plant. The structure of the industry was determined, by the ineXhaustible mineral riches, the necessity of processing the agricultural and other raw materials in the republic, and the demand for 'various sminanufactures in the republic and other areas of the country (as, for example, corp. centrates for the mining (ndustry). There are about 30 different industries in Tadzhikistan, most of thee created during the prewar and postwar five-year plans. The luau*. trial structure is undergoing constant change in view of the addition of new enterprises au& the changing development tempos of the OXIStine ones. One of the characteristic features of Tadzhikistan'* industrial expansion is the increasing relative importance of heavy industry. The share of the heavy industrial enterprises in the total seaway is still not very large, but the. er..t4rprisas are expanding at a rapidrats and playing an increasingly important part in the satire *commie complex. Structurally, the industry nay be classified as follows (in 10- of the total industrial outpat prices of 1952); Heavy industry (metal processing, Risings fuel production, am& building material production) 13 Light industry (cotton*processing. silk, Clothing, leather.. footwear) 63 load industry (canning, wine production, flour milling, sad breed-Imuldng) 24 78 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA_pnrDpi Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Prominent in heavy industry production are metal-processing, aiming (nonferrous metallurgy), and fuel end. building materials prodaetion. Before the revolution, metal was processed by handicraft method* only. nousehold articles, agricultural implements, and tools used. in carpentry, woodworking, shoe-making, etc wars prodaced by numerous bleak. smiths, coppersmiths, locknmiths and timemiths. After the establishment of the Soviet Government, these artisans became the first workers of the repair shops opened in the cities and settlements of Tadzhikistan. As industry, agriculture, ana transportation continue to expand, these shops became highly specialized., some of them being transformed into large mechanical repair plants which also produced parts for machines. Special plants were built also for the production of equipment for the oil and textile industries. The largest of them are in Stalinabad and. Kanibadam. All of them are engaged in the processing of imported metal. Before the revolution, fuel production, last like cotton processing was classified as heavy industry even though it differed little from the handicraft industry in size or in technical equipment. It consisted of the following 2 enterprises: the Shurab Coal Mine and the oil field at the Sell-Rokho settlement. Them 2 enterprises emnloyed a total of 107 workers. A large mechanize& coal combine, Shurabaugols, was built near the 5hurab coal fields under the Soviet Government, and the Isfarin Coal Hine of the local industry was ',vended into a huge enterprise. About 600,000 t of lignite were mined in that basin in 1955. The location of the Shurab Coal Basin makes it easy to export a considerable part of its coal to various districts of the neighboring republics, While there is a shortage of this coal in southern Tadzhikistan. Only a small part of the republic's coal deposits, mostly lignite, have been exploited so far. The large deposits of Axel and coking coal at Eavat (the largest coal basin in Central Asia), Ishtuta, and Mae are still not exploited in view of their inaccessibility. The KIM Mechanized Oil Rxtraction Plant and an oil-refining pleat were built in Sel'Bokho, and a new oil field. Nefteabad, went into ex- ploitation nearby. Under the Soviet Government, oil produetion in Tadzhikistan was increased, 1.7 times. Seveateen thousand tons of oil were produced in the republic in 1955. There are great possibilities for the further development of the Tadzhik oil industry in *View of the discovery of new oil deposits in the southern distriatu of the republic. 79 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release SO -Yr 201 . C r-1 'Don Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The enterprises for the production of building materials were first organized. within the industrial cooperative ureters. 3lat large state plants were built during the l'irst Five-Year Plan, and. that in- dustry now has a number of cement, trick, lime, alabaster, and tile plants as well as stone, gravel, and sand quarries. Construction materials aro produce. In every district of the republic, but the largest enterprises are concentrated in the Gilmer, Vergs,n,a, and Vakh.sb. valleys. Some of the largest brick making 'plants produce sev- eral dozen million bricks annaally each. The variety of raw materials available for that industry and. the growing demand for banding materials which are still in short sapply are indicative of a promising future for that industry. There is an abundance of raw materials for the pro- duction of brick, lime, alabaster and. construction masonry practically everywhere. The available raw materials sake it possible considerably to increase the capacity of the Stalinabad Cement Plant with its slate department and. to baild new cement plants in other places. Cement pro- duction will be increased 13 times over during the Sixth rive-Tear Plan. The Staixtabad comsat plant alone will triple its productive capacity in 1957. Most of the industrial enterprises come under the light and. food industries, which account for more than 4/5 of all industrial production. Those 2 leading industries comprise approximately 20 different branches of production. The light industry enterprises are the most advanced, and. they produce more than 60% of the entire industrial output. They include raw cotton processing, cotton and silk mills, knit good.s factories, clothing and leather footwear factories, etc. The cotton-prooessing industry is one of the oldest in. Tadshilistaa. Cotton was grown there before the revolution and. processed in tiny cotton mills which operated 4-5 months a year. Their total 1913 profbaction was 630 t of cotton fiber. Meier the Soviet Government, the cotton-processing industry has been developing along with cotton growing. Cotton production is now the largest industry, malt accounts for one-tbird of the entire industrial output interns of value, though its relative outpat is falling behind that of other Industries. There are 15 cotton-processing plants evenly distributed over the cotton-growing valleys of the republic. These modern plants are eqmipped with powerful hydraulic presses, power in- stallations and highly efficient all-metal brushing devices. The basic production processes are mechanized and electrified. In 1955 the combine output of all of the republic's cottos?processing plants was more than 140,000 t of cotton fiber which was more than 200 times as much as the ??-?-?*> -80- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 prerevolutionary output. This industry is in for a further rapid. darrelopment in view of the planned expansion of the cotton-growing area within the next 5-6 years. New cotton-processing plants will therefore be built in. the Fergana, Gissar, and. Vakhek valley*, and the 02iatillg ilants expanded. In the prerevolutionary period, the cotton and. silk industries con- sisted. of only artisans* shops selling all sorts of cloth ? mostly of the national variety ? to local customers. In the very first years after the revolution, the artisan weavers were organized into industrial artels and later, during the First Five-Tear Plan, large silk mill* were built and the above-mentioned experienced. artisans cane to work in them. The Laminated Silk Combine was the largest such enterprise in the country; other silk mills were built in Sta'Inaba and. Leninabad.. The silk industry now prodaces annually about 20 million meters of eilk and semisilk materials, not only for the population of the republic, but also for export. Just like the silk industry, the cotton industry did not begin to expand until the five-year plans. The largest enterprise of this in- dustry is the Sta3.inabad, Cotton Contbizte which is now in the second stage of its expansion. That combine now produces More than 38 million meters of cloth per year. When the second stage of its expansion is completed, its capacity 411 be doubled. Tadzhikistan's output of cotton cloth in 1955 was 40.9 million tasters. The textile industry is a consummate industry, more than. any other in Tadzhikistan: cocoons are nnweautd, silk thread is spun, and printed cloth produced in the silk industry while cotton is processed, spun., and woven in the cotton industry. There is a difference in the raw material supplies for these 2 industries. The silk industry has already outgrown its raw saterial base, and mach additional effort is therefore required for the further development of silk production in the republic so that it can emelt tbm demands of industry. The cotton industry, on the other band, uses only a small portion of the fiber produced in Tadzhikistaz as this country specialized in cotton production. Mang the other light-indiudry enterprises built in the republic are large and highly st,thanised. clothing, knit-goods, and leather-and-foot- wear-factories and plants. It is planned to build. teveral more enter- prises for the processing of raw cotton, the production of clothing, leather and footwear, and a. large plant for producing cotton wool. Some of the clothing and leather manufacture's is *Appel/ to other parts of the Soviet Union. - 83. - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA RDPRi_nlnit prvv, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The second largest industry by production volume is the food industry. It consists of canning- and. dry-fruit-producing enterprises, wine-making enterprises, oil mills, flour mills, bread bakeries, meat packing houses, breweries, tobacco enterprises. etc. This industry now accounts for almost 1/4 of the entire industrial output. It as a diversified and rapidly growing raw material base: fruit and grapes, grain cultures and cotton seed.s, vegetables, and. anima products. The CProiing industry comprises 8 plants, including such large enter- prises as the Leninabad. and Xanibadan Trutt Canning Combine and Sta Meat Canning Combine. This industry produces aarnally about 40 million standard-size cans of desserts, preserves, jam, meat, moat and beans, and vegetables. Moot of these goods are shipped. to various parts of the Soviet Union, including the Par East and the Extreme North. The wine-making industry is, in a literal sense, a new industry, as old metals* and religious prejudices prevented, the local population from producing wise for sale before the October Revolution. The wine industry now coatprises 5 plants prancing various kinds of grape wine. There are great possibilities for the further expansion of this industry, particularly in the south -- in the Glister and. Vakhsh valleys -- where a new raw material base is belug organized for it. The oil manufacturing industry parallels the cotton processing in- dustry, at its basic raw material consists of cotton seed, a by-product of the initial. cotton processing. Before the revolution, that industry consisted of the prinitive t4dshuvass - type oil mills producing 2-3 kg of oil a day. There are 7 oil pressing plants in operation now; they are located. next to the cotton-processing plants so that the cotton seeds can be utilized on the spot. But the capacity of the existing plants is Insufficient for processing all the seeds produced by the cotton plants, so that a considerable part of those seeds have to be shipped to other plants, and. even to the neighboring republics, which is economically unprofitable. That situation, is now being remedied. A hug* oil ex- tracting plant, one of the largest in Central Asia, will soon go into operation near the city of Kw:Abadan. (A chemical extraction method is used whereby the oil is drawn out of the seed. with the aid. of benzene status; -, As a result less than 0.4% of oil is left in the cottonseed. cake, while the oil-pressing method causes a loss of 3.0.) Out of the planning stage and. under construction now is a large oil- and-fat- producing combine in Sta.linahad? which will process &twat as such cotton seed. as is now being processed, by all the existing plants in the republic. Oil plants will be built also in the remote a,r?as of South Tadzhikistan from where it is particularly difficult and expensive to nova the cotton seeds. - 82 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 A number of enterprises designed to meet various inportant demands of the population, such as broad and pastry, meat and dairy and other enterprises, account for a largo ontput of the flood industry output. Small enterprises of that type, working on. local raw materials, are amenable in. almost all the rayon cuter., and the large emterprises are in. the cities. Among them aro such large enterprises as the flour- 11 combine in Ordlheisikiclieabade, the medhealsed breed-baking plants in Stalinabad and Sovetabad, etc. Under construction is a meatqmakteg combine in Sovetabad as well as dairy, meat, and confectionery enter- in various districts of the country. In addition to the *boys-mentioned all-union and union-republic enterprises, the local cooperative industry is of some importance to the republic's economf. The local state industry is a asall-scale duplication of the largo all-Ainiaa and union-republic industry. It comprises a variety of metal* processing* woodworking, fuel* textile* clothing* and building-material enterprises and other branches of the light and food industries. Among the largest local industrial enterprises are the deal mime at Isfara and the Hetalloshirpo.trob (consumer metal) plant, the woodworking plant, and the knitgoods factory in. Stalinabed. The construction of a large furniture factory is nearing completion in the same city. The cooperative industry played an important part in the creation of a large industry. And now the state industry, in tun, Is helping the cooperative Industry with raw materials, fuel, sad ovipment. The cooperative industry now embraces 20 differmat branches producing the following consumer goods: textiles, clothing, footwear, furniture, building materials, metal products, foodstuffs, etc. Bat the local cooperative industry is still not making adequate use of the abundant and diverse local resources and the by-products of the state industry; it is still far from seeting the growing demand of the population for building materials, foodstuffs, clothing, objetb:Wart, and other goods. The proper territorial distribution of the industry is very important for the development of the productive forces of the republic. Before the revolution, the entire large industry was coacentrated in the ?organs, Valley. The construction of sway mew industries under the Soviet Govern- ment has changed the industrial distribution pattern. The industry was extended to the strictly agrarian districts of the South. Despite its rapid development. the Tadshik: part of the ?organs. Valley produced. only 1/3 of the republic's industrial omtput in 1940. During the same year, the Glaser Valley industry produced 44 and the Baldtah Valley 16% of the industrial output. ,???????? ? 53 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ..????????,, Besides the distribution of industry, the nature of the industrial production in the districts is an important indicator of their is- dustrialization.. The Tadzhik industry is closely tied to its local raw material bases. The type of macb raw materials is therefor. still a determining factor in the industrial development of a particular district. Thr example, almost all the enterprises of the mining industry are concentrated. in northern Tadzhikistan, where all the known major ore deposits are located. There, too are the lead-zinc combine, rare-metal mines, the largest coal mines, end the only oil-extraeting industry in the republic. The age-old, horticulture and. Niriticulture facilitated the creation of rapidly expanding canning and. wine-making industries. The Laninabad. and Kanibadan canning combines and the Ura-Tube and. Savotabad breweries are among the largest enterprises of their respective industries. The Mae district has elvers been an important center of silkworm breeding, and that facilitated the creation of a large silk in- dustry. The Leninabad Silk Combine is the largest in trial enterprise in Tadzhikistan. Most of the nonferrous and rare metals are mined in that district, and. all the crude oil is extracted there. Also con- centrated. in this area is 90% of the production of silk cloth and. 60%- 70% of the output of the fruit-canning and. Ane-making industries. The Gissar Valley, particularly the city of Stalinahad, has now become the outstanding industrial area. It alone produces over 1/4 of the entire industrial output of the republic. Tha.t city is characterized by a large variety of industries. Indicative of this is the abundance and variety of raw materials brought into it from practically every dis- trict of south Tadzhikistan. It is the center of such large republican enterprises as the cotton and. meat-packing combines, a brevery, a leather factory, cement factory, metal-processing plants, and. some of the largest hydroelectric power plants. The Stalimbed industry accounts for more than 60% of all the cotton. cloth produced in the republic. 80%-90% of the leather goods, 100% of the cement. etc. Industrial expansion is going on also in the Bakheh and. other valleys of South Tadzhikistan. The industry there is designed primarily for processing local agricultural raw materials -- raw cotton, cotton seed, grain, and volatile oil cultures. The foundation was laid also for a Vakhsh Valley industry of building nateriala and metal processing. But the republic is still a long way from utilizing all the possi- bilities for the systematic development of a balanced. and. diversified industry. Still lagging behind are power production, the building materials industry, oil manufacturing, as well as the fuel, chemical and. certain other industries. ,11==011,1, 84 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R00230o77nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The huge reserves of water power available throughout the land present great possibilities for the construction of hydroelectric power plants. The construction of the Kairak-lrum State Power Plant on the Syr-Darya River is now nearing completion; the Perepadneye. State Power Plant is under construction on the Vakhsh Canal, and, the construction of the Colorzayz.: State Power Plant was started on the Yekkab. River. But hyd.roelectric plants !hoed be built in other parts of the repo-olio as well. A large variety of raw materials for the production of building materials is available everywhere: fire cle.y1 high quality quartz sand, pebble, gypsum" lime, and marble. The Stalinabed cement Plant is the only one in Tadzhikistan, and its output is far too low to be able to meet time growing dermand of the republic's national economy. An auto. Natically controlled, plant for the production of ferroconcrete components is WV nadir construction in Stalinalad. But stick plants are still lack- ing in the lieninabad Oblast. There is a constant shortage of bricks and tiles, even though the construction of 'tett brick and. tile plants presents no serious problem in view of the abundance of raw materials in. various districts. The reaullic imports window glass and. marble products as it has no such industries at home. Bari coal deposits were found in a number of places in Tadzhikistan but coal is still imported from faraway places. The production of 'mineral fertiliser is not well developed in Tadzhikistan despite the great demand for it. The deposits of Raratag phosphorites in the Glaser Valley, and. other .types of raw materials could be used for the production of mineral fertilizer so urgently needed in. aviculture. Special enterprises for the production of mixed fodder are urgently needed. for the development of the dairy-cattle industry. There are no such enterprises at present in Tadzhikistae. The tarther expansion of industry in. Tadzhikistan is contingent upon both the oonstruction of new highly-mechanized plants and factories and the reconstraction ef a number of old enterprises which should be equipped with now machinery mad the latest production technology. ttillingiteddin Before the Great October Socialist Revolution, easter* Bokbara was a rodless country. Evan wheeled carriages were a rare phenomenon. there. The mountain paths could accomodate no more than a pack animal and its rider. The *at,' log bridges extending across the swiftly flowing rivers and. the movringi* stadia to the precipitous walls of the mountain gorges ?????"-A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 were not even safe for an beings to cross. (An caring is an artificial cornice attached to the well of a mountain gorge and designed to fill the gap in a broken, mountain path. It is built from logs and dry branches and covered with stones and clay). Some of the districts in the country, particularly in. the mountainous area, were oat off frost the outside world, isolated. from each other, and their population lived under conditions of seminatoral economy. The railroad line between Ursatyev and Andizhan (Yemen& Valley), 'built in 1897, crossed only the smell northern pari of what is now Tadzhik territory. All the districts of the southern part of the country were hundreds of miles away from the nearest railroad sta. tion. Road construction was therefore one of the most urgent econonic problems to be tackled by the Soviet Governnent. The construction of the Ternez-Dashambe railroad line was begun in 1926 and completed in 1929. Ay-ear later it was extended to the eastern end of the Gissar Valley (Ordshonikidseabad). The total length of the Termez-Ordshonikidselbad line is now about 250 km, That linked South Tadzhikistan to the railroad network of the Soviet Union. Railroads have been under construction also in northern Tadzhikistan. A 42 km railroad lino was built in 1938 from Neltnikovo Station throuellefteabad to the Sharab Coal Yield, and a 12 km lino was bailt during the war be- tween Loninabad Station and Leninabad proper (where buses had. been the only means of communication). Railroad transportation plays an exceptionally important part in the establishment of direct aommunications between Tadzhikistan and the central areas of the Soviet Union. Only the railroad made it possible to send large shipments of eqaipment, raw materials, fool, aad other materials to meet the requirements of the rapidly developing economic and cultural construction, and to enable the Tadzhik *COMP, to specialise in various types of industrial and agricultural production. The develop- ment of the Tadihik economy as an integral part of the economy of the USSR would have been impossible without railroad transportation. The construc- tion of an industry, an irrigation system, civil and other types of con- *traction, first of all required the importation of balding materials, equipment, raw materials, and feel. Working under favorable climatic conditions sad with huge reserves of material resources at their dis- posal, a number of branches of industry and agriculture were able to expand far beyved the actual needs of the republic. The republic specialized in certain typos of industrial and agricultural production, not only in the economic interests of Tadzhikistan alone, but of the USSR as a Whole. Direct railroad communication brought the republic into close contact with many areas of the Soviet Union. This made it possible to import equipment, materials, and consumer pods and to export industrial - 86 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 .04.1"???-. an agricultural, products. The total amount of freight hauled on the broad-gage railroads in 1.940 was 2.600,000 t, which includes about 1,750,000 t shipped from the republic. Thousands of freight trains were required to Ship that freight. The total length of the 'oroad.-gauge railroads in the republic amounts to several hundred kilometers. But these roads have not yet been organized into a-eingle railroua network, They run into North and South Tadzhikistan as separate spur-tracks. Moreover, all further con- struction of broad-gauge railroad lines has been temporarily halted due to the difficult mountainous topography. But the construction of narrow-gauge railroads, which is less hampered by the mountainous terrain, is proceeding space. Two narrow.- gauge railroad lines were built in 1931-1935. The southern or Vakhsh line connects the city of Kargan-Tdbe with the Blzhniy Pyandih quays. Its original, modest task was to serve the Vakhsh irrigation construc- tion. By that time, regular navigation had been established on the Pyandih, and the shipments consigaed to the Vakhsh construction project were sent from Termez to the Nizhnly ryandzh quays where they were re- shipped by narrow-gauge railroad to the center of the Vakhsh Valley. That line eventually began to handle a greater volune of Shipments. Tho second narrow-gauge lime connects Stalinabad. with the Bullbistan quarries 20 kn northeast of that city. Its purpose is to deliver raw materials to the building material plants. The construction of the Stalinabad-Riargan-Tube line, connecting the Vakhsh and Gissar valleys, was completed in 1941. This established a. railroad connection between the rich Valdish Valley and the capital of the republic and with the railroad network of the Soviet Union. Shipped by that road to the Vakhsh Valley are machines, fertiliser, gasoline, fuel, building materials1 foodstuffs, and. consumer goods; the shipments going in the opposite direction consist of cotton fiber, seeds, oil, vegetables, fruit, and other agricultural raw materials. A total of 750,000 t of freight was shipped on that line, in both directions, in 1950. Tea-ton flat cars are now used with a view to increasing the traffic capacity of that road. The narrow-gaage railroad lines account for a considerable share of freight shipments within the republic. In the first postwar years these narrow-gm:go lines handled almost 2/3 of all the freight hauled by every means of transportation not counting the broad-gauge lines. But the rapid development of truck transportation has recently reduced their Share of the freight to 1/6 of the total. - 87 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 VOS. The construction of rarrow-gauge railroads in Tadzhikistan contizezes. Und.er construction now is the important Kurgen-Tube-rulyab lint which will provide cheap transportation for cotton, grain, and other freights shipped. from the economically well-developed southeastern area. Automobile roads were built in Tadzhikistan simultaneously with the railroads, but at a faster rate, and. they covered more territory. The prefmiential development or track tranaportatica In Taashikisten, particularly in its mountainous districts, was determined by definite economic and. technical considerations. From an economic point of view, truck transportation is more efficient and cheaper in the mountainous districts where there is no large-scale industry, and freight and passenger movement is limited. That kind of transportation is even adequate for supplying the mountain population with the scarce industrial goods and foodstuffs. The technical reasons are still more obvious. The roads in the Tadzhik mountains run across high mountain peaks (up to 4,000-5.000 a absolute altitude) and along mountain gorges surrounded by almost vertical walls hundreds of meters high, and even where it is possible to build a highway it is often difficult, expensive, and even impossible to build a railroad line. The first highways connecting Stainabad and. Xurgan-Tube. Sarai- Xosar (now Xirovobad). and Kulyab, built in 1925-1927, were comparatively primitive. Their total length was less than 400 km. The construction of better and longer highways was begun in the First Five-Isar Plan period. One of the longest highways (732 km) built in 1931-1933 runs between Osh and. Xhorog. This is one of the highest-altitude highways in the world. It Crosses several mountain ranges, including the Aley and Zaaley; its average altitude is 3,800 a but it rises to 4,655 m at the mountain passes. This road brought the mountain Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast closer to the economic and. cultural life of' the country; in the past, that oblast had. been almost completely isolated from the outside world. But the Osh-lhorog highway was not convenient for communication between the mountain Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast and the other Tadzhik districts. To get to Stalinabad. from there& it was necessary to travel by car to Osh and then for 2 more days by railroad. in a round-about war through Boldtaxa (Kagan Station). The big Pamir highways, extending