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December 22, 2016
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June 21, 2011
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October 15, 1952
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Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 :11 FEB 1952 aa-s~......_._..-.- .. CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CLASSIFICATION SECRET SECURITY INFORMATION ,, 50X1-HUM INFORMATION REPORT REPO RT CD NO. COUNTRY USSR (Ukrainian SSR) SUBJECT The Poltava and Cherkassy Areas of the Ukraine DATE OF INFO. PLACE ACQUIRED THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES, WITHIN THE MEANING OF TITLE 18, SECTIONS 793 AND 794, OF THE U.S. CODE, AS AMENDED. ITS TRANSMISSION OR REVE- LATION OF ITS CONTENTS TO OR RECEIPT BY AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED BY LAW. THE REPRODUCTION OF.THIS FORM IS PROHIBITED. CLASSIFICATION STATE X ARMY X NAVY X NSRB AI.R 1X FBI DATE DISTR. 15 Oct. 1952 N0; OF PAGES 1 NO, OF ENCLS. 1 (13 pages" (LISTED BELOW) 50X1-HUM: SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. Not graded THIS IS UNEVALUATED -INFORMATION Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 1. I2trodu' `ion IIdFORMATICIN- ON XLTAVA,AI Ukrainian SSR - .I EX: 1.. intr. oducti.on Z. Tho AI{HPYRICA-1a0I TAVA-BOGCDUXHOV. ;t ea 3w The Town-of C RKAS 4.. rho CHERICASSY Garrison . : nnexo, I . Ske t 6h' of KOxMLVA - Area Annexe 2 . ' SI t&h of Military Barracks C~ , (b) The i inParmat oti ri thisAppotna x Oonce~rizs. chiefly two areas : -: (a). Those ;parts at- the PCYLTAVA,- MW and IcHAMV Provjno contained :in the t :10 AKFft'YRKA IEEMIw - Pf?AVA , the AKAV tf:flvny=-to, hEi KSYEXEyI Station ' ' BOGt jUKHOV = AKI$'~itKA. SECRET APIDTX `A RKASSY - r.a..av a.ry riU e:43y9C1Til8~i.. except' _thQ Ahlpl~taroa~ion nf' +1,r~ .: r- ~ ; The.,r .PC)IIrAV$. BOGODuicnov Area (a) Twin The terrain in the area is -in .go aral i dulated, in ! r sectors intersected by deep, and, steep carWons. A-:i'ather ,fia.t plate, stretches-: apprcx 15-,:In east of the river VORSI but theme `are ; a340 numsroua carWonaW est of the VQRSK[A an d abtuth-Beat of;. t x~Jlrar. 1XERLYA hilly.or undulated ocintxy extear~s, o opted b y 1 rou$ ca yens. There are also some swampy seat ;.;3 in the area, chief~,y :.; he: river valleys.. Af SEQ. RE"T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 The town of CHERKASSY on bl.PMP Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S?$ C R,, T (b) Dra aRe The area belongs to the river DIMM..- system -being situated on both banks of' its tribataxy, the. V?RSI L The ? VOR5KI4's. main tributaries iii. this area. are the rivers IMYA (17I ainian N . tRLA).' and both on the left, bank of , VORSKLA. The river VORZKI A in its northern sector ia. narrow aM shallow but from AKFfYRKA -it,: a s : much- wide r'and -a oeper The western -(right). bank ia- 'steep; and' high,, the eastern (.left) bank is flat and in some parts magW.- ..;,Southt `:;the conf]uenoa of the rivers VMS && and? CERLU the eastern bans-, of the' WASRLA' also bevoa= high and in some parts steep. Both" banks : are oovored for `the greater part by woods and bushes. Setweon A KA? and POAVAthe river VDW A has Changed its .bed i n. -spa plac~ea ~.asd therofere there , are:= the remnants of the old river bed either in the-.form of. dry canals,., as between' XOTYELVA and OPOSHM, eras small, and narrow lakes and pools. The `width, of the. VORSKLA!'s valley and the river-bed Itself as weli, as the :. depth of the river vary transderab],y. At. AIIYRKA? -the.:. Valley is- approx 2 Km side and the river--bed appro 60 metres. :Roar the V-1 , Age of 1 U1( WIML the valley is swampy anl approx 5 .fn wide. At I I Z T C Q i -the Aver-, ibso if is a p p r o x 4 0 metres" wide . " At LVA the valley- becomes'narrower (approa 3. "3iti):' The olds:.. a],most 1 1 completely dry, river-bed is there on,- the. -foothills :of :the high: and steep western side og' the valley. The river flows approx 2,- - 2 'g Ida east- wads- of the old "river=bed. The new river-bed" a 3pr r 30 metros wM I'urthor to the south at - OPOMIYA the ? val].oy narrows to approve 2 Km and. t e . rive'bee- is approx 30' metres wide At POIWAVA the road:: bridgawithin the town ia.. ipprGx 70. metres long, the ri*er. itself'-? is apprcac 50 (Y) istres wide.. the following fords : across the river, VORSK :- At UZMLW: ? approx. 150 'matx6s! north of the'rp `b ;ge one ford. approxx.I 'metre- deep. At KtTYELVA: tOro'-fords both north of;? -the "road bridge the first aapprocr" 500 metres and the seco d apprc 850, metres Prom tY>o "Itx;dge. South, of the brill there is oneford` on the road leading from-:KOTY=JVg to- IX This is a very shallow one (approx10.5 metre). There.. is. also one .ford between the villages OPOSIINYA arA DES. aab tan , even. tho' 0]d woman used tea `cross ile. v+arr re. T e VO1~SJUA had ont 7.Y_-a. sandy bott. odd' The1 var Ri & M. tho .rathor, smAllor stroaii?; flood. almost at every Spring:, "always at or. about Easter. ' The P.:ooa33: dt f last a long time,usual]. 10 "days, 'but are'- att- general -rather strong. In -some places the VORSKIA floods the countryside . for a width. of 7 -,q 1 , damaguig bridges and' houses situated in the vicinity of the river.. SECRET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SE.CtRE.T - A3.-- the VORSKLA between, AIIYRKA and POWAVA, forms a serious natural barrier.. Its steep and high w~estertr bank and swampy or, steep left bank, 1?oth covered by woods and- bushes, are.:.eas;ier' to defend, against an enemy advancing. from the. east to the west -than agaa,nst- trgops. advancing . f rom -the. west, Ths_ .b gh western bank of th e' -rider' is a natural' liiav :of . observation points of ,the eastern :side of the . river.: observata.~on point -situated between the. v llages- MEiLC1`l and. BILSK. one.. c .n des - xgr:- thing for a distance of approx 1'5 Km. Only the hearer t vicinity of the. river .covered by, the woods: and. bushes ,almopt: cornpLote y inv sible. from the western .b in, i y4i ins_ x=s ti&AS, 4181d to : Ue-rmen a short time_ quest: of. the rivver .VO S1 4 bit: were unable :to th G t a d ' l th it i e erm varrov. on a op; n a . ver e r se .,, to 14 a V0i7 difficult steep approaches: to, the -river bet en TIB~{A" ate .the confluence 'of.tho VO"RSI{LA.and, EERLYA the Geer broke through de A* - north, of ATcIffYRKA and mopped up the.: who east ..oe the river.. In 1943 the .situation changed when'' the.'retre8,ting CWrmahe successfully- hold, thp Ibissians :for .a: the wes,tern bank of the rivor.. .:.:' ho;German 'defence colla.j~sed When ttie R4~ss.ians broke through north, .off YRIfA:. con awrma_ tion- of. the: gener-al'gpinionthat north: of AI thq,,.,. VO1 SK ,A, is no more obstacle and. the .i e,x a n i s much Oadiex for large. _gea,la operational mov-et ts.. none .. of the above-mend ec`1 Pox , " bss the VQRSBI A are any good fpr. ` W -traffic,.. At an experienced tank driver Would be : able to cross the river; but any other motor vehicle would stick-in the mud". Dur. the winter frb&t.. i6b, on the ivor VORS IL& it thl.