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APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000'1000300'1'I-5 , ~ ~ 6 MARCH i979 ~ F0~10 ~ i OF S APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR UFFICiAL USE ONLY .7PRS L/8308 6 March 19~9 r SEISMIC REGIONALIZATIOH OF EASTERN SIBERIA , AND ITS GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS t~. S. JOINT PUBLICATIONS RE,SE~ARCH SER~/ICE - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 NOT~ JPRS publications contain informattnn primarily from ~oreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also fran neas agency tranemissiona and bro~dcasts. Ngt~rials fran foreign-language sources ~re translated; those from ~nglish-languag~ sources are transcribed or reprinCed, aith the origin~l phrasing a~d ncher characteriBtics retained. Headlines, editorial reporte, and material enclosed in brackets er~ supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Textj ar ~Excerpt) in the first tine of each irem, or following the lagt line of a brief, indicate how the original information vas processed. Where ao processit;g :ndicator ig given~ the inf.or- mation Was eummarized vr extracted. Unfamiliar names readered phonetically or trenslitereted are enclosed in parentheees. Words or naasta preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in perentheaee aere not clear in the ariginal but have been supplied asapprApriate in context. Ather unattributed parenthetical notes aithin the body of an - ite~ originate vith the source. Times aithin itema Jure as given by sourcQ. fie contents of this publication in no i+ay repzeaeat the poli- ciea, vieve or attitudes of the U.S. Covarnment. COPYRICHT UWS A2~'D RECULATIONS GOVERNII~C OiiNERSHIP OP MATERULS REPRODUCED HEREZN REQU~E TH11T DISSE?iINATION OF T~iIS PUBLICATI02~ BE RESTRI^TED FOROPFICUL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 fOt� � I REPORT OOCUMENTA110N ~~L~E?~* z ~ L ~~?~YNnI ~ Ate~~Wn Na _ PA~E .TPR.S L 8308 1. 1Nw ~M f~rM~H~ II~OS~t ON~ S~I5MIC R~CI.ONALT.ZATIO~I OP ~ABTERN SIBERIA AND ITS 6 Ma rch 19 79 C~OIACICAL AND GEOPHYSICAI, POUNDATI4NS ~ 1. ArVwl.1 f. hA~n,~w~ a~~~aNw, ~.a no V. P. 5olnnenko editor ?M�+~~t O.s�N:.n� M.~ w~w~w~ /0. n'er~/T~~f/Wer~ Un.~ Ne. Joiat Publications Research Service 1000 North Glebe Road ~4 c�+a.~,ca �a.,~uc? Arlingtan, Virginia 22201 ~p ~ ~ tt. f~w+�~ o?p~..atNn ?+.n~..~. ANnn. ~ iL T~p~ ef R~oort L I~r.s~! Co.a~d - As above u u wrr.~*�r,ry SEYSHI(~iESKOYE RAYONIROYANIYE YQSTOC.~IOY SIBIRI I EGO CEOIACO-CEOPIZICHESKIYE , OSNOVY, Novosib~rak, 1971 u cu~ i+oo ..wa This report contaias a description of the results of many years of complex seiecwgeolagical, seisaic and geophysical studies of Eastern Siberia aimed at establishing a baais for mapping its aeismic s~egionalization. The genetic classification of the residual seissogenic deforuationg of the earth'e crust and the fundamentals of the paleoseismogeological method--deteraination of the location and iatensity of powerful earthquakes--are presented. A study is made of the probleas of predicting earthqualces, the seismic regionalization ~nd the peculiarities of the manifestation of earthquakes under permafrost conditions. - 11. o.owa~. A~.r,.i.�+ US?iR Permaf ros t - Ea~tern Sibezia Tectonic atress Seismology Forecasting Earthquakes ? M~M~/OOM~~ON T~nw~ o co~?n nwic~... 8K 8L 17J ' t.. F..iIwM, ft.u~,.~t�y w.. rnw A.o..n :3. M.. 4 3~H Fot ufficial Use Only. Limited i1NCI.ASSIFIED _ '~uabQr of Copiea Availsble Fraa JPRS, m. _�.?~,u..+~M,..s., +u. r.,~. - UNCLASSIFIED I a" s� w.e..~. � s...... o?rwiu~ so~w 2n ~~-~n (Irn~t~ MTIi-~SI ~ ON~b~wK ~I C~e~c~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL LTSE ONLY JPRS L/8308 - 6 March 1979 SEISMIC REGIONALIZATIOH OF EASTERN SIBERIA AHD ITS GEOLOGICAL AND G~OPHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS Novosibirsk SEYSM.TCHESKOYE RAYONIROVANIYE VOSTOCHNOY SIBIRI I EGO GEOI.