over some 556 km, opened, the way to the West. They connected Stalinabad with the Xhorog and. reduced. the previous traveling distance to almost 1/4. That road runs across the mountainous districts of Central Tadzhikis- tan and provides a moat stimulus for the farther- development of the economy and mature of those districts. - 88 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Communication between South and North Tadzhikistan was not completed until the railroad line was built. It takes about 2 days to travel it from beginning to end. The newly built Stalinabad-Ura Tabe-Leninabad highway was opened to traffic in 1935. Another direct communication was established between the southern and northern parts of the republic, the raad between them having been reduced to 1/4 of the previous distance. That 300 km highway crosses many hitherto isolated and almost inacces- sible mountain districts. The construction of the Stalinabad-Kurgan Tube-Dshilikull lino was co=pletad in 1937. It had boon used even before the StalinabadaKargan Tube narrow gauge line was built, and its importance as the only road leading to the Vakhsh Valley had been particularly great. It is still one of the most travelled automobile highways, even now that the rail- road has been completed. An excellent road between Stalinabad and Obi -Garm. eventually to become the western extension of the big Pamir highway, was built in the same year. Of much importance for South Tadzhikistaz is the Stalinabad-Kargan TabeaKirovabad-Kulyab-Stalinabad highway loop. More than 9,000 km of automobile roads, including over 1.000 km of hard-surfaced roads, have been Lilt in Tadzhikistan under the Soviet Goverment. Transportation facilities have been improved along with the roads. The first car arrived in Dashambe in 1925. In 1930 there were only about 320 vehicles in the republic, whore new thousands of passenger cars, trucks, and bums are travelling on the Tadzhik roads. All the vehicles are concentrated primarilyIin WelKinistay of Automobile Transportation and Highways. Large vehicle pools are operated also by other ministries. The number of vehicles belonging to MTS, and state and collective farms has been rapidly increasing in recant years. Freight hauling is the major function of auto transportation. It accounts for more than 8017 of the freight shipments within the republic and for most tlf.:the passenger transportation. There are no streetcars in any of the Tadzhik cities, and buses are therefore the only means of city transportation. (A trolley bus has been operating in Stalinabad since 1955). That transportation loused also for interurban and inter- rayon passenger traffic. There is regular bus transportation between Stalinabad and the nearby towns and rayon centers of Ordzhonikidzeabad, -89- te, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Koktash, Maser, Regar, Varzob? Takob. etc. Bus transportation has been established also between Leninabad and Kurgan-Tube and their neighboring rayon centers. Regular bus service over distances of 100 km and more were started also between the following:cities; Stalinabad-Kargan Tube, Stalin- abad-Kulyab, Stalinabad-Garm, Pendzhikent-Samarkand, and Leninabad- Samar- kand. Also operating on many roads are passenger-car and truck taxis. Giva aviation in Tadzhikistan had in a way preceded railroad and automobile transportation as the only convenient means of transportation under roadlees conditione. Civil aviation is now playing a very important part in the national economy. Stalinabad is connected by airlines with Loninabad, Kulyab, Novabad, Khorog, and many rayon centers. The planes carry passengers, mail, and freight. Pack-animal transportation is still of some importance in view of the broken topography. The total length of the pack-animal paths is about 5,000 km. It is difficult to determine the volume of freight carried by pack-animals inasmuch as these animals are used primarily in the eallective farms. fi THE REG;ONS OF TADZRIKISTAN Tadzhikistan's administrative subdivisions are made up of Leninabad Oblast, liountain-dakhshan Autonomous Oblast, and a large group of adminis- trative rayons which are directly subordinate to the government of the republic. (By the beginning of 1956, there were 49 administrative rayons In the republic, 5 of them in Leninabad Oblast, 6 in Mountain-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast, and 31 under government jurisdiction). The economic differences within the above-mentioned ?blasts and the rayons subordinated to the government of the republic on the one hand, and the economic ties among the various administrative rayons gravitating toward. certain *canonic centers on the other, make it expedient to review the republic within the framework of the following 8 economic regions. In the northern part of the republic, within the limits of Leninabad Oblast, there are 2 economic regions -- the western (Tadzhik) part of the Fergana Valley and the Zeravshan Valley. Located in the first region is a member of well developed branches of agriculture and industry. The leading branches .of agriculture are cotton growing, horticulture, viticulture, and silkworm raising, while the major industrial activities consist of the processing of agricultural raw materials and minerals; there are favorable prospects for further industrial expansion. - 90 - r/m??????? ?????!...31{ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ? se. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Separated from the northern and southern parts of the country by a ]age mountain range, the Zeravshan Valley is a =Rion of comparative/7 small-scale grain and fruit growing and stock breeding; it has prospects for the establishment of an industry for processing minerals. In the southern, part of Tadzhikistan, the administrative rayons under republic jarisdiction are divided into 4 economic regions: the Cissar Valley. Bouthveat Tedshikistan; $oatIleast Tadallikistan, And Cetrsil Tadzhikistan. The Gissar Valley is the leading region in the production of medium.. fiber cotton and the development of various induetries, mostly the light and food industries. Southwest TadzhiUstan, which includes several subtropical valleys, is the major and practically the only region in the republic producing thin-fiber cotton. There are excellent possibilities there for the ex- paneion of cotton growing and the cultivation of other southern cultures. Southeast Tadzhikistan (formerly Killyab Oblast) is a region of diverse climatic conditions; grain growing and stock breading play an Important part there in addition to cotton growing. Characteristic of Central Tadzhikistan (formerly-Germ Oblast), all of which is located in the mountainous part of the republic, is grain productiononunirrigated land, animal and silkworm breeding. Finally, occupying the easternmost part of Tadzhikistan is the small Mountain-Badakhshen Autonomous Oblast, which is divided into the following 2 economic regions: West Pamir which is populated by Tadihiks and has well-developed agriculture and animal husbandry, and East Pamir, populated by Kirgizians, whose may occupation is stock breeding. asatedif nazet jaLiktitriggaiLlajain That region consists of the western part of the Fergana Valley belonging to Tadzhikistan and. the adjacent foothill plains and mountain slopes, and it carers the northern half of Leninabad Oblast, which is separated from the southern half (Eiravahan Valley) by high Turkestan Mountain Range. That region, measuring 12,000 sq km was inhabited by over 400.000 people in 1939. The region is hemmed in by 2 mountain ranges, the high Turkestan range in the South and the low KnraminMountains In. the North. Located between those 2 ranges, at an altitude of 200-500 m above sea level. is -91- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 the Ayr Darya aver Valley, which is wide at the eastern border and narrows down toward the West. Rising on both sides of the valley are sloping foothill plains, Which account for the major portion of the regionls territory-. The northern, or right-bank, plain is a comparatively narrow strip of land, 15 to 30 km wide; extending 'between the river and the foothills of the Kuramin Mountains. Purther up are the waterless and treeless slopes of these mountains, -which contain the richest deposits of non- ferrous and rare metals. Since no sizable rivers flow down those slopes, the right-bank plain has always been 'waterless and sparsely populated. The dry and pebble-covered. plain, grown over with wormwood, has been used, for autumn and winter cattle grazing. It was the Soviet Government which started the irrigation of large portions of that land with Syr-Darya water. The left-bank foothill plain is more complicated. In the western part of the region it extends 60 km towards the Tarkestanttountain Range and rises to an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level. Its central part is limited by the Belesegrk Mountains to a narrow strip of 1-2 be ex- tending along the Syr-Darya river. It grows wider again in the eastern part and covers the hilly spurs of the Belesenyk Mountain Range, which are rich in coal and oil. The left-bank plain is well irrigated by the rivers flowing down the Turkestan Mountains. The most important of them are the Isfara, Ehodzhisbakyrgan. Isfana, and Aksu. Reaching the valley through their alluvial fans, they spread fanwise into numerous irrigation reservoirs. It is around these "irrigation fans" frveyery orosheniyag that the major part of the population has been, concentrated for many years. The climatic, soil, and vegetative conditions are different in the different parts of the region. Gradually replacing one another between the plains and mountain slopes and peaks in the following order are desert, semidesert, forest-steppe, subalpine and alpine belts. The widest among them are the desert and forest-steppe belts. The desert belt includes the Syr-Darya River bottom land, the entire right-lank plain and part of the left-lank plain up to an altitude of about 800 in above sea level. There is very little precipitation there, about 125-150 mm (Leninabad, Isfara), and it occurs only In the winter- spring months; the summer and autumn months are dry and clear. Only irrigated agriculture is possible with such low precipitation. Oases are foand only near streams and springs. The 6 month growing season, with its cumulative total temperature of at least 4,000?, is favorable for cotton raising and the cultivation of southern fruit cultures (see foot- note on page 14). Large cotton-growing fields are concentrated there. ? 92 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co.y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDPF31 nindqPncr, nrinnnrw-v-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ,????"'"11 Further up the climate becomes more humid and cooler. The desert belt is replaced by a very narrow sesidenert strip which turns into a forest-steppe belt. The upper part of the left-hank plain and the slopes of the Kuramin, Mountains above an altitude of 1,000 m are already in the forest-steppe climate mans. There is about 3 times as much precipitation on these eiopes as in (ahont 400 =t Itra-vabe) and agri- culture is possible without artificial irrigation. Grain end oil-bearing plants sake up most of the crops. Special mention should be made of vineyards. The latter do not grow so well in the valleys as on com- paratively cool slopes where the average annual temperature is more even; it is there that most of them are concentrated. Land plots covered with green and succulent grasses during the =masa are found in the upper sections of the Turkestan and the Kuraminmountain ranges. There io no permanent population there, and the land is used for summer grasing. The best parts of this region, which was an. integral part of the rich Fergana Valley and Shares its history, have been thickly populated since ancient times. The trade routes between China and the countries of Idurope and. the Near East rum across the Fergana Valley. In this valley there were large cities with a trading and artisan population, grow- ing agriculture and animal husbandry, and some industry engaged in process- ing valuable minerals. At the time Central Asia was annexed to Russia, its feudal zyntem was in the throes of a "more crisis. The incessant were among the khtuaates disrupted all trade connections and ruined the artisans while the irrigation installations and agriculture were neglected amd ore- processing was all but discontinued. The inclusion of the Fergana Valley in the Russian territory in the second half of the past century, the construction of a railroad line and small enterprises for the primary processing of agricultural raw materials, the mining of certain types of minerals and, what is more important, the organization of commercial cotton growing contributet to some extent to the developmemt of the productive forces of that region. The Russian capitalists strove to mike Central Asia their reliable raw material base and supplier of cotton for the Moscow. Ivanovo. Lode and other textile mills. The Fergana Valley with its warm climate, its fertile and wen- irrigated land, and numerous tut impoverished peasantry became the major base for the production of white gold. In 1907, for ea:sages it produced 7 of all commercial cottoot and fiber exported. from Turkestan. Railroad lines were built between Krasnovodek and Tashkent and later between Tashkent and Orenburg for the purpose of establishing closer connections between - 93 - 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043ROO7Inn99nnn9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 the mother country and its colony. The first railroad to the Fergana Valley was built in 1897 and. provided a strong stimulant for the develop- ment of cotton. growing. Cotton became the major agricultural product of the western part of the Fergana Valley. American types of cotton were introduced, in the 1880s, and since then they have been increasingly replacing the low-yield. Asiatic cotton Lrgu.salrr from year to year. The first cotton-processing plants had. been built in. the Xhod.shent and Ural- ihinsk couniies even befora ale tail:road was built: ..????? The development of the commercial type of agriculture was accompanied by an intensified exploitation and. impoverization of the dekbkans (peasants), the major producers of cotton. Burdened. with debts and cheated by usurers and bats, the &Waken was forced. to sell his tiny plot of land at a bar- gain price and work as a sharecropper on the bail a land for a very small part of the crop. The loss of land. by the dekhkans reached unusual pro- portions. In 1908, for example, about 70% of the peasant families of lhoclehent County had, no land. of their own. Cotton was not the only agricultural product, even though it accounted for the major part of the revenues. The construction of the railroad. also stimulated the development of horticulture and, to some extent, also of viticulture and. silkworm breeding. Apricot orchards were concentrated in the Syr-Darya Belt, replacing the vineyards which had suffered. from re- curring frost. The latter were moved mostly to the foothill plains. Khodzhent County alone produced almost 1/4 of all the dried fruit exported from Turkestan before the revolution; it was famous for its dried apricots and. currants. The industrial activities of Central Asia Vaderworat certain changes after its annexation to Russia. Russian and foreign industrialists built several very simple enterprises in. Ehodshent County, designed for the primary processing of agricultural raw material and for mining minerals. The most important of them were the cotton-processing plants in Khodahent, the coal-mining enterprises of Shurab, and. the oil and osocerite (mineral wax) producing enterprises in Sell-Bokho. The ancient handicraft industry which produced. local consumer goods continued. to function in the towns and kishlaks though it was greatly undermined by imported goods. But neither the agriculture nor the large industry of Central Asia could possibly develop on anything resembling a large scale under tearism? The production of raw materials as a whole was insignificant. For example, all the cotton plants located within the region under discussion produced a total of 630.000 t of cotton and. filler in 1913. Agricultural technique was primitive and the yields were low. Although water became scarcer as the cotton fields were expanded, -very little was done to improve the irrigation system. The mineral resources were used. in a limited. but ruthless manner. #?????????? - 94 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The favorable oonationo of this region ? the dry climate and long hot summers, exceptionally rich mineral deposits, good. transportation facilities, and. a thick population experienced in specialized aviculture and handicraft production ? were fully utilized, only under the Soviet Government. In the overall economy of the republic, the western part of the Fsrgana Valley stands out as A region of intensive agriculture, devoted. primarily to cotton growing, and. a large industry for processing agri- cultural raw materials and mining minerals. Its agriculture is highly diversified.. The collective farms of the region engage in cotton growing, stock breeding, silkworm-breeding, viti- culture, and in the produation of su,ch cultures as grain, oil-bearing plants, melons, etc. Fran and grape growing and silkworm breeding are done on a largo scale throughout Tadzhikistan. The specialization of agriculture is. essentially dmtermire3d by the differences in the natural collations. Disregarding details, one can distinguish 2 types of agriculture determined by the particular location, the valley and the foothill type. The valley kolkho.see plant their crops mostly on. irrigated land, while the foothill collective farms use =- irrigated land. There is also a difference between the types of their crops. Cotton is raised on a large scale on the irrigated, valley lands. Also, concentrated in the valleye are fruit orchards. The =irrigated land. of the foothill kolkhozes is ulanted to grain and oil-bearing cultures (flax, safflower, and sesame). Growing in the same belt are numerous large vineyards. The area under crops in this region amounted to 190.000 ha in 1955; 3/4 of that area is planted to grain, beans, and. oil-bearing cultures. But important as all the mentioned branches of agriculture may be, cotton vowing is still the major occupation of the rural population. The cotton-growing area is serviced. by 13 of the region's 15 MTS. About 1/2 of all the collective farmers' workdays are used. for the pro- duction of raw cotton. Finally, cotton is the major commercial product, as can. be seen from the incomes derived. by collective farms from the various branches of agriculture in 1953, for example (in terms); Cotton growing 71.8 Animal husbandry 6.4 Horticulture and. viticulture 6.0 - 95 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220007-A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Silkworm breeding 5.2 Grain and oil-bearing cultures 3.4 Vegetable gardening 2.0 Others 5.2 TOTAL 100.0 Connected. primarily with the expansion of cotton growing are all the land. melioration projects carried. out in the preimtr period. and, on a much larger scale, at present. More than 39,000 ha of land were planted. to cotton in 1955; in 1954 the average crop in Lenina.bad *blast wet 28.1 militarise of the Soviet varieties of raw cotton per hectare (Fra, January I* 1955). With the expansion of the cotton-growing area, the chronic water shortages which dates back to the prerevolutionary period, became still more acute. This stimalated the construction of 2 gigantic irrigation canals, the Large Fergana and. the North Fergana. 3oth canals were built in 1940 by tens of thousands of collective tarsiers from the Uzbek anti TadOik republics. The Large Fergana Canal is 270 km long. It originates in, the Naryn River, one of the 2 rivers (the other is Karadarya) making up the Syr- Darya River, and carries its water across the entire Fergana Valley. It extends also over 3.00 km in norther: Tadzhikistan along the left bank of the Syr-Dazia River, leiter* it improved the water pply for the old irrigated. areas and provides additional irrigation for several thousand. hectares of fallow land. The North Fergana Canal extends about 30 km into the Tadzhik SSR? irrigating several thousand. hectares of little- cultivated. land along the right bank of the river. The renewed extension of the cotton industry after the great Patriotic Ware prompted the republic to -undertake the construction of powerful water pumping stations using the electric power of the Farithadges Plant (The Farkhadges is a powerful hydroelectric station on the Syr-Darya River in the Usbek SSR, built in 1942). Two Undshin water-pumping installations* irrigating 3,000 ha of collective farm land, were completed.* and. the Naas Water Pumping Station is now uacier construction. The collective farms are also building their ova sisal pump houses on the banks of the Syr- Darya and the canals. ? 96 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co.y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDPRi ninaqPnn?-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Large-scale land improvement projects are now underway on both banks of the rr-Darya River. More than 45,000 ha of new land. are to be made cultivable between 1954 an 1960 in the western part of the Fergana Valley alone. The vast stretches of land, on the right bank of the Syr-Darya -- the Samgar? Yam, and. Delsversin steppes viii to Irritad. for the first time. A dam an& hydroelectric station are under construction on the Syr-Darya itiver. Thm-aanals to be tA,,ndord to both banks from the inirak-Yum water reservoir now under construction will provide 1f-flowing ffsamotechnoyeg irrigation, and the powerful hydroelectric plant will supply electric power to the numerous punning stations. The large Dal'versin Steppe will be irrigated by the exist- ing Farkhad. Water Reservoir and with the aid of the Parkhad Rydro- electric Power Plant. The newly irrigated land. will be used mostly for cotton growing. This has already prompted the shifting of a large number of kolkhoses to the new land, mostly from the mountain districts, and. the construction of new collective farms, MT, cotton-processing plants, oil mills, and. villages. The foundation has already been laid. in the Daliverrin Steppe for the construction of a center of the future rayon. Among the other important branches of agriculture tit that region are horticulture and. viticulture. More than 1/2 of all the orchards and. vineyards of the republic are concentrated. there. The fruit orchards are concentrated in the Leninabad, Ifintbadaia, and Isfara oases, and about 9/10 of then produce anricote. The fruit grown in those orchards had. gained world fame for their quality and taste even before the revolution. Their sugar content is about 11-2 times as high as that of the guropean and. American varieties. The local selection experts have preserved. other valuable features of the fruit treest resistance of the fruit to vizi (which is very important in the Fergana Valley, where the winds are very strong, particularly near the ?Dedshent Ge.tes4), tb.e high yield and. longevity of the trees. Before the revolution there was no canning in- dustry in the region, and only dried. fruit was exported. Much of the fruit is still raised for drying purposes, but a considerable part of the crops is used for supplying raw materials to the 4 canning plants built near the fruit-growing area. As has already been mentioned, the major vineyards are concentrated. in the foothill sone, mostly in the supper part of the left-bank plain. About 1/2 of the republic's vineyards are found in the Ura-Tube Adninistra- titre Rayon alone. The local inhabitants have developed excellent new kinds of grapes, especially of the kish-aish (seedless) variety:. the Ilra-Tube grapes were famous far beyond the berders of Central Asia ? 97 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co.y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDPF31 ninaqpnn-, Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 even before the revolution. But before the revelation, only the dry product* the kish-mish raisins, was available to the consumer. While grapes are still used for the production of raisins, part of the crop is also used for the production of TAM= and another part is exported rreeh.. Tharo arc 3 :dad diet4llea4es in the region. Earticulture and viticulture are profitable industries, and imam, collective farms they are leading branches of production. In 1952, for example, the orchards and vineyards of the Vra,Tabe Rayon accounted for 59% of the collective farms' income. The goverment offers the collective and state fares all sorts of aid in the development of these trenches of agriculture. The 2 fruit-and-grape state farms organised in the rayon -- Avebikalach and IsfarsAyakan.-- are to be developed, into model progressive farms. Nstablished also were 2 fruit nurseries and a base Where the selec- tion experts study the various types of fruit and grapes and turn the best varieties over to the collective farm orchards. But the orchards and vineyards are still unable to most the growing demand of the canning and wine-asking industries of the region. What is required is not only an expansion of the plantation area, but also a considerable change in the types of plants; the orchards should consist mostly of apricot trees, wad the vineyards must produce grapes with a higher acid content, i.e., not exclusively for wine-making purposes. (The apricots in the entire region riven almost at the same time and the canning plants are therefore supplied with raw materials for a short time only. The development of differaat varieties of the fruit that ripen_ at different tines would facilitate more normal operations of the canning industry.) According to income, animal hastandry ranks next to horticulture and viticulture. There were over 700,000 head of all types of cattle in the region in 1955. A large portion of the available herds consists of goats and. sheep. There are differences also in the quality. and the breed of certain types of domestic anise's. The sheep, the nmerioally largest part of the cattle herds, are mostly of the large fat-tail breed; there are no Darras sheep, and the Astrin. sheep are few in amber. The collective farms of the western part of the Fergana Valley, particularly of its flatland sections* have been pioneerieg in the development of A new breed of goats* a cross-breed of the Angora and. a local at which pro- duces a. larger amouat of smmifine wool. The breed now makes up a con- siderable part of the local herds* and. it is now being developed also in the other regions of the repablic. Credited. with superior qualities is the local breed of rarabyr horses, Which are widely used in the economy, especially in transportation.. The state stud farm in Ura-Tabe is now engaged in the further improvement of that breed of horses. - 98 - ??????''''S Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA RDPRi-ninaqpnno 44. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 401...??? The maintenance of the cattle herds is largely dependant on the utilization of the natural pastures at hone and. in the other regions. The sheep and goats are kept on the grazing land prastically all year rotuul 0.31d. provided. with additional fodder over a period of 30-40 days, while the long-horned cattle is kept in oheds up to 3 mouths a year. Some collective farms sake it a practice to keep their dairy cattle in sLade for longer petiodr. of t. The natural fadlea 4aeserves the western part of the Fergana valley are not as great as those of the South Tadzhik mons. The pasture lents account for leas than 20% of the region's territory, 1.