* There are. also some small :stxioams. f.owixig..sither .in'oati ens -or' having flat -but muddy banks which,, should also b'e -6orisidored as serious obstacles for. military traffic., . a small stream,.. the.- KOT VKAri, :-apps= 4 metres wide, flowing from the east .through t'ie ;ilages~ 7CIKHAYLOVKA and KOTYELVA, cost both" the Reassians and. Germans heavy lgsse3 i>n l;anks In ita. eastern part . the stream f lows in a deep .cayon .-and, west of 1iHAYl1DVKA has swampy and muddy banks. In 1- 94+3 both' the , G iiitia wa tub ?ussians lost many tanks in its muddy banks and bottoIi. Another :K0TYELYEVKA stream. (there are four.. KOr)EE>r,XOY1{As.;there ::flowing in a, deep canyon and through.the lake' at the y :]:loge PARHI O~OVKA is also 'a dangerous and treacherous ob ,'itac a for.s4l3.tary Motor transport. The river" BOG?1J1 M0V has a high. tid, V~ei.y: steep' fight (northern) -bank and._e. flat southern,: bank. 'Thg "riv+ there ,loss than 'F5 metres wide,..: ` Plther to' the west;. at YOVKA the river is approx 20 metres wide . ' The northe'rn' 1*nk is '.higher. than the, southern. 1 vprox. 2.. Km .west... of the...J TYEZVA oacl:the river >. is- only approx:.'10 metres fide T e 'banks , flat .over d by. .:grass- There are in the, whale.,area a number' of.ei~ai1 laloss; ], :`cif them have a sandy bottom and are'comparatively'degg.. Swamps.. are.: in. general. in the river valleys. They do not cover -large areas but are in general difficult even for' . horses -an . exch. S-E C RE T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SECRET The. sdil in the whole area is. a good Ukrainian black soil. Thore are in soaq places - patchos O sand; chiefly.. r ;W_ the , fort, :.of -_s1Qa1]. hills Sand is also on the' river beaks and In .the..conifarous, vroads . (d there prorri4ed a good cover for large troop ooncantrat;ons : as well as'ori guersl.: acti:vi~ties Ve Cation a~ad i;ouYturo , The area Yes a considerable pe en ag ,of wgod d counts: There are larger, areas covered by various 1 .nos . of aPoodS in .t vi,ty of : ~, IT i sncl along vhe 'rivers VOR . nd ]I RI X& Waods consist chiefly of deci uous ees, among them a 3.arge quantity ~ , . .there Was c az tivel`y.+ r 50X1-HUM little' devastation of woods dura.r g the war; In ge or'al the Woods in,thei, non-wooded aroas:approx..709'of. the 50X1-HUM a -fin crops era :rye and wheat, than .sugar b99t, paig and:. others. ila a:o s typos'' of vegetables are planted in the. kitchen : gardens. 'There a 1so a `oa ti ve mpa ; quantity of fro 'b cu3,t v -ted ouch :as ;appTs's, pears, atierrfes;. ply a vrater--1~0two. The collective farms are well provided.with 4riouatural machinery. Is. the I~pTYI 'egion `the ` two.. a hind an~.:tra cto -sex vice stati.o s (Mrs )' y' - one at KC7 :'Y JVA (60 -tractors) and one at- ' L . In the KRASNIF KU2 Region there are also .twno`MSS .-stations,`.4aoh of ap -rwc .60 treators. The A' YRKA,. region..i:s a .so ;well. provided With treat.are. y Tri earl rogi.orl there are tractor ariver.and rc iic coarsen.trams:this t ractor' personnel :during _the wirito porxals.. lam. `i:...! tivatod, the remainder-being m9adOws and pasts. Thera s s = a lame - que ntity, of lives t ock in the. ax1a, but: herd Is =still a deciroace 'in` coe a sots with the pro- war numbers. ('a) 'I dust the.x a is -As heavy d toy . a.f: the, area. The existing industry is o1 fl~r closely tied up, with a~a,c .lture. in POILAVA. there are .te$tile factories and a ,large 'elevator and gx' S' q large grain storage a lasts at the kailmYEVKA Station on the POIfxAVA KflARKOV railwa,r. AKM I:tself':are -sea alcohol distilleries: a4. a JbrewMzy- Tyre- arA also sc = of or factorae.s; At east of Kdl'YEI,VA there is 'a large , sugar. factory po" ted =by . a narrow gauge railway line with the' BOG V Station. (f) atic avid - So ttlomep Y'M~faV YiAI v KiG4 Vi'.' i~ 4R l 4 S4 Gyi. Vvaa.a~.v V~ .vi - Vri.a.fr4iiY~.iP, ~si~s? the greater part' ,of V popwlation s axe aini ens ..: Ukrain domirir ato - the rural _settlemants In' the SE-C.R;ET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E C R E T - A5 The rural settlements as almost -everywhere in the Ukraine are large, scattered or linear and built without any definite planning. The number of Russian population there is comparatively small 'but-the lssian settlers and Russian officials occupy important positions everywhere. KOTYELVA situated on the river '. VORSKI:,A, - .is--i. ndoubtedly an -outstanding one. -It -i.s;. the largest settlement 'between A1HTYRKk and j'OITAVA and is considered the largest village in the UKRAI.. It occupies an area of approx 40 sq Km .aid has approx 30,000 inhabitants. KOTYELVA jtself consists of 2 syel- soviets and 14 collective. farmss.. The largest of them=has.over $00 houses and aP.P rox, 7,OQO;~octacos of ]acad. Other-villages are much smaller but the average sazc._gf a rural settletuentthere, is 300 - 500 Xiouses. A village of less than 300.houses,? is....considexrod a Mmall, one o -The--villages consist in general of two-roomed white--washed' *ooden '`huts with :thatched roofs. There are no wooden-floors. a.ti..the dwellings.but only earth. Each but is provided with a Rassian stove which serves various purposes such as heating,.cooking , drying :sleeping accommodation, etc-.., -There is very little furniture .ctrl.' whet: does exist is very ugly -and primitive. . There .are very few .beds- i n the collective fans x people sloes chief .;y, on. the shove or on woden planks : All. huts- and, ' their inhabit I is :are verma rl=infested. --"They wash: themso],ves somotiMQ,9:.i.n,-sumsi r, but in wa Ater- the water is cold.aid. it is -cold Both outside., arid inside, therefore-.. one:. h' does not waeh . ' kbexe vas` not ve , ruueh. 