~GO-GEOFIZICEiESKIYE OSNOVY in Russian 1977 sign~d to press 21 Nov 77 pp 1-304 - [Book edited by V.P. Solonenko, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1,400 copies~ CONTEiVTS PAGE FOREiJORD. V. P. Solonenko ~ _ CHAI'TER I. Seismogenic Defor~oatione and the Paleoseiscageological Method, V. P. Solonenlco 3 CHAPTER II. Structural-Tectonic Regionalization of the Pxecenozoic Basement, V. V. Nikolaqev, R. A. Kurushin, S. D. Khil'ko, V. S. Khromoveskikh, M. G. Dem'yanovich, V. M. Zhilkin, S. V. Lastochkin, A. D. Abalakov 60 CHAPTER III. Basic Characteriatics of the Latest Structure, Yu. A. Zarin 74 - CNAPTER IV. rtechanism of Latest Tectonic Movements, Yu. A. Zarin 83 - CHAPTER V. Mechanism of Centers and Tectonic Stress Pield, L. A. Misharina, N. V. Solonenko 92 CNAPTER VI. Energy Classification of Earthquakea, A. V. Solonenko, V. M. Kochetkov 106 CHAPTER VII. Strong Earthquakes, V. P. Solonenko, V. S. Khromovskikh, R. A. Kurushin, S. D. Khil'ico, V. M. Zhilkin, M. G. Dem'yanovich, S. V. Lastochkin, A. D. Ab~lakov 123 ' - a - [I - USSR - E FOdO] FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USL' ONLY CONTENT5 (Continued) PeBe CHAPTBR VIII. Malysis of the Epicentral Pield. Seismic Activiey, 221 S. I. Col~netskiy CHAPTER IX. Seismic Vulnerability of the Baykal Region, 253 - S. I. Golenetskiy CNAPIBR X. Earthquake PorecasCing 269 Peculiarities of the Development of the Seismic Procesa by the Obaervations of Weak Earthquakes (in Connection with the Search for Diagnoatic Attributes of Strong Earthquakes), N. S. Borovik 269 Long-Range Forecasting of the Seismic Activity to the Geophysical Data, M. R. Novoselov, Yu. A. Zorin 280 CHAPTER XI. Neotectonics and Seismotectonics, V. P. Solonenko, S. D. Khil'ko, M. G. Dem'yanovich, R. A. Kurushin, _ S. V. Lasmochkin, V. V. Nikolayev, V. S. Khromovskikh 290 CHAPTFR XII. Seismic Regionalization 360 ~ Des~ription of Seismic Regions, S. D. Khil'kn, V. P. Solonenk,o, R. A. Kurushin, V. V. Nikolayev, V. S. Khormovskikh, M. G. Dan'yanovich, S. V. ' Lastochkin 370 - Peculiarities of the Seismic Manifestations Under _ Permafrost Conditions, V. P. Solonenko 383 CONCLUSIOti 390 BIBLIOCRAPHY 395 ~ -b- FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY "PUBLICATION DATA q Bngliah title ; SEISMIC REGIONALIZATION OF EASTEItN SIBERIA AND ITS GF4LOGICAL AND CEOPHYSICAL POUNDATIONS Russian title ; SEYSMICHESKOYE RAYONIROVANIYE VOSTOCHNOY SIBIRI I EGO GEOLOGO-CEOPIZICHESKIYE OSNOVY Author (s) ; Editor (s) ; V. P. Solonenko Publishing Houae ; Izdatel'stvo "Nauka" Place oF Publication . Novosibirsk Date of Publication . 1977 ~ Signed to press : 21 Nov 77 Copiea � 1,000 ~ _ COPYRICHT . Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1977 -c- FOR OFPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICYAL USE ONLY ~ , Mnotation _ [Text] A description is presented of the reav].ts of many years of conplex eeiamogeological, seismic and geophysical studies of Eaatern Siberia aimed at eatablishing a baais _ for mapping ita aeiamic regionali~.ation. The genetic classificatioa di the residual seiamogenic deformations of - the earth's crust and the fundamentals of the paleoseismo- geological method--deternination of the location snd intensity of po~nerful earthquakea--are presented. A study is made of the problems of predicting earthquakes, the seismic regionalization and the peculiarities of thQ manifestation of eartbquakes under permafrost conditiona. The book is designed for a broad class of specialists in the fields of seismogeology, seismology, regional geo- - physics and engineering geology. It can be used by the design organizations. Foreword ' 'i~he latest official map of the seismic regionalization of Eastern Siberia was compiled in 1962 (V. Solonenko, 1963a, 1968a). Since that time broad - data have been accumulated which directly a~r indirectly reveal the condi- tion4 of the laanifestation of earthquakes in Eastern Siberia, primarily in its most seismically active part the Baykal rift zone. In order to establish the geological and Reophysical basis for Che seismic regionalization, a comprehensive analysis was c~ade of the seismological, Reophysical and geolo~ical data. It derwnstrated that it is far from always possible from this group of data to obtain a unique or close to F _ actual estlmate of the possible seismicity level of on~ region or another. Therefore in the proposed paper cer[sin contradictions are unavoidable, - the elimination of which will become possible after many years of instru- - ment observations. 