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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE= 2007/02/08= CIA-R~P82-00850R000'100020041-3 28` i979 , ~ i i OF i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/8296 28 February 1979 ~ . TRANSLATIONS ON LATIN AMERICA (FOUO 3/79) ~ ' ' . - U. S. JOINT PU~LICATIQPlS RESEARCH SERVICE ' FOR OFF~CIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 NOTE JPR5 publications conrain informaCion prim~rily from foreign n~wspapers, periodi~glg ~r+3 books, buC also from news agency Cransmissious and broadcases. Materials from foreign-language sources ~re rranslared; Chose from Cnglish-langu~ge sources = are transcribed or reprinCed, with the original phrasing and cther characterisCics retatned, Headlines, editorial reports, and maCerial enclosed in brackers are supplied by JPR5. Processing indicAtors such as [Texi.:j _ or (Excerpt] in Che first line o� each iCem, or following Che lasC line of a brief, indicaCe how the original informaCion was processed. Where no processing indicalor is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracCed. , Unfamiliar nAmes rendered phoneCically or transliteraeed are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have oeen supplied as appropriate in context. Other unaCtribuCed parenthetical notes within the body of an item origLnate with the suurce. Times within items-are as given by source. ~ Tt?e contents of this publication in no way represenC the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.~. Government. :y COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 BIBLIOGRAPNIC OATA 1. Kepon No, ~ _ J. Recipient s Acce~~ion No, SHBET JPRS L/829H ~ t e ~n u tu a ~ S. eport ' ece TRANSLATIONS ON LATIN AMERICA, (FOUO 3/79) 28 Februar 1.979 6. 7~ Author(~) 8. F'etforming Orgenizatioo itepc. No. 9. Per(orraine Ora~ols~tion N~me ~nd Addre~� 10. Pioiect/T~sk/Wo~k Unit No, Join~ Public~Cions Research Service 1000 North Glebe Road 11. Concnet/Gr~nt No. - Arling~v~, Virginia 22201 - 1~. Spon~otlnl~ Ora~niz~tion Name ~od Addres~ 13. Type of Repocc dt Periaf Co~sred As above ' ' 1S. Supplemeoury Note~ 16. Ab~tr~cc~ The serial report contains articles on political and sociological developments in ma~or areas o~ Latin America, as reported primarily from Latin American newapapers and periodicals. IC also includes information on major segments of Latin American economy~ geography, culture, and eChnography. 7. Key Wad~ ~nd Doeumect An~lyii~. 17a De~cripton Political 5cience Inter-American Affairs x Guyana - Sociology ~Argentina Haiti Economics Barbados E~onduras Culture Bolivia Jamaica Ethnology x Brazil Mexico Technological Chile Nicaragua _ Geography Colombia Panama Costa Rica Paraguay x Cuba Peru J 17b. Idencitieu/Open-Eoded Termi Dominican Republic Trinidad-Tabago x Ecuador Uruguay E1 S;~lvador X Venezuela Guateaala 17e. COSATI Field/Group SD, SC~ SK 18. A~�sil~bility St~temeot 19..Security Class (This 21. o. of PaFes For Official Use Only. Report) 47 Limited Number of Copies Available From JPRS. �� (This z2, p~;� P~6e~ UNCLASSiFiF.D - ~o~w Nri}~~ ~ia~o? � usco~w�oc ~o~:o�o~~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 I F'OR OFFICIAL USI; ONLY JPR5 L/8296 28 February 1.979 T~ANSLA?IONS C~N LATIN AMERI~A , (1F0U0 3/79 ) CQNTENTS PAGE - ARGENTIlJA ~ U.S. Policy Trnaard Latin America I,e,belsd Discriminatory (Raul Fain Binda; LA OPINION, 28 Dec 78) 1 Human Righta Violations Reported (CANIDIO 16, 2fi Nov 78) 5 Top Central Bank Executiv~~Resignatinn Is Rumored ` (Roberto Garcia; LA.OPINION, 28 Dec 7$) 17 'TAM' Tank Modifications, Statistica Reported (Javier de Me.zarrasa; DEFIIVSA, Aug 78) 19 Complexities Surrounding River Plate Basin Issue Reviewed - (Estela Arau,~o; LA OPINION, LS Jan 79) 27 HRAZIL Launcher, Satellite Construction for Brazil Proposed (Pierre I,~ngereux; AIR & COSMOS, 23 Dec 78) 34 CUBA Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo's Political Imprisour.?ent Explored _ (cANIDIO 16, 3 Dec 78) 35 ECUADOR Students Protest Increase in Milk Prices , . ~PRFI~A, 30 Jan 79) 38 GUYAIVA Briefs Contract foY Uranium Prospecting ~q 'NBRROR' on PRC Attacks 39 - a - [III - L~{ - 144 FOUO) FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOit OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ CONTENrS (Continued) Page VENF"~LUELA Venezuelan Media Continue Criticizing 'New Tribea' Mtsa3on (Tomag Diaz; PRELA, 5 F'eb 79) 40 - - Venezuela,n Communist Party Studiee Result of Flection ~.7 F'eb 79) 42 - PRC Attack on Vie~nam Evokee Pro~ests 19, 20 Feb 79) 43 - Pol.iticiana, Tntellectuals ~rther Proteste, by Freddy Balzan ~ ~ - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ARGENTINA U.S. POLICY TOWARD LATIN AMERICA'LABELED DISCRIMINATORY Buenoa Airea LA OPINIOK in Spaniah 28 Dec 78 p X Supplement [Article by Raul Fain Binda: "Mesaianism and Err_ors"] ~ [Text] RelaCions between the United States and our country reached Cheir most delicate point during 1978. Finally, Washington significanCly changed ita attitude, becoming more moderate. At the time of greateat Cension, the following criticism pointed out the Carter mietakes that Argentina must not - imitate. ~ Jimmy Carter, an almost unknown politician, launched his campaign for the presidency of his country wi~h the promise to inaugurate a new atyle and to impose a new government policy. For him, one ob~ective made no sense with- out the other. Since 20 Jan~eary 1977, critics of the President point out primarily his in- experience as the cauae of a long list of miatakes, among which the follow- - ing may be cited: --His ingemiity in presenting to the Congress reform projects whose com- plexity and political connotationa have paralyzed them: legislation on energy, fiscal reform, public service reform, etc; --Hi~ haste in underestimating the authoriCy achieved by Congress during ' the period of the great crises of Vietnam, civit rights and watersate; --His ignoranc~ or lack of consideration for the complex lines of communi- cation and negotiation between the White House and the Capitol; --His "ill-considered" pressure on nureaucrats and representatives of im- portant economic intereats. 1 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 , " FOR OFFTCIAL USE ONLY '1'hi~ liet nppenrs Co Ulame Che President for lack of pnllCical reali~m. 13ut - not ~~11 Ct~ose who can reciCe it perfectly belong to Che Republican ~arty or ~re potenCial rivals in official quartere. - In ti~e foreign policy plan Che militant defenae of numan rights has colored almost completely the complex web of issues con~ronted by the United Staees. ' IC is inevitable, in additi,on, ehat it awaken contradictory reactions: stricCly reasoning, one cannoL� loudly demand sanctions against the Soviet Union for ita treatment of disaidents wirhout along the way the ~ legittmacy of sanctions against other, more sympatheCic countrie~. But, ~t the same time, 3ust such a discrimine.tion must be pointed out in the American attitude, since ~:erCain countries whose sCrategic location is viral to the United States have not been made targets oF the new policy, or aC least noC with the virulence and energy applied to the military governments in Latin America. American observers find, among the apparent contradictions of CarCer, a - unifying concept which gives sense to his entire policy, and to all his sup- - posed misCakes: that is what Sheldon Wolin, of THE NEW YORK REVIEW OF BOOKS, calls "the particular version of ProtesCantism" professed by the President. "Purification," writes Wolin, "is insepar_able fro~r redemption. To be born again is to be cleansed, purified, 'clothed in fine line, clean and white, since fine linen is the virtue of the saints.' The call of Jimmy Carter is a call to clean virtues." It is clear Chat most of the political virCues, according to this interpretation, are "dirty" virtues, which the ' President scorns. A clear example of this way of inCerpreting life and politics was the di3missal of Bert Lance, the budget director and a f.riend of Carter. Nixon, if such had been the case, would have asked for Lance`~ immediate resignation, or would have defen~ed him as an accomplice. Carter, . on the contrary, lost several popularity paints by defending his friend to the limit. If we continue to apply Wolin's observation, we will understand the President's loyalty to his group of Georgians:and his wrath toward poli- ticians and bureaucrats in Washington--true moneychangers in the temple. This messianic attitude, if we are to understand all its implications, must be related to the power of the United States, whose characteristics force one to consider whatever policy is drawn up in Washington, however erroneous arti ur~~usr it may be. It has been said repeatedly (Vice Adm Cesar Augusto Guzzetti pointed it out in his time as the Argentine position) that the United States has a right to deny credit to whomever it wishes. Whak it cann~t do is back up its _ attitude with observations which amount to interference in the internal affairs of our country and an obvious violation of Argentine sovereignty. ` The history of international relaLions, of course, is the history of con- - frontation between nationss and on many occasions the defense of one sover- eignty violates another. Diplomacy is th~ art of reconciling that tradi- tional contradiction between interference and sovereignty. However, in the _ case of the State Department the method chosen is that of discriminatory 2 r - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFT.CIAL USE ONLY confrontation wiCh certain countries. It is necea9ary to be diatruatful in order to find auspic3ous the alacrity with which Carter cea~ed to presaure ~ and eculd BraziJ., hia favorite target be�ore reaching the preaidency7 The case of Chile is clearer, aince the regime of Augueto Pinochet rel.axed with noteworthy speed. ; The State Department distinguishes, then, among ~uaC persona, recalciCrant sinners and repentant sinners. BuC, at the same time, it appears Co be considering a new category of countries outaid~ of its church, consiating c- = of those who are cenaured, but not sanctioned. Control of exports to the Soviet Union (material for oil exploraCion and a computer for TASS) can be conaidered irrelevant and demonatrates, in any case, the American reluctance to apply sanctions to Moscow in view of ita bias. In addition, Washington is very much aware that a true economic sanction will be a sanction againat American products: the rebellion of the farmers in rhe Midwest when limit- ing sales of grain to the Soviet Union was discuased ls~st year is well re- membered. Clearly, any buainesa firm can survive without Che Argentine market, but it will be capable of conspiring against the Preaident if it is forbidden the Soviet...or the Brazilian [market). Stanley Hoffman, in an essay for FOREIGN AFFAIRS, analyzed the decline uf American power, and he attributea it to the following factors: The incre~tse in ihe number of countriea in the international scene, the growing economic � _ interdependence, the increase of Sovipt� power and, basically, the American ` inhibition provoked by internal political and social phenomena: the struggle - between the presidency and the Congress, the feara of the economic interests _ of losing ground overseas, resistance to accepting the old role of inter- national policeman and ~uggler of repressive regimes, etc. Logically, a auperpower will not renounce its leadership mission. If it encounters difficulties with one policv, it will try another, which inevit.