7:e et of_ the -ferices, outPiae_, the hoiuses, all that could be used for heating having disappeared long aka:-: -The , "p`lectrif ,cati:ort- of kolkhozi"-'s only in the ,larger farms 7gu t:theelectricity"supply'there is only for ::. Party. and; Government institutions suc1-r as Party Committee buildings, :IVY 1a tie, B, etc. Thes? "otfides' and institutions occupy. the r'ew brick buildings in the -villages . There are in many colloctive fsacros.::sma 1 brick- kilos.., -bricks. roduced :: there : are delivered .,:to,. the -.towns, and .there are no new brick buildings in the farms The Fire Brigades exist in theory only. -In , the Fire Brigade arrives when the fire is-already over. The' fire egi'iipment is worse than primitive There arc three towns in the area described:, -POII1 AVA .the ref tow of the Province,. AL TYR'liA which. belongs to the: SUM Y rrovli,nce, acid"BOGfDUMiOv b - el the-.KE1 ~OV..Prc~vlnce. (i) P0I[PAVA, the most important centre between 1ffiARKOV and KIEV is situated on the. right. bank. of the ,river. VO 2SK[1L...,.One the left` batik -extends a town suburb and.. the.`Southe n Railway- 'Station {t~0I1PAVA YU'LHISAYA) . T1ie town and the west t 1 ' n o t er r u s s occupy a .flat area In the.,eastern.~.part of the town 'there 2Z, on.. the' right bank of_ the-. river; -a: wboded hill wheY~e .a church and a :-ceuie'tery are- situatod. POIJTAVA is- in general coxnparativoly ve'i l built 'acid 6 "'civilised" town. The greater part of'' t :dwe lii s 'acre,msbde of brick or stony. Bonne pmts of ?the town have 'a sanitation instal]ati..ons.- The -Min "streetsare-paved -with "bulyzhntk" cabbies but smaller usual, "w .ter-me]on!'.,size, . There are also patches-of tar-macadam surface. 50X1-HUM Pavements are , made of . at one. /The town SE C.RET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 (g) $.E.:C:R:E T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E C R E T ACS The. town. is rather poar]y lighted railway stations. The_ VORSI9A steel road bridge, apprtsx 70metres lo~_and approx 8 .metres wide, J.s, a dangerous and". u3nerab 7,point for m i l i t a r y traffic.`. On-the' eastern, side b the r . rer :between the .bridge and the road forks t e road Yvns, a steep. Lyon and could- there. be easily blocked, The main transit roads running from the,..south--vast and north concentrate on the main Kremonchugskaya Street v .i ch connects the southern and _Z.Y (ii On the western side ? of the < road leading to.the north in the direction of DIYQUWA;. 750 - 1000 metres north of the XL.EV Station there is - a large PCL ;Dump.: Al ffXEKA a -Chief town of a Region, a. medium-sa zed. `town. of 10-- ,000 inhabitants; Sit ated on the left bank of the river VORSSKLL Approx 6o a th town bui.ldi n s are bidlt =of. bri.c~k. ==.There is, no water? supply and. no , sewage system in`-Uie tom .1k6s:quitos breed in tbo rous::iakes in ide. the t vn and'`in t'no vi.ciriity as, we1].-as ,`ice tk umerou swamps :around the town. Dwellings n tha town=rare vermin- infested. The . greater.--part' of them have 'i o electricity supply and kerosene lamps are generally" us041 as a UP. A few ,maid streets are very badly paved ..with enormous "bulyzbnslk" cobbles,.' Tbo others' are, complete] unpaved. Zxoept for a few points the town is complAtel dark at.. si8ht iii) & O V, a chief town of a Region, i s; i n gone 4 o the` -same "star and : of. c vi 1i a ion as A.EIIT RK& There w a s considerable ,v ar damage in the torvn? 50X1-HUM Is Ras1wa only= the foxao details: - BOGMUIffIOV Station on -the LYOBCFfIN SUW(.railway. Approx 5 sidings:- A single track branch -appror,4 Ism' long runs, tot.Y on .the. river I RLYA. Freight. passenger traffic. . teas"" purpose. of the Cdr' -b alXhA '.arse c antitios : oP Goad. ierv' delivnrod by ra~i.3.' There ar~3 nfl industrial. enterprises. there Vi]3 gee Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SECRET - A7 - (ii) The narrow ` gauge - branch from GUSAROVKA to PARKHOADVKA Sugar Factory. . A single. track. approx I ,.nitre, wide,. No passenger traffic. (h) il~s There is loo, road system .in the area. . he -only decent macaci?ami.sed road- runs along the ;southern, bank of the -raver KOLOMAK.from POIf A.VA xiHARKOV. Q:` ThoDe is also . a . stretph of approx.: 5 .Km of macadamise decent, sector of the POIJIAVA - Al CYRKA road. 95% of all other maga are earth. tracks of unlimited. width- or?the,:fa ow local "prosyelochniye" roads. :'Some small sectors -of .main tracks are - " cobbles.. . 'tbulyzhnik ..the. maim. track POVTAVA., AKRKL as follar s: ?50X1-HUM (i) Glider lattd . :-areas (se.e Antaexe -1. much more during the- war a maxim3m capacity of 7 tons.. -.,Abut they:.managed motor,-tr'aneport. but also for the -horse and oxen 50X1-HUM the. last war' only tanks and. traced heavy vehicles managed to `move alofig these muddy roads In _wa nter (end. ))erember - March) snow makes traffic'-rather difficult. Partj.oula`r. Iy: dangerous for motor , transport. are . numerous steep ar4 deep: canyons and muddy river. and stream- banks . Road bridges are'nade? of wood and. some of. them- were'.s'trong enough to: carry, even tanks. The VORSKT A road bridge. at KO'J.IELVA has the maximum weight capacity, of ..5_ tone. - o est-bridges:-are of like black, earth mud which is. impossible. apt-poly for wheeled From POITAVA approx 5 Knn of tar-macadam.road,..with approx 3- metres of- -earth- track on both' sides for horse traffic. From ZHUK . to DIKANKA,' approx 22 Km-,.of. "bulyshnik" Further . to the north there is a 5 Km sti:etbh' of: earth track, then _21 Km of '"bulyzhnik". to :0PQS1 4; !.,From O.FOSHNYA, to KOTYLVA aid., earth -track :22 Km -long .through the 'v illage'.DEREVKL. From KOTIELVA hr.ough,-;Mi to AZ}i BKa 30 kin of: very;bad 'earth :.traol . _ in- general there are 5 Km of good road ,between PQI1rAVA. and AENTRKA. and 'the, remaining 100 Km are hopeless. Ai1.''these . roads are good for military. 'IV?T, during.. the dry periods. In rainy weather there is an incredibly deep and thick chocolate- UY...u GV yiu] u;i L?J.4u:}~/ VqT: J.'a. .i j. aa.....o..r v.,... canyons arid swzLmps-, there are not many.:places in the, area which ooulcl,.~jo . used::f'ax~ _glider :landinng purposes.. .. Bee i AK YRKA. ana PC LTAYA. he fallowing ]ardu% 50X1-HUM (.) West of the village. KHUK'dRX'A approx 3 Km South. 'Of the town boundary of AKHTYRKA along the K iUXMRY'A. - AKHTYRKA road there are approx 1. sq Km of flat cultivated. land. which,, after harvest, 'could be..u .~(ii.) ... SECRET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SE'CRET .- A-. w (ii) The virago 'IVANOVKA approx.7.5 $m. north cc- the P Vl& Sugar 'a.otory. Betty -en the. Jake :ana -#he Ai ysti- , z' l o ;`'ire a small area 2 Kai, long `aqd, approx 1 Km user . im b t e y the ""." planes, oea 7?'