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OF~iCiAL U5~ ONLY t4oreover, the seismic evenCs in 1962-1Q75 confirm the seismic regionaliza- tion map of 1962: iC did not reqt~ire Cheoreeical reworking, that is, the ' effectiveness of the procedural principles on which it was based the joint ana~ysis of Che seismological, geophysical, aeismogeological and paleoseismogeological daCa was confirmPd. This paper was written, on th~ one hsnd, ae a secCion of the All-tsnion theme of Seismic Regionalization of Che Te~ritory of the USS?t, and, on the other hand, as a developTnent of the theme of 5eismic Regionalization on Paleoseismogeological Principles,l which was entrusted to the Institute of the Earth's Crust by the 5Cate CommiCCee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Science and Engineering in 1958. Accordingly, a special section has been set aside in the monograph on the paleoseismogeological method which must not be c~nsidered as an inde x of Che basic role of this method in seismic regionalization. The ob~ective solution of this complex problem is possible only on the basis of complex seismological, seismogeological and geuphyaical data not contradicting, but reinforcing erich other. There- fore, not only seismogeologisCs, but also co-workers from all of the t~lboratories of the ~eophysica division of the InstiCute of the Earth's Crust p.~rticipated in this work: the Seismogeology Divisi~n (V. P. Solonenko, 5. D. Khil'ko, V. S. Khromovskikh, R. A. Kurushin, V. V. NiKOlayev, _ M. G. De~'yanovich, S. V. Lastochkin), Regional Seismicity (S. I. Golonetskiy), Seismology (V. M. Kochetkov, L. A. Misharina, A. V. Solonenko), Geophysical Studi~s ~f the Earth's Crust (Yu. A. Zorin, M. R.Novo~selova}, and Engineer- - ing Seismology (0. V. Pavlov, N. Ye. Zarubin). In addition to the mentioned reponsible executive agents, the work was also participated in by A. D. Abalakov, N. S. Borovik, K. I. Bukina, I.. G. Yevstigneyeva, V. M. Zhilkin, L. R. Leont'yeva, G. Ye. Myl'nikova, i'. A. Novomeyskaya, A. D. Sarapulov, R. :i. Semenov, N. V. Solonenko, V. I. Tatarnikova, A. A. Tret'yak, Ye. V. Fomina and A. V. Chipizubov. The earthquake magni- ~udes were redetermined by V. V. Kislovskaya (the ~Institute of Earth Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences). 1 Not only the seismic region3lization of Eustrrn 5lberia on paleoseismo- geological principles was investigated, but ~lso a test of the applicability oE the paleoseismogE~logical method under the conditions of compression of the earth's crust. The latter was done in the example o� the Greater Caucasus where special studies were made in 1970-1972, the results of which are especially discussed. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CNAPTER I. SEISMOGENIC DEFORMATIONS AND THE PALEOSEISMOGEOLOGICAL METHOD ~ "Experience is the ultimate basie~for knowing�the world." Roger Bgcon. OPUS MAJUS In practice, the moat irnportant result of seismological research is determination of the location a.nd possible recurrence rate of powerful, especially maximal earthquakes. ~ne prediction of the exact time of an earthquake, its location and intensity could have inestimable significance. However, the solution of this problem, if it will ever in general be aolved, is a matter of the indefinite future. An earthquake is a geological proceas. Based an ti~e physics of earthquakes and on changes in the earth's crust in connection with them, that