- ably wi11 contain some errors. But the difference between a medium-sized country, like Argentina, and one like the United Sta*~~c, is that the latter can be mistaken much more often. Washingtc+n made a mi.take in firing Che level-headed Terence Todman, who was sincerely coi?m~itte3 to the defense of human righta, and at the same time to the balance which demands that certain ..onsideratfona and ~ubtleties of a political and strate~ic nature be taken into account. If he had drawn up State Department policy, if he had won in the game of politics, the United St~tes would have expressed its concerns to Argentina firmly, but without having had recourse to the whip. The United States' advantage is that it has a wide margin in which to correct its mistakes. Now it has chosen a traumatic revival of interdependence, and it is applying the traditional, as well as new, elements of economic and political pressure. Its final ob~ective, of course, is to come out victor . in the confrontation with the Soviet Union, or at least to keep it ~inder con- trol. For this reason it is abandoning the military governments and giving shelter to the civilian, betting on a political gain. The results of the - recent elections in Bolivia and Ecuador are, in part, the result of this new attitude. - 3 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE QNLY , But it is one thing Co pressure Bolivia and another to pressure Argentina. _ : Thia difference ia wh~t Terence Todman, more aubtle than the o~her bureau- crats and members of the State Department--more subtle, of course, than Carter hims~Yf--warned about. = Clearly, no one expecrs Carter Co dedicate all his energies to trying to under- _ stand the specific problems oP each country. Thia is why he has collaborators and ambassadors. Raul Ca~tro himaeli affirmed that Che Argentine image has - nothing to do with reality. His testim~ny *.~as not enough to convince the St$te Department. Argentina cannot permit iCself the luxury of error. Censured by Che leading power of the West, which can lead Co Rimilar atti.tudes in other ~ountries, it must chose the way indicated by ite dignity and sover~ignCy, dispelling _ anv doubt which, in good or Uad faith, tarnishes the Argentine in the ~ eyes of a country which should be our friend and not our teacher. - COPYRIGHT: LA OPINION, Buenos Aires, 1978 8735 CSO: 3010 i a ~ I ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ ARGENTINA HUMAN ~tIGHTS VIOLATIONS REPORT~D , Madrid CAMBIO 16 in Spanish 26 Nov 78 pp 59-64 . [Text] Over half a hundred Spaniards are being per- secuted by the Argentine regime. Although all indi- - _ cations are that the visit by Their Majesties will be occasion for the re]ease of half a dozen of them, for the great majority nothing is going to change, be- . cause it has not been known for years now whether they in prison or have been executed. Perhaps Carli' Rutilo, a pretty little 3-year-old Peruvian, with blue eyes and still a}abberer, would like to s~e the king and queen of Spain, Juan _ Carlos and Sofia, when they ride down the streets of Lima amidst hurrahs ~ and banners. Surely she would be happy seeing the first king and queen to - - visit Peru. But Carlita will r,ot be in the country where she was born, at that time. She must now be in Buenos Aires or in some other place in ArgEntina. Pedro ' ~ Param~ prepared the report. Like her grandmother Matilae, Carlita is Spanish and l~ves in Madrid. Like as not 26 November 1978 would be an unforgettable date for her, if she could go to the Buenos Aires Ezeiza Airport and could see, througIi the shakos and rifles of the guard, even only in passing, the king and queen of Spain surrounded by generals and protected by other military officers of the great Argentine nation, amidst notes of martial music. But Carlita will not go to Ezeiza, either, nor will she see the king and uueen on the streets of Buenos Aires, and 26 November will not be a key date in her life, because Carlita was kidnaped by the Argentine Police or Army on 29 August 1976, at 1015 hours, at thQ border post of Villazon- La Quiaca and she has not been heard from since. At that time, she was _ 9 months old. - 5 FOR OFFICI~. USE Oh'LY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Hundreds of photocopies oE her terrifying biography have become moth-eaten since then in every philanthropic agency in the world, in addition to the headquarters of the democratic political parties in half the civilized werld, all incapable up to now o� snatching this 1.3ttle girl from the power of the Argentine Military Junta. Belgium has given Carlita a visa and asylum and Amneaty International has sponsored her. _ She Saw Her Mother Tortured Nevertheless, the ones most directly responsiblP for her fate, like the ~ government of Peru, seem not to want to know anything about Carlita. "I have written severai letters to Jose de la Puente Radil, Peruvian minister of Foreign Af�airs, and I have not obtained an answer," Matilde Artes, her maternal grandmother, an actress who won the Gol.den Spike in the 4969 Valladolid Festival for her acting in the film "Sangre de Condor" [Condor Blood] said disconsolate. "Even the Red Cross and other agencies have in- tervened before the Peruvian authorities. Accordingly, they cannot say � that they are unfamiliar with the atory." _ A tragic story that began in Oruro (Bolivia), when Carlita's mother, Grs- ciela Rutilo, a student leader of Argentine natioriality, was arrested on 2 April 1976 for supporting a mining strike. Carlita witnessed, suspended , face downward, the torture sessions to which her mother was subjected. Between 23 and 28 August, an Argentine Federal Police commission went tc Bolivia to torture Graciela during the night with an electric current. - The handing over and final disappearance of mother a~d daugYiter is said to _ have come immediately. Almost a mor~th later, Carlita's father, Enrique Joaquin Lucas Lope:.r af Llruguayan nationality, was.riddled with bullets by the Bolivian Polir;e and Army on the streets of Cochabamba. The Argentine aut-ho�rities denied having received.Carlita and her mother from ' - the Bolivian authnrities, but Matilde Artes got hold of � telex message in which the Bolivian Government reports the extradition. The International Red Cross subsequently verifiecl the authenticity of this telex message and ascertained that the surrender had been carried out. On 7 November this year, Matilde Artes and other member3 of the Committee of Solidarity with Family Members of Prisoners and Missing Persons in Rr- _ gentina (COSOFAM) were received by Fersonnel of La Zarzuela [royal resi- - dence], who confirmed to them that they had in their possession an exten- sive repo:t on Argentine repression prepared by the Red Cross. ' The report is headed by a list of 33 Spaniards kidnaped and mist ng from 1975 to the present time and six more of His Majesty's subjects who have been rotting in the prisons of the Videlr~ r-agime for 3 years now, await- . ing trial. 6 ~ FOR OFFICIAi. LTSE Olv'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OH"FICIAL USE ONLY 'I'he PSOE (5panish 5ocialist Workers Party], UGT [General Union of Workers], PCE, CC00 [Workerg Commissions] and UCD [Democratic Center Union] have also received visits by these COSOFAM pilgrims, in.the last few days, in search of a hope. It is estimated that the Military Junta has imprisoned, tortured and caused the disappearance or assassination of between 25,000 and 30,000 persons, according to data from various international agencies. It is _ difficult ~o know haw many of them are Spaniards or chi~.dren of Spaniards - - who can choose and easily obtain Spanish nationality. It is estimated that there are a million passport-holding Spaniards, 3.n - Argentina, and almost 400,OG0 more who have renounced their Spanish citi- zenship but who can regain it at any time. , Just Like Home "The king and queen are going to find themselves there just as if they had not left Spain," an Argentine who succeeded in leaving ttiat hell 2 years - ago said. "In Buenos Aires, concretely Galicians from Galicia (we call all. 5pani~rds Galicians) boas~t that that is the larg~~st Galician city in the _ world. But I am afraid," the Argentine statec:, "that they are going to _ se~ a sad overseas Spain in mourning. Videla and his men have respected notl-?ing. " Ramon Garcia Ui.loa, onQ of the "missing persons" on the list that the Spanish authori'cies submit periodically to the Military Junta and from ~ _ which they receive only silence in reply, is a Galician from Galicia. - Ramon was born in a small town in Lugo, in 1920. A~ the age of 13 years, he emigrate3 to Argentiina in search of work and a decent living. The re, _ he married and had three daughters. After 40 years of sacrifice, he became owner of a dry-cleaning establishment in which the whole family worked - and a building with three flats at number 1732 Neuquer~ Street, Buenos = Aires. ~1'he Pulice and the Army went there at 0300 hours on 6 October 1976 t~ take him away. - About 40 persons arrived in various automobiles. 'I'hey surrounded the build- ing. They tore the door clown, pulled him out of bed and carried him off in pajamas amid shouts of prc~test by his wife and mother, Asunciun Ulloa, an - 83-year-old woman. "We never heard from him again," his daughter Susana, 31 years old, now in Madrid, said. "My mother and my husba,~d left no stor~e unturned. They had - interviews with all possible authorities and habeas c~rpu.S petitions were filed. Nothing. The Spanish ambassador at that time, Perez Hernandez, _ pulled every string. Nothing. We wrote to the United Nations, to the Red 7 . FOR OFFICIAi. L'SE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~oK nrrrcrnL usc drrt,Y Cro~s, to Amnesty (interna~ional~. Nothing, in F'ebruary lasti ye~r, we re- ~eived some bad newg: a friend of a friend of one of my uncles you know ~ how tihoge thingg are who apparentily worked in the secret servicea re- ported Chat they had killed him wi~hin 5 days. Buti we were never able to ~ verify it." Moti,tves7 l2ama,i Garcia Ulloa never concerned himself with the country's po- litice. In spite of tt?e fuc~ that he spenti the grea~er part of his li�e _ there, he did not want Argentine citizen~hip, beaau~e he never had any pro- ~ bl~ms from being Spanish, according to what r~~s daughter stated. "I believe that they arrested him because of us," Susana ~tated, "I was a student leader in thQ Law School from 1969 to 1973, and another sister had friends among the Peron Youth organizRtion. But we never had the slighteat � contact with viol~nt qroups. Nevertheless, T believe that these were ~he causeg. 