? .u he ?` , 4~ $4 ,used , .a ceding pl ibe' cox' "Q q MMOVO P?'o 5 Km sautf~ o :: ZOVKA we north 0 FD A both., sides or the x6m& .ooiSi~eo f ,'ham v gas th O. a flat and dry satxly space ,.of appro -1i. eq Std A l l " 'p s:qe : car, -be usod 'during 1i>Ei. cyy` ; pe "bds. 1 'the e,outl ast out ki. is ot. ..v .1 do]3vered: the maia.'frca PO AV&U tom A-. Ricassy (a):. trod (b) , Ta_ The t of (aER! a$aT is situated; .on the western' h3 sr"1e do vt ,the. river DNY~.PR. west of the to4Jn the, country, U. u ii ;s c1 t read With bushos and groups of 61d trees der . .west merge woad extols a'.dtstanne of apprO 31",, A' the 1okt ; (eastern) bank af' the river - Is t et- and. 'san&y, a sectors +covei 'by bushes:' Fe~tthsr to. the.. east a ai i and pastures.. The to , extends i64 ng the.:r#yer- (a) pla:teali whi,olx d?soerAe gradual y_ , r vr: The river DN`PR The. ritiex~ at" Q SSY and its. vican ty van . ;iYi v atxi, depth In spring tho Majority of theta, are u1 .er hooter. the width - of the river on its.`central ssetor $0?. metros.. On the railway sector the river is w derr DUrintg' the `spring . ate.: summer periods the ra v r is, gablei (d) Genera]. Information - RK&8 .:i.tse..lf belongs . to Pz vi noe . The left bank bf the river be longs to POtWIVA? Province :::. The `to n . i s '5i to d on -die RNMAN PO fbsia HtAYA rai. ay `sire f $ an ' i.mpar't t `r ye ' as ss g. -T ho doublo.--tracha steel ra t]wa --b' r3 .ge. eiaaxatoa `n h st of .;Ihe. town. in. V prcac ;, 500 is t t s s ? e::py" f ~': sts~ss ... R Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E.-C T.-. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SECRET - A9, in. CIIBRKAssr The town itself, which is, built in blocksy consists-'vhief].y of one- and two-storey brick buildings. The main streets are .8 = 10 metres wade and .paved, with.."bu yzbnik" cobbles Some State' buildin. s have a water supply ,which as a rule is out of order 1+. 5 days per week The water is delivered chiefly from the' river'. -"There are no sanitation. installations. The. electricity from the local power station is almost all over the town but the stred ts-are"railer dark. (e) Glider landing area in the nearest vicinity 'of CHMRXcAsSY -?the r 49 ,the follawi 50X1-HUM Ap ng.troops.ware stationed 4. The CHERICA SY Garrison (see Annexe 2 to Appendix 'A') (a)' 28 or. 14.8 Much-Div located- in the barracks., CVOYENGORODOK)..situated. on the south-western side of the town. present, railway. bridge. was . built after the war. ? saw ..U ~aMad b ~fGB troops :(" KRASi\?OpoGfJ II it ).. there. ars also MGs on..the bridge. 50X1-HUM Approx 3 Ian east of the main railway bridge there . a, ama11 steel bridge over an arm of the river DINI'M'OR. Between the main bridge' and. the. CHERKASSYStation tis:,xa lway runs on a ,dam 6 - , 7 .noetres :.ha gh. Thera are two at 6-6-i bridges over the roads running 'west arld Sout]'14lest. the some terrain: i..s ;rather difficult -.for glider. .ltand_g because of undulating and:woo ed .land -on the wEistern bank of...-the r ?Yer and flat but muddy grounds on the" left batik. (b)- .-An-.:W B."Special Detachmont...loop.ted the. town. and on 59 Oh Rs t 2 more 'regiments, were i.n a Barracks. in . CiERKASSY this Meth Div had already been there over 3 years and was due to be-moved to another,place during 191x9. The . barx acks ax ea in GEERKASSY extends alot . the main railway track lo.adang~ to the ra.i.1way bridge,. They-, of: numierdus c*ie-storey bri;Ok- b ld:ngs,. There are only 2.twowstorey buildings. Thvroare`also some wooden shads.- There are no- ,trees its the barracks Yaroa. On the other siae of the railway extends a thin. forest where the Sumter Camp is situated. There are also '2 ' small.--axis-s ioa'ting~-rr nges and tanks and LET parks. During the summer period troops camp there under canvas. cdotails copcernit]g the 3ZB Speo.a1 50X1-HUM D-etaolat ant They were called: "KRASNOPOGCLI. II ans. carra.ea d# -the rail- VV br?idge_ guatd atid town pa rot dui ea. They used' to cariry out their training on :the..;same ground: as `the .9 Moch._Regt in the: Sutter '-('Tamp area. .Ralations .betw!aen them and the 1oh Div personnel 'were rather cool. 50X1-HUM Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E C.RE T j ~ DFR~VKL. To PC TAVA Scala: 1:250,.000 (Glider landing areas - are n rk3d 'V .SEC.RET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 A11' 1 TO APPI MIX A E SKETCH OF THE KOTYELVA A.R. ;C RUBLYOVKA. To AICYRKA SECRET EXII,AUATORY NOTES TO 2,Z2g4 2 TO A r D 'A' 1. Check Point 2.. Saloon Cars and Motorcycles Park 3 - 59 Ragt Quarters. (Tank and W personnel. Gymnasium). 4`~ 59 Riegt Quarters 5. 6. Voyontorg Shop and'ORs.Quarters 7. 59 Rogt Club 8. Class rooms 9. Artillery Workshops and Clothing Store 10 Artillery Park 12. 13. 14. 15= 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 21+- 25. 26. 27 28. 29. 30. 31. S E C R E T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 HQ 59 Moch Rogt 59 Mach Regt Dining Hall Lavatories Guard Room Obstacle course Bath and Laundry Food Store ltil Room 59 Mach Rogt Arty Battery Tank Unit Voyontorg Store and ORs Quarters ORs Quarters (tivo--storey building) Rsgimsntal Club Wooden Shed (salvago) Regimental Club Mr Park ORs Quarters Tank School. Classrooms and ORs Quarters. (two -storey ? .1n.ingY kT Ground Garrison POL Dump (underground) Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SECRET AIU= 2 TO Az,DIX A SI CH OF TIM 3ILITARY B iRACXS E. O1 LR -u SSY Scale : 1:125,000 To the Station. 81C.RBT Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 F&B 1952 bl INFORMATION REPORT REPORT CO NO. COUNTRY USSR (Ukrainian SSR) SUBJECT Conditions of Life and Social Problems in the Ukraine DATE OF INFO; PLACE ACQUIRE THIS-DOCUMEAT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING-THE- NATIONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES, WITHIN THE MEANING OF TITLE IS, SECTIONS 793 AND 794, OF THE U.S. CODE,_AS AMENDED. ITS TRANSMISSION ON REVE- LATION OF ITS CONTENTS" TO OR RECEIPT BY AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED BY LAW. TNF, REPRODUCTION OF. THIS FORM IS PROHIBITED. CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY SECRET SECURITY INFORMATION DATE DISTR. 15 Oct, 1952 NO. OF PAGES 1 NO. OF ENCLS. 1 (7 pages) (LISTED BELOW). SUPPLEMENT TO- REPORT- NO. - Not graded THIS IS.UNNENALUATED INFORMATION X NAVY XAIR ARMYX FBIFBI Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 /On the ... SECRET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E C R E T APPECIpIX 1B1 ]3 FORMATION ONCOM'IQI s OF LIFE AM SOOIAI. PROBLEMS IN THE _UK? I I I. introduction 2. Life in the c411ectiv 10 Parma 3, Life in the towns 4. Religion 5, Education 6. Anti-Semitism The Russian drive in.