*.? for only 220,000 ha. The summer pastures are conparativeiy small fields in the upper part of the Kuramin Mountain Range and on the northern slopes of the Turkestan, linage, and the winter pastures* though covering a larger area along the right bank of the river, offer a imager fodder sapply. The region's kolkhozes have there- fore been allocated additional pastures for use at different seasons in the neighboring republics of Kirezia, Uzbekistan, and. Kazakhstan. The MTS offer Muck assistmee to the collective farms. The collective farms throughout the region, and beyond. it, have been improving the maintenance of their cattle on the pastureland. Dry areas are irrigated* fodder cultures are planted, on some of the pasture lands, fodder reserves are stocked every year, winter housing is built for the cattle, and comnttni- cation facilities are improved. The Kyzyl-Itus pasture lands, the farthest removedi from the region, now have their own radio station. But the exceptional possibilitiee for the further development of the cattle-raising industry, inherent in a highly developed a4griculturo and. industry, are still inadequately utilized. It is possible, among other things, to raise highly profitable dairy cattle by the use of grain fodder cataract corn, plen.ted grasses and. by-products of the food industry; the products of such dairy cattle are urgently needed by the numerous city and village population of the region. Continuing their ancient ? conostic treditions, this population still engages in large-scao silkworm breeding. By far the largest part of all the lberry trees of the republic are concentrated in this region, end at least haf of all the cocoons are produced here. Silkworm breeding was practiced here on a large scale before too, but the technique used. vas very poor. Cocoon production was a sideline for the cotton growers, mostly of the women, and. was concentrated. in small primitive fillets. Most of the cocoons were exported to Russia or abroad., and. some of them were processed by the local artisans into na- tional varieties of cloth, - 99 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The maintenance of the cattle herds is largely dependent on the utilization of the natural pastures at home and in the other regions. The sheep and goats are kept on the grazing land practically all year round. and provided with additional fodder over a period of 30-40 days, while the lone.horeed cattle is kept in Sheds vp to3 months a. year. Some collective farms make it a practice to keep their dairy cattle for levetowo. peeled.. of Thenatnl 4Podaels rer In the western part of the Fergana valley are not as great as those of the South Tadzhik zeroes. The pasture lands account for loss than 20% of the region's territory. 1.111.? for only 220.000 ha. The summer pastures are comparatively small fields In the upper part of the Kurenin Mountain Range and OR the northern slopes of the Turkestan Range, and the winter pastures, though covering a larger area along the riot bank of the river, offer a meager fodder =ply. The regionts kolkhozes have there- fore been allocate& additional pastures forum!, at different seasons in the neighboring republics of Kirgizia, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan. The MTS offer each sesistemoe to the collective farms. This collective ferns throughout the region, and beyond it, have been improving the maintenance of their cattle on the pasturelanii. Dry areas are irrigated, fodder cultures are planted on some of the pasture lands, fodder reserves are stocked, every year, winter haueing in built for the cattle, and communi- cation facilities are improved. The tyzyl-Kum pasture lands, the farthest removed from the region, now have their own radio station. But the exceptional possibilities for the further development of the cattle-raising industry, inherent in a hiekly developed agriculture and industry, are still Inadequately utilized. It is possible, among:other things? to raise highly profitable dairy cattle by the use of grain fodder cultures, corn, planted, grasses and by-products of the food industry; the products of oldh dairy cattle are urgently needed by the numerous city and village population of the region. Continuing their ancient econanic traditions, the population still engages in largo -scale silkworm breeding. By far the largest part of all the mulberry tress of the rep:MU are concemArated in this region, and at least half of all the cocoons are vroduced here. Silkworm breeding -10S practiced here on a, large scale before too, but the technique used Ante very poor. Cocoon productien was a sideline for the cotton growers, mostly of the women, and was concentrated in small primitive 4rme. Kest of the cocoons were exported to Bastin, or abroad., and. scum tif them were prooecemi by the local artisans into na- tional varieties of cloth, .51??????., IA Declassified in in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The large silk industry, built up after the re/volution and desigeed to work on local raw 'materials, has changed the entire silkworm-breeding industry. Cocoons are now produced by large collective farms which get permanent large-scale assistance fron the government. The application of the latest technological methods to silkworm breeding bas produced a thorough going change in the whole complicated process of oocoon produc- tion. tho gra::: (butterfly la...ras) is now processed only in fmecial graine plants; it is revived in special incubators, not in little sacks in the house as was the case in old ?2cedzhent; the primitive methods of sun-drying and. processing of the cocoons have been replaced by the latest facilities for killing the cocoons by steam and drying them in the shade. An important achievement in the field of silkworm breeding is the develop- ment of a 3batif hybrid. (sad ovaperior) grains and. new methods of accelerated feeding, which have considerably increased the yields of the cocoons. In 1913 the COZOCMG produced in each chamber Z wkorobkag in Ihodshent County mounted to 23.4 kg. but after the Great Pe. iotic ar the average cocoon yield was increased 1..2 times. The cocoons produced in the region are no longer exported. but are all processed. at the large silk enterprises in lieninabad. The development of the industry in the region was closely tied to the production of local raw materiels, to the existing prerevolutionary enter- prises, to the availability of local cadres, such as weavers for example, and. fivally, to tho population's needs for various industrial menufactures. The first years of the Soviet Government saw the restoration of the old cotton mill in Khodzhent, coal mining in Ehurab, and. oil-extraction in Sall-llokho; the construction of a smell fruit-canning -plant in Koetakoz, a flour mill in Ura Tube, etc. The first grains plant in the history capable of producing large quantities of high qoality grains vent into operation in 1919 in Thedehent. Among the large enterprises of that time was the Kbodzhent silk-winding mill ?Crasser Tkach re& Weavey.T. As nay ba judged by the plaoe maws, the first industrial enterprises bad. already been fairly evenly distributed in the region, according to the availability and diversity of its raw "tutorial resources. 3at those were still small enterprises of a senihasseticauft type using old equip- ment. some of it of foreiga maks. In the 3 prewar five-year plans, industrial processing was extended. to include practically every type of agricultural raw materiel. generous geological expeditions have discovered new deposits of highly valuable minerals which are now being exploited. Kew cotton-processing and. fruit- canning plants and wine 'distilleries have been built in the past 10-12 years. liquipped with the latest Soviet-made machinery, these plants 100 - jr??=?????? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 are capable of producing larger quantities of higher-quality goods. For example, the canned apricots produced by the Latinabad Combine in 1957 were awarded. the first prize at the international Bxhibition. in Paris. It was at that time also that highly complex enterprises, &mimed. for a complete cycle of operation, first cane into being. Among then is the Loninabad Silk Mill Combine, one of the largest in the USSR, which went into partial p..."-a=16-.2a-tien in 1952. The newly constructed. building material plants are capable of meet- ing the tomand for *Wilding materials in the region. The fue1 base of the region was completely reconstructed.. A. new oil field., Neftee.bad, vas opened. on the bank of the Isfara River and is now under exploitation; the old. SeliRokho oil fields. renamed Mit were mechanized and. expanded, and. a new mechanized coal mine went into opera- tion in Sbure.b. The valuable minerals discovered in Taramazar (polymetals and. rare netals) stimulated the organization of a powerful mining industry center in the region. Of the many factories and plants built in this region in. the postwar period, mention should be nada of the Kaniba.dan Foundry Machine Plant, which laid the foundation for the dirrelopment of a nae.hine-building in- dustry in northern Tadzhikistan, and. the lanibeezt Oil Fixtracting Plant. This region accounts for about 40% of Tadshikistens s industrial out- put. The most advanced industries here are canning, silk production, and polynetal processing. These branches of industry., at well as wine produc- tion and. oil and. coal extraction produce from 70% to 100% of the output of the related industries in the republic. Looking at the distribution of these industries in the region, one cannot fail to notice the close proximity between nest of the enterprises and. their raw material sources. The mining and primary processing of minerals are concentrated in Kermess.? (Unsay, Adrainan, Taken, and Chorukh-Dairon) and in the eastern part of the 301seenyk Mountain Range (Shurab, Tin, and Refteabad.). The cotton-processing, oil producing, and canning plants ars found in the lower cotton-orchard. oases (Leniarabad, Soyetabad, Proletarsk, Tardbadiue. Mel*nikevo? end Isfara). One currant- canning plant and 2 wine distilleries (in addition to the Sovetabad Dis- tillery) are located in the largest vineyard. area of the republic (Um- Tube). fr.m. Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release p 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81 ninAwnn9qnn-,orincv, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The enterprises to which good. transportation facilities and. an. industrious population are more important than the proximity of raw material sources are concentrated in the old. thickly populated Z01101 of the region (Leninabad, ranine,dam, and 'afore). Among them are the silk combine,, the silk weaving and spinning mill, the fountity-mtchine p10.2at. Ra..1. met of the 10101 1*-rim.-1 eliterp-i.4zes catertm t- the population's needs. The population's demands are met to some extent also by the cottage industry, which produces a large variety of goods. Itaistaining to some extent its prerevolutionary tradition of craftsmaaship, that isOmstry is still located in its original centers of Leninabad? Xanibadam, 'start. Ura-be, Ashte, etc. The development of the region's economy is accompanied, by a con- siderable increase it its population. It grow from 217,600 to 410,200 i.e., almost 100% ia only 13 years (from. 1926 to 1939). Rapidly increasing also is the city population. In 1939, 27.5% of the region's population lived in cities and city-type settlements. There were only 3 cities and. 9 settlements In the region at that time as against the- 6 cities sad 11 city-type settlements in existence now. A new and )nuserous working class has come into being here. Suffice it to :say that the Leninabad silk combine alone employs several dozen times as many workers than the total number of workers available in North Tadzhikistan in the prerevolutionary period.. Speaking of the economic and cultural development of the region, mention should. be mad. am of the economic characteristics of its various parts. The bulk of the region's population lives in the well- irrigated belt on the left 'beak of the Syr-Darr& River, which includes also the broader part of the Isfara River Valley to the Bast of the Relesezkyk mountain range. Located in that belt are almost all the cotton- orchard-mulberry oases aad cities of the region with the exemption of tira- Tuba. Railroads are found. in that belt slaw & trunk line crawling it from West to Bast and a spartreak connecting it with Obesely an& the Isfara Oasis. The prospects for irrigating the mentioaed part of the region de- pend on the reconstruction of the 9yr-Darya? its left tribetaries and the Large Fergana Canal. *..":1 There are still essential differences between the eastern and. western parts of the. region, mostly in regard to industrial development. Brtending in the western part is the largo Leninabad Oasis comprising 2/5s of all the irrigated land area of the region. It is irrigated pri- marily by the mountain rivers -- Ihodshabskyrgan, tetanal and. 1ksu ? - 102 - - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Pad- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 1' *Zs ????""N party also by tprings an& the Large Fergana. Canal, which carries its water to Khodzhabakyrgan; that canal gets its eater by seam of a =A- ber of pumping station*, the largest of which, lIdehin Station, gets it directly from the Syr-Darya. River. The Larva Fergaaa. Canal is being expanded, and new pe.Oping stations designed to irrigate additional largo areas of that oasis are under construction. speoialiged branches of agriaaltame are cotton &-owieg, stock breeding, horticulture, and tailkworm breeding. In view of the lack of valuable minerals, most of ties industry is designed to process local agricultural raw materials; the inportance of that industry, however, extends beyond. the limits of the oasis. Among the leading indnatrial and. cultural centers is the city of Sovetabad (near the Lesinalad Bailroad. Station) and the city-type settle- ments of Proletarsk, Chkelovskiy, and Nan. In these settlements there is a canal vle plant* a wine distillery, a brewery, a cotton-processing plant, and a brick factory, as well as central electromechanical shops. Lenin'- bad, the oblast capital, is the largest industrial and cultural city. Leninabad is located at the very entrance to the Fergana Valley in a comparatively narrow passageway 'between the 14ogoltau Mountains in the north and. the Turkestan mountain spurs in the south. That place has been known for many years as the olthodzhant Oates. Blocking the entrance to the rich Fergana Valley from the vast Taxan steppes, Ehodzhent has lived. through a turbulent history. It was built in ancient times. Alexander of Macedonia captured and destroyed it during his crusades (in 329-326 BO) and. built & new fortress, Alexandria (Alexandria Bskhata), in the same place or next to it. Several centuries later, in. 711 AD, an Arab warlord Xuteyba marched. on Fergana. captured Ihodshent (at that tine known. as Xhudsitaad), and plundered. it. Five centuries later. in 1220, the city fell under the blows of the Mongolian Legions, who not only destroyed it but also exterminated its population. In certain periods of history Thodshent was a large handicraft in- dastrial and. political center. Tor example, this was the case at the tarn of the second nillennium when the city had. a largo rausber of arti- sans' and. tradesmen's quarters. he Karemesar minas, containing silver, copper, and lead deposits, were under intensive exploitation at that tine. The ore was processed in the city. Important trails routes ran through rhodthent, but the Mongol invasion hampered its development. The next period. of the city's prosperity was between the fourteenth and. fifteenth centuries when new artisans' and tradesmen's centers sprang isp in the city. - 103 - ???????11 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RnPRi_nine nnnonnnn,^,^ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 At the beginning of the nineteenth century rhodthent became part of the Nokand khanate which was organized at that time in the Fergana The Bokhare, awl Nokan& khanates were always at war, and. nod:Unto the key to the Fergana Valley, freqaently changed hands and suffered destrac- tgoa, In MS it was annexed to Russia. As part of Rassia,t s possessions. Rhoda/mint systematically increased. its population.. Thus its population grew from about 18,000 in 1972 to about 35.000 in 1903 and to about 40,000 in the prerevolutionary period.. The Russian industrialists built several handicraft enterprises in the city for the primary processing of raw materials; cotton mills, fruit processing plants, leather factories., and brick factories. These enter- prises employed about 200 workers. The city remained, as a large artisan and handicraft industry center of a large agricultural region. A large part of its population, engaged. in fruit growing, silkworm breeding, sag cotton, raising. Cotton fiber, dried fruit, and. raw silk:were the major commodities exported, from the city and its surrounding rayons. The cultural level of the city was very loaq In 1910 it had one single-grade parish school and a Russian-native school, both of them attended by a total of 70 students. The reaid, economic and. cultural developsient of Xhodzhent did not start until after the October Socialist Revolution. In 1929, the Nhod- silent Okra& theretofore part of Uzbekistan, was reunited with the newly formed. Tadzhik SSR. As the largest city in northern Tadzhikistan, Ibodahent case in for special attention. Its geographical situation was exceptionally favorable. The city is located in. the center of a vast siik.cotten-fruit growing oasis which serves to determine the direction of its economic development. Paala*g alongside it is a railroad trunk line. A miming industry is ander development in the Kuroda mantels district North of Iledehmet; South, of it, in the mapper pert of the left-leik plebs, it a large area of unirri- gated crop lands and vineyards. There are good automobile highways con- necting the city with these rayons. Ihodshent it ACM undergoing rapid 6CODOMIC and cultural development. The streets were replanned, paved, and lined with trees in the thirties. A pontoon bridge was tilt across the Syr-Darya, a new city water-supply system was put into operation, and bus cammunicatioa was inaugurated between the city and the railroad station 12 km away. In 1936 Ihedzheat was rammed. Lesinabad, and the Xhodahentskly Rayon changed. to Leainibedekly Rayon. - 104 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R00230022onn7_s Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 4 Numeraue enterprises want into operation in Leninabad anti its outskirts before the great Patriotic War. They wore dteigned to fit into the pattern of agricultural produotion of the surrounding area and to neat the internal demands of the city and the outlying districts. Over 1/4 of all the large oblast enterprises are now concentrated In leninabad, and. they play almost as great= econamio part in northern Tadshilastanas does Stalinabad in southern Tadzhikistan. In addition to its economic importance. Lenindbad is also developing into one of the largest cnitural staters of the young republic, just like Stalindbad, it is a center for trainiag qua/ified cadres for the rapidly developing agriculture, industry, trade, culture, and public health service. It has tha largest teachers college in the republic. Agricultural specialists are trained in the agricultural technic= and the school for mechanization specialists. A, mining techaticum, the first in Tadzhikistan, was opened to train workers for the mining industry. There is also a cooperative trade technic= and a medical school. The sdhool formate. which was opened almost a quarter of a century ago, played an important part in the training of national musicians for the entire republic. The theatre of musical drestit imeni A. S. Pushkin, ha, been functioning in Leninabad since 1932. On its stage appear the republicis national and honored art workers whom it has traited. The city also has an interesting regional museum, a hones of culture a house of pioneers, sdhoola, libraries, cinemas,. and clubs, and it pub- lishes its own newspapers. Such are the principal results of the ao years of cultural construction of one of the most ancient cities in the world, now wider Soviet rule. Li:mine:bad is the mmunullargost cultural center of the republic next to Stalinabed4 The city extends from West to East along the Syr-Darya for over 4km. Im the vest, the city blocks abut against the bank of the river, which makes a sharp turn there; in the south, flanked by the city buildings on one aide and the =irrigated. pebble-surfaced Digmey elevation on the other, is a wide belt of orchards and fields. City buildings are now under constractloa in this former suburb. There is much space for the further expansion of the city in the Southeast in the direction of the young city of SovetAbad (faraaar Ispisar). It is a 12 ka stretch of foraer wasteland, which is now crossed by a railroad spartradk and it the center of intensive construction mostly industrial enterprise construction. The city Is built on a thick stratum of pebbles deposited by both tht, Syr-Daxyt4 which is receding to the North, and the Ihedindblityrgan River, which leaves its alluvial fans on tkie terraces. Sow* parts of the pebble stratum are 4-5 a thick. The city, territory inclines toward -105-. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 rIA_Rnippi Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 the Syr-Darya from 380 to 320 a of absolute altitude, and that has a certain effect on its water supply. The upper part of the city is well suptlied with water fro w the adjacent Ihodshabakyrgan. River, while its lower part has little water. It is available in the irrigation ditches only wham the orcharde artli watered. The main source of water sunply there is the water fed through the ducts originating in the Syr-Darya River above Lenindbad. Wherever water-supply pipes have not been installed, use is made of the local mkhauxe (ponds) containing fairly good ground water. The beautification of the city with trees and shrubbery is closely connected with the nature of the water supply. A beautiful green land- scape covered. with gardens and parks can be seen from the upper part of the city, which rises up on an alluvial fan. Growing between those trees are melon cultures, cotton, and lucerne. This peripheral lawl is now under housing construction. The verdure in the lower part of the city is still meager due to the lack of water. Trees and shrubbery are rare even along the principal avenues of the city which can in no way be compared to the green streets of Stalinabad.. Leninabad is different from Stalinabad in yet another respect. Unlike Stalinabad, which was built under the Soviet Government on barren land, Leninabad has grown from an old tem of artisans and tradesman with its narrow, zigzagging, and dusty streets, adobe buts, ponds, and market places and cemeteries in the center of the city, eta. But these old features are rapidly disappearing; the city is now cries-crossed by straight and wide asphalted streets and squares and is filled with an increasing nuMber of new tall and beautiful buildings -- enterprises, schools, institutions, theatres, stores, and multistoried apartment build- tugs. A large well-planned park of culture and rest was built near the old citadel on. the Syr-Darya River bank. Madera workers settlements sprang up in the city's outskirts. Thus the settlement around the silk combine, for example, consists mostly of 2-storr houses, has wide tree- lined streets paved sidewalks and a park. It also has a claw a hotel, a polyclinic, a hospital, schools, and children's institutions. To the East of the Leninabad Oasis there are 2 other large oases, the Kaaibadam and the 'shwa:. The "salad= covers the left bank of the Syr45r3ra River, and the Isfera the wider part of the Isfsra River Valley. They are separated by the hill-spurs of the Belesenik Motuttain Raw but comprise a single area irrigeted by the Ida= River. when the Kairak-Kum Water Reservoir is made available for irrigating part of the Kannada* Oasis, additional water will be available in the Isfara River for irri- gating new areas of the Isfara Oasis. - 106 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Pad- Sanitized Cop Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The agriculture of these 2 oases is not mach different from that of the Leninabad. ?este, except for horticulture, which gets a little more attention in Isfara. is real difference,. however, is that these 2 oases contain. coal ard oil deposits along their peripheries; that is why- - their industries which process local agricultural raw materials, are paralleled by a growing mining industry. The Ranibadem Oasis industry is concentrating in the rapidly growing city of raalbada:a. The teity 1m* good communications, situated as it is near the junction of the railroad. spurtraek to Shurab. An attistuit vraag.. considerably smaller than Illodsbant before the revolution, ran/bade* is now a large ininstriel Isolator with its canning, cotton-processing, oil manufacturing, faandry-machine plants, and a large cotton-spinning mill. In ICanibe.dam, as in Leninabad, the industrial enterprises are located along the city's outskirts. Neel enterprise has its own workers settle- ment with modern hone's, tree-lined. streets, power plants, schools, and various institutions. The industry of the Isfara Oasis is also concentrated in a single center, in the city of Isfara. The Isfara. Oasis is one of the largest fruit-growing aroa.s in all of Tadzhikistan. Indeed, the broad valley, extending 20 km to the Nast of the Isfara River and. irrigated. by it, looks like one big apricot orchard.. The city of Isfara was built on both sides of the swiftly flowing Islam River and near the railroad spu.rtrack running from Kanibadam to Shurab. It was a large ancient orchard-village transformed into a city which is now expanding into a large industrial center. Its canning plants, building and binding material plants, and. distilleries mostly use local raw materials. Surrounded by mountains, buried in gardens. ma. irri- gated. by a mountain river ? all of which asks the sumser temperature milder the city of Isfara is one of the most attractive and healthful spots of Central Asia. Sanatoriums, rest hones, and pioneer comps could. be established is that city and. in its outlying picturesque mountain gorges. There are growing coal azwi oil industries outside the territorial limits of the oases. Mural), the coal bin of the republic, lies in the dry mountains Southwest of Isfara. The poorly equipped prerevolutionary mines and the impoverished mining popalation, out off from the rest of the world, have been transformed into a large center with a highly mechanised coal-mining in.dustry, modern transportation, and a well-built town under rayon juris- diction with schools and. cultural institutions. - 107 - Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RniDirii_ni Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 North of Sharab, in similarly dry mountains, are the KIM oil fields. The entire oil-extraction process there is mechanized; automatic derricks draw the oil out of the wells and feed it into pipes, thus making huean labor practically unnecessary. Two kilmeters from the um settle- ment there is an ozocerite (mineral wax) mine and a plant which processes that mineral. East of there, on the Isfara River bank and the railroad spurtrackt is Nefteabad, the second oil industry of the republic. There, too, oil extraction is mechanized. The Befteabad settlement is well supplied with water and buried in apricot gardens. An entirely different landscape and, to some extent, different eco- nomic characteristics are observable in the right-bank area; it consists of the large sandy Kairak-Kum Massif, a broad detritus-covered plain crisscrossed by the dry Akchop, Ube'', and Supetau hill chains with the steep, rocky, and treeless slopes of the ftramin Mountains towering above all of than. Kishlaks (native villages) clustered around fresh-. water springs on the pebble-covered flatland are scattered over a dis- tance of teas of kilometers. The largest oasis in in the eastern part of the right-bank plain along the North Porgana Canal. Large irrigated fields and kishlaks, including the rayon center Asht, are found near the foot of the Kuramin Mountain Bange at the entrances to the mountain gorges and on the little rivers, which usually dry up as sooa as they flow out of those gorges. Cotton, fruit, and grapes are graviton the irrigated fields. Cattle is also raised there, mostly the angora breed of goats. Becomes they can get aong on less than the other animals, these goats thrive under the local conditions. As has already been pointed out, the greatest riches to be found. in the right-benivarea minerals -- are concentrated in Xareaazar. The Akehop and other low-mountain ranges contain salt deposits, lad& are now exploited at the northeastern and. of the Supetau Reseep In the little town of Karakee. Met far from there is the smell Oksukoa salt-and,ma& lake and a famous mud-care resort. The irrigation projeets now under construction on the Syr-Darya River will open vast opportunities for the development of agriculture and industry is that part of the region. The irrigation of the Sanger& and Deliverzin steppes, the Xholstabidgmbiputlibissifi, and the land along the North Yergana Camel will add another 30,000 ha of arable land in the next few years. Contingent on that is the present construction of cotton, processing and fruit-camning plants, a railroad line to the italiversin Steppe, machine-tractor stations, and new towns, as well as a considerable increase in the population. Declassified in in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The western part of the left-bank foothill plain is distinguished by its characteristic natural and economic features. Sloping high above sea level -- and therefore also cooler and more moistened by atmospheric precipitation -- this unirrigated area is planted primarily to grain and oil-bearing caltures and accounts for almost 1/6 of the whole area in the republic producing these cultures. Also coneentrated there are the largest vineyards in Tadzhikistan. In the comers' part of this plain, 48 km from the railroad and far from the Leninabad oasis cities, is the expanding city of Ura-Tube, an industrial and cultural center. Among its enterprises, Which use the abundant local raw materials, are a flour mill, a large wine distillery which produces the widest assortment of wines in Tadzhikistan, and a currant-canning plant. There are also some local industrial enterprises. The city has a boarding echool, a 3year agricultural school, and a umber of cultural institutions. Another wine distillery was built not far from Ur-Tube, in the Ganchi Kishlak. Large quantities of agricultural raw materials -- grain, fresh grapes and frait, cocoons, and Onitlini prod- ucts are also shipped fro* here to the Leninabad Oasis plants and to the Ursatyevskaya Railroad Station for export purposes. The upper part of the plain, including the city of 'Ura-Tube is characterized by excellent climatic conditions. The summers are not hot and the air is clear, and the good water and abundance of grapes make this a favorite rest-cure spot. A hoepital for the treatment of lung patients with mare's milk is open every summer near the Shakhristan rayon center. A good but winding automobile highway nine up the slope of the Turkes- tan 14ountain Range, through the Shakhristan Pass (3,351 re) and down into the Zeremahan Valley. 