5hortily b~fore they took my father away, at the end of September, they kidnaped one of my sister's friends, also :,panish, L�'rnesto Fernandez Vidal, who lived around the corner, and they demoltshed his house. Then," she confessed, "we thouqht that they might take her away and she went to live with other friends. We never thoughtthatthey might chonse my father or my mother as victims." in spite of the far,t ~hat the names of Ramon Garcia Ulloa and Ernesto Fer- nandez Vidal are on the report that was in La ~arzuela 2 weeks before the _ beginning of the trip by Juan Carlos and Soffa, Susana Garcia has loat xll hope of seeing her father again. The Basque Carpenter Dtorena Lareu, who has also found asylum in Spain, is somewhat more optimis- r. tic, but not much. Ner father, Julio Eduardo Lareu, 51 years old, son of Carmelo Lareu, Basque, who emigrated at the beqinning of the century, has - also been a victim of the present Argentine regime. He is another of the "miasing persons." The story of his "disappearance" beqins at noon, last 29 May. 'IWelve armed men burst into his carpenter shop at 2775 Deheza Street, Bue- nos Aires. The shoved him into an ENCC~NTEL (National Mail and Teleqraph EnterpriseJ (kelephone company): truck waitfng at the door. Six of the assailants stayed in the place for about 6 hours interrogating the workers at gunpoint. Customers who arrived went to enlarqe the qroup of hostages. That niqht, his wife went to the police station to submit two complaints: one for the disappearance of her husband and another because, in spite of 8 ~OR OFFICIAL L'SE 0\'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 , FOIt OFFICYAL US~ ONLY the la~e r.our, there were people in the cerpenter ahop. The police told her cynioallys "Don't worry. rt in not a queetion of r~bbera or guerrilla fightere. zt ia an Army (commando) operation." Only the walla of the carpen~er shop were left. "On the same nigh~, Z gave birth t~ my third aon," Morena eaid. "z have a very con�used recollection of wha~ happened after that. Y know thaC my mother innnRdiately filed a habeas corpus peti~ion, but Nithout any result. We were already �amiliar wi,th the steps that had tio be tiakc~n and, unfor- - tunately, with the resultis." She went on to say that"a year before, on 30 May 1977, ~hey had kidna,ped my sister Electra ajtd his huaband, Rafae~. J. Belaustegui, whose qrand- parents were Spanish. Thdt wee horrible. My brother-in-law's entire fa- mily 'disappeared'. Three brothers with their wives and ,^.hilaren. i be- lieve that what happened to my father is connected with. what happened tio my sist~r. We never heard from them again, although w~ regorted to every- one. Fortunately, my little nephew Antonio, 1 year old when his parents were taken away, appeared. My mother found him unnamed in a children'g iristitution they call them that paid by the Ministry nf Social Wel- fare, at the end of a mor~*h. My father had taken him in and was living with them." _ In the case of Antonio was luck. Not so in the case of Carlita, the little Peruvian girl who was unable to see the king and queen and the case of thousanas of Argentine children, also victims of the Military Junta's repression. Althouqh there are no accurate fiqures on children affected by the mi.litary reqime, Sister Yvonne, a French Foreiqn Missions r.un devotQd budy ar,d soul, in Paris, for a year now to the cause of these innocent chfldren, hr~s con- firmation that around 400 children wa~re born in Argentine prisons and at this time their whereabouts is unknown. "The possibility that their fathers or mothers wi~l see them again are nil," she says. Sfster Yvonne lived in Arqentine 24 years and was arrested on 14 October 1977, toqether with Sister Alicia Do^~nd. They were released 24 hours later. Z~ao weeks after that, Sister Alicia and Sister Leonide Duquet, also of Foreiqn Missions, were kidnaped and have not showed up aqain. Their case, aired spectacularly by the French press and authorities, stfrred up angry protests all over the world. Prison, a Maternity Ward "ChiZcl::en born in prison receive the same inhumane treatment as their pa- rents," Sister Yvonne states. "They lack milk. They suffer from the cold and all kinds of discomfort in an unhealfihy environment. They can be with their mother for only 4 montha. Then they wind up in an orphanaqe ahere ~they are not reqistered with their name or in a black market of children 9 ` FOR OFFICI~?i. USE OA'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 . ~'OEt d~~'ICIAI, US~ ONLY �or adoptiion. 7'heir true iden~ity ie never known and, as ~ime goes on, i~ is impossible to identl.fy ~hem." - Sister Yvonne is also aathering information on the vexations undergone by ~ thQm when tiheir parents are arreste3 or kiflnaped. "Methods identical with - the ones applied to adults are applied to them. They are interrogated sub~ly. 'Who live~ in your haus~ wiCh you?' ~hey ~~k ~h~m. if tihe children say, ~or example, 'Papa, mama and rin uncle who has jus~ coma from the in- - terior', it is most likely that they wi11 watch the and search ~he - house. 7'here are cases ot ~;:~~dren tortured to snatch this kind of con- fessions from them and of children oblig~d to witneas their parents' tor- ture for the purpose of finally depressing the prisoners' morale. Just - as they did with Carlits." - Children and "missing persons" are cases of sliqht hope. Steps taken by the Spanish authorities achieve nothing. When they diacuss thp tiopic, ~hey encounter constant shruga on the part of the Argentine Government. From 1976 to the preaent time, the activities of the Spanish Embasay in 1 Buenos Aires have obtained the r~lease of 41 persons, all Spaniards, with the exception of three or four. Whenevsr a case of the "disappeara.~?ce" or arrest of a Spaniard comes to the ~ know:.edge of the representatives of Spain, a visit is requested in~nedfately I in the case of prisoners and an attorney is made available to the af- fected parties. But most of the times, an attorney is of very little use, i because therR are no trials. "I epent 3 years in the Sierra Chica Prison, awafting a trial that never came," J.M.C. stated to the correspondent of CAMBIO 16 fn Oviedo, "in which I would have had to answer Por possession of palitical propaganda." J.M.C. is a young Andalusian who was taken to Argentina when he was 4 years old. He has a Spanish passport and wantis his name concealed, in order to prevent problems "for my family members down there." He was released by intercession of the Spanish Embassy, Luis Yanez of the PSOE and Claudio Sanchez Albornoz. Sierra Chica A small Spanish colony hoping that the trip by the king znd queen will serv2 to accelerate their release i.s interned in Sierra Chica. This group con- ~ s~sts of Jesus Maria Cabanas, Fernando Saleza, Antonio Hermida Sanchez and Floreal Canalis, all of them, with the exception of the last-mentioned, awaiting trial for years. The four succeeded in circumventing prison censorship and in gettinq out 3 communique so that t.he Spanish people may learn the conditions in which some of their fellow citizens, held in Arqentine prisons, are. _ ~ - 10 FOR OFFICI~u. i,'SE Or'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 , ~OR O~~ICIAL U3~ ONLY The meseaqe, writCen in very ~ma11, clear handwrl.tiing, narrate~ the condi- tions to which ~he 600 politiiaal prinonere lodg9d in U-2 c~f Sierra Chica are sub~ectied. "Medical care ie deficien~ and in most casea is limited to prescribing a medioine without examination or merely by consulting on the ' ~ symptoma. Corporal puniehment, cold w~t~x~ ehowore, ineults and al1 kinc]s of violation,e of the most elem~ntary hum~~ righte are common here." Prieet in Prieon A prie8t from Palencia, Javier Martin Doce, released and expelled from Ar- gentina last 28 August, is thoroughly famillar with the Sierra Chic~ penal institution, in which he spent over 9 mon~,he. "Health care in U-2 doea not exiat," he said. "Whi1e i was there, a fellow' prisoner �e11 ser},ously i11. 'Hang yourself,' they told him in the infixmaxy." Javier Martin Doce ig now in Madrid hoping that a surgical operation will correct the strabismue that a stay of over 3 yeara in small cells caused in his left eye. His story can be the story of any of the Spaniards or Arqen- tines who have undergone persecution by the Military Junta regl.~ne. Of course, the story of the more fortunate ones, because he i~~ aliv~ and free to tell it. Father Martin Dace was ordained a priest in Palenci~a, in 1964, and went to Argentina 2 yeara later through the Orqanization of Hispano-Anierican Sacer- dotal Cooperatio~n, to the diocesis of Lomas de Zamora, a suburb of Buenos Aires. - In 1970, he and five other priests obtained authorizat~.on from tha bishop towork as laymer. They were worker-priests in ar? area with seri.ous social problems: poverty, unemployment, lack of decent housinq. They made con- . tact with neighbors' associationa. "On 26 April 1975, Police personnel appeared at my house," Martin Doce = relates. "They covered my head and the head of another priest livinq with me and took us out by force. Lyinq on the floor of an automobile, _ . they took me to a buildinq ti:~t I am sure was not a police station. .T'hey took off my clothes and applied the goad to me an electric prod all - over my body for 2 hours. When I informed them that I was a Spaniard and a prfest, they increased their cruelty to me. Then they took me to a po- lice station, where they kept me for 8 days with constant interrogations - on the basis of blows, insults and psycholoqical torture." From the police station, he went to the U-9 penal institution, in La Plata, and then to the Sierra Chica U-2. His testimony on this prison agrees with that of SFaniards still imprisoned there. "When the military coup occurred, on 24 March 1976, the prison regime be- ceme considerably more cruel," Martin Doce went on to relate. "In September, 11 FOR OFfICIAL USE OI~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 . ~OR O~~IC2AL US~ ONLY appgren~ly, ati th~ requ~~ti of ~he dioceeis, they concentr~~ed 12 of us priestis in the La platia U-9. The tiransfer was bru~al. 7'hey beat u~ con- s~antly with fis~e and rifleg and frightened ua with aimula~ed ahoo~ing. "pr~yeiaal punighmentiB were on tihe order of the day or nighti, dependiiig on _ th~e mnod of tihe watch nfficer, in the La Plata ~rison. Criee of be~ten ~.Yisoners wauld be heard in the early morning in every qallery. "Faar, which ~hey ~nok c~re to keep conatant ameng tihe inmates, musti be~ added tin all thie cnnstant degradation. F'ear even o� freedom. Tn January 1977, they took outi several fellow prieoners, including g new~man, bardo - Cnbo, to transfer ~hem to Sierra Chica. 