is, on the consequences oi aeismogenic processes and not the cause of them, with- out taking into acc:ount the noncommensurable nature of the geological and human time scales, it is possible easily to accept ~ahat one likes as reality. The causes of strong earthquakes are in general unl:nown to us. It is possible to make assump tions about them which are more or less substantiated by the geophysical data. The system on which almost all seismological r developments are based, the fracture-earthquake, is decapitated. In reality, this is only the consequence of deep processes which cause a stressed state in large volumes of the earth's crust or the tops of the upper mantle in the earth's crust, and discharge of the basic part (but not all) of the accumulated excess energy takes place by movement o� the blocks of the - earth's crust, primarily, the most contrasted, along the fractures but far from exclusively along them. Seismostatisticalinstrument data widely used in recent years for various ~ types of forecasts (the recurrence rate of earthquakes, se~smic activity, maximum earthqua'.;es, seismic vulnerability, and so on), havin~ unquestioned high significance, frequently do not provide reliable solutions to the problems. Being objective from the beginning, when processing these data, in order to agree with macroseismic statistics, they must be sub3ected to subjective sorting (for example, aftershocks,groups, earthquake swarms, and so on must be excluded from the processing). Here, especially for the 3 FOA OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY liighly active regions,it is usually imposaible Co eay where the afCershock~ en~ nnd the normal seismic rePimen is esCnh].isheci. As to what the normal aeismic Ye~imen is--this is also unknown. Tt would be pos~ible to use this term Ca refer Co the combination of frequency and energy class of the earthquakea which would make it possible to obtain the true recurrence rate oE powerful earth~uakes and their maximum intensity on ~ the recurrence raCe graphs. However, for this purpose it is necessary Co have - reliable seismostatistica]. data available for the intracontinental seismic regions for no lesa than 500 to 600 years and even for the moat seismically active zone, no less thAn 150 to 400 years. - Moreover, the complex paleoseismogeological and seismological studies in the Baykal rif t zone demonstrated Chat Che "normal" seismic regimen is ouly an episode in the activity of the specific 3eismogenic sCructure. It usually . develops wiCh respect to the following stages: 1) (nonmandatory) fore- ' shocks; 2) powerful earthquakes; 3) active seismic activity (aftershocks); ~i) clecrease in seismic ,activity; 5) prolonged (a minimum of ten and sometimes hundreds of yeara) calm; 6) degeneration of seismic activity; 7) short-term (yenrs, perhaps the first decadea) calm; 8) first or second stages again. Tl~e "normal" seismic regimen is possible only for part of the time interval oE the siaCh stag~ 3nd the duration of the stages (with the exception of - the second. short-t~:rm one) is known only approximately or it is unknown. Ther~fore the determination of the recurrence rate of powerful earthquakes, ro say nothing of their unper Ievel, by the short-term instrument observa- tions for specific se~.smogenic morphostructures is a hopeless matter.l If for the regions with significant seismostatistical data for hundreds of years. - an~ even for one or two thousand years the seismological methods can give a more or less correct estimate of the practically important seismicity - parameters, in order Co estimate the seismic danger of previously uninhabited ' and seismically (instrumentwise) uninvestigated territories, the seismogeo- ~ logical methods are the most important. The history of their development - is prolonged, but we cannot dwell on it here. _ The most po~ular at the present time are the histor.ical-structural method (Gorshkov, I949; Belousov, 