- tha Ukraine 8. Political feeling. "- 9. Morals I. Introduction part. of . the Ukraine situated on the borders of the present r ovinces POILI AVA, KTiARIdDV and SliMY. in IItARKOY the life is entirely difforent. "There are oven taps with water there", things nvvor seen in AI1TYRKA and not native in 'FOLTAVA social problems and life in POLTAVA area which, being situated between KIEV and IQIARKOV anti 'being always very Ukrainian, plays an important role in the life of the Ukraine. 2, Lire in the collective farms in.comparison with the' spring of 1949 thee present standard of life in the collective- fags in the POId'AVA area is in some respects higher. This,- improvement concerns chiefly the quantity of food obtainable for a collective farmer, in partioular the. amount of -grain which fare rs obtain for one working day. There are also more goods and of better quality in the "RAYMAGs"'(Regional wholesale stores-) than in 1949. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SECRET On-the other hand there is very little change in the conditions in, which the peasants have lived curing the a last twenty:-years and the general standard of civilisation, culture and. Morals- is. the same as' it was before. 50X1-HUM the:. amalgamation of the collective farms, did, not exercise. rr]uch: ;LnfluenC?e- on 'conditions of. -7a fe in the villages. This .s caused first of all by? the difficulties of structure of Ukrainian villages which are usuallymuch larger, than the RuMian ar Byelorussian ones, They are :built irregularly, occupying a - large space and are, very densely populated. ` 1;vhile- i n F ssia, a village of 200 houses is considered a large one, 200 - 300 houses and 2,000 inhabitants-represent the average size for a rural settlement in the Ukraine. There are-settle- ments extending along the rivers or canyons for 6 - 10 M. The distribution of land and organisation of agricultural work in such villages is extremely difficult.. Larger settlements consist- of two and more. collative farms. KLCYELVA, an unusually large,..village, of approx 30,:000, inhabitants, -comprised before the amalgamation fourteen collective farms, the'smallest of them having 280 houses and 1,000 hectares of-land. At present the'number of kolkhozi there has been reduced to eight... The ' on- real -'effect. of amalgamation 'was a, reduction-. In the number of all types of clerical staff and officials , and . an' increase' in man-power: Bit the increase in?man-power. was much smaller thars .expected. The amalgamation caused great dissatisfaction with' the new distribution -Of land among-the farms.. It is an almost impossible task in the ,.'USSR to satisfy the farmers after their experience of,the last-30 years. Nona of ' the Government pr-oma ses have. been fulfilled. On the contrary, farmers live in constant fear that the .Government, in. order to increase the standard of discipline of work - still. -considered inadequate, will put all collective, farmers, ].n commnon . barracks . mThorefore evv . an innocent innovation raises immediately a wave of.panic. as an .example the construction of a brick-kiln in a "collective farm immediately causes. rumours that the Government is going to b Ala,_ bra= barracks for the farmers.: Fora collective farmer deprived in fact of all,his.- rights-and. being a ,Pariah of the .Soviet com=ity desperately 'defends the - last thing..left "to him. -. his own home. The real tragedy of life of the collective f aarmers ia acne it lack: of money. In the present structure of the collective farms, a farmer has no money and cannot obtain any. Paid for his work A m, grain and obliged to pay various taxes in. cash.. and buy, manufactured goods for cash, as struggles for every single rouble. The system . of 'Government deliveries is ruthless afid in some.ways also ridiculous. For instance:, a.-collective -farmer is obliged, to deliver 120 'eggs per year whether: 'he ha-s. any hens or not. If he has 'ho poultry he must buy eggs on the market for delivery to the Government. In order to obtain money for the purchase o f,. eggs.- he has to sell something, for example a pig.' But if ho,possesses a pig he must' deliver meat. etc. to the Government. The.Governmcnt?deliveries and taxes are -an endless chain of vexations. . A farmer who possesses a cow delivers milk, butter and 40 Iii 7ogrammes of meat yearly to the. Government. The small plots of land which collective-farmers own arc ..their main and almost, only :sources of living. According to the present regu-- lations the prewar -far ers can possess 0.6 hectare of tljeir. own; land. Until .1951 it was.0-8 hectare but the new farmers who joined kol,khozi after 19+5 am entitled -.only to 0.4 hectare of , land. From these plota ' they live; pay taxes and try to obtain some money for buying manufactured goods. /Owing to . SECR2T, Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E C R T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S.E:C ]T B3 Owing to. this economic policy the ' ;peasants oP. the. POZWAVA area,. one., of the ngrain stores of Euz'o "., land of fruit, sugarr`beet, veg4tab];ee and livestock, live on a diet consisting chi fly of bread and potatoes. Meat and milk they consume -only at. the Ohristinas or .Easter. .hol days and somoti es. on Sundays. They have : no butter whatsoever and use a iawer-- 50X1-HUM seed oil. as a : substitute.. a .col Jo ta.vo farmer eats .10 - 20 `o&gs per year. ` Sugar in, a small quantity is.. obtainable,. only for people. working 3M the- sugar beet ,fields. Tho main vegetables are cucumber, and aabbago.. Only those who have fruit trees in them own W ohm gardens arb-' able ` to oat fruit Until 1947-4 : there - word no restrictions on collecting crab-app~;es in. the woods At pz'c.aex t:-for sores tanknown: reason this is f'orbiddon and the ap a plea peers rot, t e woods b~causo .the foresters are riot willing and have no time 'to 'aolleof1thc%, Accommodation- is also an acute problem for the viiiagerb'WA the- situation is even worsa- than before -the. ~rar Thorax wags... fl 4Cavernmoz t .hale for the. ro r pf damage. D-vellings repaired by the .faarr x?s. dare rebuilt -axact~,lr in the, sauna war as be#'oro the ,war, irr other ,i a Y3s they are -vrooden ,huts' with oartlt floors ,.arid. thatched .roofs: There .,are, stall some. people living in,cellars or dry-ou- s'.