7'hey killed them by applying the , ~ 1ey de �uqa. Normally, in transfera they ordered you ta prepare your 'mono' your belonginga beforehand, but the officer told thie group not to do anything. Thati they were not going to need it." - F'ather Martin boce narrated these events in a monotione, without emotion. "In April, an attorney from Zarate, a apecialigt in cooperatives, went out. They put him out of the prison at midnis~h~. He had not walked 50 meters _ when they ffred four ahots in his head and left hia body on the street. - In that way they kept the prison population in conatant anguiah. Old Men briven Mad - t ~ "They say that there are no concentration camps. Neverthaless, shortly be- fore I was released, a dozen persons arrived at the La Plata U-'i coming from the north. Amonq them, there were old men over 65 years old. Soma of them - were helplese. They were never able to explain where they had been for years. They were all meneally disturbed and at niqht shouted friqhtifully. - Even the jailers felt sorry for them. One of them, who had been arrested . in Tucuman and had been taken for a ride hanging from a helicopter, was in such a state that when they offered him his release he refused to siqn it." - In September 1977, Javier Martin Doce was sentenced to 4 years in prison f~r illegal association. With the aid of the Spanish Embassy, which made an attorney available to him, h~ was successful in having the judge decree his release on parole '.ast April, when he had served two-thirds of the sentence. Nevertheless, the National Executive Body (PEN), over the judicial sentence, kept him in prison until 28 Auqust when they transferred him handcuffed to . the Buenos Aires airport. For the first time, it qranted a pardon. It,ts believed, among the family members of Spaniards in prison ir. Argen- tina, that they will all be released by means of further pardons, before the kinq and queen land in Buenos Airesj in a"gesture of maqnanimity and qo4d will" by the Military Junta. 12 FOR OFFICIAi. L'SE OI~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~bit OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY 8ut there will be no pardon �ox tihoge half a hundred 8paniardm or children of Spaniarde kidnap~d, or for Carlita end other innocent children unrecov- erable by their parenta, or for the hundreds and liundre~g of qrandchildren _ of Spaniarda for wham the Madrid au~horities can do very littie, or for the ti~ne of tihoueands of Argentine~,victiims of represaion. in Arqentina, a prieon almo~t 3 million square kilome~ers in eize, torture and murder. continue. - ~ Spaniards, Victims of Videla r le Abadia Crespo, Dominga i+nd Felicidad. Kidnaped on 3 November 1977, in the town of gouloqne Sur Mer (Buenos Aires). Alonao Cifuentea, Gloria Maria. Kidnaped on 29 June 1977, in Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires). Arrnuqe F'idalqo, Ernesto. Arrested on 30 March 1976, in La Plata. Trial in La Plata Court Number 3. Barreira Garcia, Serafin. Kidnaped on 7 April 1977, in Chivalert (Buenos A.i.res) . ~ Caamano Uzal, Joae. Kidnaped on 23 December 1976, in Tigre (Huenos Aires). - Cabanas Navarrete, Jesus Maria. Arrested on 20 October 1976. Trial pend- ing in the Azul federal court. Imprisoned in Sierra Chica. Canalis Lasierra, Florial. Completed aerving a 3-year sentence in April of this year, but it still held by the National Executive Body in the ~ Sierra Chfca penal institution. Canovas Estape, Alberto. Kidnaped from his home, on 27 March 1976. Carlas Salas, Eduardo. Kidnaped on 15 January 1977, in the city of Buenos Aires. Carpintero,'Pablo and Ricardo. Kidnaped on 9 November 1977, in Villa : Ballester (euenos Aires). c'ervera Noto, Luis Justo. Kidnaped on 20 May 1977, in the city of Buenos Aires. . Coma Velasco, Atlantida. Kidnaped on 12 October 1976, in the city of Buenos Aires. Coley Robles, Manuel. Kidnaped on 27 October 1976, in Quilmes (Buenos . Aires). ~ 13 FOR OFFICIAi. LSE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~ ~Ott O~~IC~AL US~ ONLY Chavarino Coi~es, Gastiavo Adolfo. Kidngped on 18 Novemb~r 1977, in ~h~ citiy o� Buenc?g Aireg. ' biaz ~~rdayes, Jaee F'elix. Kidnaped on 14 July 1976, in the city o� Buenos - Aire~. Diaz Lopez, Alonso. Kidnapcad on 14 ~uly 1976, in 5an ~'ernando ~Buenos Aires). Fernandez Garcia, Antonia Marqmrita. Ki~naped on 4 May this year, in Mar del ~lata. - Fernandez Vidal, Erneato. Kidnaped on 23 Septiember 1976, in the city of ~ Suenos Aires. _ Garcia U11oa, Ramon and his wife bolorea del pilar Yglesias. Kidnaped on 6 Oc~ober 1976, in the citiy of Buenos Aires. . Antonio Garrido. Kidnaped on 7 Auguet 1976. = Gimenez Amaya, Pilar. Kidnaped on 4 January this year, in Mar del Plata - (Buenoe Aires). Gomez Aguirre, Manuel. Kidnaped on 14 May 1977, in Villa Teseis (Buenos Aires). ~ Gonzalez Eusebi, Lidia Edith. Dauqhter of Spaniards, 23 years old. Kid- naped on 15 September 1976, in Barrancas (Bueno~ Aires).~' ~ Gualdoni Mazon, Juan Carlos. Son of Spaniards, 30 years old. Kidnaped on _ 26 June 1976, in the city of Buenos Aires.l' 2 Hermi3a Sanchez, Antonio. Arrested in November 1973. At present in the Sierra Ch~ca penal institution� Trial fn Cordoba Court Number 2. Juan Gutierrez, Maria Magdalena. Kidnaped on 23.September 1977, in the town of Ramos Mejia (Buenos Aires). Labrador Perez, Miguel Anqel. Son of Spanfsh father. Kidnaped durinq a , working trip in the provincea of Santa Fe and Entre Rios, on 15 September 1976.1 Lareu, Julio Eduardo. Son of Spaniards, 51 years old. Kfdnaped on 29 May of this year, in the city of Buenos Aires.l ~ May obtain Spaniah citizenship merely by requestinq it. ~ 2 Not on the list beinq processed by the Spanish authorities. 14 FOR OFFICIai. CSE 0\'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY Lopez Alonso, Celia. Kidnaped on 13 Ootiober 1976, in the citiy of Bueno~ e . Lopez Fernandez, Urbano. KidnapAd on 16 December 1976, in Villa Boech (8uenos Airea). , , - Lopez Martin, Anqela. Kidnaped on 25 ~ptember 1976, in La Plata fBuenos c~- Aires). Lopez Munoz, Luiea. Arreatied on 13 ~eptember 19'i5. At present, in the Vi11a Devoto Prieon, with trial in Cordoba Court Number 2. Llorene, Manuel Maria. Son of spaniarda. Arrastied in 7'ucuman, in June 1974 and imprisoned in thQ itawaon penal in~tiitution. Zn the middle of 1977, hia wife~ whose maiden name ig Viale, was kidnaped.l' 2 - Llorens, Maria del Carmen. 5ister of the above, 36 yeare old. Is in tihe - - Villa bevoto Prison, at the dispoaition of the Nat~onal Lxecutive Body (PEN),1~ 2 - Lloreng, Sebaetian Maria. Brother of the above. Kidnafied tn December 1975.t, 2 Llorens, Teresa Fatima. Siater of the above. Arrested in Mendoza, in ~an~ _ uary 1975. Whereabouts unknown.~' 2 Martin Martin, Julio Antonio. Kidnaped on 27 December 1975, in Tucuman. Martinez, Angela. Arrested on 7 May 1976. Whereabouts unknown.2 Martinez Sorbolla, Rocio, Schoolteacher, 33 years old, two children. Kidnaped on 16 June 1976, in the town of Haedo (Buenos Aires). Munuzurri Barano, Juan Manuel. Arrested in 1975. At present, in the i.a _ Plata panal institution, with trial in San Isfdro Court Number 4. Ourens Toja, Joae Antonfo. Kidnaped on 24 May 1976, in the city of Buenos Aires. Pena Sainz, Juan Roqer. Ki.dnaped on 11 January 1976, in Mar del Plata (Buenos Aires). Pinol Moncunill, Jose. Kidnaped on 15 November 1976, in the city of Bue- nos Aires. Puerto del Risso, Norma Lidia. Dauqhter of Spanish father. Schoolteacher, 25 years old and mother of two children. Kidnaped on 11 September 1977.1' 2 ~5 - FOR OFrTCIAi. LSE 01'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ' ` ~ ~OTt 0~'~ICIAL U5L ONLY ~ ~uesada Maeatirc, ,7ose. Kidnaped on 29 bec~mber 1977, in the ~own of General Rodriguex (Buenos Aire~). Requoro 5anchez, Maria. Kidnaped on 29 bec~mber 1977, in General Rodriguez fguenoe Aires). Salinas,. Luie Antonio. Son of 5paniards, 24 years old. Arrestied on 12 February 19'7E. Ati prga~nt in the La P1a~a Penitentiary.l San Etnetirio, Cesar. 5on nf Spaniards, 50 years o1d. Kidnaped in La Plata, in August 1977.1' 2 ~ Sena Gorbea, Fermin. Kidnap~Rd on 26 October 1976, in Beccar (Buenos Aires). 5outo Leston, Manuel Ramon. Kidnapad on 12 June 1976, in Lomae de 2amora (Buenos Aires). Suan, Julio. Spaniah priest. Date of disappearance unknown.2 Suarez, Raul. Son of Spaniard. Kidnaped on 25 May 1976, in Rto Ceballos (C~rdoba). He was kidnaped.together with his wife, Elba Rosario Puc'ietta.l' 2 Tapia Rodriquez, Enrique. Son oE Spaniards, 25 yeara old. Kidnapec~ in I May 1976.1, 2 1 Valera, Baldomero. Son of Spaniards~ 20 yeara old. Kidnaped on 3 October ~ 1976, in Avellajneda (Buanos Aires). co~iax~r: c~~o i6, i978 10,042 - CSO: 3010 ~ 16 FOR OFFICI.~i L'SE OA'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 I F'O~t O~FICIAL USE ONLY ~ ` ARGENTYNA TOP CENTRAL BANK EXECUTIVES' RE5IGNATION IS RUMORED Buenos Airea LA OPINION in Sp~nieh 28 Dec 78 p 1 ~Article by'Roberto Garcia] _ (Text] The beginning of a reorganizaCion in the top management of Che Cen- - tral Bank is expected to be announced within the next few houra. It is rumored in cap3tal financial circlea that "the Board of Directors ia about to . reaign." To tell the truCh, the rumor names four high officials, and it is , not known whether they will~resign ae a group or individually. It ia nr~ newa to anyone that various rumora have been heard for some time ~ in ths vicinity of the almoat inaccessible office of the'he~d of that organ- ization, Dr Adolfo Diz. Furthermore, the etory concerning the reaignations doea not apply to him, naturally; nn the contrary, the comings and goings, which he finda annoying, batween the Central Bank and the Economy Ministiry-- it is known that he ia one of the architects of Dr Jose Alfredo Martinez d~~ Hoz' policy--appear to make it a key part of the now less liberal plan of - - the head of the Finance Ministry. ~ The rumora concerning the reaignations concern the Central Bank's vice presi- dent, Dr Christian Zimm~ermann, and Directors Francisco SoldatCi, Jr., Juan M. Ocampo--also preaident o!' the National Bank--and Alfredo H. Eeposito. Not all these reaignations are for the same reason, given the differences these people have already had. But it is interesting to note the fact that yester- day there was atill some con~ecture as to how these officials would resign their poats: all at once or separately. The rumors have reached such proportions that there is even speculation on poasible replacements for the outoing directars. Thus, it turns ouC, Dr Egidio Ianella--presently head of the Development Bank--is being mentioned as a poasible succesaor to Ocampo as head of the Bank of the Nation, while hie vacant poat would be taken over by a present member of the BND [National - Development Bank], Dr Cayetano Licciardo. As for the position presumably - to be left vacant by Dr Zimmermann, rumors assign it to the present vice president, Dr Oacar Furlotti. Naturally, all these replacements must be view~ed as purely hypothetical. As for the cause of the possible resignations, 17 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY - it cannoC be found in dif~erences with Dr Diz, except, it ie clear, 3n the case of Dr Eapos~Co. There,�ore it is interesting Co go iieeper ~,nCo the crieiciema of D3z' actions by Eapoaito who~ accord~ng to his frienda, cen- _ sured Diz for his complacency in going along with a11 the demanda of ehe budget