1,1 afgazt The high-altitude Zeravshan Valley extends almost 300 km from West to East within the republic. Its area of 12,600 sq ka was populated by about 103,000 people in 1939, This region is bordered by the Turkestan Mountain Range in the 'Borth and the Gissar Mountains in the South. Running between these 2 ranges, and parallel to them, is a third range, the Zeravihan. The 3 mountain ranges are very high, 4,000 and higher in the east and about 3,000 in in the west. The Tarkeetan and Gisler ranee are divides, i.e., is they are not crossed by rivers, whereas a number of gorges eat up the Zeravshan into separate ridges. ?Frim??????.. -109- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 us????????, Plowied between the Turkestan and. Mores-shaft mountain ranges, the large Ural's:hen River is joise& by 3 large tributaries and about 100 streams. Its largo tributaries -. the randarya, the Xahtutdarya? and the Magiandarlya.-- originate in the Giesler Mountains, flow into the Zeraviban River, and cut across the Zieravshae Mountain Range through deep canyons. The Zeravahan Valley is the largest and most densely populate& area in this region. Broad as its western end and narrowing down toward. the Bast, it rises in this direction, from 900 to 2,500 a above sea level. Working its way (isomer into the botton of the valley, the Zara/sham has Left a number of terraces, the oldest of Which is about 600 a above the river's present water level. The terraces found. on both banks of the river contain kishlaks, plowed fields, and. orchards. Some of the test- preserved. parts of the terraces are 1.5 km vide. These contaia the largest villages and highways, but in 031114 places the valley becomes narrow and. the terraces diseppear. There therkishlaks and orchards aro found on terraced slopes and the roads wind through the rocks or are strung across artificialli leveled places. West of lahtutdarya the valley becomes wider and gradually turns into a flat steppe through which the Zeravshan River flows between low banks aad branches off into several channels. The terraces are followed by small foothill plains extending up the mountains, which are somewhat lower there. One part of the population lives in the nountain gorges formed by the large Zeravahan tributaries, and another part in the gorges and valleys formed by those tributaries' own tributaries. The most populated of these is the high-altitude valley along the upper reaches of the Yagnob River (a teibatary of the randarta River) which flows between the Zeravshan and Gissar mountain ranges at an altitude of 3,000 m above sea level. It is difficult to describe the climatic characteristics of the ZeravShan Valley in view of its mosaic structure. On the whole, it is characterized by a gradual change from the hot climate of the lower plains to the cold climate of the high altitudes. The climate of the lower western part of the valley is of the semidesert type, with a. long growing sateen and a ware summer (the average July temperature is above 260). The air becomes cooler with increasing altitude. In the central part of the valley, at 1.500 above *ea level, the average July tem- perature is 24?, and. in the easter"' part, Which is 2,500 m above sea level, the temperature it 150. There is little precipitation at the bottom of the valley (160-330 an per year), but more on the mountain elope;. Moat of the moisture is concentrated in the narrowest and highest eastern part of the valley containing the huge Zeravihaa Glacier, -110.. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50 -Yr 2013/0 . C _ (-1 rInelnn Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 which is 25 km long and is the source of the Matcha River (this is the name of the upeer section of Zeravs)an). Shielded from the cold northern winds by the high Turkestan mountain range, this valley is warm even at comparatively high altitudes. Thus =thorn grades of tobacco, Tice, and crapes are raisea in the western part of the valley; fruit, particularly =prieets; grew in the central part, and grain, vegetables and an extra large and high-yielding grade of potatoes in the stern part. More rigorous climatic conditions obtain in the high-altitude lateral valleys, eepeciaIly in the Tegnob Valley. The axborial vegeta. tion Up there is sparse, end grain is the major agricultural product raised. The Zeravshan Valley haa been inhabited by Tadzhiks since ancient times. The various conquerors of the past were more interested in the large oases on the plains than in this region, in 'view of its inaeeessibil- ity and it therefore remained isolated. from the rest of the world. The survivals of the past socioeconomic orders, customs, language, and culture are more widespread there than in other places. The inhabitants of the TagnOb River Valley, for example, still use certain expressions of the Sogdian language, Which went out of use in the valley a thousand years ago. Before Central Asia was annexed to Russia, the Zeravehan Valley con- sisted of 4 bakdoms and, was part of the Bokhexakhanate? Economical,' it was an exceptionally backward region with a poor population and a seminatural economy. The situation was further aggravated by the fact that the autocratic beks were frequently at war with each Other, plunder- ing and. oppressimg the population. The annexation to Russia in 1870 and. the free communication with Russian Turkestan stimulated the development of commercial agriculture in the valley, especially horticulture. The lace' dried apricots became famous for their quality and. were marketable in the cities of central Asia. The multiferiwas *meanie development of this high-eltitaas region began after the October Revolution. 121.1934 Shoveller was (tressed by an automobile read connect/1,417040e and Stalinabad and. running through 2 mountain passes, each over 3,000 a in altitude. In the Penak Mountain Gorge, that road replaces the old winding footpaths along the edge of the precipice and the rickety improvised crossings ('ovrisgi"). The second, automobile road runs parallel to the Zerevshesi Elver, across the entire valley, between Pendshikent and Matcha. The new roads made it possible to 'undertake the exploitation of the minerals found. at theretofore inaccessible altitudes. Rare metals are now mined there. The most important of the nonmetallic minerals are ths 4,1??????111- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01041Ron7'Inn99nnno Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 hard-coal doposits in the valleys of the Zeravehan tributaries: the 3'andarya (with the Tagnob), the Kshtutdarya, and. the Nagiandarya. The Ravat (ien-Yegnob) deposits, the largest reserve of high-quality coal, is located war the autoinobile highway, but the processing of that coal requires the construction of a rail line there. The predominant type of economy in the valley is agriculture, its leading branches being 'shoep breeding =I the of of .P.Pain awl ?Am- gonous cultures. These breaches are the principal sources of income for the collective farms. There were over 60.000 ha of land ander cultiva- tion in the entire region in 1955; 84 of that land was planted to grata and bean cultures, mostly wheat and barley, and. 10A to bleagsnous cultures, mostly curly flax el. en-kadryael. There are about 300.000 head of all types of cattle in the region wi a predeninenee (over 80%) of the local breed. of sheep and. goats. The cattle population here is greater than in the other districts of Tadzhikistan. The nature of the economic activities in the afferent districts of the region is detarmined by the differences in the natural conditions. In the lewer part of the valley, for example, tobacco growing, vitiold- Ursa horticulture, and silkworm breeding are being developed. in addl.- tion to the above-mentioned branches of agriculture. Sconomica3.1y, the most develops& and promising part of the region is the wide and warm western part of the valley. It contataa 706 of* sil Vac crop land in the region and all the vineyards and tobacco and. rice fields. The wide terraces of the Zeravshan River, connecting with the rising foot- hill plains, can be cultivated by agricultural machinery. /OS are in operation in Pendshikeat and Gusar. Rare and there one finds considerable land. massifs that can be irrigated by the tributaries of the Zeravshas. River. This the vast Nargidar Steppe end the Dashtimoli Plateau are located between its left tributaries and the Isktutdarys sad. Xagiandarya livers. The decision adopted by the Council of Ministers USSR and the Contra Committee (SU on the development of cotton growing in the 'Tadzhik 311 in 1954-1960 calls for the irrigation of over 3,000 he of the Xargidar steppe as the first step in that direction. (The coastruction connected with the irrigation of the first part of the )Iargidar Steppe is now under way. The total land to be irrigated in the ltardigar Steppe and the adjacent Dashtimoli Platesa, partly with the aid. of nactinery and partly by diverting some of the ishtutdarya rater, will emceed 6,000 ha.) Part of that land All be used. for planting early varieties of cotton. ???????", -.112-. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 An. industry for processing agricultural raw materials is so far available only in this part of the region; a wine distillery ands rice- polishing plant are in operation in Pendshikent. An industrial combine and industrial artela are catering to the needs of the population. Pendzhikent is the largest inhabited point of the Zeravahan Valley; it bad 9,000 inhabitants iK 1939 and in 1953 it was reorganized into a town under direct rayon jurisdiction. This town has a pedagogical school. A Sogdian-Tadshik archeological expedition has been at work in Peolzhikent for several years, excavating and studying the buildings of ancient Pend- shikent. The expedition's findings serve to shed additional light on the culture of the Sogdians, the ancestors of the Tadzhik people. Horticulture, mostly apricot growing, is wideepread in the narrow central part of the valley. High-quality home-dried Apricots are shipped from there to the Samarkand. Railroad. There is little land in this part of the valley. Scattered sections of the usable land are cultivated with draft animals and manually. The irrigated land sections containing crops, orchards, and kishlaks are located on the terraces and alluvial fans on the bottom of the Tally". But these land sections are not irrigated by the Zeravshan River, which flows by swiftly in deep gorges, but by the numerous creaks and streams flowing down the steep mountains slopes and forming waterfalls in some places. The collective farmers make good use of that water by skill- fully diverting it to the terraces so that in most cases it does not even reach the Zeravshan River. ?he irrigation ditches are often dug high in the gorge, several kilometers from the terrace; the water flows through the ditches along steep slopes and through wooden troughs laid across ravines or attached to precipitous cliffs until it reaches the terrace where it is used for the crops or orchards. Sven the pebble-covered terraces can le cultivated when water is diverted to them; and although the large stones are cleared from the ground, it appears as if the fruit trees are growing out of the pebble, not from the soil. Different use is made of the mountain elopes forming the valley: scatters& across them are small parcels of land planted to grain and oil- bearing cultures, which are kept moist IT precipitation. /tom tine to time the inhabitants come up there for short periods to do field work. Stock breeding and. grain production are the principal economic activ- Wes in. the eastern part of the valley and other high places where the climate is cooler. -113- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The further economic development of the Zeravahan Valley is connected. with the construction of a connecting railroad line and the utilization of the largest coal deposits of Central Asia and the enormous power poten- tial of its rivers. In the lower part of the valley, further development will be facilitated by the expansion of the irrigate& land. for the raising of indastrial crop*. ? The Glaser Valley The Gissar Valley and its adjoining mountain slopes embrace the north- western group of administrative rayons that are under the jurisdiction of the republic. In the north this economic region is bounded by the Gissar mountain peaks, in the West it borders an the UXbek SSR, and in the South and East on a group of other rayons under the jurisdiction of the republic. That area of about 11,300 sq km was inhabited by approximately 380,000 people in 1939. The Gissar Valley is a vast intermountain depression near the southern end of the Gissar Mountain Range at 700-1.000 m above sea level. It is 70 km long, up to 20 km vide at its central part, and 2 to 3 km wide at the ends. In the West, beyond a mail watershed, it becomes the Surkhandarya Valley, the upper section of which belongs to Tadzhikistan. The total length of both valleys within Tadzhik territory is 110-115 km. In the North the Gissar Valley is blocked by the high Gissar Mountain Range. Which shields it from the cold norther* winds, aad in the South by a small mountain chain which offers partial mrotection, from the dry southern winds. Only the wide and 011011 entrance in the West makes the valley maoessible to the warm and comparatively humid winds. The long and flat slope of the Gissar Mountain Range rises above the valley in the shape of a row of gigantic steps broken up by deep, well irrigated and densely populated mountain. gorges. The southern edge of the valley, on the other hand, is steep, waterless, less broken up, and almost uninhabited. The Gissar Valley is irrigated by the Kafirnigan River, and the upper part of the Surkhan Valley by the Karate& River. On their right side, both rivers are joined by a number of tributaries flowing down the Gilmer Mountain Range. The tafirnigen River's large tributaries in the valley are Varsob and. Manske., both of them of glacier and. snow origin and therefore well-suited for cotton-field irrigation. The climate in the Gissar Valley is of the dry-steppe continental type, characterized by long and hot summers with little precipitation, and short, comparatively cold, and humid winters. The average July ten- perature in Stalinabad (al 822 m absolute altitude) le 28?. SInamer temper- atures sometimes exceed 400 in the shade, but the *vesting. are cool even after hot days. The average January temperatare is close to 00 but may ? 114 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co.y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDPRi ninaqPnn?-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 40S. occasionally go go down to 20-25? below. The average annual precipitation is 600 ma and most of it occurs during the winter-spring period. In the summer and Gatuma there not a single rain drop XV fall on the hot aM dry land for several months in a row. Wherever the land is not artificially irrigated, all the grasairs dry up, and only the shrubbery remains. Growing well on the irrigated. lend, on the other band, are each earath-loving cultures as cotton, rice, tobacco, geranium. the Kazanlyk Rose, grapes, figs, pomegranates. etc. The stotattain slopes retain the humidity of the prevailing, southwestern air currents, and. in some of the places there is a great deal of precipitation. In Xhodzhi- Obigara, for example (at 1.700 m absolute altitude), the precipitation is close to 1.400 me. That is why the following cultures can and do grow well without irrigation in a wide belt at about 1,200 to 2,000 is above sea level: grain cultures, broad-leaf forests of ash trees, naple, poplars, hackberry, hawthorn, and. a variety of fruit trees, particularly Greek walnuts. There in still mach precipitation above the forest belt, but insufficient warmth for the trees, and. the only vegetation there are subalpine and. alpine grass varieties. The summer pastures in the Oissar Mountains are among the best in the republic. Before the October Revolution. southern Tadzhikistan was the remotest and most backward part of the Bokhara kieeeete. It had. no industry, local demands were met by the cottage industry and the little cotton that was raised was consumed locally. The major occupation of the valley population were grain growing and stock breeding. Most of the arable land was con- centrated in the bands of the emir. the Church, and a small rich clique of people. The dekhkan (peasant) lived in semistarvation as he worked on. rented land, usually for 1/4 of the crop. Agri=Iteare was deteriorating. The crop lands continued to shrink (by more than lfr times between 1909 nM 1214), irrigation installations deteriorated, and large stretches of land, turned into marshes. The region was ruined still further by the civil war, which lasted. several years in eastern Bokha.ra. By 1924 the total arable land was reduced. to only 1/5 of the 1917 area, and. the population was reduced to 1/2. The large bazaar and artisan kishlake (native villages) ware de- populated. The victory of the Soviet Government was followed by the restoration end development of the national economy in every district of southern Tadzhikistan, but the volume and rates of development varied with the different districts. The economy of the Gissar VaUy, with its favorable geographic location, underwent a particularly speedy development. A, low ansi open valley in the extreme West, it serves as a wide gate which con- nects all of southern Tadzhikistan with the railroad network of the Union. The railroad. that connected Stalinabad and. Torsos in 1929 provided. a power- ful stimulant for the development of industry and agriculture in the Gilmer Valley and, consequently, also in the other districts. ???????""h - 115 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01041Ron7'Inn99nnno Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Agriculture grow rapidly and. its production trend underwent a change: grain growing for consumption purposes gave way to commercial grain produc- tion, with technical cultures playing an important part in the process. whsn. the national-territorial boundaries were fixed. (in 1924), total arable land. of the Gissar Valley amounted. to 16,000 ha of whicb. gully 2,500 ha had been planted. to cotton. The total cultivable area has now been increased. to 197,000 ba and. the area planted. to cotton to 38,000 ha. ale Glaser Valley is leading in the prodnction of raw cotton, its output amounting to about 1/3 of all the cotton picked in the republic.. The rapid intensification of agriculture was facilitated by a rapid. increase in both the population (in 1939 the density of the rural population in the cotton growing districts ranged. from 26 to 76 people per aver* mile) and the 11110111101111 funds invested by the Soviet Government in the development of cotton growing. The Large Gissar Canal was built as soon as the expending cotton fields brought about a water shortage in some parts of the valley. Measu.r3.ng 49 km in length, this canal diverts MO ae of the water of the Dushambe River to the Saratag ItS.ver, irrigating several thousand hectares of land. between them. There are 15 MTS in operation in the valley (1/4 of all the HTS in the republic) and 3 cotton-processing plants. An important part in the development of cotton growing in the valley is playet by the Hagar Cotton-Seed. Testing Station, the kolkhoz seed-selection fields, and. the Stalinabad Sovkhoz, a large artd. wfl- equipped state farm. These engage in improving the prevailing varieties of cotton in the valley and developing new ones and. devising new agro- technical measures for cotton growing and grass planting. In 1955, the Gissar Valley kolkhozes obtained. an average of 34.4 eentners of Soviet-grads raw cotton per hectare. Cotton growing now accounts for GO to 90% of all the financial income of the kolkhosis in the cotton- growing ?woos of the valley. The Gissar Volley has become one of the regions producing volatile oil cultures. Hundreds of hectares of irrigated land. in its vestern part are planted. to geraniums. The Nfironos Stat. Pant and WI experimental station for oil-bearing cultures were opened. in Pakhtaabad. Sxperinents are being conducted with ouch valuable volatile oil cultures as lavender, basil, lemon euca3.yptus, lemon wormwood., etc, in adAition to geranium, which is the principal culture. The green mass of geranium is processed into oil at the Pakhtaabad Geranium Plant. Potatoes, vegetables and melon cultures play an important part in the food supply for the population of the towns and villages, particularly Stelinabad. This branch of agriculture has been lagging behind for a very long time. But it is now getting more attention.. Large field.% have been planted to potatoes and vegetables, and hot houses are under construction. However, there is still a. shortage of raw materials for the vegetable conning industry and. succulent fodder for the dairy cattle. 116 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002-ion79nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 094.: But the rapid expansion of irrigated agricultural land, which is planted mostly to technical cultures, did not reduce the importanee of grain and oil-bearing cultures, which have merely been shifted from the irrigated land to the newly cultivated =irrigated. areas. The Glaser Valley with its surrounding foothill plains and mountain slopes is one of the "'bread grain" districts producing 1/4 of the total grain crap of the regalia. It produces primarily wheat, barley, and oil-bearing flax (sigle). Most of the crop land is found in the hill belt (adyr) where the flat hill slopes are largely ploughed. up. The modern machinery of the !MS is used on that land. Before the revolution, horticulture and viticulture in the Gissar Valley were of no commercial value despite the exceptionally favorable natural conditions for those cultures in the valley. First-grade frmit- and grape state farms have now been built in the central part of the valley. The grape growers of the Shedkrinsa State Pare, for example, for a number of years have been raising the richest grape crops in the republic, and. were therefore granted the privilege to participate in the All-Union Agricultural Bxhibition for the third. time. Working jointly with the collective farms, they have kept the Gissar Valley wine distillery and fruit-canning plant, the only ones of their kind, in southern Tadzhikistan so far, supplied. with ray materials. But in the development of horti- culture and viticulture, this region as a whole is still far behind the western part of the Fergana Valley, inasmuch as it only accounts for 131-15% of all the orchards amd vineyards of the republic. As regards profit, animal husbandry is second only to cotton growing. In 1955, there were about 700,000 head of all types of cattle in the val- ley. The Gissar Valley is situated between the vast winter pastures of the southern part of the republic and the rich summer pastures of the southern slopes of the Glaser mountain range. The proper utilization of these pastures facilited the development of the famous Gissar breed of sheep. The old routes of shifting the cattle between pastures are still in use, tut the grazing; conditions have been considerably improved. The Gilmer breed of sheep predominates the flocks. About half of the Glaser sheep of the republic are concentrated in this valley. Also found in this region, are most of the Lokay breed of horses; this breed is under- going further improvement at the Koktaih State Stables. The Gissar Valley with its well-developed vegetable and grain growing economy and food industry is also very suitable for hog breeding aad dairy cattle raising. The productivity of the cows and the total income derived from cattle raising have been sharply increased in the commercial dairy farms (some of them mechanized), organised by mane of the suburban kolkhoses. The abundance of agricultural raw materials made the industrial development of the Gissar Valley possible. Bnterprises engaging in cotton processing, flour milling, meat packieg, silk winding, and leather making -117- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 were built one after another. At the same time, the available mineral raw materials stimulated the construction of plants for the production of building materials required by the economy. Construction was progres- sing at a very rapid. pace. Two-to-thr? new enterprises wire commissioned every year. In the first 2 five-year plans now plants and. factories were built only in Stalinabad. The Ordshonikitizeabad Flour Milling Combine was the only large enterprise built outside of the capital. Such a con- centration ot production in one place was largely due to the fact that the Glaser Valley, unlike Khodzhent and. Healed** in the North, had no reserve of artisans and. qualified orator:on. or is it as rich In minerals as are the Isfare. and Jraramazar rayons. The Gissar Valley primarily produced. agricultural raw materials, and Stalimatad alone seas able to absorb and process all of it. Substantial changes in the structure and. distribution of the industry were introduced in the third., and. especially the fourth, five-year -plan. Good. transportation connections had. by that time already been established. between the Gissar Valley and the other regions of Tadzhikistan. In addition to the railroad trunk line to the eastern part of the valley (Ordshonikidseabad.), good. roads were built from Stalinabad in all direc- tions. An asphalt-covered. highway, 110 km long, was extended into the Vaithsh Valley, and. a narrow-gouge railroad line was built parallel to it. An automobile highway was built northward. to the Tar sob Mountain Gorge and, through it, into the Zeravshan and leergana Valleys. The big Pamir Highway was built across the Xarategin, Darvaz, and Bedakhshan mountain district, which previously had. been almost inaccessible. Heavy automobile traffic was ineaguratad between the Gissar Valley and. south- eastern Tadzhikistan (formerly Kulyal Oblast). The growing stocks of raw materials, produced. locally and. brought in from other districts, stimulated the construction of industrial enter- prises also in other parts of the volley. The majority of factories and plants, however, are still concentrated in Stalinabad, which therefore reboots the principal industrial specialization of a large economic region. Stalinabad is also the largest political an& cultural center of Tadzhikistan.. Stalinabad is located. in the eastern part of the Gisse.r Valley where the Varzob River flews out of the mountains and forms its alluvial fan. (The lower part of the Varzob River at Stalisalad. and. below is called the Dtsehambinka). It is one of the rouse cities of the Soviet Union. Three kishleks existed in the recent past where Stalinabad. is now; one of them, Dushanbe, consisted. of several dozen clay hats and seised tents and. the other 2 were still smaller. In 1924 Du.shambe became the center of the Tadzhik ASSR, and. in 1925 it was proclaimed. a city even though it was not yet a city. The construction of a city had. only begun. The first ,K0.????? - Us - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co.y Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA RDPRi ninaqPnn?