~. never seen the =w,? lovely awe Uings in iiha ch the happy farmer lives" accordi ig to official propagarda). There is no,;elvotricity- in the, villages except,for -.the. _ 50X1-HUM office- build i.rigs n the' Aga kolkhoz . The ,huts, are it imi nate4 icorose During the war and ulna, 191.6, there ware. na li t5 in the huts,.- Heating is- also a ve serious *6'blor8, ..Thera 3 :no ;cva.]... ar i the -woods, bet. ~tc ,_ .Stairs . i gars at' their hits v~^Tt i .str ~ thorns a4 . anything which can be burnt. All fences were.used;,, Up ...long ace... In winter there is bitter cold. and dal 'ios3".i the: kiuts#- mho yncx . problem is furniture pottery drA cutJ,.ary .. -The 1uckr aqd. 'wcaltY collective :farmers. live era unfttrni had its: Avery fama.lyy, hao one..bed...-' Tho ma.J-ority sleep',oi "the stove; or4JP4:a plaol, or on .the flooz' described tKo, Normal "bba- akd dcl Y s~! i ri5OX1-HUM an.avcrag?.-hut as' "one` to three small incre. bly filthy p ll: ws,.;:tr ad mum orra. rotten blanket and a cc plc ' of planks;: put away duritiig.the. as in a cwrncr of the rovra": So uaA of .lagers halo shat~ts' but=xidiior: m zo thafl two for . a family:'ownls era in some, houses but the ttieoity use old legs. instead.:. Furniture consists chiefly of one ab1 a coqplq.of v r r R i itive -stools,` 'one' empty wocclen box- arid. one or ,fro .:wbo O.b benobas. Putt y usually "`Consists. of a coupJ.e pr potp, which serve,, for various purposes suotr--as cooking, eating, washa:rig etc:- .$vary offie.:has tiffs own spoon, chiefly a wooden. ore, and ahams-made' knife t,is the usual egttipmerit of ' a farmhouse'. kitcherr. In the. aid #me~ .,of 1'Ozari.3t oppre'ssion" there were jugs, cups-.and' sotmeta.mes- ,glasses in every, house. There wore : also knives and forks. - At' present there are very' few forks, and- all are of the "Czarist" make. an average: rarmer and, his.,. ;anu:+y themselves "sometimes in summer in the, ,ri,'irOr"'g Durin$ the vrintor they, - do not wash a.t : al ]- a ccept oft holidays at Christmas, -Easter or the New Year. "Therm is no hot water, it is cold inside. a-A outside geed ' soap is very s rce 'are. expensive therefore they do not" "the mashes". s : d ie th T e ' o .x e ey al h y cost money, l oathbr*shes are lint used at all. toot p air; people. are not "aeousi:orrie t air ; therm'..., There is a lack of the m6st necessary imp1Qks-ents in a ppasant family, = each house is provided i th a hammer but there are. very few'. Pincer s?, scissors, screwdrivers, irons, etc, ..-.rte..., - ,.. ~~..-^-? . ... ~. -. ~.,. -... - .ww~M.. ~ ^vtv..rr..... Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S EC'R R T before the war there were ne bicycles in the collective farms, they area for the first time in 1P945, , chiefly as, ."booty". Between 1946 and 194.9 the number increased .and iii. 1949 '.there were 400 'cycles in the KOTYELVA region. A woman cycling is still considered. there as .shameful . ("POZOR") . 50X1-HUM . ~.tiorl ;a;s 've .pu ry badly dressed. In general they have no: underwear, the rtxrtheya.l do o?not use: 'handkerchiefs,` of them i e>-its r s " r ag . The ladies -underwear horrified. who.:look: of for themselves but they are er r g sr~ . ~,ri asp when, a.s~. ing the market- square (I~AZAR) which ip..for.:a: tllcra.inian peasant tYie pl ce.~vhere th(I village "sovie-by" meets. '.!IdA'AARM" .l- ls'do not pick their- noses' =with their. fingers (then do this everywhere) but use haiidkorchi?fs an&`it- is not good to be. seen in the BAZAR'.bare-footed. thew is ver l.ittI l y e pou tr.xra .. i fe afad.anus rnents in. the collective farms Clubs, exist. in the majority of the V41-Ages, but there are.. also many where a club exists. only in -theory. ?Tn-KOTYELVA, w: oh is a regional centre, there are two clubs:, one of 'gym the '% n n" Club which every autumn .. i,s used as a gra ?-store: and the other. "1 Travnya"' Club which is open all the year. There, is a- -Large l06tu.6e and. ,theatre room,. a library and a dance-hall oallea by;,ths local inhabitants: "Ki'OT" (foyer), People dance there', fight sometimes. Very seldom a cinema show is given there. This is the only place - cif entertainment for 30,000 inhabitants. Owing to the Ukrainiari.'s soaiabla and. gay nature-there is more social life =3ta..the Ukraine than in' Russia. People like singing together and in spite of the. hazel life they are rather,,. cheerful. .. Pe 0,10 do not -read. either books or papers. Xesrspap?rs a used. ha.vfly .as cigarette :paper. Books are . expensive 'and there is no light for readixig. Tn cacti y..llage', there exists an uppe class" comprised of all local authorities, Party lowers, Government officials, toobnzcians cashiers., etc. an,d... they avoid, contact:. with the collective-farmers in thr Regional' centr~s such, as. KOT3 LVA and KR IY KIJT where the of'ficiaLs are very numerous the distance between the upper and lower .. classes is very 'great. The Regional Party officials, s, State Bank and Savings Bank managers and the rnagi,strate, are the higho from at caste,, cut off the peasants . money, attention to the- peasants. The upper class are well lodged, earn cat and drink very well and do not pay much The second social al ass, a1sQ well situated, are the mechanics :arid. drivers from the. DR.'S stations.., local .fe.ctoriaa- and in titut.ions: The ASS personnel for. example. have enough-kerosene for' their lai ps, they are .Paid in cash, buy bicycls and cigarette S o m e re abroad during the. -war - have .._ ockvt-swatches, the,ro. v'? re It .194.9 50X1-HUM a rox 10 t k pp poc o watches for approx 1 ,200 inhabitants (b of them :very "booty" from Germany and Poland- /There is ... S E'C R E:T.. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E_C R B5 lack of manpower in the farms. Men x'!.th There ' i.s still, 8 great' away at every opportunity from the.. farms to the towns In particular the demobilise . soldiers do their'best to avoid returning to the L~o1.ective farms. 3. Life in the,towns /In the, SE0R.ET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 la:fe in ?the town uuich easier and better trian. the ("arms .. ;Except POIIrAVA the other. t owns axe filthy, -.1ac Pg .,essential civil1sed :: installstion3. Religion there is no perseQuti on People . 50X1-HUM .at the church services. In KOTYELVA two churches are open YPXA-one. church. open and in "almost all of the larger vi.7.1ages50X1-HUM one church is open.