de�icit--3netead of ncCing as a prosecutor--and, basically, for his ` oppoairion to the issuing�~policy. That is, Dr Es~~sito, who has been linked more than once with Alvaro Alsogaray--contrary to what tihey say--would in- that inetead of having recourse Co monetary contracCion, the Central - Bank directorship prefere currency isaue. _ - Am:Ld theae criticiams iC ia necessary to understand Esposito's alienation; as for the other three posaible reaignees, the atories are so varied that - for the moment it is betCer not ta become entangled in Chem. COPYRIGHT: LA OPINION, Buenos Aires, 1978 8735 CSO: 3010 ~ ~ - ~8 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY - ARGENTINA - 'TAM' TANK MODIFICATIONS, STATISTICS REPORTED Madrid D~FENSA in Spanish Aug 78 (Fourth Ieaue) pp 35-42 [Artiole by ?avier de Mazexraea] [Text] During the past few yeara, the Arg+entine Armpr, which sinoe 1945 ~8 equipped its unita with the near-~ternal Amerioan World War II "1~4 Sherman'~ tank, hae felt the urgent need to modernize its axmored unita throu~ the introductiozi of new equipment that will satisfy the opex~a.tional concepts of the armored units in terma of adaptation to terrain and weather and to the oountry's eoonoroic realities~ A firet step wae the acquieition of a liaen~e to manufacture the French - AMX-13 Iight tank and of several American M-41 tanks and the YTT P'~113, to be uaed as an infantry trangport, as well as the execution of etudies on E~zropean tanke, ohiefly the AHDC-30 and Leopasd-1, as possible replacemente for the Sherman "Firefly" now in use. - - Other studieg were simultarieously undertaken which, along with the process _ of industrialization completed over the past 20 years, have enabled Argentina _ to produae two new armored vehialee of specialized na,ture and advanced concept whiah can have an important influence on the design of fti.iture armored equipment. Theee two machinea - a combat tank and a troop transport - have made a favorab2e impreesion on obeervera from vaxioua countriea and their technica.l and tactical epecifications have aroused expectations and interest on the art of several South American, African and even Agian nationa, thus enabling Argentina to appear on the list of tank-producing countries. The manufacture of military vehiclee is not new in this country; it groes back almost a half a century when a 3~4-ton axmored car with a 90-HP engine - and trucks for military use rrere designed and built in the 1930rs. Ye~.ra later in the 1~40's, the Arg~entine Republic desi~ned its first ana only medium aombat tank, the 35-ton DL-43 "Nahuel," armed Wi{~~ a 75-mm gun - and two 7,65-n~ mact~ine guna, i9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Axgentina'a entire mili~taryr produotion, whioh was otnerwiae very limited, ~ was exllusirrely aimed at eupplying ite ar?r~}r, - The nTpMn With its poliay of modernization and supply of armored vehicles for national - needs, the Argentine Axnqr in 1973 set up the requi~ition for a new combat tank whiah wae expeated to supply its units in the 1980~s~ Thie requisition, whioh oombined the already determined qualities of a modern tanks "firepower, mobility and protection," establiahed the follow- - ing priorities and apeoificatione for the new desi~ns A modern gun, 105 mm or larger, ~ Secondary armament consieting of two machine ~uns and flamethrower tubes, - Integrated fire-control system, Rang~e of over 500 km. Maximum speed of 70 km an hour on paved roada. - Power-wei~ht ratio of 20 HP per ton, - Weight no mora than 30 tone. - I,ow eilhnuette. Atomic, and chelatcal defense system (ABQ)~ - Crew of three to four men~ � With these taotical and technical specifications plus operational, roa,d infrastructure, weather and mountain terrain factors, design opera.tions were _ beguri which materialized in "Pro~ect TAM (Argentine Medium Tenk)." Once the pro~ect was outlined, the process of study~ deeign and development - was begun in 1974. - The development of a pr,o~ect of thia magnitude requires hi~ly oapable research teams and an a.dvanced technology in a great number of fielde in- cluding ar~,ything from automotive meehanics to electronics via the no less important ones of structur~l design, armaments or optics or the setting up of a procese for the manufacture of complex equipment consiating of haxd- _ - to-get materials~ as well as a powerful industrial infrastructure, - While not all these prerequiaites were lacking~ some were and the need to shorten deadlines for g~etting the equipment into operation (a pro~ect of this kind requires from 8 to 10 yeaxa of work) led the Arg~entine Ara~? to turn to countries with more experience in the manufacture of axmored vehicles and eetablieh various contacts which bore fruit in the form of a ~oint production contract with the German firm, Thyssen-Henschel, under - - the terme of which the latter would design aad build prototypes of the TAM tank which would later be masa-produced in Argentina. The contract provided for the use of aseemblies, aubaesemblies and elements already tested and used in similar vehicles. 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tt~yasen~H~nechel immediately went to work on the TAM pro~eat, whioh has = been aubdivided into twot che tank itgelf and the ~'VCTP" (aor~bat vehtale - and troop transport), both based on the eame vehiole, whioh will naturally - faoilitate fl.iture logietias and maintenanae operatione. Thyeden-Hensohel ahose one of its most euaoeesful and complex prnduate as - the baei~ for the new vehiale, its ~'Ma,rder~~ V~I [expanaion urilrnown], en- - dowed with a turret of original design ~,rmed w3th a 105-mm gun and ~rhiah ha~ been sub~eated to slight modification of ita armor to imprnve its bal- _ lietic proteation and with a more powexful engine, resulting in a medium tanlc tkiat combines the requirem~nts for a tank tha,t is up-to-date, heavily armed, lightaeight, with a low eilhouette and economiaally feasible. ' These development operationa, chiefly concerning the nerr turret~ 'took the next 2 years to aomplete, reaulting in the produotion of a prototype that wa~ rvady by January 1977~ at whi.oh time it was eent to Axg~entina for teet- _ ing and technical and tactical evaluation, a phase in which it has been in- tensely involved for Aver a year now, having beerP tested over moi~e than 5~000 km of terrain of all kinds and under e xtreme weather condi~ione, for we must not forg~et that xith ite enormous land aacea 9rgrentina has practical- ly all kinds of alimates, from tropical 'to axctia inaluding tempera.te zonea, ae well ae a variety of motintainous ~errains, The tests have ena,bled uF to varify that all the technical and tactica.l - apecificationa required by the Aru~r General Sta.ff have been met and even surpassed, thus assuring us of the resistance to wear of its parts ~nd its excellent all-terrain and operational performance. Simultaneous with the development of the TAM, toole, tool and die maehinery ~ and equipment have been produced and acquired and the installationa for mass-producing the TAM as of 19?9 erected, Ac~ording to Arn4r General Staff - - forecasts, 20d u~ite will be produced and work has alreac~y begun on the storfng of material and acceptance of bids for the manufacture of parts by Arg~entine industries in order to achieve a high level of national parti- cipation~ The internal dietribution of the TAM comprises two large sectionss the _ front, which is�subdivided into the engine-tranamission and drive assemblies _ chamber, and the reax, which coneiste of the combat.and turret housing chamber. In the reax of the vehicle a little hatah opens for tha crea to. get in and for loading ammunition, between the radiators and the eng3ne~ The driver sits in the fax left front part of the veh~cle, equipped for vieibility with three periscopes plus a luminescence intenaifying system for night driving with a range of 50 meters~ complemented by two side- mounted rea~-view mirrors. 21 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~dlt Ut~'1~'ICIAL USL dNLY Arn4~men t '1'A1~~ t'irepower i~ provided by Ea ~tabilized 10~/~1-mm ~L'nglinh Viakern L-762 - gun, the same ~g in t}ie "T~opeard," thQ M-60 and other~, moun~ed in a _ turret de~i~~d and built by mhya~en-Hensoh~l ~nd oon~truCted of lamina~ed, w~la~a chromA-niokel~mo?ybdenum ~te~1 p1~t~~ ~et ~t gn ~n~l~ o~ldulated to reduce the effeatlvQn~~c~ af nrmor-pierQin~ ah~11~ to ~ minimum. - 'I'hi~ turret, a fully gymm~trical tru~nc~ted pyramid~ h+~s a typioal ~rrang~- ment with the t~nlc Cnmmander ~eated on +h~ right~ a dome provided with ei.~it pnrts that as~ure vi~tbility in dir~etion ~,nd a panoramia ~tele- ' :~cope with two m~~ifi~atinn~ (2x and ~j.; ~ The ~unner ~itg in front of ' the t~nk command~r, provid~d with ~ panoraunia, front-mounted YL�'ftI-2 peri- scope that i~ horizont~lly ~nd vertically ad~ust~ble Well as with a l~r~er ran~efinder which can be operated dlreat3~y by the comma.nder~ 'Che loadar ~its td th~ left of t}ie breech of the gun~ prnvfd~d with ~ round ~ hatch in the roof of the turret ~.nd a~ma11 l~,teral hatch for loading vhell~ and gettin~ r1d o~ empty ghellcc~ses. Thi~ member of the crew also }~an ~.n adjitstable periscope of the eame type as the one used by the Bunner. rn t}~e rear of the turret t}~ere ia a box for spare parts and auxiliary equipment which i~ acceasible through a lid on the roof. TAAi's radio a.nte~ina3 are locuted on both sides of thi~ box. 'rl~1~I': ~econdary armament consi~ts of a 7~62-mm rN (expansion unknown~ co- axial r~achino gun ~nd another AA [expansion unknown~ of the same calibar FLnd make optionally mounted on the roof of the turret in the cot*cnand dome plu~ ei~ht electrically fired flamethrow~r tubes loeated on both a:deo of the turret, T}ie main gun is fired by meane of a fully integrated and stabilized system con~isting of a ballistic computer, laser rangrefinder, stabilfzed view- finder and a turret-position indicator, a system that can be complemented - _ ait1~ a light intoneifier inetalled to the left of the gun. The turret is operated by meana of an electro-hydraulic and ~,anual control with a 360~ an~le of rotation and the gun has a vertical rar, of from -7� to +18�. rlobili ty . Tt~e TAI~i, which is outfitted with the improved "rlarder" motoridriven assembly, - ha~ been de~i~ned for excellent mobility. OnQ of the factora that providef: this ia the hi~ ratio of power to weight which is on the order of 24 ~ per ton and is mauie poasible by its low weight of only 30 tons and 6-cylin- der 90~-v rrr~ r~-e33 ~~-500 diesel engine With a cylinder ca.pacity of 22,4 liters~ trater-cooled~ which develops 630 ~ at 2,20~ rpm with a spe- - cific special peak poxer of 720 HP/DIN and which fa charaaterized by an - almost constant torque of between 1,200 and 2,200 rpm~ 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 - ~Olt dl~'t~'ICIAL US~ hNLY 'rtie en~;in~ i~ oool~d Uy ~ealed ~irnuit ~rnvided with two water pump~ cind twn r.