-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 industrial combine, employing 14 workers, started, operations in Dushanbe in 1926. The first train arrived in Dnshambe in the autumn of 1929 and stopped in the open steppe. It was still difficult to judge the out- lines of the future city by the work going on at that tine. frames of new buildings and construction projects were springing up sinultaneously in the East, South, and North Dushanbe mons. In 1929 Duehambe was renamed Stalinabad. Thus the foundation for the republico $ capital we laid in an empty field, but in the center of the future roads of the still backward agrarian district. Many newcomers from every part of the Soviet Union at that tins became permanent residents of the young capital. The Stalindbad popula- tion grew by leaps and bounds. The city had 5,600 people in 1926; 16,000 in 1928; 24,000 in 1930; and 82,600 in 1939. It now has 191,000 residents (as of the beginning of 1956). The swift growth of the city and its urgent need for out side specialists account for the multinational charac- ter of its population. In 1939 Russians made up the bulk of the popmla- tion (57A), followed by Tadzhiks (12.1%), and Uzbeks (9%), and also by Tatars, Kazakh:a Iirgizians, etc. With the training of national madras, the relative number of Tadzhiks has now been considerably increased. Stalinabados industry was originally connected with agricultural production. A cotton processinglAant, a flour mill, a meat making combine, a silk mill, and a tannery had been built in the first 10 years of the cityls existence. But the rapid growth of the city population, the increase in the number of workers, employees, and students created a de- nand for manufactured products designed to meet the daily needs of the population, and such enterprises as a lemonade plant, clothing and shoe factories, a mechanized broad-baking plant, a brewery, etc, came into existence one atter another. The searah for building raw materials around the expanding capital proved successful. Brick, alabaster, asphalt- concrete, and cement plants were built North of the city where fire clay, lime, and marl had been discovered. Later, in the second and third five-year plans, it became possible to build, more complicated enterprises vitich used seminenefeatures as their raw zatterials. A silk-weaving mill was built before ths war and a large textile combine, the largest cotton producing conbine in Tadzhik- istan, during the war. It was no coincidence that the combine was built in the southern part of the country-, in the Glaser Valley, vhich is a leading cotton growing area and the concentration point for the cotton fiber of all the southern plants. (Cotton fiber is shipped to the Gissar Valley fro* 6 cotton processing plants in southern Tadshikistan, stiai of it to be transshipped by rail and some for use by the textile combine,) Situated at the juncture of the road whore that raw Material, inevitably concentratea, Stalimbed was picked as the site for the combine. The - 119 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Stalinabad. combine is second. only to the Leninabad Silk Cosibine as regards the nn.nber of employees. A well-built textile workers settlement with large houses and. cottages, CilleMaa and polyclinics, schools and libraries sprang up around. the combine at the southern fringe of Stalinabad. Another part of the textile combine is now under construction, and. its capacity will be double that of the existing combine. The growing industry needed. more power and the city needed electric lighting. The shortage of local fuel and the high cost of imported fuel led to the only other large source of energy for the city. the Varzob River. The problem of supplying Stalinabad with electric power at that stage of its development was solved. with the construction of the 7.500 kw Upper Varzob State Power Plant in 1937. The capital continued to grow, demanding more electric power. The Lower Varzob State Paver Plant, built in, 1949, had. twice the capacity of the first plant and. was capable of producing electric power for new enterpriees. Three hydroelectric plants (the third, a email one, built at the lowest cascade) were built to function as a single automatically- controlled. power system. But although many of the enterprises now have their own thermoelectric power plants, there is still a shortage of electric power in. Stalinabad, particularly in winter tthen the drainage of the Varzob River is sharply reduced.. That shortage will be eliminated. when tho large Perepadnaya Hydroelectric Plant, now under construction on the Vakheh Canal, is completed. In the sumer its power will be used. far the mechanical irrigation of the Vakhsh Valley, and in the winter for the Stalinabad power network. Stalinabad is the largest industrial center of the republic. In. 1955 it accounted for about 28% of the entire industrial output of Tadzhikistan; the light and. food industries are among the leading ones, accounting for about 80 of the city's industrial output. Stalinabad is a large consumer of various local foodstuffs, and. this affects the structure of agricultural production in the adjaceat territories. Vegetables, potatoes, fruit, and grapes are important staples of the city population's diet. These cultures ripes at different seasons of the year, in view of the diversity of natural conditions in southern Tadzhikistan, and the fruit-and-vegetable season therefore lasts about 3/4 of the year. Besidee, certain cultures grow best in certain districts. Ttsze, most of the potatoes shipped into the city cm* from the eastern mountainous areas where the sulonsrs are cooler and the quality and yield. of the potatoes are hig)wir. Cantaloupes and water melons, on the other hand, grow well in the lover, hot va3.1sys where there is an Emcees of irrige,- tion water. ??????"la - 120 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01041Rnn7'Inn99nnno Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Stalinabad is not only the largest industrial center, it is also the center of political, scientific, and cultural life in Tadzhikistan. The qualified cadres required by the republic itself are trained in that city. In 1925 Dushanbe had only 3 elemeatery schools. Modern Stalinabad has about 30 elementary and middle schools atteaded by more than 20.000 children. The first Tadzhik state university was opened there in 1949. The oity alga- has a aedizal, an agric-altwel, a polytechnical, and 2 pedagogical institutes aad 6 specialized middle schools. Teachers, doc- tors, agronomists, geologists, and other specialists educated in the schools of the capital are now working in. every part of the republic. Also located in Stalinabad is the Academy of Sciences Tadzhik SSE, Watch works in close contact with the wide network of scientific institutions of the republic. An important part in the cultural development of the republic is played. by the large printing machine combine; millions of periodicals and. books, published in 3 lawages, come off those printing presses annaally. Unions of soviet writers, composers, artists and architects, latch unite large creative collectives, work in the capitalp Stalinabad has 3 theatres ? the Roll shoy Theatre and. 2 dramatic theatres a state philharmonic orchestra, a circus, several cinemas, parks et cul- ture and rest, a water-sports stadium, and. other stadiums. Stair:abed is situated in a, climatically favorable spot of the Gissar Valley, at the upper part of the alluvial fan of the Ve.rzob River which is far enough from the swastpy button land of the rafirnigan River. The wide and. flat terraces of the Dashambinka River are suitable for large- scale construction. The microstructure of the city's territory is favor- able also in that it is not menaced by a shortage of water, as the earmer drainage of the Varzob River amounts to 100 cu a per second.. Its poten- tial hydroelectric power is about 80,000 kw, which would. justify the construction of a number of hydroelectric pleats on the cascades. The third and highest terrace over the Dc.ehembinks. River, about 30 a high, is almost entirely under construction. The city has expanded to the South and West, occupying the other terraces. Construction has recently been started. on the right hank of the river. Among the projects already completed are Komsomol Lake with the water-sports stadiun, another large stadium, a concrete plant, and the Sovetskiy Settlement inhabited, by the builders of Stalinabad. The Large Gissar Canal originates there. Stalinabad is a young city, and. its construction is being carried out according to a definite plan. Its buildings are not tall, all of then being surrounded by trees and skrabbery. The predominance of low buildings is determined, by seismic conditions. A a's_mracter.istic feature of Stalinabad are the various settlements built within the city limits at different tines, such as the Sovetskiy, Severely, Kirovskiy, Zavodskoy, Ilinicheskiy, and. other settlements. -3.21- - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The well-distributed settlements retain their importance as districts of a big city; the unplanned and random construction of the past has given way to the construction of beautiful buildings, well-planned. gardens, and parks. Stalinabad. is one of the greenest cities of Central Asia. The locale occupied by the city slants down, In 2 directions: toward and. parallel to the river, along an inclined, alluvial fan. This makes it (saw to irrigate the city territory by large irrigation ditches which get their water from the Varsob River and, distribute it, by the gravity method, to the streets, gardens, and. plant nurseries. Many of the city's streets resemble avenues, their sidewalks run between lines of trees under a dome of foliage. The tress consist of maple, poplar, catalpa, white acacia, plane trees, and willows. There are still very few con- iferous trees to decorate the streets when the other tress shed. their leaves. A shrub-like white cedar plant has been planted for some time in Stalinabad; it blends with the flower beds around. the houses and is an, excellent, decorative plant. The botanical garden in the northern part of the city has 400 species of arborial and shrubbery plants and, about ZOO different types of grass-like plants indigenous to various regions of the world.. In addition to the botanical garden, the city also main- tains 2 plant nurseries and 3 city gardens containing a larger variety of plants than those growing on the city streets and. boulevards. The botanical garden and the plant nurseries are already used as a rich source for the improvement of the city's "green architecture." The line of buildings extending frost the northern to the southern fringes of the city is almost 10 km long. The city is narrowed down toward. the North by the eastern hills approaching the river, and. it tapers off to the North of the botanical garden. StalistA'bad is excellently planned: its streets running from North to South and. from West to last, ar-* wide and straight and they intersect at right angles. The streets running in a meridional direction point to the Gisser Mountain Range and are well aired, by the prevailing winds coming from the North. The major boulevards lead to the 4 possible approaches to the city. The meridional ulitsa Lenin, which divides the city into 2 parts, is also the city'* main artery inasmuch as all the outgoing and incoming roads cross it or run into it. It extends across the entire city, first in a north-westerly and, then in a northerly direction. It is crossed by wide streets at right angles. In its appearance, lints& lamina is typical of Stalinabad and the other new cities of Central Asia. It is a boulevard. consisting of a =giber of avenues divided. by irrigation ditches. This street is dotted, with squ.arer, parks, and the largest - 122 - 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 10.S. public buildings in the city. At the southern end of the street, not inr from the railroad. station, is the cinema Vat= (Metherland) Cinema, built in the oriental style. Further down are the austere- looking buildings of the state university and the Presidium of the Tadzhik Academy of Sciences. Towering over Moscow Sqaare, which is decorated with fountains, a pool, and flowerheds, is the building of The TedShik Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet._ Not far fru) the opera theatres is an attractive 2 story bundles with semigebled win- dows containing the busts of Eassian and Tadzhik classical writers. This building, one of the most beautiful in the city, regards architec- ture and interior decoration (built by architect S. L. Anisimov), houses the Public Library of the Republic latent Firdonsi. This "palace of beaks" contains about one minion volumes including thermion/ books and manus- cripts of oriental writers. Next, on Soviet Spare, is the largest build- ing in the city, the house of government. Further North, the streets run along the Park of Culture and Rest imolai Lenin. Not far from there are the Regional Museum of Natural History and the State Museum of Fine Arts. Further on, in the Frunze Park section, are the following theatres: The Tadzhik Academic Theatre of the Drama. the Green (Summer) Theatre, and the recently-built House of Culture. A school town containing most of Stalinabadls colleges and specialise schools is located at the very worth end of the street. Prominent among the school buildings are the large and well-lighted buildings of the medical and pedagogical insti- tutes. A trolley-bus line runs along the entire length of ulitsa Lenina, from the railroad station to the northern settlement. Located in the Gilmer Valley now. besides Stalinabad, is the rayon city of Roger and several city-type settlements. Almost all of them have one or 2 industrial enterprises. Regar is is the western part of the Giese? Valley. Its distance from Stalinahad (60 kn) and location in the heart of the cotton country have determined the direction of its industrial development. The most modern cotton processing plant in the republic was built there as far back as 1938. Later on an oil manufacturing plant was added. The city-typo settlement of Ordzhonididzsabad (formerly Tangi,Bazar), 23 km Bast of Stalinabad, is located at the terminal point of the railroad in the Ginger Valley. Converging at this point are automobile highways from the southern Tadzhik grain areas, and one of the first and largest flour milling combines of the republic is located. there. The settlement is surrounded by cotton fields and it has the third largest cotton - processing plant of the Glaser Valley. The largo city-type settlement of Tekob was built in the Takob Mountain gorge, 46 km North of Stalindbad, on the rich fluorspar deposits. (Fluorspar is a mineral, calcium fluorine (cAr2). It is used in metallurgy -123- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 40S. as a flux for lowering the 'temperature of metal welting (Marten process, alumiwa smelting); in the chemical industry for obtaining hydrofluoric acid. and, for the impregaation of railway cross ties; it is also used. in ceramice for the production of enamel as well as in glass and. optical glass production). Mines and a concentration plant were built in Takob. Other industrial enterprises were built also in other places of the Gissar Valley: & hydroelectric station in the Varzob rayon center, a fruit casas-ing plant in Catepture; a geranium processing plant in Pak- htaated, a brick-and-tile plant in Gi stare, etc. All the mentioned centers are undergoing; expansion and improvement. New helloes, schools, chinless, hotels, power pleats, and water-supply systems are under construction; coMbines, stores and restaurants, designed to cater to the daily needs of the people are being opened; the streets are being paved with asphalt and lined with trees, and con- munitation with other centers and Stalinabad is being established. This constellation of new centers near Stalinabad shares some of this citys s productive as well as cultural and. educational functions. ?or example, a number of the republican schools are now located in these centers, net in Stalinaba.d; the school for training physical education teachers for middle schools is in Ordzhonikidzeabad; the 3-year republic school for training educators ia in Inktash, and. the school for mechani- zation workers in agriculture is in Cheptara. Opening into the wide Oissar Valley from the North is a number of mountain gorges at 11000 to 2,500 la above sea level.. These gorges extend. tens of kilometers up the slope and. in some places reach the watershed range. They are all inhabited. Unlike the Gissar Valley colleetive farms, the mountain kolkhozes specialize in agriculture on =irrigated land. (grain and oil-bearing cultares) and animal husbandry; they also engage in silkworm breeding and horticulture. There is very little irrigated, land. up there, and. every little patch of it -- planted to lucerne, vegetables, or fruit -- is therefore carefully cultivated. The economy of the mountain kolkhozes is considerably poorer than that of the valley kolkhozes, and the collective farms, which have to operate under particularly difficult natural conditions* have been moving to the cotton districts. The Varzob Gorge is the most densely populated ausd economically important. Tbe Stalinahed Ure. The automobile :highway runs across it. The Upper Varzob State Power Plant was built where the gorge emerges from the mountains. The Takob Combine is situated in one of its side gorges. Another gorge, rbodshl-Obigarm at 1,700 a above sea level, contains hot mineral-water springs. A health resort was built - 124 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 there. At the highest part of the gorge are the Zirmin Coal Deposits. Gold. springs of mineral water of the Na.raan type are found in a number of places on the Gissar Mountain Range; the most powerful of them, the Maodzhi-Sangkhok. are 3,020 a above sea level. Some of the springs are partially utilized to meet the demands of the Staline.bad population. The ealltera fringa of the Gletar Valley (Yavzibluialdi Rayon) occupies the lower part of the mountains and has a flatter topography then the Gissar mountain slopes. There is very little irrigated land. there. The large flat stretches of iudrrigated lead are cultivated largely by machine. The major aspects of agriculture are grain growing and animal breeding. (The collective tarsal financial income from grain and oil-bearing cal- tura accounts for 45%-60% of their total income, and their income from animal breeding for 20-40%.) The Gilmer Valley has good. transportation connections with the valleys of southwestern Tadahikiston, particularly with the Vakhsh Valley. louthveitern Tadyhikistan This region covers the aouthwestern part of Tadzhik SSR; it borders on the Gisear Valley in the fforth, on southeastern Tadshikistan in the Bast, on Afgfrmiatetanilxv.the South, and. on the Uzbek SSR in the West. It includes several wide valleys which fan out in different directions. )a- ample, are the Vakhsh, Kafirnigan, and. Kirovabad Ve:I.lays. -which are sepa- rated by low and. arid mountain chains. The territory of the region (its valleys and. watersheds) as a whole declines from North to South. The Vakhsh. and Kafirnigen Rivers flow in the same direction. In the South the region is bounded. by the river Pyandzh and, past the confluence of the Pyandsh and. the Vakhsh, by the Amu-Darya. The region occupies an area of 10.100 sq kin. The population is concentrated mostly in the 3 above-mentioned valleys, which contained 148,200 people in 1939. Before the revolution, the region was part of the Bokhara khanate. Only the Kafir.nigan and Pyandsh (Kirovabad) valleys were inhabited.; the Vakhsh Valley, the largest of then all, remained. practically uninhabited.. A great effort has been wade under the Soviet Government to irrigate the desert land and reclaim the marshy territory in these valleys for the lyarpose of planting then to cotton and other technical cultures. One-hundred thousand hectares of land were under cultivation in the region in 1955, including 60,000 ha. of cotton fields. Over 40% of the republic's cotton crops and. almost all the thin-fiber cotton varieties are raised. In this region. Substantial quantities of oil-beariaz aultares, jute, and other subtropical and tropical cultures are raised in the southern ? 125 ? Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release p 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81 ninAwnn9qnn-,orinry, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 valleys in addition to cotton. There is very little grain grown in the region, as it cannot be raised. on =irrigated land. in this dry area, and. the irrigated. land is therefore used to raise more valuable cultures. The low-yield desert-steppe pasturelands of the region are best suited for sheep-raising, particularly asttiakiumm sheep, which are less discriminating in regard to fodder. Most of the 700,000 head of cattle available in the region. in 1955 consisted of sheep and goats. Sixty percent of all the astrakhan aheep of the Tadahik SSR axe concentrated in this region. Three of the repUblicts 4 state sheep farms can be found in the open plains of the region. The industry of the region specializes primarily in processing local agricultural raw materials: raw cotton, cotton seed, grain and. oil-bearing cultures; building materials are produced from local raw materials. Every valley included in this region differs from the others in its natural and economic conditions, bat their similarities are greater than their differences. The Vakhsh Valley, the largest and. economically most advanced, is located. in the center of the region. It is situated, at the lower course of the Vakhsh River, which joins the lay:andsh to forst the Mu-Darya River Extending over 100 km in a meridional direction, the valley is up to 25 km wide in its northern part, narrows down to 7-10 kw toward the middle, and becomes wider again in the southern part. Its flat part alone, which is accessible to irrigation, covers more than 1.500 sq km. The valley is surrounded by low mountains from 3 sides; from the West the mountable decline fairly steeply toward the Vakksh River, in the north their slopes are flat, and on the Afghanistan side there are no mountains; the altitude of the valley is 350 to 460 a above sea level. The Vakhah Valley is one of the warmest districts in the Soviet Union. The average winter temperature is 10-30. and the average summer temperature is very high, about 300. The hot, dry, and sunny summer makes the valley warmer than Egypt in eammertime. This makes it possible to raise warmth-loving subtropical sad even tropical catares In the valley. At the same time, the valley climate is very mach of the con- tinental type. Although there is an meow in adatertime, the temperature goes down to 23?-25?. The heat-loving: perennial cultures. (citrus fruit and olives) cannot therefore be left to grow in unprotected soil; even pomegranates, figs, and. grapes have to be protected with additional soil above the ground. in wintertime. The amount of Fmnsga precipitation le less than 300mm and in some places not more than 150 mm. Normally-, there is not a drop of rain for a 4 month period during the summer. Only arti- ficial irrigation can make agriculture possible under these prevailing desert condition*. ??-?--"Th - 126 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Mazy years ago, this fertile valley attracted. a large population. Dry remnants of ancient canals and ruins of old, fortresses and large villages are still found on the third, and widest, terrace. Later on, however, the valley was all but abandoned. Before World War I there were only 2,200 households in the valley, occupied. mostly by semi- nomadic 'Uzbeks and Teske:entails. They had. about 35,000 head of cattle, mostly goate and shoop. Astra1r42:n sheep were raised by the Turiheaniens of the 2 southern villages. Dzhilikult and Eare-Turkmen. The exhausted land was simply abandoned. "This year the crops are planted in one place, and next ysar in another; the lend is rich, end there is only a handful of people here" (A. A. Semenov). Much grain was planted but my little cotton. There was no industry. A small amount of raw cot- ton, was shipped to Terms which had. the only cotton processing plant in eastern Bokhara. In the first years of the existence of the Soviet Government, the valley was almost depopulated by the incessant Bashmachi attacks. Even as late as 1926 (the year of the first census of the population), when part of the population had returned to their homes, the entire valley including the territory North of the Vakhsh River had, a population of 11.500 people. The region was thus very sparsely populated at the tine its economic development began. The following 3 problems bad to be urgently solved before the valley could be exploited: building reads, irrigating the desert, and. populating the desert. Not until after the construction of the Terms-Staunched railroad. line was it possible to tackle the problem of reclaiming the deserts of southwestern Tedehikisten; first of all the Vakheh Valley, which had been cut off from the outside world. by mountains and the lack of roads. 1932, a good highway. 110 km long, was built between Stanumbed. and, Jrargan-Tube, and a bridge was built across the Vakhth River. A narrow- gauge line extending along the valley from the beginning of the canal to the Tower Pyandzh quay Oh the Amu-Darya River was built at the same time. It was designed, first, to haul freight along the carol under construction and, later, to transport cotton. The existing canals were capable of irrigating only a =al portion of the land. Much of the land in that area became swampy anti seneseuzed as a result of centuries of exploitation of the canal* and the poor irrigation methods. But east of the valley there wire broad plateaus (upper terraces) with fertile sieroxem (grey desert) soil which had never been, irrigated.. It required complicated engineering installations to gat the water up there. That is how the Lane Vakhsh Canal, one of the lar- gest construction projects of the first part of the Second Tive-Year Plano - 127 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 was conceived. and built in 1933. A whole river, draining at the rate of 100 cu a of water per second, was shifted. toward. the valley. terraces. A dam with 7 sluice-gates passing the river water into a deep depression, the upper part of the canal, was built on the left bank of the Vakhsh River not far from where it leaves the mountains. The canal extends tens of kilometers to the South and breaches off into numerous sleeves en the way. Some of those branches supply water to the previously irrigated fields, mostly on the third terrace, and others to the newly irrigated. land. on the fourth and fifth terraces (plateaus) Which could not be irrigated by the gravity method before. Large-scale irrigation work is underway in the Vakhsh Valley even now. More than 20,000 ha of new land will be irrigated there during the Sixth Five-Year Plan. The high fourth and fifth terraces ? comprising the Akgazin, tirtabos? Kafyr, and Eumsyngir massifs -- will be prepared. for cultivation. To many of the sections the water will be supplied by pumping stations. The largo Persnadnaya hydroelectric power plant La under construction on the Akgasin branch of the Vakhch Canal. Another and. still more powerful hydroelectric power plant, the Golovnaya, is tinder construction on the Vakkeh. River itself. In the summer the power of the Perepadaaya State Power Plant will be used for irrigating the land by machinery and, for facilitating the vertical drainage on the old. irri- gated land and. other need.s of the Vakhah Valley. In the winter the water will flow to Stalinabad along the conduits already built. The new area planted to cotton required. not only a good deal of the labor involved. in cotton crowing but also a great deal of construction and. maintenance of roads, bridges, canals, and reservoirs. Such work could be carried out only by a permanently settled population, which the region lacked. Only the mass migration from the mountainous districts, which ha4 been going on for many years, could. supply the economy of the valley with the necessary labor force. The settlement of the valley began back in the Second Five-Tear Plan. Entire collective farms with their equipment and cattle moved doun the valley. New inhabited. points spritn7, up one after another, mow city-type settlements came into being (Vakhshatroy, the Tower Pyandsh nay, and the aro? State rays) and the following new ray**, and rayon centers were formed; Kaganovichabad, Nolotovelad, and Oktyabrsk; the city of Kz3.rgan- Tube grew into a large industrial center. The entire- population of the Valrhs.h Valley is concentrated in the flatland. part of it, which is the only suitable place for artificial irriaation. The valley population in 1939 was 125,000 according to the census. ??????.. - 12e - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50 Y 2013/0 . C _ (-1 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Rut despite the large-scale movement of kolkhoznike to the Vakhsh Valley, there was still a large area of unused lend. and. plenty of waters and. the problems involved in the expansion of cotton growing were still urgent. That prompted the establishment of the first cotton-raising state farms in the valley. There were 5 of them at first, and only 2 enlarged seekhozos r-oe. the Kmebyehav and, Kirov sovkhozes which produce tons of thousands of tons of cotton annually. In 1955, 45.000 ha were planted to cotton in the Vakhsh Valley. 