1954; Petrushevslciy, 1955, 1957), seismotectonic (~ubin, 1950, 1953, 1960), tectonophysical (Gzovski~, 1957, 1963; ~iovskiy, et al., 1953, 1960, 1973) and paleosPismogeological methods (rlorensov, 1960b; Solonenko, V., 1959, 1962b, 1963a, b, 1966, 1970a, b, 1973 a-c). Each of these areas is a comoonent part of a united seismo- geological or, more correctly, geological and geophysical method of ~ lIn a significant seismogenic zone with respect to area (tens to hundreds _ of tl~ousands of square ki?ometers) with many more or less like seismogenic morphostructures, naturally averaging of the seismic regimen takes place, a:~d by the recurrence rate graphs it is possible to obtain a more or less correct idea of the recurrence rate of the powerful earthquakes (but not their upper level) for the zone as a whole. FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 = FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY precliceing ttie locntion, intensity and recurrence rate uf powerf.ul earth- - qunkea, and each liAS iCs advantagea and disadvantages. The historical-strucCural method which ia fruitful when analyzing the ~;lobal or regional lawa of seismic manifestations during seismic regionalization frequently encounters inaurmountable difficulties, which one of the founders of Che method notes: "During the experimenCs clearly defined restricCions = were discovered with respecC to the posaibilities of the historical- structural analysis for purposes of seismic regionalization. It was estab~ lished that it is poseible to find relaCions between seismicity and geologi- cal peculiarities only in a generali~ed form" (Petrushevskiy, 1976, p 69). The possibilities of Che seismotectonic method are essentially limiCed to seismostatistics. In order to forecas C the force of the shocks, "extrapola- tion of the recorded seismicity from one zone to another, neighboring, like zone" is required (C,ubin, 1971, p 11). For proper estimation of t~e ~ maximum possible earthquake intensity, reliable seismostatistical data are needed for hundreds of years. The laCest atudies (partially using the paeloseismo- geological method) indicate that for a specific seismically dangerous area, - even in the most seismically active zones, a long time is needed to accumu- 1te the energy far earthquakes of the highe3t force for these zones, 110 - years at tturoto, 140 years at Kanto (Sassa, 1951; Sigimura, 1968), 150 years in the Anatolian fault zone (Ambraseys, 1970), 400 years in Alaska _ (Hansen, et al., 1966; Plafker, 1968). The information for these time intervals (they nnist, of course, be taken as average, provisional data) can be obtai~zed ~nly for individual ancient cultural centers, and at that with significarit gaps during the social-political upheavals, pandemics and other disasters, and they dr~ not encompass the uninhabited or sparsely inhabited a~e~s, r;~ey are m~ager for the territories where religious - pre~udices prev~nte~ the accumulation of data (for example, in the lands of the Buddhist :�fachayanalamaists). The tectonophysical method initially was of interest in that it offered the possibility of predicting earthquakea or narrowly local zone~. One of the most important elements of the method analysis of the quantitative expression of vertical movements of the earCh's crust originally gave _ hopeful results (Ca.ovskiy, et al., 1958), but on being used in ad~acent regions, serious difficulties occurred (Gzovskiy, et al., 1960), and when trying to use it to explain the regional seismicit~, the author (Gzovskiy, 1963) came into contradiction with the actual data (~'lorensov, et a1.,1964). On accumulation of data by repeated geodetic observations and the results of a detailed structural analysis of the seismic dislocations, it was E discovered more and raore clearly that the signs of vertical and horizontal _ movements of the earth's crust in the active areas frequently change (Solonenko, V., 1973a). In Japan at Cape riuroto, the history