~~dintoru 1nat~te!i in the r~~r trf the vehiale on bnth gide~a oi' the _ ucc~~UJ F~~,toh, euCh eyui~p~d with hydrauliC~ll;~-operated i'an:~, whone i~~t~ke vontd ~re on thc roof ot tho vehicle. - l~bin~ power i:~ trc~r?::mit t~d to the t~.nk by mean~ of ~,n ~i:iWIr1 q4 hydro- - n~~~hEUiic~l tr~sn~mi:~~ion th~t c~f a hydrodyn~mir '~orqu~ annvert~r combined with a"high-~I~eed" mechanical alutah, a torqu~: invertor, an auto~,~a~tic or mdnual foui~apeed shif+. (with pl~r?et~ry ~are and direat drive), E~ hydrostatio ~teerin~ syst~m ~nd hydrodynamic brc~.k~s~ ~~hi~ tran~mi.:~gion allowu th~ mAM to ~.aoelerate rapidly and to con~tantly main~ain a.~airly high level of poWer ~ince the enginQ runs at a high ratc oS speed. It can also be ~tarted with the ~earshi.ft lever in ~ny poyition it r?~y be in~ thus preventing the vehiale fror~ ~t~lling if the driv~r m~ke3 ~ mi3tr~ke in handlin~ it. 'rhe hydro~tatic ~teerinb nyatem~ raided by a~ervncontrol, provides the tank with supple and comfortable nnd exceptionally fggt steerin~, en~.blin~ _ - tF~e TMf to move effectively over windin~; stretches and with the ~ng~ne r.unnin~ at top speed. Another factor L~ be considered with re~,~rd to the vetiicle'~ mobility is i tJ SLLJpen~ion a�Q ~V:.~~tin~ ~e~r whiCh in the cl~ssiet~lly desi~ned TAM con~ists of six exceptionally lonL laterally oscillating arm3 aith a potential ~troke o.f 330 mm~ supported by lar~e-diameter torsion bara in order to obtuin a shock-absorbent suspension and avoid exceasive pitct~ing - of t}~e vehicle. This syatem i~ ~upplemented by four hydrgulic shock ab- sorber:, on which the two forward and the two rear wheels on each $ide rest. The running ~,*ear is composed of six aluminum double sugport wheele with ~ a rubber helt, three double return rallers and a laterally r~nd mechanically operated rear tension wheel, The drive wheels, mounted forward and fairly hi~;}? arid which permit the TAI~I to ~et over vertical obstacles as much as 1 meter hi~h, are powered by thc engine by means of two final-drive re- duction gears set in the drive-wheel housin~;~ xhich enga~e the engine ~:~r:~ by mean:~ of 45-cm-Wi~le steel chain equipped with rubber ahoea, ~~:sily r.~:plnceaUle, mznufactur~.d by the Diehl Compr!�~,~ and especially euit- - able for rollin~; ovc~r ~now, mud or ice. � i'rot~~ction 'Pi~e parall~lepiped .srmor shell, built of a:~pecial chrome-nickel-molybdenum - ::teel and thick enou~h to re:~ist the inuact of ordinary 20- or 25-mm :~hell; on ita :;ides and witl~ a front end capuble of withstanding standard :subc~iliber ~~roj~ctilP~~ i~ an~led at 75� in front and j?_~ on the sides, il~t}i the~ front :snd lateral surf~ces are completely smooth~ ahich f~cili- tzt~~s r~:;i:~tance to pressure cau~ed by atomic explosions, also making it e~isicr to decontaminate the tank~ 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~ ~dR d~~tCtAL USt~, ONLY N:?t~urally, the 'i'N~i iF~ provided with a devi~~ to proteat it Ank wenpoa~~ whioh p~rmit~; th~ orew to rerr~in in ~ adnt~min~ted area ~or 8 hdur~. . ~~}~e in~nn~inq ttir, with rat~ n� ~1nw nf 3 Cubic met~rg a n~tnute, p~gg~~ through ~~yntem aompo~~~~ of tao A~t~ filt~rn ~nd ie rnaintained irt tha combat ~ nh~.mber ~t ~ preauure n~ 30 nun of water over that of the out~tde nir, thug prc~v~ntln~ r~dio~ctit�e dust Crom gettin~ into the vehiclQ, It i~ ~?lso pro- - vided with a double-~irhuit h~~ztin~ ny~tec~, on~ a ~y~tem fdr the combat ohamb~r ae~ving a~ ~ h~ater for the crew and the oth~r a hot-water ~ygtem ~o prehe~.t thu enbin~. 'i'Atn aommunication3 are ta3cen c~re of by twn St~'F-25 tran~mi.tter-rea~ivers, on~ intercatn with fdur aontrol boxe~ an~l o~tion~lly With ~n out~ide te1P- phone~ wt~ile the poWer is supplied by n~rdup of gix 1~-volt batteriea ~ with a dgpacity of q00 ampereb pe~r hnur ar~d r+hich are charged by ~ g-kw, ?~20d-rpm alternator mounted on the en~ina. '1'he '1'Ml hu:~ ~ rr~ng~e nf 520 km ~u~rantQed by 600 liters of fuel ytor~d in threQ t~uik~, ~ ran~,re th~t i~ inere~~g~d to 900 km with the ~ddition of the two ~OU-liter out~ide t:uik~ attxched to thc~ rear end. It develops a tcap ~poed uf ly km ~n hour Which, thank~ to tb.~ torqug oonverter, can be e?pplled _ in either forwarci or reverse gea~r. While a11 other paWer~ follow the tr~nd toward inereasin~ Weight and com- ' plexity, with the gubsequent rise in coat~ Argentina ha~ chosen an economic end li~hter (30 tons) tank but one With ~~ireporrer equal to that of most ~ tank3 in use, marked by a uniqi~a general ..~nfiguration exeept for the n~w - I~raeli "t~ierkava" tanlc which nan itg comb~.t ehamber in the rear mid part - o~ the vahicle. ~ = Tl~e perfection of this desi~ concopt will provide the Argentine Ara~y wit1~ two vehiclc:~, the TA1~l and the VCTI'~ with similar specifications and the subsequent tactical and logistical advantages, constituting a"family" for ~ which other member~ are at present being developeds a 120-mro mortax carrier, a 155-mm howitzer, a comrnand cas, a recovery vehicle and a bridge- laying t~nk. - 7fie~c vet~icles, a}iich will make it possible to remodel Ar~entfne meahanized unita ir~ thQ next few years, are algo of interest to other countrfe~ on the American continent, ehiefly $razil, which find them3elve~ in similar circumutances and are also 3oining hands on a policy of updating and self- 3ufficiency~ wt~ich could mean mass production and, xhat is more importaat from the operational otaiidpoint, staridardization of equipment among th~ different 5outh American arrnies, Technical Data 'PAI~~: Argentine Jlediuni Tank 24 FOR OFFICI."~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~U~t d~~ICIN. US~ ONLY n3mens3onu and Wei~htg Od?e~ull lc~n~h ~.1 ~ m mr~ok 2.62 m ~ody 1pn~rth ~~7~ m Ch~?in width ~45 dm Widtr~ 3. 25 m Combgt W~i~ti~ 2q, 5U0 kg - Overall haigh~ 2.42 m ~hgine aeight 1,880 kg Ik~dy h~ight 1.75 ~'1'~c~?tt~mt~gion rreight 1,1 ~7 kg Ground ~learana~ .44 ~ Motor-driv~n ~~g~mbly wei t ~,210 k Cont~at with the ground 3.9 m Spealfio pre~~ure .77 ~C~?~ htea}i~ni~al 5pecif3a~tions l~gine t MTU NIII-8~~ ~L'~?-5G0~ diesel, 6 aylinder~ in a 90�-V aon- figur~tion, cylinder aapacity 22.4 ltter~, 6~0 HP ~t ~,200 rpm, W~te~-cooled, right frant mounted. Compre~;~ion ratios 19.js1 Pdwer-weight r~tiot 24 NP per ton FLe1 con3uatptions 115 liters per 100 km Tran:~miasinn: }~ydromechanical H~'tJTr~19Q aith hydrodynanttc ~orque converter. Four-~peed manual or auton~tic g~ar box. 5u~penE~ion: Six tor3ion barn c~nd four lateral hydraulic ghoak nbsorbera~ ltunnin~ ~urs 5ix nluminum double-~upport aheel~ with rubber bQlt, three double retwrn rollere~ rear mechanical tensfon Nheel. Forty-five-cm-wide ~teel chain with rubber shoe~. - Arr.~arnent t`~ins 105/51-mm I~-7A2 qun, stabilized. An~l.e of fires Hori~ontals 360�; verticals from -7~ to +18~, ~ Secondary: One ']~62-mm coaxial FtJ machine gun One 7,62-mm I?A FN machine gun, optional, t~ight flamethroWer tubes, _ perform3nce Itanges j20 km; 900 ~~n with awciliary tank:~~ ~pc~d: '15 ~n per hour maximum on paved road~~ forxard and _ reverae; 3~5 km per hour minimum. _ Longitudin.~l 3lopes: 60;~ 1.ateral 31opc3 s ~0;6 lii tche:~ : 2, 5 m Vertical ob~t~cle: 1 u~ 1~'ord: ~,5 m Turning radiuu: In fir:,t, 6.5 m; in secon~, 13.5 m; in third~ 20 n; in fourth, 30 m. ILel: G00 liters of diesel oil in three tanks; 400 liters in outside auxiliary tanks~ ~5 FOR OFFtCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 I~Uk t1f~'F'tCIAT~ IISis C1N1~Y - ;:qui,pment Aimin~ ~r?d ~ir.~lt3n~; - davlo~ne Intn~r~ted fir~-aontrdl gynt~m con~inting of bc~llic~- tia c~loulator, ls~n~r r~ng~finder~ nt~.bilixed prim�.~..ry viewfinder ~nd turr~t-ponition indiaato~r. I'~nor~mia t~la~cop~ with ~w~ m~~nif3~~tion~ (2~ ~nd ~~c) td~ tha ~cuik oomm~nd~r. 74?0 ~t2r~~-12 nerigon~+en fnr th~ loader and ~unner, ~i~ht ports fo~ tha ta,nlc aom- m~nd~r ~d thre~ for the driv~r. Luroinegaena~ in~ tenuifiern for f3ring and n3~ht drlving, _ ~U3c~ daf~n~et ~on~igting o� two ~ilterg. Airflo~r at the rate o~ 3 cubic met~r~ per m3.nute and nverpreg~ur~ of ~0 mm of water. He~?tSn~s Double airauit, hot w~ter for preheating engin~ and ~ir for aombat ahomber. ]t~dins Two ~I~+~-2~ trar?gmitter-r~c~ivers gr?d inter~om aith four contrdl boxe~. OptionF~l outgide telephone. Crew: Tan1c ao~mnand~r, gunner, lo~d~r ~r?d driver. COPYHIGHTs ~diaioneg Defenna, :~.A., I~drid~ ~978 1~,q6G CaOs 3010 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~dtt d~~ICIAL U5~ t~NLY AH(;I~NTINA CfIMi~L~XIT~~S SUItROUNUING ttlV~tt ~'tAT~ I~ASIN I55U~ tt~Vl~W~b tiu~no~ Aireq t~ bI'INIUN in 5p~nigh 15 Jen ~9 p 7 CArti~l~ by ~tela Arau3r~s "ThQ River i~late fiagin Cdn�er~nc~ N~~ Hevived 5ome ~asic lg~ue~"~ _ [rsgg~c~g enclo~~d 1n glgntlin~g printed in boldfaCe~ C~'ext~ 'Phe Conference of h'oreign Minigt~r~ nf the ~tiv~r Ylst~ ~a~in has pc�ovided an opportunity to revieu the v~rinug f~ctor~ ~nvnlved. 7'here Nere two other preaenceg at the conferences one nb~je~tively r~al that had nat been invited (Itaipu) ~nd dne nnt yet ob3ectively real (Corpus). Thes~ ~+ere the tko rn~gic uordg on which the c.wnference focused its ~ttention. - un 2U uctober near Itaipu, pr~sident Alfredo Strn~ssner af ~aragua~y ~nd pr~gident ~rnegto Geisel of ~ra~il depr~ssed the lever that triggered the Qxplvsion of ~3 tons of dynamite~ thereby diverting the 'r~rana ~iver into the arti~iCial chsnnel thruugh which it xi11 flow until the pro~ect ~s completed. 7'he exploaion xas ati11 reverberating insid~ the ttalls of the Hotel San Rafael of ~'unta del ~ste xhen the ministers of foreign affairs of the five countries of the R~ver rlate Basin assembled for their confer- ence. The E'arana--seventh longeat river in the xorld (4,OOA kilometera)--was diverted alang a 2~000-meter stretch. It xa8, and ?+ill continue to be~ the cen~r~l axis of the River ~'late Basin. The basin comprises an ar~a of 3.2 million square kilometera and includes the Parana, Uruguay and riate rivars together xith their tributaries. it - extends acr~ss five countries and represents 3? percent of the total area of Ar~entina~ ly percent of' Bolivia~ 17 Percent of $ra2i1, 100 percent of ParaRuay and fsU pcrcent of Uruguay. The country xith the smallest percentage of its area situated in the basin-- the lar~est country in South America--has utilized the energy resources of the b~lsin through the mcdiwa of several projectss llha Solteira~ Jupia and ltaipu~ 27 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~'Ott O~~I~IAL U~~ ONLY ~MA ~ ~ .r....,~~ rM~ ~ w~~..rr?~ ~.,1~ ~ ""rr ~w�~�w Y" w"r+ - ~++r. w ~ ~ � r ```~'c , Iv � ~ ~ ? \ rOw ' \ Aw ~ ~ , ~ 'i ~ ~ . ~r ?~/w~ r . Vw~ri ~)"~w~A~ � A~OdTNA~ MMIea MA~ `r, I ~ ~ ~j/~l~�a. ~ ` ~ ? l~ l~~~r~ M j ~ ~~r ~ �~t ~ - ' ~ 1~wh � r~1Mf10~ \ ~ ~ ~ � , j ~ wMMMY ' . ~ IM Y ~ Aw~ ~ ~i; . ~ ~ , r ~r ~ / / ~ ~ww�r ~ ' ~ , r� " Tfie River Plate Basini a ~arvelous energy resource that must be exploited in a coherent and equitabl~ ~anner 28 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~OR d~F~C~At, US~ ~NLY The prdxi~aity ~f the Itaipu prd3eat (rrhi~h i~ aurrently in a relatively ~~r~?nCed gt,~ge) aakea ~t impo~eible for Argentina to oonetruat the Libertad - hydro~leotri~ pro~eot-�xith an ~pproximate capacity of 15 millinn kiln- watt~�-and at the eame ~ine limit~ the fe~e~bility of the O~rpu~ pro3eat. Here i~ whxt s~me Arguntine ~xperl.