80% of that cotton consisted of thin-fiber varieties. It takes a synt total of about 4,0000 temperature and. an average daily temperature of not less than 15? to raise these grades of cotton within the existing growing season. The Vakhsh and the other southern valleys can meet such requirements: in Kurgan-Tube the total temperature for the season is 4,6100 and. in Mikoyanabad 5.0020 (based. on the 5-year average from 1942 through 1946). Experiments with thin-fiber cotton began as early as 1927, bu.t for a umber of years its yield vas very low; one to 4 centners per hoe- tare. Large-scale experimental. work on new high-yield grades of cotton is being done by the experimental cotton-lucerne station established. in the Vek.hsh valley in 1930. In 1955 the Vakhsh Valley kolkhoses picked. an average of 22 centners of thin-fiber cotton grades per hectare, and. some of the collective farms, brigades, and. field. teams picked. as much as 40-70 centners per hectare. Important among the other subtropical cultures is the geranium oil- bearing plant raised, in the southern part of the Valchsh. Valley. Its green pulp is processed at the Molotovatad. Geranium factory. New cultures, such as lemons, tangerines, and oranges, have made their appearance in the kolkhoz and kolkhosniks, gardens in the past 5-6 years. Proper agrotechnical measures and maintenance could make these cultures profit- able. Very useful work with subtropical and tropical cultures is being done by the zonal station of the All-Union Scientific-Research Institute of Dry Subtropics opened in the center of the Vakhah. Valley in 1935. The varieties of geranium, Jute, and. lemons developed on the institute's experimental fields are adaptable to local natural conditions and are now being raised by the collective and state farms in different regions of the republic. That station is still experimenting on many different native and. imported cultures. Horticulture and viticulture have for a long time receive& inadequate attention in the Yakhth Valley. The first sovkhos fruit nursery was opened neer Kurgan-Tube in 1939. It raised hundred., of thousands of seedling plants of seed and stone 'bearing fruit, subtropical cultures, and root- stocks for grape Tines and distributed. then among the collective farms. Every kolkhos in the Vakhsh Talley now has its own fruit orchard. and vine- yard. But the achievements made in this respect are still very modest, and the Vakhsh Valley is still incapable of producing enough raw materials to keep a more or less large fruit-canning plant or wine distillery in operation. - 129 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81 0-104?1Pnn9qnnoonnno a Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The broad valleys of southern Tadzhikistan are quite suitable for raising animals, especially astrakhan sheep. Tho total cattle pepnlation of the Vakhah Valley is now 14-15 times as large as in the prersvoln- tionary period. Occupying large areas in the valley, the state farms play an important part in the development of sheep breeding. About 1/3 of all the sheep and goats are concentrated In these sovkhozes. The /akka-Din, Kabadian? and Kafirnigan state farms specialize in astrakhan sheep breediag, and the Kuirbysha7 Sovkbez in fat-tailed sheep. The valley sheep are kept out In the pastures all year round, and that makes it profitable to raise this particular breed. The winter-spring snow- free grazing lands are used also for cattle from other Tadihik regions. Efforts are now being made to improve the fodder yield and irrigation of those grazing lands. The development of industry in the Vakhsh Valley began early in the First Five-Year Flan with the construction of a cotton processing plant at EUrgan-Tube, which lies at the northern exit from the valley. It Is now the largest cotton processing plant in the republic, and it produces up to 27,000 t of cotton fiber annually. The cotton seeds were used as raw material for another large enterprise, an oil mill (built in 1932), and the byproducts of that mill were used up by its soap-making department. A large rolling mill vent into operation at about the same time, and a mechanical engineering plant was commisuioned in 1937. A large combine for the production of building materials is under construction now. The ancient city of Kurgan-Tabs? destroyed and depopulated during the Masmachi invasions, has grown tremendously. It had about 11,000 inhabitants in 1939, including 700 workers engaged in specie/ indastrial training. The increase in the cotton harvest and the expansion of connections with other regions create& a demand for new cottos, processing plantsand better communications. Another large cotton processing plant was built in the village of Uyala North of the Vakhsh Valley, on the road between Kurgpn-Tube and StaIinabad. Another cotton processing plant is now under construction in the central part of the valley, in Eagmnovichabad. 4 narrow-gauge railroad line, running; parallel VA the highway, was built between Kargan-Tube and Stalinabed before the Great Patriotic War. It now carries the 'talk of the freight in both directions. Grain, cotton fiber, and other raw materiels and seeimannfactures are shipped from southeastern Tadzhikistan to KurganTube, Stalindbad? and the wide-gauge railroad line. Kargaft-Tubs4s importance as A4 industrial center wan further enhanced by the construction, of a coebine for the production of building materials and. the reconstruction of the mechanical repair plant. Moth of these enter- prises are designed to meet the needs of the entire Vokhih Valley. 0???????? - 130 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043ROO7Inn99nnn9 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Kurgan-Tube is also a scientific emd cultural center. A soil meliora- tion station of the Academy of Sciences Tadzhik SSR has been at work there since 1936. It hales the collective and. state farms in their cultivation of the Vakb.sh Valley, particularly in their fight against alkalized soil. The city has a pedagogical school, a school for agricultural mechaniza- tion, and. a number of other schools and. cultural institutions. The city itself is undergoing iutprovamant. The Vaklash Valley is changing its appearance. ?rota a desert it has developed into an oasis and is now intersected by highways and railroad lines. This was followed. by the creation of industrial centers, stations, and. beautiful collective and state fatm houses. The new villages with their white and. cheorful little houses, frequently hidden in the shad. of the tall castor plants are typical of the settlements of the modern Vekb.sh Valley. The Kafirnigan Valley lies West of the Vakhsh Valley and. is separated. from it by a chain of low mountains. Its oases extend along a narrow strip of load on both sides of the Kafirnigan River and are irrigated, by the irrigation ditches faryff branching out from the river. The valley had. a population of 24,000 people in 1939. The general economy of this valley is similar to that of the Vakhsh Valley, but is considerably behind. in the volume of production. Just as in the Valchsh Valley, cotton growing is the principal occupation of the vopulation. Nino tenths of the cotton planted. are of the thin-fiber variety. The raw cotton picked. in the valley is processed. at the large and well-equipped. plant located, in the Mikoyanabad urban settlement, which has also an oil mill. A narrow-gauge railroad. and. highway connect the valley, at the Kzyl- Kale point, with the difficult dirt road that runs along the left bank of the Yakbsb. Itiver. Another road, the Amu-Darya waterway, links the Ayeadzh quay to Teresa. The Sixth Five-Year Plan calls for large-seals irrigation construc- tion designed to cover 20,000 ha of new lends, mostly in the waterless right-bank area (the Moshkent Valley), which is separated. from the Kafirnigan Valley by low hills. The Kirovabari (Pyandzh) Valley lies Southeast of the Vakhsh Valley and. is also separated from it by low elevations. This oasis, -which is no to 40 km long and. about 8-9 km wide, extends along the right bank of the Pyandsh. River and is irrigated by the main aortal, which gets its water from that river. In 1939, the valley population was 10,000 people. ???????40 - 131 - Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release p 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81 ninAwnn9qnn-,orinry, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 or There - There is much less crop land and cattle than in the Vekhsh Valley. The production of thin-fiber varieties and. jute constitute the me,jor branches of agriculture. jute is an annual plant of Indian origin, and it yields a longer and stronger industrial fiber than any other bast culture. Its cultivation hero began in 1950, and it is now planted on a considerable area. A jute growing state farm was opened in the Kirovabad Valley. A cotton-processing plant, an oil mill, and a jute-processing plant are in operation in the city of Kirovabad. The Kirovabad and. Vekheh Valleys are connected by a dirt road. Part of the freight is bipped via the Pyand.zh River through the Taizabadkal wharf. Southeastern Tadzhikistee This region lies between the Pyandsh, Vakhett, and Obikhingov rivers and is bounded by Central Tadshikistan in the Southeast, Northeast Tad.shikistan in the West, and Afghanistan in the Southeast. It occupies an area of 12,000 sq ke and ass populated by 210,600 people in 1939. The average population density here is almost twice as higb, act the average for the republic. The relief of this region is very (Implicated.. Its northern and eastern parts are covered with mountain ranges whose spurs branch off in southern and southwesters directions forting mountain and hill chains. This area drops fro* an altitude of 3,000 a and over in the Northeast (the Darraz and Passivism mountain ranges) to 400 a in the Southwest (the Pyandsh River valley). A hill-chain type of relief is typical of the major part of this region up to about 1,500-1,600 a above sea level. The Pyandeh River flows only along the boundary of southeastern Tadzhikistan, so that the region itself is irrigated, by its tributaries, which are small rivers. The most significant alsong them is the Kyzylsu. with its tributaries the Takhsu and the Tayrsu. Narrow in the mountain areas, the valleys of these wean rivers became much wider in the hill- studded plain. Time the Takhev. River Valley is 8-10 kis wide in the Rulyab City Rayon, and the valley of the Kyzyleu. River, not far from its con- fluence with the Pyandeb. River, is at least 15 ka wide. The lower parts of the valleys are *wavy and covered with 'eaglets. Large tugei areas are found at the confluence of the lrysylsu and Peandsh rivers. Ruch water is carried by the small rivers only during the spring thaw and the rain, season. They hold very little water during the summer. For example, the drainage of the Kyzylsu River during its spring high-water mark period. ie up to 350 cu ft per second, and only 10-15 cu ft in July-August. The Tayrsu River is almost completely dry at its 'lower reaches dalrinsr the =mar. That is why irrigated. agriculture within this region is rather - 132 - Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01041Rnn9qnn99nnn-, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 limited despite the broad valleys and the largo stretches of land. The utilization of the Pyandzh River and the clearing of the tug:1i vegetation offer greater possibilities for agricultural development in the southern part of the region. The various parts of the region are characterized by different climatic conditions. The climate in the lower southwestern parts is very dry, and the annual precipitation there is less than 300 mm. As in the Vakhsh Valley, the summers are hot and the winters marm. The irrigated land can produce the best warmth-loving cultures of the Soviet South: thin, fiber grades of cotton, jute, and southern varieties of fruit. This is one of the few spots in. Tadzhikistan where figs and pomegranates are not affected by frost and do not have to be -protected by earth mounds in wintertime. There is more moisture in the northeastern part of the region. Ths precipitation there, about 500-750 mm annually, makes it possible to cultivate plants without artificial irrigation, and all the gently sloping divides produce agricultural crops without irrigation. The herbage, consisting mostly of cereals and a variety of other herbs, grows well under the prevailing conditions. A considerable number of the republic's winter pastures is concentrated in southeastern Tadzhikistan. Pistachio trees, producing a highly nourishing oil-containing fruit, grow on the hills and low-mountain chains. In the more humid valleys ana depressions grow greek walnuts, mulberry trees, grapes, apricots, and. other fruit trees. Gotten, rice, and other cultures are raised on the irrigated land. The major forests are found in the high-altitude belt. Incidentally, there are no forests here in the real sense of the word, only groups of trees or scattered thickets in the form of parks. The predominant species of trees are &reek walnuts, Turkestan maple, saddle trees, and dog rose. The large wintertime accumulation of snow in the mountainous belt brings about turbulent floods along the small rivers in the spring. Among the important minerals found in the region is rock salt, which is concentrated near Kulyab in 2 gigantic salt pots, Khodthasartiz and. Xhodzhaaumin. Small deposits of hard. coal, lead, and gold have also been found. Building materials are available in a number of places. The population is concentrated mostly in the valleys. Gradually retreating to the mountains, the Tadzhik* have settled in the central and. upper parts of the valley since ancient times, and the lomer parts remained sparsely populated. The Tadzhik peasants avoided the broad open valleys, which were unprotected against invasions by nomads. Agricultural work there was made difficult by the floods, the tendency of the land to become swampy, and the rapid growth of the tugai vegetation. - 133 - 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Co .y Ap roved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The prerevolutionary population of the lower parte of the broad valleys was not numerous but multinational and nomadic in character; it consisted of Uzbeks, Tarkmenians? Eirgizians, Khazars (descendants of the Mongols) Afghans, Gypsies, and others. The broad and almost waterless plateaus Csuch. as tho Dtagerian Plateau, for example) were practically unpopulated and were used as seasonal pastures. Bat the narrow mountain valleys were also unsuitable for large-scale settlement in view of the lack of cultivable land and water. There are no glaciers or snow banks in the upper reaches of the small rivers, and the precipitation penetrating the mellow soil is only enough to feed small springs capable of supplying water to 2-10 households each. That is why the mountainous valleys of southeastern Tadzhikistan have more tiny settlements than even the highest-altitude districts of the republic. Seeking dhelter in the narrow valleys, the Tadihiks suffered from a shortage of land. But agriculture and, to some extent, stock breeding continued to be their major occupation. The old independent southeastern principalities were annexed to the Bokharakbanate in 1870. The territory of that region was divided into 2 bekdom, Kulyab and Boliduzhan. The latter were administered by 2 of the emir's vice regents or beks, who rode roughshod over the people. Those beks were-frequently changed, and each one of them tried to derive the maximum personal advantage during his tenure in office. One of the most famous dekhkan uprisings against the emir and his bilks, in 1885 (the Voce Rebellion), provides eloquent testimony to the plunder end oppression exercised by the beats and their retainers. This region suffered from Baihmachi violence more than any other place. The Soviet Government was established there later than in the other regions, and its progress was slower. Economic dovelopaent was based on the favorable natural conditions of the region and its compara- tively dense population. Grata cultivation on =irrigated land assumed greater proportions as did the planting of valuable technical cultures on irrigated. land. Stock breeding -- especially of sheep and goats -- was also expanded. The present industry consists of cotton-processing, oil- manufacturing, and jate-procsesing plants. About 170,000 la of land are under cultivation in the region. About 2/3 of that land is planted to grain mitoses and the rest to oil-bearing cultures, cotton, jute, etc. Southeastern Tadzhikistan is the leading grain-producing region of the republic; it produces 1/5 of the overall grain crop. Wheat ranks first in that crop awl barley second. This region exports grain and sup- plies broad grain to the population of the neighboring cotton-growing valleys. The other vultures raise& here include oleagenous flax (algir/)a sesame, millet seed, bean cultures (kidney beans, lentils, and peas) tnd lucerne. - 134- I- Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @50-Yr2013/09/11:CIA-RDP81-01043R00230022nnn7_s Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 46;???? The distribution of agriculture in the re illan Is in some measure determined by the natural characteristics of its various parts. The higher and comparatively moist Darts of the region are most suitable for unire.gated agriculture. Considerable stretches of land aro now being ploughed. up and planted there. Prom the narrow mountain valleys, where the Tadihik dekhkaa once cultivated hig small plot of ground with a wooden plow or hoe, agriculture has now been extended to the vide inter- river areas where the large collective-farm fields are worked by tractors, combizaa, and other mathinery. The collective farms of the unirrigated sane eet 7a.a80% of their finanoial inmome from gratn and oil-bearing cultures and animal breeding. The grain-producing koikhosas alone are served. by several MTS. The irrigated agricultural land is concentrated in the lower valleys of the region. This area is about 1/10 the size of the unirrigated land but it is considerably more profitable. The leading crop there is cotton; it accounts for almost 905( of the kelkhozesi financial income. All the cotton-growing collective farms are served. by MTS. Only 10,000 dessiatines had been planted to cotton of the local Asiatic variety (gam) in south- eastern Tadzhikistan before World War I. The cotton was not processed locally, but shipped to the Termez Cotton, Processing Plant, the only one in that vast area. The freight was shipped by peek animals 120-150 km to the Payzabadkal Wharf and. from there by keyuks down the Pyandzh River to Tomes. More than 25,000 ha of land are now planted to cotton, and all of it is processed locally. Most of the cotton grades produced are still of the medium-fiber variety, but it is also poseible to rat so thin- fiber cotton. There are good prospects for the development of agriculture on the irrigated land of the southern and warmest part of the region. The lower part of the Kyzylsu. River Valley and Pyandzh River Valley form a single vast lowland area macb of which is covered with tugai vegetation. Judging by the remnants of an old irrigation network, this lowland wee once used for agriculture, but later abandoned* There was nothing to prevent the Fyandih River from flooding the lowland ftd eventually turaing it into swampland. All this moist massif came to be known as 9titen-Tugain or strong reed. The exploitation of MitenaTugai began under the Soviet Government. The concrete den built on the Main Chubek Canal before the war prevents the Pyandsh River from flooding the lowland. Bat the real fight against the tugai vegetation has only started. The Sixth rive-Tear Plan calls for the irrigation of up to 30,000 ha of land (partly by the gravity method. and partly by machinery) with the water from the Pyandah River. Powerful machines have already been chipped there. The gigantic reeds (tugai) are broke* up and flattened. by S-80 dleael tractors. As avaan as it has been dried, it is burned ead the land is then fertilized and ploughed by tractors. The reclaimed lands of the Parkharekiy Rayon - 135 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 and the newly-formed Moscow administrative Rayon are being settled by Tadzhiks from the mountain districts, and new kolkhozes are under con- struction by the settlers. Cotton Is becoming the leading crop of these collective farms. A cotton-growing state farm, Miten-Tangai, was opened in 1950 on the theretofore swamey lowland. Pomegranate-and fig-orchards are now planted by the collective farms. A new village, Moskovskty, and a MTS were *Wilt where the tugai used to be. There are vast pasturelaads in the region, particularly winter pastures. Hundreds of thousands of heed of cattle, mostly sheep, are driven to these pastures for the winter season from southeastern and central Tadzhikistan -- from the Vakhsh and Gissar Valleys and even from the Zeravshan Valley. The winters are short and warm in the middle and lower parts of the region, and there is practically no snow. Some of the short-lived vegetation comes back to life with the beginning of the rainy season in October-November, and spring comes at the end of January or the beginning of February. But for a month or 2 in the wintertime there is usually a shortage of green grass on the field, and the cattle have to be fed previously prepared hay. Numerous brigades of kolkhoz hay mowers are thoref ore sent early in the summer to various sections of the region to prepare haystacks, build sheep pans, and prepare the pastures for winter grazing. The machines used in those sections are tractors with mowing attach- ments, selfpropelled hay mowers, ploughs with wide salters, hay stackers, automatic baling nachines, etc. The equipment is provided by the MTS. A cattle breeding center with a veterenary hospital, power plant, water reservoir, houses, and cultural buildings was built in the Lymar section (Dangariaskiy F4yon) which lies at the junction of the transit cattle routes. New underground water sources are found in the waterless but fodder-rich pasturelands, and machinery is being installed for pumping the water through pipes to the watering places. Xlectric sheep shearing is now practiced in a number of collective farms and in all the state farms. The stockbreeding industry of the region is undergoing expansion. It now has over 600,000 head of all trpes of cattle, Throe fourths of that number consist of cheep and goats. The native breed of the region is the Gissar sheep. The Astrakhan sheep were introduced under the Soviet Government, and they can now be found on every collective and state farm. Part of the sheep and goats are concentrated in the large state farms. The Gissar State Farm, the only one in the USSR engaging in the development of highly productive Gissar sheep, was transferred here from the Vakhsh Valley. This sovkhoz distributes hundreds of pedigree rams annually to the various collective and state farms of the republic. Tho Dangar Astrakhan Sheep Breeding; Sovkhoz, opened on the Dangarian Plateau, has several tens of thousands of sheep. This movkhoz has started the production of high-grade karakul fur in recent years. - 138 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 410.4%. The industry of the region is almost entirely connected with the processing of local agricultural raw materials. Cotton processing plants and oil mills were built in Parkhar and Kulyab as far back as 1928 and. 1930. Operationally, these are the most "full-cycle" fig1abin- niye5 plants of their kind in the republic. The considerable increase in the cotton crop provided, for by the Sixth Five-Tear Plan calls for the expansion of the existing cotton-processing plants and oil mills and the construction of now ones. The cotton is shipped by track to Sta3.inabad. and Faizabadkal in the form of cleaned and. pressed. fiber. The Kulyab-Kurgan Tabs narrow- gauge railroad, now under construction, will soon accelerate the ship- ment of this freight to Sta-linabad and. reduce the shipping costs. As has already been pointed. out, it was the Soviet government which began the exploitation of many of the region' a flatland districts. They have now become industrial centers and sources of agricultural mechani- zation ? MTS, state farms, and scientific stock-breeding establishments. The most promising area in regard to the development of agriculture and industry is the southern part of the region located in the triangle between Kulyab, Parkhar, and Moskovskiy Village. The inexhaustible reserves of salt found in 2 gigantic deposits, the rich gas sources, and. medicinal said in this part of the region will speed up the development of a chemical industry and. health resorts. This area also has a =amber of industrial centers, such as the Parkhar city-type settlement with its cotton processing plant and oil mill, Moskovskiy village with its jute plant. and Kulyab with its industrial and cultural institutions. Kulyab lien in the broad. and. picturesque Takhsa River Valley. It was inhabited. by 8,400 people in 1939. The town has a cotton-processing plant and. an oil aill and a amber of small enterprises of the local and coopera- tive industries. It also has a pedagogical institute, a musical and. dramatic theatre, and a number of other cultural institutions. A water- supply system was installed in the town, and. its streets were paved. with asphalt and. planted with trees and shrubbery. This is the modern Kulyab as compared with its old. dusty *clay" predecessor which had. been used. as a residence for the bake of the prerevolutionary eastern Bok.hara. Im- proved. dirt roads now radiate from Kulyab in all directions. Renita_Temalti This region covers the central part of the Tadzhik SR. It bas an area of 20,300 sq km. Its 1939 population was 183,000 people. - 137 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01041Ron7'Inn99nnno Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Orogrephically, this region, consists of a system of valleys divided by high zaountain ranges extending from West to Rest. Flowieg between those ranges in the same direction are the deep rivers Surkhob (a seg- ment of the Vakhsh River), Otdkhingam (the left tributary of the Vekhsh), and Prandsh. The latter irrigates part of the territory in the South. The principal economic aetivitiee of the peoele of this region are connected with the river yellers. The valleys of the Surkhob and Obikhingou rivers are expose& to the western winds, and the abundant precipitation (700-900 em) on their slopes facilitate the production of stable crops without irrigation and a comparatively good natural herbage. The upper parts of these valleys boast the best mummer pastures in the republic (up to 500,000 ha) which are important also for other Tadzhik regions. Protected by high moun- tain ranges from the cold winds in the retth-,, these valleys are rela- tively ware despite their high elevation. The frostless period lasts more than 200 days, and the total temperature of the growing season is 38000 (with a daily temperature above 100). That temperature is suf- ficient for growing corn, grapes, and even rice, but it is not good enough for growing cotton. It is considerably cooler in the eastern part of the Surkhob River Valley astral]. 