`-There are comparatively small congregations. People ih general: believe,. but are ''no longer accusi otned,.to" attend` the-'servi~a regularly,. The larger ` cdizgregations are at (,"hi^a;stmas Ear or 9-A EpiPxanY,services when a large number of young, people take part. Generally speaki.fl the Church does. not exercise. much ~I .nf`luence on, the population. but Athe- priests,` all of try old 'moil;' are' respected. Ediicatioa There are medical. schools (TYEK I1WM) in AKffi]?YRI and in BOG?UKHOV producing doctors' of very -poor quality. There is also an agrici11tural TYEI 41= in AKHTYM The only secondary' eehool in the Region i.e at' KC 'YELVA. The School is located iii,.&" orate goad 'juldirig 'and is well equipped. t} -elemeitary and. ae~ozs, ecx+y schools 50X1-HUM hags in,"gehexal a good s a teaohers are close' oorttaot :th ya a :s:. There ..i s Constant, ] ac .of, `testt hook az `+eopy` ! oolcs~ the oemsnaGhaols. 6. Anti eAliSM- ~x j;J.?x vJ_~aaa~. ~., _..... _ - - 50X1-HUM still exists., in the - rural sett1 ernents. ' I n spitb "" ,of' a vary small nilmbex of. Je*s in the viiIages~~ they always ooc apY the" good positions. rind are very uA opi lar.among the population. Tha R sign" drive -iii the Ul sine 50X1-HUM the larger. percentage of the. town population"ate, Ruuss ans. In the- z~ural settleri hts -6hey are in the minority`biat nevertheless they occupybett it positioi7 than the- ~s? has-nevet 'seen a',P"Zian m a kolkho~ 50X1-HUM vrgrking "in the fa.e). s . They "are in , the arty off a s; , in ko11 how stores,'they are "brigedirs" on the farms or'work in- the DDS stat3.ans but work as collective armers they do not f Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E C RIFT -B6, In the R9gional0 the .MB and-Militia personnel is almost entirely Russian: They do not speak or do not like to;speal: Ukrainian and often behave as "senior brothers" the number of Russians and-the Russian domination has, increased considerably..since the 'and of ths,.war.. 8. Politiaaueeli As previously stated, the rural popuation ,off. the , iQI AV&a ea could be ' lavir ed into-'.. four .:social-groups: (i) The" "upper class" consisting of tie troll-paid offioi.a],s. .technical personnel. The "aiiddle'F class, -also- liv .ng cornparet vq,y._7ell, whicl3 consists of.. the workers of the industrial or transport enterprises. (iii) --The former wartime Red partisans and their. families,.; favoured by the Government. (iv) The`low st class consisting of the masses of collo.ctive farmers. The first two groups are to a considerable extent Russians and for the most part they. are the "vigilant Bolsheviks". The last group is a]rnost entirely Ukrainian, :nlostly very nationalist and anti-Communiat in their- outlook. The nationalist Ukrainians undoubtedly hater Russians, Jews and Corrurnanists but are in general rather passive. During the first period after the war (1914.5.48) many of there carried out. non-organ sad sabotage activities against the representatives of the Soviet. regime During the summer and autumn of 1948 in K0T C iLVA alone _ three members of the kolkhoz..authorities, among them two.Kolkhoz Chairmen, were killed ,and one was wounded. There were many cases of robbery of the kolkhoz -stores and Party offices but there was no organised action and no political idea or-leadership. at present there is no guerilla 50X1-HUM warfare in Ukrainian territory except in the areas which until '939 belonged to POLA M . people were always talking .about 50X1-HUM tho famous "BANDERA" partisans fighting somewhere in the west but no-one. has ever seen.a real anti-Soviet partisan there.- Single .acts.. of sabotage always were and still are carried but .in various parts of the tjkraine ' but there is not a large-scale anti-Soviet action axed it rould be a great mistake to count on it. People live there in the atmosphere of distrust and depression. They are very tired morally and physica7ly'and'absolutely. unable to organise any serious action. even in 50X1-HUM case of a 'war against the west a considerable part of the, rural population, chiefly officials, workers and" farmer partisans, would support the regime. The anti-Soviet mass of Ukrainians would,, be most probably hostile but idle and not ready for any anti-Soviet action until the Allied troops entered'Soviet territory. The last war experiences with the Germans exercised. a considerable influence on the Ukrainian. mentality. /9. morals .... Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SEC -RET Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 SECRET - B7 - 9 50X1-HUM the general standard of morals in the POLTAVA area is comparatively high. There are many cases of theft ' and robbery but people rob chiefly the Government stores and steal food and Clothing. Murders occur very seldom. Women are safe in the rural settlements, There. -is a lot of fighting among the youth but'this is an old tradition of - famous bandits and Cossacks which. still.survivep. Men are often brutal and; very ride but they are not completely demoralised. A 'considerable number of people indulge in alcohol but. the "autkorities" drink m 'ah more than. the peasants because the latter have no money for.. vodka There are-also many fewer hooligans in the villages than in the towns. 'Married families live in general quietly atud, properly. Youths have very little moral restraint but the married women behave tbamselves decently as'a rule,. It appears that the rural population, except the ipper privileged classes; is Hitch, cleaner morally than physically. For -of their houses, caused by poverty and very low standard of civilisation, is really disastrous. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Next 6 Page(s) In Document Denied Iq Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 952 SECRET SECURITY INFORMATION INFORMATION REPORT REPORT C,QUNTRY USSR CD DAT NO. E DISTR. 