~ havn had t~ ~~r~ Admir::1 Ia~n ~o3ag ~"Arger?tin~ ~hould not rangtru~t ~ Corpu,~~ daa of 1~es than ~20 nete~ ~n height~ eo that it ai11 be ab1~ to re~?ativate the eat river and thereby ~tg navigation~ xh~eh today ia partly par~?lyeed." ~LA ~ S~MANA, No 104~ 25 ootober 197~) Nico1~ Bo~cwvich~ "It is not true that a Corpua of only 105 feet in h~ight could produce energy ~t a cost equivalent to that of the enargy ~rhieh xill be obtained at Y~ayreta. In order for the cost to be 'oquival.ent' the energy Wau1d hav~e to Qost only half ae much~ and that xould require the dnn to be at leaet 120 aeter~ in he;.ght." (LA Uf~INIUN~ 30 9eptember 1978) ~ ~ngineer Mari~ C. F1~hini Me~iai "Carrying out the Itaipu pro3ect xithout ' ~ fbrpus wuuld oean an ~nor~ue Kastd of this natural reeource= by comparieon~ ~ Corpua 125 aetere in height, plue Itaipu~ could produce as mueh ag 28 iai111on net kilowatta per year." At anoLher point in hia st~?teaent he dealared tha?t a Corpua 105 detera in height cannot be built but belleves 115 metara to be a viable height for the daa~. ("La singularidad geografica guqyense" [Distinctive Ceographic ta~ar~eteriatice of the "Cuayenae" Ragion~~ ~ditorial U~kos~ 19?8) In general~ the technical reports contend that the a~iniau~ height of the - Itaipu da~ carmot be lese than 113 meLerg. In the absence of a definitive - decigidn~ the fbreign ainistry giv~g the impre~eion that it xould agree to a height of arourYi 110 aeters. The proposal of the Brazilians and Para- guayan~ ia for e daa of only 105 xetere and 20 turbines. In or~er to understand the iseue of the turbinea xe Aust begin at the be~ginn~ng. The Itaipu Trea.ty - At the Seventh Oonferencx of Montevi.deo (held in i933)~ in xhich the coun- triea of the River Plate Basin took part (the treaty Kaa not signed until !,l5y)~ it Na8 resalved that although the individual atatea had the "exclu- s~ve right to engage in utilization far induatrial and a~ricultural pur- poees~" the exerciee of this right xas made aub~ect to "the condition - _ that it not iape?ir the aqual right of a neighboring state." The problea? of the xater resources of consecuti~e xatercourses (a probleA that dates b~ck to Roman lax) requires the establlahAent of international le~al nor~a that Kill not tranafor~ every river that floxs throug~ ~ore than one state into a latent diepute. 29 FOR OFFICIAL U5a ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~ ~nx n~~ictnt, us~ orr~Y - At the Fburth Conferenca n~' Fbreign Mini~tere the River I'1~,te ~aein a ~ deolaration xas obta?innd concerning the utiili~~tion nf the international . river~. It ka,s ~pprdved on the baeis of the 1ega1 principles aegerted by Argentit~? ~nd Uruguay~ the dnxnetream eountriee~ and reads ag foll.ox~i "On the internation~l river~ th~t c~n~i~t of conaeQUtive Natercourses~ and xhere ~over~ignty ig not ehe~red~ each gtata may utill~e tho xater~ in ~~~drdance rrit,h its neede~ pr~vided auch utili~ation does not cauae per~eptible harm to another etate of the Basin." (ArtiCle 2) The Bramilic~n theeig had been announced Ly th~t country's fareign minigter - in Noveaber 1968~ a~ folloxst "No country uhose territory contain~ the headWatere of a hydrographia baein aan agree-�in mattere relating to xater utili~ation--te adopt eel�-iaposed rentriationa xhi~h are not busd on ita oxn teohnical requirs~ante~ and on its prinaiples ~a establlshed in acoor- dano� Nith ite lege?1 reepnneibility." During the O~nferenae on Lhe Hw~an ~vironment hsld in StoekhoL 1n June ' 19?2~ $ra~il requeeted that Prinoiple 20 of the dealaration include s etipulstion t,o the sfleot that "no state is oblig~ted to provide inforra- ~ tion xhen Qircuaetanase are euch t,hat it hae good reaaon to believe that , ite nationa?1 ss~urity~ economia dsvelopaent~ or do~estic action to i~prove ; the enviroruent could be endangered." Confronted With the threat of pollution deriving flro~ Bra~il'a intention to eatablieh "dirty" induetriee or cheaical induetriea, Argentina--together - With other A~erioan and Af~ican countriea--opposed the B~ilian r~queat~ arguing that "etstes ahould provide the pertinent inforaation." The ~ propoeed a~srd~snt xaa not inaluded~ hoxever, and the ae?tter xae referred ; tc the Genersl Asaeably of ths United Nations. Before the U.N. took up the question, Bra~il--reali~ing that it was loaing the arguaent--4pt,ed inetead for an a~ceement betkeen the foreign ainiaters of the txo countries. The text of the agraement read as folloxsa /"Information ahould be provided, officially and publicly."/ An annex atate8 that the above does not empoxer a etate to "del~y or obatruct programs~ or pro3ect8, for the exploration~ exploit,ation and - development of the natural reaources of those atates in xhose territory auch programa and pro3ecta undertaken." ~ Argentina hac~ succeeded in rrinning acceptance for ite thesi8~ but Brazil ~ I had obtained an annex aufficiently ambiguous to enable it to avoid having to fulfill the tezhns of the agreement. ~ lt xas in this context that Paraguay--xhich until that point had maintained a firm national policy ard a foreign policy that oscillated betxeen Argentina, and Brazil--tipped the scalea in Brazil's favor by pledging, in the Declaration of Asuncion~ not tn carry uut a 3oint hydroelectric pro3ect _ but inetead to ~aanage Paragu~y'a entire econoa,y in accordance xith Brazil'a intereats. - 30 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOIt 01~'FtCIAL U~~ ONLY l~E i~ uee~'ul to revieW the text of the Itaipu Treaty~ xhich was eigned by . ~breign Minietera Raul 9apena Pastor and Mario Cibeon Barbo~a on 26 April 1973~ Article 1. "The hi~ contxaeting partiee agree to carry out 3ointly~ in - a~cordance xith the provieione of the present treaty and its annexes~ the /hyrlroelectrio exploitation of' thoee ?ratar resourees o~ the P~rana River - over Nhich the two countries exeroiee ~oint eovereignt;~/~ frnm--and includ- ing--the Salta del Gua?ira~ or 3altn Grande de Sete QuedaB~ to the mouth of the Igua~u River." Article 3. CArticle 2 omitted ae published] "The hi~ contracting partiea shall ar~ate, xith equality of rights and obligations~ a binational entity to be naaaed 'Itaipu~' for the purpoae of carrying out the hydroelectric exploitation to which reference ia made in Article 1." Annex A. Conaists of the Statutes of the aforementioned entity "Itaipu~" cdvering the purpnee~ capital and administration thereof. Annex 9. O~naists of a general dearx iption of the installations desigmed for the production of ele~trlcal energy. I. Purpoee. "The engineering ~orka deerxibed in the present annex aia,y undergo amendaent or addition--/including the ape~i�ications xith respeat to heighte and measureaen~ta/--if this ie required by virtue of technical conaiderationa that come to light in the course of the execution of ea?id - xorks. lbreover, if becauae of ~imilar reqiiire~ents /it becoe~es apparent ~ that there ie need for a aubatantial reduction in tha height/ of the creat _ of tha d~~ conaideration ehall be given to the advisability of the � exe~ution of act additional hydroelect,ric develop~ent upetreau~ ~n aacordsnce ` xith the p~ovisiona of the aforementioned [eic] Prelisine~ry Report. ~ II. "Tt?e naraal seuci~uA xater level ia 220 metere above eea level. ~is f reeervoir xill inundate an area of app~oxiaately 1400 ~uare kilo~etera ~ (600 aquare kiloaetera in Paragtiwy and 800 square kilo~tetera in Braail) snd Mill extenQ ups~,reen a dietance of 200 kilometere~ up to and including ; the Se?lto del Guaire~, or Salto (:rande de 3ste Quedas." ~ r Annex C. Coneiste of a d~saription of the financial baaes of--and electric _ poKer aervicee to be pacovided by--the Itaipu entity. This annex ~rae hotly ~ debated before ite adoption. ~ The Parsguayan foreign minister ~ade the folloKing etat~ent at a presa ~ cornference, ' "i!e have not undertdken Itaipu as a business deal. Itaipu is not a busi- negs deal, either for 8razil or for Paraguay. The fact that xe shall re~lize millions of dollars ia not important. Our ob~ective ia not finan- cial grofit. Our ob~jective ia national devel~pment: develop~aent in BraZil 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~ ~Ott t~~~ICIAL US~ ONLY and develnpment in Paraguay. If ther~ is ~ derivative b~nefit in the form of dollara �or the government'~ coffers, it i~ an incidental result. What rtaipu xill generate is davelopment." (From a statement ma,de at the headquarters of the Ae~ociation of Graduatea in the Economic Science~ on z4 May 1y73~) . LA T12IBU NA df Aauneion in ite 26 May 1y73 issue commented on thia episdde - ag folloasi "This assertion by the foreign minister is by itself.guffioient to invalidate completely the Itaipu Treaty~ inasmuch as he admitted publicly that Itaipu i~ not, for para,guay~ a busineas deal. seiiing 35~000 gigaxatt hours ovor a period of 5n years for $40 mi111on is obviously no business - deal. It is simply a g1ft." ABC COLO R~ in ita 24 May 19?3 issue, aaidi ~ "It i~ also the view of this newepaper that the treaty, as drafted by our - foreign minietry~ xi11 bring us snme benefits during the 7 years the dam ia undar constructien (labor, rock~ cement and so forth)~ but frota the moment the very first kiloKatt is invoiced after the groject is put in operation~ _ and for the next 43 yeare (until the year 2023)~ our country aill be subaidizing--xith the most valuable part of its natural resources--the economic development of Brazil by providing that country xith half of the - energy produced by the Parana River in that region, at a price xhich tod~y already seems ridiculous." - On the sub,ject of future revisions, the treaty stipulatess "The provisions of the preaent annex shall be reviexed after a period of 50 years has elapsed from the effective date of the treaty, taking into i account--among other conaiderations--the extent of the amortization of the ~ indebtednesa contracted by Ita.ipu for construction of the development i project~ and also the ratio betNeen the respective amounts of poxer con- ~ tracted for by the entities of the txo countriea." ~ There Was a change in the number of turbines from the 14 (fn Annex B III.S) to 18 in 1y75 and aubsequently to 20 in November 1y78. This amounts in essence to an amendment of the treaty and cw~. O@ COI~$~TLICd as implying a revision of the treaty. According to the Brazilian press~ Paraguay xants more energy and ia putting obstacles in the xay of an Argentine-~azilian understaruiing xitr~ respect to the Itaipu issue. The queation of the turbines has nox been auided to that of the height of the dam, but one should not forget the basic problem~ nataely the navigability of the Parana River. - What Paraguay appeara to b~: attempting to negdtiate is a revision of the financial conditions of th�: treaty--conditions by virtue of xhich Brazil - receivea the "lion's ahare." /Paraguay can use the ene~gy itself or sell it to Brazil at the stipul~ited price~ xhich makea it the cheagsst energy in all of South America./ 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~ ~OR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY _ Utilixa,ti~n of thia energy (ae the paragua?yan Cc>vernment announaed dn nna _ ocoaelun) wnuld entail the pnrtiaipation ~f large awna of capital that can only be ~btained frnm ab~oad. In any event~ Paraguay cannot by itself exerciae thie option. The elgning of the contxact for exeoution of the Middle I'arana pro3eet on - 20 November in Moacox~ and the approval by the Inter-American Develnpm~nt Bank (IDB) of the largest loan ever granted tn d~te ($210 million)--for the Argentine-Paraguayan Yacyreta hydroelectric pro3ect--repreeent trro nex , elementa in~eoted intn the Corpus-Ttaipu iasue. Paraguay ahould rethink it~ hydroelectric policy in the light of a Yacyreta pro,ject that xill be initiated thia year and is scheduled for completion in 1y~5. %Pa~raguay has no reason to resign itself to se111ng--in exchange for a s~aa11 Corpus--a little more of Itaipu's energy./ OOPYRIGHT~ LA OPINION~ 1y79 ioyy2 - CSO a 3010 � 33 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLX - ~11." TI, LAUNCHER, 9ATELLITt~ CONSTAUQZ'ION FOR $RAZIL PItOPASED Paria AxR ~ COBM09 Stt Frsnah 23 Dea ?8 p 43 [Artiole by Pierrs Iangerswc] ~Teut] A migsion t'rotn the Ne~tiond7. Center for 3paee Studies (CNbS) ~+hich aleo includea aome Frenoh induatrie~.llete Kill go to Bre?