841 in the Obiklongam River Valley, but even these places are suitable for grain production. The Pyandzh Elver Valley is the warmest of them all; it is lower and farther South, figs and pome- granates grow well there, and grape vines do not need any special -pro- tection. In the past, the difficult access to the mountain region made it easier for its principalities to preserve a certain measere of indepen- dence. The Surkhob River Valley was part of the Karategin principality, and the Pyandzh and Obilizingau valleys were under the Darras principality, all of which were =led by local princes. Their isolation vas to some extent responsible for their economic backwardness. Theirs was a semi- natural economy. In 1876-1877, when those remote mountain principalities were annexed to the Bokhara khanate and become its provinces, or bekdons? their economic ties with the other regions were someehat expanded. Local bazaars came into being, outside merchants brought their wares for sale, and a large part of the male population went to the Fergena Valley every year for seasonal work (about 20,000-25,000 of them at the end of the nineteenth century). But the *mations of the dekhkans deterioreted in view of the increasing taxes levied by tha emir and his beks. The only road. between karategin and the Fergana Valley ren throne) high mountain passes. The Surkhob and Obikhingam river valleys were connected with the ameba. Valley by a narrow pack-animal path Which ran ????????., -138- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 nIA_RnEnzi n - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 alone: the edges of sheer precipices. That path was closed during the long winter months, leaving the valleys completely cut off from the out- tide world. The road to the Pyandzh river valley ran through still another high mountain pass in the Darras Mountain Range. Transportation was primitive, freight being carried by pack animals and on the backs of human beings. Thus the goods sent across the Karategin and Darvaz mountains by the Kokand merchants were gaveled by donkeys, but more frequently by mounteitter peetire,. Little 11118 wee mado even of the eimple Asiatic bullock cart, the freight being hauled. by a peculiar contraption called a "chigina" or "ground scraper," which was used in winter and comer. The economy of the valley consisted of agriculture -- mostly grain production -- and stock breeding of low-productivity. The laud was tilled with a wooden plough, and the grain was threshed by having the animas walk on it. The age-old political isolation of the principalities prevented their population from driving their cattle to the winter pastures of southern Tadzhikistan. After a comparatively Short emmeer of grazing in the sub- spline meadows, the cattle were kept in the kishlaks over the long winter months on an undernamrishing diet of straw. That tree of care was respon- sible for the development of the local breed of small cattle and. sheep. The average weight of a local sheep is less than 1/2 of the western Tadzhik Gissar Sheep. The socalled Darvaz sheep (gadik) is the smallest breed of sheep. The Soviet Government in garm was not established until 1923, but the Bashmachi gangs continued to roan through the area even long after that and disrupted the socialist construction in its initial stages. The reconstruction of the economy in the densely populate& mountain districts proved to be quite complicated. There was s Shortage of suitable land in the mountains. In 1939 there was an average of about 0.1 ha of irrigated, land and 0.5 ha of =irrigated land. per capita population. The corresponding per capita shares of land in the Pyandsh River Valley were still smaller -- 0.07 and 0.2 ha. A further increase in popalatiomwould have decreased those shares, since the total area of arable lane was very limited. One of the first problems, therefore, was the systematic resettling of the mountaineers in the lower broad valleys where the arable land was abun- dant and the population sparse. That problem hss in the main been solved. Tens of thousands of households were saved from the Surkhob and Obikhingou river valleys and have now become wealthy cotton growers in. the Vakhsh, Kafirnigen, Kirovabad, and other valleys in the southern part of the country. - 139 - ??-?""lh Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 3 The first automobile highway. connecting Stalinabad and Gars, was built in the western part of the Surkhob River Valley in 1932. A large suspension_ bridge was built across the swiftly-flowing Surkbob River at the point of its confluence with the Obikhingou River. The Pamir Highway connecting Stalimabad with Khorog was initially completed in 1940, and the road to Garm became a branch of that highway. The construction of the following roads within the Surkhob River Valley was continued.: Garm-Dzhirgatall to the eastern end of the valley, Garm-Hovslad to the new city. Novabad-Shinglidh to the vast grain area, and the Novabad- Pamir highway, the shortest road the West which bypasses Corm. Two short automobile roads were under construction also in other valleys. Despite the enormous difficulties of road constraction in these mountains -- where the road builders have to be suspended from roves between the precipitous cliffs -- sadh roads are now laid in Short periods of time, thanks to modern techniques and mass heroism. Thms it took only 3i months to build the big Pamir Highway, which is 556 km long and crosses some of the greatest mountain ranges and. gorges. There are no more "ovringi" along the edges of precipices, to which the wayfarer held on "like a tear drop to the end of an eyelash" (from Radii's poem carved on one of the roadside rocks in the abmatabad Mann, tains). Grain, potatoes, animal products, and cocoons are now Shipped westward by truck. Going in the opposite direction are industrial menu- factures, gasoline, motor mars, and foodstuffs. Short automobile roads now extend to the lateral gorges, toward Use highway, connecting it with the mountain kishlaks and opening a way to the valley ffor grain, coal, cocoons, and other raw materials. The economy of the region is still predominantly agrarian. and the major occupations are agriculture, stook breeding, and silkworm cultiva- tion. The total area under cultivation in the region is about 70,000 ha, b.idh is considerably less then before the Great Patriotic War, as many families left the region. The unirrigated land accounts for 60%-90% of the crops. Grain cultures, primarily wheat end. barley, predominate-. Prominent among the other cultures is curly flax. The cattle herds, numbering about 200,000 head, consist mostly of sheep and goats. In view of the exceptionally low productivity of the native breed of oattle, inherited from the past, great efforts are now being made to improve the breed through cross-breeding. Silkworm breeding is one of the new and rapidly growing industries. In recent years Central Tadzhikistan has been producing 14-15% of all the cocoons produced by the republic. ?...."??? -140- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002-ion79nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The largest and economically the most important part of the region is the Surkhob River Valley where 2/3 of the region's population (in 1939) and a major part of its cattle and croplands are conoentrated. The name aarkbeb refers to the central segment of the Vakhah River between its left tributaries, Muksu and. Obikhingeu. The Surkhob avar Valley extends over 150 km from Zest to West, separating the Zerseduma and Alay mountain range in the North from the Petr Pervyy Range in the South. The valley bottom drops from 2,000 m absolute altitude in the Bast to 1,000 m in the West, The major mountain ranges surrounding the valley are 1,5004,500 m above the valley bottom; the mountain slopes of Petr Perm Range are comparatively short and. steep, while those of the Alay-Zeravehan mountains are long and flat. During the flood season the Surkhob extends beyond its bank up to a kilometer or more, branches off into numerous sleeves, and flows on comparatively quietly. It is possible to ford it at some places while at others it flows swiftly along a single narrow riverbed. In 1939 the Surkhob River Valley was populated by more than 118,000 people. The majority of them were Tadzhiks. The eastern (Dzhirgatall ) district is inhabited by Kirgizians, who account for about 1% of the valley population. Kirgiz nomads first appeared in this region in the sixteenth century and. settled. along the AUT. They occupied. the larger part of the Surkhob River Valley, but were gradually crowded back by the Tadzhiks, and by the nineteenth century were confined to the easternraost part of the valley. Agriculture and stock breeding constitute the major occupation of the population, and silkworm cultivation is widespread also in the western part of the valley. While they led. a nomadic life before the revolution, the Kirgizians have new also become agricultural workers. Host of the agricultural land is =irrigated. The unirrigated land under cultivation is found, as a rule, oa the vell-ve.tered. and. frequently steep slopes of the valley, and the irrigated fields are on the bottom of the valley, on the terraces, and. in the alluvial fans. Besides grain, the crops raised. on the irrigated land include lucerne, potatoes, curly flax, skillet seed, beans, and. corn. Before 1930 the mountain Tad&iks did net know such about potato growing, but potatoes are now grown on largo areas and produce abundant crops, some of which are even skipped to the lower valleys. The agricultural techniques used in the mountains were primitive. The most primitive hand-makie agricultural implements were used for years. Now the treater has wade its appearance im the moUntabas. An NTS, was opened as far back as 1948 on one of the 'broad terraces on the left bank of the Surkhob River near Tad.shikabad (formerly Kalorplyabiob). The tractors, combines, threshers, and other machines of that Mn can now be seen - 141 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R002-ion79nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 throughout the valley, cultivating thousands of hectares of land. Horse- drawn ploughs and harrows are used in some small sectors and on steep clops that are inaccessible to the tractor. But there still is a large number of isolated and inaccessible places where dr4ft anivrale have to be used instead of tractors. next in importance in the economy of the Surkhob River Talley is stock breeding, which now gets a great tleal of attention. In the past, the mountain Tadzhik* were able to use summer pastures only. They had no access to winter pastures. Under the Soviet Government the rich sub- alzine meadows (the Lyekhsh, %pa:alt, and. other sections) were Vitas aftifilable not only for the cattle of the local collective farms, but also for the cattle driven bore from southern Tadzhikistan. The Surkhob Valley kolkhozes, in turn, were given the opportunity to drive a con- siderable part of their cattle to the winter pastures of southern Tad- zhikistan. This has also served to imarove the feeding of the cattle left in the sheds back in the valley. The Glaser breed of sheep, well adapted to year-round life in the various open pastures, is rapidly re- placing the little-productive Dams sheep. Besides, the cross-breeding of the Darvaz sheep with the mountain ram produ.cea a new breed. of mountain sheep which is twice the size of the Dareaz sheep and yields 4 times as much wool. Nxperiments designed. to improve the productivity of cows have been under way for a long time. The Germ State Farm for Pedigreed cattle has been functioning in the Surkhob River Valley since 1938. Later, a government cattle breeding farm was opened. in Tadzhikabad. These 2 farms have been cross-breeding the local mixed breed of cows with the "Shvits" breed and, timing their offspring over to the collective farms. The average milk yield of the new breed of collective farm cattle is now double that of the native cattle. The annual milk yield of every grain- fed cow of the Garm State Farm is more than 1,500 1. Silkworm cultivation represents the commercial branch of agriculture. Some of the collective farms derive most of their financial income from the sale of cocoons. The Gars Mulberry Tree Nursery has stimulated the increased planting of those trees. gat/re groves of such trees can be seen in some places. The cocoon drier is now in common use in many kishleks. Horticulture and viticulture are still not well developed despite the favorable natural conditions for such cultivation in the valley ? particularly for horticulture. The pears and apples produced in some of the kishlaks are in no way inferior to the beet Leninabad varieties. But apricots are still predominant among the fruit. Most of the vineyards are concentrated in the Garmelciy Rayon. - 142 - 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The valley industry is still young and not very large. Salt, granite, lime, and pottery clay are produced in some places for local consumption; the production of rugs is being organised. Electricity has been introduced in a number of kishlaks in recent years. Collective-farm hydroelectric statioes are being 'built along the swift mountain streams. Larger 11;0,v:electric power plents are in opera- tion in Novabad and Germ. Electric power is used not only for lighting purposes but hulling mills and electric flour mills have been built in some places, and email industrial enterprises are now operated by electric power. The Tadthiks live in the kishlaks of the large western part of the valley in clay houses surounded. by vegetable gardens and orchards. Against the gray background of the mountains, the Tadzhik villages look like Large green specks, and it is even difficult to discern the houses behind the lush vegetation of fruit and decorative treee. On the flat terraces and alluvial fans the Tadthiks frequently build their houses on the nearest mountain slope, regardless of its steepness, with a view to saving valuable irrigated land. Bat there, too, the houses are hidden in the ihade of over-hanging nut and apricot trees, mulberries, poplars, and plane trees. lverywhere in the valley, on both sides of the Surkheb River, near the water or the mountain slopes, one can see kishlaks eurrounded by orchards. Even the slopes of the narrow lateral valleys are covered with the verdure surrounding the kishlaks as far up as the eye can see. Some of the lateral valleys are habitable for many kilometers: 45 km in the Sorbog River Valley, 25 km in the Tasman River Talley, etc. The kishlaks and cultivated fields get their water from small streams and springs. In some places irrigation ditches zigzag along the edges of dizzy precipices for several kilometers to deliver water to small flat plots of land. During the past years the collective farms have been building large irrigation canals. The young city of Ravabad and the rayon centers of Konsomolabad, -Germ. and Tadthikabad are the large inhabited places of the Surkhob Valley. They are being improved and expanded by the construction of schools, hospitals, hotels, and modern houtes for workers and employees. A pedagogical school has Also been opened in Germ. .14112 eastern part of the valley is inhabited by Kirgisiane, Like the Tadzhiks, they engage in agriculture and stock:breeding. The Kirgiz villages are less verdant than those of the Tadshiks. The Kirgitians - 143 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Rel.\ irrigated. several hundred hectares of land, in the lower and broader part of the Obizanku River Valley (a tributary of tho Suzirhob River). That land is now cultivated, by the tractors and agricultural machines of the Tadzhikabad MTS. Grain is shipped westward by truck as well as on sal' (barges made of inflated ox hides held together by a light wooden frame; they can carry up to one ton of freight) down the Surichob River* which requires a great deal of courage and ingenuity. The Kir- gisians have been known for many years as skillful carpet weavers. A small carpet factory. Ksyl Partizan, was opened in Dzbirgatall. The other parts of central Tadzhikistan ? the Obi-Gare Administra- tive Rayon and. the Obikhingou and Pyandzy River Valleys ? are very similar to the Sarkhob River Valley from an economic point of view, their population and. production is lower than that of Surkbol. The Obi-Ge.ra Administrative Rayon. lies in the western part of central Tadzhikistan. Wedged in between the Narategin and Vakhsh mountain ranges, it serves as a natural gateway to the Gissar Valley for the whole of eastern Tadzhikistan. This rayon has MTS and the cultivation of unirrigated land. (grain production) is well developed here. The rayon is known for its hot mineral coring and sanatoritut at Obi-Garm. The rayon is connected. with Stalinabad by a good. highway 100 km long. The Obikhingou. River Valley lies between the Petr Pervyy and Darvaz mountain ranges, and. it is higher (1,500-2.500 a) and cooler than the Surkhob River Valley. It is comparatively narrow and. its mountain sides steep. As a result, it liae considerably less cultivable land and pastures. The leading agricultural branches in the valley are grain production on unirrigated land and. stock breeding. Along the Obikhingett runs the Great Pamir Highway, which goes up the Darvaz mountains. The Pyandeh River Valley (Nalay-lrhwasidy Administrative Rayon) is on the south side of the large Dams Mountain Range. It is warner than the other Central Tadzhik valleys, but there is very little land suitable for agriculture or stock breeding on the steep mountain slopes. Sub- tropical cultures can be grown in the narrow strip of land extending along the Pyandsch. River. Grain production, stock breeding, and silkworm cultiva- tion are the loading branches of agriculture there. We eter4 Pamir The 18lowitain-Badakkehan Autonomous Oblast covers the eastern part of the Tadzhik SSR. This area (61.100 eq kit), covering 43% of the republic's territory, was inhabited by 3.$% of its population (63,000 people) in 1939. The ablest consists of Western and. /astern Pamir, 2 'very dissimilar parts from an economic and. climatic point of view. Nor is the population of the - 144 - 4,m... ...on' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 2 Pamirs similar. Western. Pamir is inhabited by Tadzhiks and eastern Pamir by Kirgizians. The former engage primarily in agriculture and stock breeding, whereas the latter limit themselves to stock breeding. Western Pamir is a high-altitude district with a broken relief, whereas eastern Pamir is one of the highest flat mountain plateaus in the world. FiewiT$a qpietly along the eastern Pamir uplands, the rivers cut a number of gorges in the western zauntain ranges, rasblvla aown into the Pyandzh River in precipitous and swift streams. The most populated valleys of western Pamir are at 1,700-2,800 u aboTo sea level, the dis- tances between the valley bottoms and watershed peaks ranging up to 3,000 m and more. Open to the West, this part of the Pamir is warmer than its eastern part (the average temperature in July is 22? and in January -7.6?, and the frostfree period lasts 212 days) and is suitable for tillage and horticulture; viticulture is possible in the lower places. There is little precipitation in this region (200-260 mm per year), and every type of agriculture requires artificial irrigation. The mentioned climatic data apply to the city of Khorog, which lies in the Pyandsh aver Valley at 2.080 m absolute altitude. The air is cooler in the higher valleys. In the estuary parts of the valley, for example* the snow stays on the ground less than a month, whereas in the higher parts it lasts up to 6 months. Vineyards, mulberry, walnut, apricot, and apple trees gradually disappear with increasing; altitude. Grain cultures, particularly barley, grow as far up as 3,100 m above sea level. Lying above the cultivated land are mountain meadows covered with green and succulent herbage. ??????0 Pamir used to be the most inaccessible region of Central Asia. It was not until after the Soviet Government had been established that its territory was cries-crossed by hundreds of kilometers of automobile roads. The first automobile highway (Osh-Khorog) was built in 1934, and the second (Stalinabad-Khoroe was completed in 1940. Stalinabad and Khorog are also connected by regular Air transportation. Automobile high- ways were built out of Ihorog to *very rayon center during and after the Great Patriotic War. Machinery, commodities, and 'various products were shipped to Pamir, and its local raw materials found a market in the neighboring regions. About 90% of the population of the Mountain-Iiadakhshan Autonomous Oblast live in western Pamir. It consists almost exclusively of Tadihiks, Their major occupation is the cultivation of irrigated land and, to a lesser extent, stock breeding. A small part of the local population is engaged in mineral processing. Silkworm breeding and horticulture are being developed. e.??????... - 145 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 4044%. The economic activities of western Pamir are confined to the deep narrow valleys of the Prandzh River and its tributaries- the Yana, Yazgalem, Bartang, and Gunt, as well as the latter's tributary the Shakhdara. The Bartang and. Tazgalem River valleys are particularly narrow. Alternating with the wider places are narrow and almost impass- able-gorges with noisy; turbulent streams rushing through then. The Vanch and Pyandzh River valleys are more spacious, some of the* measuring up to 4 km in width. large namber of side streams, utilivad mostly for irrigation purposes, run into the major rivers. The klahleks, irri- gated. croplands, and. orchards are located on the terraces, locally known as daShtas and the alluvial fans. The canyon walls along tie' side streams are usually too steep to be habitable. Tiny plots of =irrigated. land under cultivation are found. here and there on the steep mountain- sides. All the mountainsides are crossed by numerous horizontal paths worn by the animals. These precipitous paths lead to the canyons where cropland or pastures can be seen again. The total area. under cultiva- tion in western. Pamir is 11,000 ha (in 1955), i.e., more than twice as leaches before the Great Patriotic War. Almost all the crops are plhnted on the irrigated land Which is scattered in small sections on the ter- races and alluvial fans which are watered by the irrigation ditches leading from the side streams. The cultivable land of prerevolutionary western, Pamir, as the old swing goes, was measured by skull-caps. There was some truth in it, since the average share of ereapland per capita population amounted. to 0.1 ha. But agriculture is the lifeblood of every Tadzhik mountaineer. Considerable areas of new cultivable land have been reclaimed under the 4oviet Government, and the per capita share of land has now been increased 0.25 be. The collective farm lands are still caltivated by simple agricultural implements. But there are quite a few fields where small tractors could be used to advantage. (V. N. Ivanov, a soil expert who has studied agri- cultural conditions in western Pamir for a long time, claims that tractors could be used on 45% of the entire cultivable area of this region.) Wheat, peas, and barley are the primcipal cultures grown on 3/4 of the cultivable area The Pamir farmers frequently plant barley and peas together, and sometimes rye and peas, since this combined. planting was found to increase the crops l to 2 times, which is very important in the case of a land Shortage. The expaneion of the cultivable land area, the improvement of agri- cultural technive, and the introduction of new high-yield cultures (such as the uSurkhaku grade of wheat, for example) made it possible to etep up the production of grain, the major consumer item of the Pamir people. Since the grain cultures are planted on irrigated land, their crops are considerably greater than in the other regions of the republic. But western. Pamir is still incapable of meeting its own grain requirements in view of the land shortage. - 146 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 The potato is a new culture in this region, unknown before 1935. It is yielding greater crops in the comparatively cool upland.s of western Pamir than in any other place in Tadzhikistan. Vegetables and melon cultures are raised in increasing quantities near lihorog and. the rayon centers; the conditions are excellent for the production of watermelons, cantaloupes, and. squash. The latter in jj particular are very large, especially the apood" grade. ii Warm and hot water springs that could. be utilized. for heating the hothouses are found. in mare?e places in western Pamir. The first such hot- house to be heated. by a warm sulfur spring was built in 1954 near Ishkas- him in the Pyandsh River Valley. The hot houses produce fresh cucumbers, tomatoes, radishes, and other vegetables even in the middle of the winter. The following varieties of fruit grow well in western Pamir: apricots, poaches, quinces, plums, cherries, apples, pears, Oreek walnuts, mulberries, and. many others. The Pamir Tadzhiks have been gardeners since ancient times; they developed the best grades of plants, especially the fruit- bearing mulberry tree. Apricots and. mulberries are important items of the Tadzhik's diet. The mulberries are dried, crushed, and made into a very tasty paste (tut-pykht) which can be preserved for a long time. After the revolution, horticulture lAnderwent further expansion in Pamir. A botanical garden and, an ablaut fruit hothouse were opened in norog. The botanical garden of the Academy of Sciences Tadzhik SSR is 2,320 m above sea level. Experiments are conducted. here on the develop- ment and. improvement of fruit and berry varieties that can be grown at high altitudes, and. large quantities of seedlings are distributed to the kolkhozes and. kolkhozniks' orchards in western Pamir. The workers of the botanical garden demonstrated the possibility of growing grapes at high altitudes, and a number of kolkhoses and. kolkhosniks have already planted such grapes in their orchards. Animal husbandry is another important branch of agriculture in western Pamir. There are more than 200,000 head. of cattle in the region, with sheep and. goats accounting for 9/10 of the total. (In western Pasar, the goats account for 59% of all the small cattle, wherees in the other economic regions of the republic their numbers range from 11% to 37% (1952)). The predominance of goats is exp1ate/1 by their ability to make better use of the rocky pastures on the steep mountainsides than the other animals, and by the fact that they are capable of replacing cows to semi extent. There is very little pastureland and cultivable land. in western Pamir, and the high mountains and the lack of roads made communication with the other regions difficult.. The cattle was sheltered in the narrow steep- awned. valleys, spending the winters and. summers in the poor pastures near the kishlaks. Only during bad weather would they get an additional psager ration of straw, and sometimes hay. These conditions led, to the - 14? - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220007-A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 development of a small and. little productive typo of cattle in western Pamir; most of the sheep were of the Darvaz breed.. Under the Soviet Government the road was opened. for the western Pamir cattle to 'eastern Pamir and further to the Itlay valley (Kirgizia). The opportunity was thus created. for the development of the large Gissar and Kirgiz breeds of sheep and for the improvement of the De.rvaz sheep by creee-breeding with larger sheep. In winter, part of the cattle is kept on the snow- free pastures of eastern Pamir and another part is driven to the iday Valley for year-round grazing. This has served. to improve the fodder supply for the cattle kept in sheds through the winter period. Silkworm cultivation was started. by the western Pamir collective farms only a few years ago. I-bilberry trees are now being planted by an increasing number of collective farms, which est their seedlings from the mulberry nurseries and the Xhorog Botanical Garden. To many collective farms silkworm breeding has now become one of the most important sources of income. The extraction of mineral raw materials is a new branch of western Pamir's economy. Valuable mineral deposits were found. in the valley slopes, usually at high altitudes. Examples are; mountain crystal (with some of the largest crystals in the world), mica, asbestos, and precious stones. Mountain crystal is mined in several places. Several hundred western Pamir inhabitants work in that industry during the summer season. The local handicraft industry plays a definite part in the people's economic activities. Firewood, lime, brick, cloth, clothing, headgear and a number of other household items are produced by the industrial combines of the rayon. Homemade articles are still in production. Wooden shoes with 3 cleats for walking in the mountains, and soup spoons with perpendicular handles are produced in the Vona. Valle'', and ornate woolen stockings Vhich became popular also in other places of western Pamir, are Rade in the Yasgulem Valley. The smelting of metal in primitive furnaces and. the production of metal abbots for local needs have been practiced in the Vanch Valley since ancient time's. thorog, the capital of the autonomous oblast, is situated on the high terraces of a deep valley along the Gant River bank, not far from its confluence with the Pyandsh River. The city extends for more than a kilometer along the river bank. Its main street is "b?