of sudden uplifts during disastrous earthquakes and systematic subsidences between _ them has been traced for several centuries. In Alaska, between disastrous 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY earthqu~tkes subsidence of. up Co 11 mm per year takes place, and the instanCgneous heaving duttn~ r,~e eaxthquake not only has compensated for this subsidence, Uut in the last 2500 yeara it has resulted in uplift at _ an average rate on the order of 10 mm/year (Piafker, 1968'.. It is no accident that in their ~latest paper, M. V. G~avskiy and - A. A. Nikonov (1973) give a very careful estimate�of the possibilities of determining the seismicity levels with respect to the rates and the gradients of the raCes of movement the most imporCant function of the tecCono- physical method: "The relaCions of seismicity to tectonic movements - reflect only the mosC general statistical laws, and Chey cannot be sufficienC for engineering estimates of seismic danger" (p 54). The ef.fort to improve - the method as a result of using data on mountain shocks and the: 3solation of ~ four types of movements with respect to seismicity does not change the situation. The stresses causing mounCain and seismic shocks cannot have a functional relation their naCure is entirely difFerent. The types of movements, ~udging by the direction of the effective external active forces indicaCed on the diagrams in the quoted article (Gzovskiy, Nikonov, i973, p 5) are a few of the possible ones in nature, and the fourth type of movement teleseismic which can cause an earthquake tens and - hundreds of kilometers from the point of seismogpnic movement appears quite doubtful.l Detailed seismogeological studies in areas where it is possible to compile a tiistory of the development of the latest geological processes, for example, active tectonics in the l~test volcanism (ACTIVE TECTONICS..., 1966) or ~ to discover the migration of modern tectonic ~rocesses (SEISMOTECTOtd~CS..., - 1968) indicate that the geodynamic fields changed significantly already in the Holocer.e. At the same time, esL-imation of the possible seismic activity _ without discovering the evolution of the seismotectonic processes with respect to rates and gradients of movements generalizing the results of - the mnvzments of the earth's crust at~least~for the t~leogene-Quaternary time (29 million to 30 mi~lion years) appears to be less and less substantiated. After the firsr enthusiasm for the method, on discovery uf its obvious defic.ienci~s, many specia].ists in the field of seismic regionalization - have Ueen inclined to re,ject it decisively as was previously done. How~ver, _ under defined conditions the m~thod can be used successfully to compare the expected level of seismic activity and probable recurrence rate of earth- _ quakes in individual areas of the seismogeologically united zone with - stable seismotectonic conditions, sometimes for a qualitative comparison of the potential activity of the adjacent areas and for the solution of other problems. However, it does not follow to expect more from this 1The authors even present specific examples of three such earthquakes . in the Garr?skaya and the Northern Tyan'~shan' zones, which can only arouse ~ _ suspicion: in such highly seismic zones, using the data over a large - .1rea, if desired,it is possible to establish the most improbaUle "correla-- t~ons." 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 � _ p41t OwPICiAL US~ 4N1.Y m~thod thgn it csn giv~, It is nn ~ccident that R. A1len, P. 5. Maand, _ P". Richter end n. !4, ttordquint, underta}~in~y 29 yes~rs of seismogec~lop,ical and Keisa~ological etudtes in 5outhern C~lifornie, r~rrived ~t ~nelo~vue~ ~ cQnclueions to ours vith ree~peck to e~tid~ting the rst~s of v~xtical ~ dtsplncetnent4 !or inolation of the active ~tructurea: "Jt i~ much simpler = :~nd mor~ r~ali~tic td m.