~sil on 5-9 Feb.tva.rsr 1979 to prseent the Brn$ilian govetrn~ent Nith vaMous poaeibilities for epace coaps~ration betwesn the txo countrisa. It will be a"technScal presentation" on aoaperstion and.s lollox~up to prevSoue ~+enah praposala for the carrying = out of a~oint spe~ae miealon. Colonel Hugo do Oliveira Piva~ direator of the Brn,~i3.le~n Institut~ Por 3pace Aativitiea, recently annouaced that _ Bra~ilian authoritiea he?v~e ~uat acoepted the P'rench ps~apoeal in princi?~le. - Brazil ie particulsrly? intereet,ed in building s I20-150 kg satellitF for prsctical use in qrowtd obeervstion at~id Qeteorology, a rocket for ~rse in laumching this sareliite aa~d a launohing pa~d fma which t.he rockst xould bs lirsd. The launohing pad xoul,d be. located in Ne?tal xhere ~re.~il already has a a~a].1 facilitq !or launahing a~,soepheria probee. The deb~?ilr, of ths pro~ect have ~et to be ~ettled, parti~ul,srly insofar e~s the rockei; is coacerned. CNES hea prapoeed uaing a liquid psro~pellaat ~it~at stage AIR ~ CoSMOS no. 719). Fina1 acoepte~tice of the F~enoh plan, Colonel Piva explained~ ~111 deper~. on Aego~tistion~ urxles~EaTcen trith C1~5 on iesuea auch aa the tsansfer of tech- nology~ coet~ technira7. characterietics aad sci~ntilia applications. Ae = far ae ttansisr o! technology is concerned~ Colonel Piva etated that among t,he iaduatrialized countrieec Fraace aad Ger~y xers the ~oet diapased to - participate. In iact~ Brnzil haa ~laced Frrsace and Ge,rma~r in competition !or ths pro~eot to build launoh faailities ar~d a sateltite. The United - St,atse hna declined to participe~ta. . It ~ay ap~psar surprialag that F:sac~~ xhiah already has a~ell equipped - lmunch facility in Koumu, P`rench Culana (Brazil~a neighbor), xould Nant to . conetsvct s loreign inatallation. able to compete xith it. Brszil hoxever prelers to haw its oxn liring pa~d rat,her than to nae the CSG [sxpaasion unlicnoxa]. COP'YAIGHT~ lir ~ Coe~ae, Paris~ 19?8 ?7?9 34 FOR OFFICIE+L USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 _ FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY ' CUBA ELOY GUTIERREZ MENOYO ~ S POLITICAL IMPRISONAi~,T1T EXP'LORED Madrid C14MBI0 16 in Spanish 3 Dec 78 p 45 [Text] Qn 1 January 1979, when Castro's Cuba celebrates the 20th anniversary of the successful Cuban Revolution, the ~ - Madrilenian ~loy Gutierrez Menoyo, a major with the Second National Front of Escambray in the fight against Batista, will be released. Fidel Castro announced this news by phone to writer Garcia Marquez. According to Fide1, by that date, there will be no more political prisoners in C;uba, except for 14 or 15 officials from the Batista era, accused of genocide. Sentenced to ?0 years in prison, Eloy Gutierrez Menoyro, in whom President Suarez to~k an interest during his visi~ to Havana, showed up a few days after this magazine related his revolutionary experiences and his activities agai.nst Fidel Castro. Over the past 4 years, since 1974, his prison was not known and his father, Carlos Gutierrez Zabaleta, a former officer in the Spanis~: ^apub- lican Aimy, was being deta~ned in Cuba by Castro's officials. We now know that Eloy Gutierrez Menoyo was being held in the Combinado del Este - Prison outside Havana, and he was able to see his father. The latest news from Cuba indicated that Eloy was undergoing a medical examination in the capi,tal and Carlos Gutierrez was awaiting his son's release to return to Spain. The last contact of Major Gutierrez Menoy with the outsid~ took place one month ago when a contested committee of exiled Cubans was authorized by Ca~tro's - officials to visit the prisons for the purpose of obtaining the release of 46 political prisoners. The interview with Fyloy was broadcasted by the Miami television network and we publish some of his answers which shows that he totally shuns Castro~s current _ policy of ~~reconciliation,~~ in which some sectors of exiled Cubans are partic- ~ ipating. 35 FOR OF`FICIAL LTSE OIv'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~Ott O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY As for his possibl~ r~le~ge, dutierrez Menoyo ~pp~e~red skeptiC~1: ~~The Cuban government ig tl~e one to releage Cuban prison~rg. I b~lieve the finel deci~ _ sion is in its h~nds~~~ Ne n~vcrtheless svemed to be awnre of the inc~uiries being made by the Spanish gnv~rnm~�t. He suid: ~'I hcard thut the presid~nt of the Spanigh governmenti inc~uired about me. That he reached sdme kind of' ~greement with th~ Cubun gov~rnment in r~gard to this m~tter. ~tight? In tih~t ~~g~, I C~nnot sgy ~ny- t}iing abouL the result uf these inquirieg. I dn not kndw it.~' - However, his p~55~11i19tt1 surfaced when he told th~ interviewerg: , "All right, look, T have conditioned myself to thc fact that T will ~otttinue to gerve my sentence. Therefdre, I do not wattt to have ~ny illusion~ concern- ing thig matter." The Government Decrees Cutierrez Menoyo--who for the past 13 years has refused to wear the uniform of the prisoners sub~ected to the "rehabilitation plan" and has lived in under- wear ever since--seems to have very clear ideas: ~'If unconditional freedom is offered to me and it does not entail having to think differently from whae I think today or relinqainshing my principles or the idealg for which t fought, then, naturally, I will accept an unconditional release. ~reedom with a single condition, no matter how small, 2 will not ac~ept..." On t~e sub3ect of the liberation of political prisoners which is causing tension among the factions in exile, and the rights of the Cuban people, Gutierrez Menoyo was categorical during the interview: "I do not believe anybody is opposing the release of the prisoners. That is to say, I believe that on this point an error is being committed. There is not anyone who can be opposed to the prisoners being released after the years we have already served, right? And the sufferings we have endured. NoW the prob- lem is as follows: to hold a dialog with Castro's government, right? In my opinion, the question is that, on the subject of the prisoners, it is Castro's government which is responsible for the prisoners' release. For example~ in Chile~ prisoners have been released. Neither the Chilean nor the exi'led cortununities were convened to release the prisoners. The authorities = simply met azad granted freedom to the prisoners. Reuniting a family is precisely the correct and necessary thing to do. We have been separated for a long time. No one then objects to a family being rcunited. At this point, I do not need a dialog, I simply need an announce- ment from the government that, from such and such date, anybody can enter or leave the country. I do not need a dialog. Now, there is a third issue which does require a dialog and questions could be asked on that subject, right? The problem of freedom in Cuba--freedoms of 36 FOR OFFICI~f. L'SE Oti'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~Oit d~~ICIAL U5~; ONLY movement, expresgidn, pregs, religion and academic freeddm--that ig a gerieg of questfons which demand a di~log, do you undc~rstand? Th~t ig to gay, I pr~viously fought against bAtista's dict~torship, right? We1Y, on the bASig of thut snme principle, I h~vc a right to ob~~ct, I h~ve ~ right to my opin- ions in this country. rn th~t cas~, if the oc~~~inn fnr expr~sging ~rt opinion, or th~ right to ~cpress it, is denied me, then, naturally, I musti oppoge the government. Itight? Now the quegtion that I will ask ydu--not you - td me but I to you--is this: have cdnditiions ahanged in Cuba? Can on~ expregs - an opinion in Cuba? Are ther~ righ~s in Cuba7 Tf we c~r? talk ~bout tli~t w3th- out any argumentg, then I agree to a dfalog." coPrnzaxm: i978 c~saio i6 � - 6857 CSO: 3010 37 FOR OFFICI~i. L'SE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 PPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 ~btt OFFICIAL US~ ONLY GUYANA BRIr:~'S CONTRACT ~Olt URANIUM PkOSP~CTING-~Georg~Coc~m, 20 ~eb (it~UT~R)--The Guyanese - Government and Che French firm Cogema signed a contract on Monday granting Cogema nonexclueive uranium exploration rightg. Tnitial operations Co determine Che eize of uranium reaerves in Guyana~s subsoil will begin in September. Guyana ia already engaged in similar negotiations with Cangdian and West German firme. [London R~UTER in French 0633 GM'T 20 Feb 79 PA) 'MIRROR' ON PRC ATTACKS--Georgetown, 19 Feb (PL)--The Guyanese newspaper the MIRROR today carriea a long article criticizing China's policy and eapecially its recenC aCtacks on Vietnam. After indicating the need to "oppose Maoist policies in and outaide Guyana~" the newspaper refers to the close tiea and ~ coinciding views existing between China and the United States. The MIRROR, unofficial spokesman of Che opposition People's Progressive Party (PPP) led by former prime minisCer Chedi Jagan, also denounces the anti-Soviet aCtitude of the current Chinese regime. It also say~ that the Chinese ~ Government "is exporting Che counterrevolution" as seen by its opposition to the Popular MovemenC for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in Angola, the ~ Ethiopian revoluCion~ the new KampuGhean Government and the Chilean people and as now aeen in iCe aggression against Vietnam. [Text] [Georgetown PRELA in Spanish Co PRELA Havana 1620 GMT 2G Feb 79 PAJ CSO; 3100 J ~ 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 PPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL PPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL PPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL PPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL PPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL PPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100020041-3 STATINTEL