-leng avenue lined with tapered poplars. It has a park of culture and rest, a lake, and. a stadium. The orchards consist of apricot, peach, walnut, mulberry, cherry, and other trees and shrubbery. In addition, ea' v.ra are vegetable gardens, melon plantations, and. barley, wheat, and, lucerne fields, all of which stake the city very attractive. Iherog has its own hydroelectric power plant on the Guat River, which produces electric power also for - 148 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Cop Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 the neighboring collective farms. A city waiter-supply system is under construction. The city also has a polyclinic, &hospital, an 'ablest musical and dramatic theatre, a pedagogical school, a medical and agri- cultural school, ana it publishes 2 Meet newspapers. 'Undergoing iMpTovoment are the razion centers of lia-ach, Roshtkala, and Ishkashim, at well as a number of kishleks. The improvement of western Pamien economy involves the full utilisa- tion of its diverse but favorable natural conditions: the expansion of the oldest branches of agriculture, grain production and animal breeding, and the further developaent of new branches such as silkworm cultivation, and fruit and vegetable growing. The latter 2 branches could produce enough raw materials for a mall canning enterprise in Khorog. Eastern Pamir Eastern Pamir is the largest region of Tadzhikistan, covering an area of 38.000 sq km or almost 27% of the republic's territory. From an administrative point of view. eastern Pamir is the Murgibskiy Rayon of the Mountaizaadakhahan Autonomous oblast. Eastern Pamir is very high above sea level, and, oven the lowest parts of its valleys do not extend below 3,600 m. The upland is not very much dissected despite the high altitude. Its surface is a system of broad flat valleys and depressions alternating with comparatively low moactain chains. The Pamir upland is surrouaded on all sides by very high mountain chains which prevent the inflow of humid air and reduce precipitation (60-70mm). The high absolute altitude. the Arctic-like climate (the annual frostfree season lasts 6 veeks) and insignificant precipitation combined to produce the peculiar vegetative landscape of eastern, Pamir, the high-altitude desert. There are no trees up there, only occasional shrubbery may be found growing along river banks and between cliffs; the herbage is very meager. But the eastern Pamir pastures have an advantage over the other high-altitude pasturelands: they can be used also in winter time as there very little snow falls in most of the region. Eastern Pamir is inhabited. by Kirgisians, who raise sheep, goats, and yaks. United into collective farms, they spend the winter in per- manent dwellings and mow with their cattle along the mountain valleys in summertime. mere is a typical itinerary of one of the eaatern Pamir collective farms. The Molotov Kolkhoz is located near Murgab. The kolkhoes simmer pasture is in the wide valley of the 'Jostle:hely. Pehart River, at the foothills of the Muskol Mountain Range. A number of short canyons open into the valley. Their stream beds only contain water in the second half of the day when the snow feeding those streams begins to - 149 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Cop Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81 0-10. 4?1Pnn9qnnoonnno a Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ,ee;';???? mat. The vegetation is very sparse. Various typos of wormwood, feather grass, and, other desert plants grow on pebble soil, and the herbage is so meager as to make the valley surface appear completely bars in some places. The canyon slopes, watered, by the daily melting snow, look more verdant. Green alpine grass plots can be seen here and there near the atacams ranting along the bottom of the canyons. Zile collective farmers come with their cattle to the Pshart Valley by the middle of May and break up into groups containing 5-10 herds each. Each group then occupies one or 2 canyons, depending on the number of cattle. The Kirkisians live in felt yourtas (nomad tents). In sumer camp they lay in reserves of dry cheese, butter, and cream. In that camp, too, they shear their sheep, goa.ts, and. yaks. The cattle grows fat in Lugust and. September. By the middle of October, i.e., 4 months later. the Kirgizians move back to the Aksu River Valley near Murgab to speztd the winter, having traveled a distance of only 25-30 km. The Aksu River Valley is covered with hilly meadows, with a low but thick and snowfres vegetation. The cattle are kept on those pastures through the winter. On very cola days the sheep are fed additional hay which has been prepared beforehand. in the valley. The collective farmers here live in warm clay huts. Most of the eastern Pamir cattle consist of sheep and goats. The Kirgisien breed. of broadtail sheep are not inferior to the Gisser sheep. There are no small Darvas sheep in these flocks. There are very few horses, donkeys, and camels in this region, since they cannot reproduce at such altitudes. But there is an abundance of yaks here. This is one of the largest domestic animals, some of which attain a weight of 800 kg. The yak has powerful lungs, strong muscles, a thick hide, and. thick wool and is quite adapted to life on high-altitude plateaus. The yak supplies meat, milk, wool, and. hides for the population, and is indis- pensable as a draft animal. A yak-breeding state farm, the only one of its kind in the Soviet Union, was opened in 1945 on the shore of the mountain lake of Buluakalt for the purpose of developing and improving the breed. of this valuable animal. The nature/ pasturee of Eastern Pamir are now being irrigated, but as yet only on a small scale. The biological station of the Academy of Sciences Tadlaik SSE, located in the Ohechkta sector not far fronitargab at an altitude of 3.860 a above sea level, is now making & study of the eastern Panir fodder balms and developing new measures designed to improve the pastureland. 'Machines came to the aid of the animal breeders. MS was built in Pamir in 1951. - 150 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 melt. The vegetation is very sparse. Various types of wormwood, feather grass, and, other desert plants grow on pebble soil, and the herbage is so meager as to nuke the valley surface appear completely bars in some places. The canyon slopes, watered by the daily melting snow, look more -verdant. Green alpine grass plots can be seen hers and there near the strezae miming thaa bottaaa 4af the cahvora.s. calm:Viva faamarr. come with their cattle to the Pshart Valley by the middle of May and break Iv into groups containing 5-10 herds each. Each group then occupies one or 2 4a4,fona, depialag or. the number of cattle-. Tha larkizians liva in felt yourtas (nomad tents). In summer camp they lay in reserves of dry cheese, butter, and cream. In that camp, too, they shear their sheep, goats, and. yaks. The cattle grows fat in Lugust and September. By the middle of October, i.e., 4 months later, the Kirgisians move back to the Aksu River Valley near Plurgab to spend the winter, having traveled a distance of only 25-33 kis. The Aksu River Valley is covered with hilly meadows, with & low but thick and snowfraw vegetation. The cattle are kept on those pastures through the winter. On very cold days the sheep are fed additional hay which has been prepared beforehand. in the valley. The collective farmers here live in warm clay huts. Most of the eastern Pamir cattle consist of sheep and goats. The Kirgiaian breed of broadtail sheep are not inferior to the Clever sheep. There are no small Darya% sheep in those flocks. There are very few horses, donkeys, and camels in this region, since they cannot reproduce at such altitudes. But there is an abundance of yaks here. This is one of the largest domestic animals, some of which attain a weight of 800 kg. The yak has powerful lungs, strong muscles, a thick hide, and thick wool and is quite adapted to life on high-altitude plateaus. The yak supplies meat, milk, wool, and, hides for the population, and is indis- pensable as a draft animal. A yak-breeding state farm, the only ono of its kind, in the Soviet Union, was opened in 1945 on the shore of the mountain lake of Bulu.nloal? for the purpose of developing and, improving the breed of this 'valuable animal. The natural pastures of Eastern Pamir are now being irrigated, but as yet only on a small scale. The biological station of the Academy' of &cisme* Tadzhik BSA, located in the Ghecbkta sector mot far from Murgab at an altitude of 3,860 a above sea level, is now making & study of the eastern Pamir fodder base and developing new measure; designed to improve the pastureland. Nachiaes W.M6 to the. aid of the animal breeders. "TS r-a b-41t Pamir in 1951. - 150 - ??-????"Ii Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 In recent years, a considerable part of eastern Pamir cattle has been driven to the pasture-rich Alay Valley, which lies at an altitude of 3,000 m above sea level. The cattle is kept on that grazing land all year round. The horse-breeding farm, opened in the Alay Valley in 1949, is working on the development of a Lokay breed of horses. A village of animal-breeding kolkhozes of eastern and western Pamir grew up near the bank of the Sarragel River. Using the machinery of the, Mexgab leS the collective farms in-ir in reserves of h..7 and natrarza grasses and plant fodder cultures on the irrigated land. Rare metals, coal, peat, and. salt (mar Lake Rangkult ) were dis- covered. in eastern Pamir, and. some of them as being processed. These deposits are among the highest in the world. There is some fishing in a few of the lakes (Bulunkuli, Tashilikalt, etc), but not much. An auxiliary occupation of the collective farmers is hunting. Muvgab. on the East Pamir Highway, serves as an administrative and cultural center of eastern Pamir. This highway connects Khorog and Osh (leargana Valley) and carries a fair amount of traffic in the mummer. Along this highwter gasoline, machines, equipment, fertilizer, seeds, lumber, industrial commodities, and foodstuffs are transported to western and eastern Pamir. There are great possibilities for further expanding the animal- breeding and. mining industries in eastern Pamir. BIBLIOGRAPHY AMMOV, S. G. and Brigis. O. I., The Sheepbreeding Industry of Tadzhikistan, 1930, MOSCOW Andreyev, M. S., "On the Modern Tadzhik Language," Sbornik Materialov pa Istorii Tadzhikov i Tadzliikistana LE Collection of Materials on the History of the Tadzhiks and Tadzhikistag. 1945,Stalinabad Bartord, V. V., On the History of Irrigation in Turkestan, 1914, St. Petersburg Bartoltd, V. V., "The Tadzhiks", collection; Tadzhikistan, 1925, Tashkent Bort), G. P. and lienakov. I. F., The Best Grades of Grain, Bean. and 011-11earing Cultures and Grasses for the Tadzhik SSR, 1952, Stalinabad Bugayev, V? The Climate of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, 1946, Taihkent - 151 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Vasilyev. P. A, and Kosheleva? A. 1., The Administrative-Territorial Division of Tadzhikistan, (Historica/ Outline), 1948, Stalinabad Viktorovild7, C. P., "Horticultare and Wild-Growing Fruit Trees and the Prospects of "Utilizing Thee", collection; Problems of Tadzhikistan, Vol II, 1934, Moscow-Leningrad Vinogradov, V. S., Pav1ovsk4, Ye. N. and, Flerov, K. Ko, The Animal Life of Tadzhikistan and its Importance for Man, 1940, Moscow-Leningrad Gafurovs B. G., The History of the Tadzhik People, Vol 1, Third edition, 1956, Moscow Colltz, I. S., "Northern Tadihikistan," Udheneyye sapieki Stalina- badakogo gosudarstvennogo pedagegicheskogo institute ES-cientific Notes of the Stalinabad State Pedagogical Institatff, Vol 3, 1948 Goncharov, N. F., The Vegetation of Tadihikiatan? 1936, Moscow-Lenin, grad Oarvich. L. M., Dieo, N. A., et al., Unirrigated Land Cultivation in Central Asia, 1930, Taihkent Dasmatov, D., The Truck Transportation workers in the Straggle for , a Further Expansion of the Tadzhik Econow and. Culture, 1951, Stalinabad Collection: Stock Breeding in Tadzhikistan, 1943, Stalinabed Zaortkcya, V. V. and Aleksandrov, K. A,, The Indastrial Institutions of the Turkestan Kray, 1915, Pragae Zapryagayeva? V. I., "On the Sparseness of Arborial and Shrubbery Vegetation on the Southern Slope of the GisearMouatain Range,"-Priroda gaturg? No 8, 1948 Zapryagereva, V. 1., The Experience of Fruit and Forest Plnating on the Unirrigated Land of Mountainous Tadzhikistan, 1952, Stalinabad Ivanov,, A. I., The Birds of Tadzhikistan, 1940, Moscow-Leningrad Ivanov, V. N., The Soil Conditions of Pamir and Methods of Agricul- tural Development, 1948, Stalinabed News of the TatIshik Branch, Academy of Sciences USSP4 No 9 (Animal Husbandry), 1945, Stalinabad - 152 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Keihkarov, D. N., "The Animal Kingdom of Tadzhikistan," Tadihikistan, 1925, Tashkent tirillov, I. F., Grape Growing in the Tadzhik SSR and the Agra- technical Measures Involved In It, 1952, Stalinkbad Xislyakov, N. A., An Outline of the History of tarategin, Second edition, 1954, Stdlinatad Kial.Tako7, H. A., Outlirig' of tho History of Xaratogiu, coSaud aditieu, 1954. Stalinabad Konarov, V. L.. "The Vegetative Zones of Tadzhikistan," collection: Problems of Tadzhikistan, Vol II, 1934, Moscow-Leningrad torthenevikiy, N. L., A PhysicogeograPhical Outline of Central Asia 1925, Tashkent Hadzhi, A. Z., On the History of Yeudal thodzhent," Materials on the History of the Tadzhik* and Tadzhikistan, 1945, Stalinabad Heavily, A. V., The Development of Socialist Industry in the Tadzhik SSR Over A 25-.Tear Period, 1964, Stalinibad Mallitikiy, N. Go, A Study Aid for the Geography of Tadihikistan, Fart I, 1929, Tashkent-Stalinehed Mallitskiy, N. 0., A Study Aid for the Grogra*r of Tadzhikistan, Part II, 1930, tod*hent Okrug. Taihkent-Stalinabad Massaliskin Y. I., The Turkestan tray, Vol XIX, 1918, St. Petersburg Masson, M. I., Iron the History of Tadzhikistan's Mining Iadustry, 1934, Leningrad Colleatios: Materials on the History of the Tadzhik* and Tadzhikistan, 1946, Stalinabad Collection: Materials on the History of the Tad*hik People Under the Soviet Governments 1954, Stalinabed "The National Bconcey of the =Rt." Statistical Handbook, 1955, Moscow Nersorov? V. V., Oil-Bstring OUlture on the UairrigateAtaentl af Tadzhik- istan, 1951, Stalinkbad - 153 - 1 A h A Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 1' LI Nikollskiy? G. V., The Fish of Tadzhikistan. 1938, Moscow-Llningrad Ovehinnikov. P. 111.. ?Botanical Investigations of Tadihikistan,0 Works of the Tadzhik Branch of the Academy of Science USSR, Vol 27, 1951 Ovchinnikov, P. X., "The Basic Trends in Species Formation of the Central Asiatic Vegetation In Connection With the Origin of Species." Works of the Academy of Science Tadzhik SSR, 1955 Popov, M. G., An Outline of the Vegetation of Tadzhikistan. 1925, Taihkent Soil Investigations in Tadzhikistan, 1950, Stalinahad Rosanov, A. N., The Soil Resources of Tadzhikistan, 1950, Stalinahad Horticulture and Viticultare in Usbekistan. N. X. Taroshevich, editor, 1927, Tashkent Semenov, A. A., "On the Hihnography of the Tadzhiks," Tadzhikistan 1925 Stalinabad Sovetkina, M. M., The Pastures and Hayfields of Central Asia, 1938, Tashkent Soviet Tadshikistan (An Outline of the Bcomomio Geography), 1950, Stalinabad Stanyukovich, K. V., The Vegetative Cover of Pattern Pamir, 1949, Moscow Collection: Tadzhikistan, 1925, Tashkent Twenty Tears of the Tadihik SSR, 1949, Stalinabad Twenty-Five Tears of the Tadthik SSR, 1955, Stalinabeti Tanarevskiy, V. A., "The Division, of Tadshikistan Into Rayons Aftor the Revolution," (A. Hiutorical Outline), Scientific Notes of the Stalin- abed State Pedagogleal Institute," Vol 3, 1948 Tradov, K. A. and Degtyare, V. I, Cocoon Production in Central Asia, 1942, Tashkent Collectiord Cotton, Growing in Tadzhikistan, 1926, Tashkent 4 - 154 - 4 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Schultz, V. L., The Rivers of Central Asia, 1949, Moscow Tufersv, V. I., Cotton Growing in Turkestan, 1925, Lenrad Takubcialci7, A. V., "Thz Poudal Socioty of Cautr;-.1 Asia audIt irade eith astern Europe," Collected Materials on the History of Uzbekis- tan, Tadzhikistan, and Turkmenistan, 1933 FIGUR% CAPTIONS gigure top page 8 of originalj The Giese? Mountain Range. View from the South. ff'hat27 ffigare bottom pass 8 of originalj The Yakima River. Lrhot27 jyrigure page 9 of originaff Cotton fields in the Valchsh Valley. ffitotg /Figur* page 10 of original Hypsometric map at Tailzhildstan: Profile of relief in a; glaciers and permanent smow beaks. glair* page 11 of originalj Orographic diagram of Tadzhikistan: Moun- tain ranges higher than 3,000 pa Mountain ranges lower than 3,000 ) figure top Page 20 of originaff Average temperature for Janmary, gigure bottom page 20 of originag Average temperature for July. ,gigure page 21 of originag Annual precipitation. LiSis scale ranges from 100 ma or less to 800-1.000 ma or *Ong figure page 29 of originalj The river network. Litz:re top page 33 of originalj Lake Iain-rult. Parsaasat too on the eastern *bore. Litfot'7. iyigure batten page 33 of grigisag Lake Sarss. ghot27 186 - -??????70 neclassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 gigurs pegs 36 of originalj The Soil of Tadzhikistan (according to A. U. Bosonov): ? I ? ? 11ii It light sierozem Boil of the desert belt oe4nary etft4I of the deert-es,ppo 'bolt dark sierostan toil of the desert-steppe belt dark-gray soil of the mountains and brown, dry steppe soil brown forest-steppe soil from the mountains meadow and meadow-steppe wail of the subalpine belt meadow and meadow-steppe toil of the alpine belt high-altitude brown steppe soil 1; high-altitude desert soil of eastern Pamir and the peat-meadow soil of its valleys nonsoil formations gigure page 41 of origtoog The Vegetation of Tadzhikistan (according to P.1ff. Ovchimnikuv, K. V. Staokovioh, et al.): wormwood amd wormwood halophytic deserts, desertlike semisavamobs and lowland bogs 01 mem/savannahs covered with high vegetation and a-uau lyaks fraipseats. forests, scattered trees, and, shrubbery (pistachio tress in southern. Tadzhikistan W(ic $ I ? it ? , ordinary, cryephileas and desert stippOS and worwood, cowered steppellke deserts. wabelpine diverse-herbage meadows, eryophilous waste- land and thistles (the latter do not grow in eastern Pamir) bib-altitude wormwood-covered deserts 111Bcliffs, tali, glaciers, and sparse vegetation of the high plateaus - 156 . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 grigure pegs 70 of originag The formation of the territory of the Tadzhik SSR: 1 Turksstaa Governorship-General 'fr 4 1 7 11 4 G 0 si, crt'e'VN EM Territory of the Tadzhik SO N 4 gigare top page 75 of origin4r The Ansob kisbilak in the Tagmob River Yaumr. glotg ffigure bottom page 75 of originag The Hatchet kishlsk in the Zeravshan Valley. BlhotIT ffigure page ?? of originf A corner of the bazaar in Kanfbadam. The sale of rugs. ghat? ffigure page 81 of originag A house of culture in a collective form. L76t.417 ffigure page 87 of originag Tree 21anting on the southern slope of the 'a sear Hountain Range. fihote- gigure page 89 of origtaag A Dam on the Vakhsh Canal LPhoto7 - 157 - .g! Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 giggre page 91 of origtsaff Major 'Branches of Agriculture in the Tadzhik SFR 4.0?1?????????????????????????1 / ? !? : ???? 1=1 r7)7 cotton growing production of grain and oil-bearing cultures sheep-breeding for meat and wool and astrakhan far production purposes sheep-breeding for meat and wool production. purposes Well developed districts: o4) horticulture and. silk- oil-bearing worn cultivation 1-(t7-----:-// cultures it " viticulture 057-) jute 41 Ct tobacco and rice principal land. massifs not used for ------- agricultural purposes ffigure page 93 of originag The cultivable land of the Tadzhik SSR: irrigated, land including the cotton area irrigated land not including the cotton area cultivated =irrigated land, L1Figure page 95 of orlginag Hauling cotton to the cotton processing plant. Llkot27 ffigur* top Pag? 96 of original/ Mechanised stacking of cotton. Lrhot.j fitigure bottom page 96 of original./ A cotton-processing plant in Huron- Tube. rihot27 2.7igur? top page 97 ef originalj A kolkhos hydroelectric plant in the Gilmer Valley. /No to7 gigure "b6 *twit page 97 of oriersag A. children's crecbe Gissar Valley collective farms. LiThot27 - 158 - ift 49011114ft Ag +UMI, 1 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 glgare page 100 of or n7 Grapopioking on the Shakhrinem State Yarn. ghote iTigure page 101 a origi-aag avatar *keep os,autumapastures. LThot7 gigure page 103 of originslj The pastures of the Tadshik SSR: R'Nx1 - - - - - autumn-winter-spring pastures of the plains foot- hills, and western Paair mountain and high-altitude summer pastures year-round pastures of Zastir* Pamir, Alm. Valley, and Zycyl-Ium pastures outside the repullie unsuitable land inure top page 104 of eriging Cattle routes to the summer pastures. figure botton page 104 of originag Cattle routers to the winter and year-round pastures. gigue. page 106 of origiaig Cattle being driven to mountain pastures. Lire page 109 of origi47 Drying oesoons in the shade. Lhoir - 159 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 gigure page 125 of originag The dietribution of industry in the Tad*.ik SSR: Minerals coal polymetals 111 hard. coa an& A asbestos lignite 0 antimony al table salt X arsenic CI fluorspar Pm bismuth x mountain crystal is) other rare taetals Industries 42/ cotton processing a textile o other light industry QZ.) food. 410 mining ?,siet.sil processing E.) building materials The industrial structure is shown 10 branches without any quantitative index. gigure top page 130 of origtmag mountains. Lhoti7 ffigum bottom page 130 of original River in the Gissar Valley. Industrial centers .-Most important: STALINABAD (,-considerable: egar Hydro- electric power plants Power Plants (*.existing (*ander construction (Othermal, under con, struction ' broad-gauge railroads narrow-gauge railroads prircipal auAo highways - other auto highways An old-fashioned bridge in the Tacishik gigure to page 135 of originqr of the Tadzhik SSR: A bridge across the Winds= t.2.7 Administrative-territorial division rayons wider republican jtulediction Leninabad oblast tit Xomatain,Badahhihan, Autonomous oblast state boundaries boundaries of union republics oblast boundaries rayon boundaries ???.? ?????? ? ?????? A... 1. MOP. alio amm. ? wow - 160 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01043R002-inn29nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ? ffigure bottom page 135 of original7 Economic regions of the Tadzhik SSR: Wet Pergana Valley Zeravehan Valley Gisear Valley Central Tadzhik:1 sten Southeast Tadzhik Easters( Pamir Southwest Tadshik Western Pamir Lfigure ;age 137 of originag Western part of the Fergana Valley; SSR boundaries Leninabad. cities &meal city-type settlements Yantak other inhabited points railroads prisoipal hijkways I 1 i 1 iijatton canals valley bottom awl lowland. plains foothill plains medbut end high mountains - 161 - ?????li Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ffigure page 144 of original./ The newly-irrigated, lands and. those to be irrigated in the western part of the Verona Valley. I? ? ? V". wavi-V irrigatio= machine irrigation oftimala _ dams gigure page 165 of original...7 A strset in old Thodshent. 118" gigure page 156 sf originag A settlement of the Leninabad Silk Combine ghot27 ffigure pan 158 of original?' A weaving mill of the Leminabad Silk Combine. fh".2./ gigare page 164 of originag zeravehan Valley land sdheduied for irrigations gravity irrigation machine irrigation flig4re page 166 of originag The Gissar valley: Begar attics Gissar city-type settlessnts Varsob other inhabited points ______ railroads bighwars irrigation easels I the valley 'bottom feothill plains and, low mountains medium end high aossateize 162 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 .-744 ffigure page 170 of origInagGissar Talley land sdheduled for irrigation: gravity irrigation machine irrigation m2dating easels glgure page 176 of originsIT One of the hydroelectric stations of the Iamb cascades. .4rhoti7 gAgure page 176 of origU47 Structure of the StalinaUTI industry as measured in commodity value (in %): Branches: 1.1'2221 licht Industry cotton processing 1$% cotton fabrics 12.4 sewing industry 14.3% other light industries 13.* f Dot industrY bread. baking 10.0 other food industries 13.4 3.KR Betel vrocossinm industry: 1.0 4.02 Wildincimmterials induatry 5. 1Ti:.!1 other branches of industry: iftgure page 176 of ortglame General liew of Stalinabad. In the fore- ground the Nouse of Government and Lenin street. i7hote7 ffigure top let page 177 of originag the State Pallic Library imolai lirdousi. LTioti7 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R00230o77nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 gigure bottoa left page 177 of origins,17 Performed* hy neaten!' art group in Stalinahad. ghee_ glgure top right page 177 of origina1:7' stalinahads . city netts ..4_,(22) part of the city covered with buildings a? 0*,0 orchard*, nurseries, and parks 6./7. 6 Uroad-gonge railroad tracks narrow gauge railroad tracks auto highways w a ????1????6 prigure /mg* 178 of original:7 The Large Gissar Ganal, rishotff Angora page 180 of origins); UlitsaLenina in Stalinshad. ffhotil Lligur* page 184 of originag The Vskhsh Valley .&st acg tce: citr Zurgan-Tube Vakhshstroy Urals ogauVr.".....TtleCT, valley hottest foothill plains low and medium paountains state lasawlaries cities city-type settlements other ishahitod places railroads highmirs irrigation canals iylgur* page 187 of origleag Southwest Tadshik lauds scheduled for irrigation; gravity irrigation madam' irrigation dans tunnels existing canals -164- Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 ? CIA-RDP81-01043R00230o77nnn9_R Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11 : CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Lfigure page 190 of originig .Ti1lev. piotsir Brigure page 194 of originag RSSA ???????? "MOM Kulyab Parkhar Kangurt Lemons grown,in tress in the Vakhsh Southeastern Tadshikistau low broad ',alloys foothill plains sodium and high mountain* boundaries of (music regions state bousdaries cities city-typo eottlemeate other inhabited places highways gigure page 199 of originag Southeast Tadihik lands scheduled for irrigation gravity irrigation machine irrigation dams figure page 206 of originaalier A commercial dairy farm on the Gars Sovkhos. Lphotg gigure to page 208 of origi:fg la the Surkhob river volley. Novabad is in background. ghat? /Figure bottom page 208 of originig Tadshike from the Tagnob Lhota7 Efigure top pm, 209 of originag A Iirgis woman from the Dshirgatallskiy Rayon. L'? t27 glgure bottom. page 209 of oriel. A typical eastern Paair labascalm? On the Osh-Ithoreg Highway. til - 166 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 50-Yr 2013/09/11 CIA-RDP81-01043R002-inn29nnn9_R Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 ffigare page 212 of originag A Pamir Tadzhik woman. ffhot27 At: -- .1! tl.'.14 p=rap' 212 or-ifs/P/47 ffigure page 215 of original7 ffigure page 21? of originag /Figure page 218 of originag fligure page 219 of originaff ffigure page 220 of originag Pamir. ghotoT ffigure page 221 of original7 Tho 0.1an...Khrxr.r. A street in Khorog. ffhot27 Pioneers. iroa =Greg. LA &NI ,17.1 A Kirgiz Yourta in Eastern Pamir. ffhot27 A summer grazing camp in Eastern Pamir. A farm in the Alicirar Valley of Eastorn Yaks in Eastern Pamir ffhotg fiigtu?e page 222 of originag A biological station of the Academy of Sciences Tadshik SSE in Eastern Pamir. fihot27 ffigure page 223 of origint417 Murgab. Motor figure page 224 of originag The ri'adzhik SSE: ???????? raos? I ?????????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ????? 8 1 ? ? state boun.daries union republic boundaries *blast and autonomous oblast boundaries cities city?type settlements 0 rural inhabited places Stalina.bad capital of union republic Itexiinabsd-_,-- ()blast amd autononous *blast ?enters Kulysb rayon centers Koktash other inhabited. places (continued on next page) ? 166 ? ??????^16 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release @ 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6 4e- .7495 ? ? broad-gnu/0 railroads narrow-gaugs railroads principal auto bighwa7s other autemobila highways major irrigation canals gaarves loonntain passes altitubs in meters permanent snow beaks and glaciers wAsuINGTONe D. C. SECOND FLOOR 1636 CONNECTICUT AVE., N. W. DUPONT 7.4240 .107- ???????-? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release ? 50-Yr 2013/09/11: CIA-RDP81-01043R002300220002-6