15 Oct o 19 50 4UBJECT Effect on Soviet Population of Soviet Propaganda NO OF PAGE S 1 Against the West ) ( ATE OF NO. OF ENCL 3 pages S. 1 I.N FO. (LIST ED BELOW) ?PLACE ACQUIRE THIS DOCUMENT CONTAINS INFORMATION AFFECTING THE NATI.ONAL DEFENSE OF THE UNITED STATES, WITHIN THE MEANING OF TITLE 10, SECTIONS 793 AND 794, OF THE U.S. CODE, AS AMENDED. ITS TRANSMISSION OR REVE- LATION OF ITS CONTENTS TO OR RECEIPT BT AN UNAUTHORIZED PERSON IS PROHIBITED BY LAW. THC REPRODUCTION OF.THIS FORM IS PROHIBITED. SUPPLEMENT TO REPORT NO. # Not graded THIS IS UNEVALUATED INFORMATION RERU4CE COPY 00 ROT Giid~~~pTE CLASSIFICATION ARMY ]C AIR _LX. FBI X Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E C R E T S E C R E T IX IC' GT CST SOVIET POPULATIC>Z' OF SOVIET PROPAGASNIDAGAINST THE VEST INDEX Effect on Soviet population of Soviet propaganda against the West Effect On Soviet o ulatian.of Soviet Pro a againstALW West from; the towns are inclined to believe the Soviet propaganda more read;L2y than the villagers and support the Sovie' policy for the simple reason that they live batter than. the rural. population and because the percentage of real Communists is much larger in the towns than in the villages. Often during discussions on various problems such as politics, economics, etc. the most ardent Communists 50X1-HUM and the most chauvinistic were always workers' from MOSC0T and the MOSCOW Province. They were usually supported by the GORKIY workers. The soldiers from LENINGRAD wore much quietor and undoubtedly less pro- Soviet than those from MOSCOW and GORKEL The MOSCOW "bpys" were always proud. of the Soviet achievements,.' objected. against any criticism of the life in the USSR and':nere in general strongly anti-'astern. in the USSR and in Germany -I almost every one who was very loyal to the regime and glorified the life .in Russia 50X1-HUM th enc. e Soviet achievements, attacking the West, was either in a good position himself or had some one of his nearest relatives well situated in the Party,, in a Government office or in industry. ^ the greater part of the Government defenders supported 50X1-HUM the re i l f t , g me pure y or ma erialistic reasons. /On the .., S E C R E T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 S E C R E T - 02 .. On the other hand people from the town are rich more highly educated and better "fed" ? with, Comm.] t . Vropaganda than .the villagers. A .collective -farmer or.-. - farm wo~rIcer is less eduoated a and. politically' developed but also much. more- physically and, morally than the t r'n People..-the villagers also five xrtuch more reason to be dissatisfied and have ,more evidence against the Government policy.. The conditions in which they ~ivc .speak for,.,thamselves, ,. .This moral and phyaioal tiredness is for. a collective farmer the best ,. reason against any propaganda anti- or prQ-0QmmUfl]St A villa;Eer does not believe in anything the Soviet propaganda. says.. as "1 APR S1 IY TRtID" (waste of time At the same time a villa ;er is notjprepared',to:believe everythin propaganda might say: As long- as the inform the people of the` USSR what is wrong But information in the-Soviet Union the peasants would believe them on would be . re cawed rather cautiouS]y. A Soviet collea ive farmer rea se's: how'. ho lives and knows that-anywhere. outside the USSR life, better, though he would never :'believe in the existence of .absolute happiness anytirhoro. for a: Soviet. peasant the best propaganda containing clothing, food or various lif e . r.. r--_ _- - - things- which. could improve his standard. of ''very suspicious .peasa:nts are and it., is always a :very. long time before they will trust a stranger. During the last-; wa:: they were "liberated" -Ihvi,oe, .once by the Germans ^ nd. for the second-'. time by the Soviets'. in the POTIrAVA' area the. ma ority of peasants g eeted the Germans as liberators but about sax. months .later the .woods ire full of anti-German partisans' because they :wtd..beenrbitteily do calved by the Germans In 19 3 they wore libers.tocl f'rom` the s but; the, Soviet's punished' them severely for their','short period. o f ~icay 7 Y e 6xastencse under. 'the Germans.. Then agai h v? the period 0 ':., gloat. expect ,to f, a new life after the victor .:over Germs, `f ollovrea y t . disastrous famine of 1946 and a new wave of Soviet economic ar po itical terror At present after-'al.1..these experiences they tired and disillusioned. Therefore. propaganda among:. theU.krainilpeasants' is a very complicated problem a ,needs very ae],icate- hen 4 itbocamc clear that before starting, any a'ctiviti'es there it is very ess?ntial to realise:- propaganda (a) *1 at an average Ukraini:ari.peasant knows about the Soviet poll r; . 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM 50X1-HUM (d) what is the best. method of propaganda. The first question can be aliswerea:vOxy easily: an average T .peasant knows everything about the Soviet policy. He does not now or understand the complicated scientific the_gri es? o? Cburznr sdoos general arc, political and -economic . policies . in particular, know the . practical life , very well and what happened to him during the At present nothing. can change his attitude'taavards the lest 35..Years en' -for aworking Soviet regime no half-measures ,such as increase of pay. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 /day or see. Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457R013700240007-1 SECRET 03. - any or bicycles ' for sale in the Regional stores; nothing but the.compJ,ate freedom of life and work, no' amalgamation but liquidation of the collective fares coi4d probably take him softer. Owing to their experience and their attitude, Ukrainian peasants do not believe anything that the Kremlin says, either in the future happiness of life in Russia or that, the Russiaha invented radio, tanks and aeroplanes. 50X1-HUM The last point is what is the best 'method of :successful propaganda there. The foreign broadcasts which can do much among the workers, in the towns and, industrial.,.s?ttl?ments are almost useless in the villages. Those couple of sets in.large villages, chiefly in, the clubs ;oir. . belonging to. the local "big men", are not available to the average peasant. 50X1-HUM The best method of propaganda, would be leaflets, provided that they contained good material, and there was no doubt that.they had been rnado abroad and toot in the noarost wood or in the POLTAVA !GB printing office. 50X1-HUM would be the real evidence that suffering people in the Ukraine and at the same time they would prove .that the Soviet raghne' is not strong enough to stop foreign propaganda inside the USSR. 50X1-HUM it would not be necessary to distribute the leaflets in large quantities. A 'good leaflet Would be road by hundreds of, people and passed. from one village to another. even taster than the 3B alarm .signals. A. good printed propaganda would undoubtedly yaks up the' ants:--Soviet section of- Ukrainian peasantry `which apart from "their feeling is rather passive and suffers from lack'of initiative and leadership. S E C R E T Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2011/06/21: CIA-RDP82-00457RO13700240007-1 honestly think about the