~p the faulta th~n~,~lv~s thr~n to try to cslculr~t~ thc rateH of v~eticgl di~plaeemenc in the ~~alo~ical p4xt or to meagur~ ~ euch di~place~aents at the present ticae" (Allen~ et al., 1965). 'Che conclu~ione of thin representativQ grour af Americ~n seismologints a~d nn_iamoqeologists uith reapect tu ~rtimating the nignificanc~ of th~ - tracture tQ~coni~s for determining the eeisai+c potential alRO ageee with r,urA: "7Ch~ mo~t in?porca~nt prablem rem,ain~ the problem of vhether the r,ones of hiy,h relief de[or~aatiun c~n be predicted only on the b~sia of the ~vcatione of ~he 'ar.tive'~~ult xon~n,,, Tne anssier r~m.ainn emph4tically 'y~rs'; tn :~ct, e~1 of the ba~tic seiamic ~ctivlty v~~ ~con~entraepd in th~ r~r~na of r~bundant fQrmation of f~ulta in thc Quaternary period," :~ll of the enumerqted selamo~eoloqicQl taethudn fail~ed to offer thc pu~t~ibt~ity of estim,~ting gei~mic danger. of previounly uninvegtigat~d - r~~,;ionq, decermin~tio� of th~ uppex level of the s~tRmic activity of ~neclfir Ket~mo~enic ~structures, obteining d~t~ on the ~ocstton of the epiCenct'el zoneR and th~ recur:ence rate of the ~aost po~erful earthquake~ nnd algv evalution of the seismicity of the epecific nrea~. This Pep ia eesencl~lly fil~ed by the pel~oeeis~opeo~.oqicel method. Th~~ pal~�osc~ismo~;eoloKicAl method Wag che l.o~ieal r~esult of studying the ~eocc~ct~nics, sei~mogeoloy,y and qeological eon~equences ~f ,strontt (~arce 9 an~! hiKh~~r, M~b.S) earchquakes. The neceR4lty for e~timating the seirsmic dan~rr of uninhabited or spqrsely populated territories of P.astern Siberia for s~hich there were no s4l.~stati~~ deta served ae the direct reason for i[rs developaent. 7he paleo~eisnwqeolQ~icql raethod ueQ in ptactice used for the fir:c time when correctinq the mockup of the seismic reqionalizaciAn map of Eastern Siberi~ compilnd in 1956 r~t the Ineti[ute of Eerth PhynicR. Tt~~e AocY.up of chr m~p did noc differ theoreticelly~ fran the ~eisr~ic reqionalization ~ap uf 1947-~952 co~spiled under the direccion of G. P. Gozshkov, for, as befqre, it w:ia ~ua~piled on the basis of thP sei~ca~tatie[ical method. BaRed on the d9ta aith reepect co the latest tectonicg, seis~nicitv and the first information on paleqseismodisloca[ions, N. A. Florenaov, ~ A. A. Tr~sY.ov and Y, P. Solonenk~ propo~ed an increaae in the extent of the zone of hi~h-fotc~ earthquake~ by 90Q ~.u to th~ norti~cest snd by 400 icsb tn rh~ Mnqt (Plorenso~. et at,, 196~1), anC ~ nev ?a.ap vas compiled in 19h0 (So1~~nenY.o, V,~ et al.. 1960b). 7'tie subse~uen[ ~eisfai~ events ~nd broad xpeci~~i seiRmnlop,ical, seismogeQloy;ical end geaphyRical s[udiea confirssed the ob)ectiveness of the p$leoseiea+oyeologicel method. 7 POk OFPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 POK OPPICIAI. U5~ OMLY '~he conviction ~f the netAmologiste and ~ei~aa geolo~ist~ th~t the reRidual d~forrnativn of thc earth's crus[ during stronP e~arthquakee ia ~ rare phennmpnon nnd fault~ c.~n reach the eurface only in the rag~ of shallas~r~ farua c~r~rthqvnY.rn (then onlr in exc~ptianr~l chne~) pr~v~nt~rd rrcognit inn of tf~c pr~leo~~i~snnq~oldpical ~nethod for a l~~g tia~. No~ev~r, the ~x~mina- tivn of poweeful earthquekee (r?ith fi;6. S) in varioue higl~ly seismically active areaR of the world reliably refuted this idea, tt~oreover, whQn, the plei~tucei~nal r,onps of alfloRt all very prn+erful and disgstrous pArthqu~k~s vith cru~tel renter~, palen~eismr~disl~c~tian.g a~re invgriably diqcaverc~ (see, fot exan?ple, SQ1anQnkn, V., 1962b, 1963n, b, 197b~, b; ACTiV~ TF,CTOKICS..., 1966; S~I5MOT~CTO:i1C5 196B; Kopp, et al., 1964; Y,uchay, 1911, 1972; ?tifonov, 1971; Allen, Qt al.~ 1965; Ar~b r~seys, et al., 1969; ~uchstein, et A1., 19h7; qureehi, S~dig, 1967; Plafker, e[ al., 1971; Natenv-Yum, et r~l., 1971; ?chaler~ko, et ~1., 1914a, b; and so on). Tt~e regidual deforaiationrs of the earth's crust rand the ground are v~ried. 'i'hey nre deeply interrelated, but for cor?va.nien~ce of discussing the saaterial and uain~ them with respect to the degree of relation ca the seissaic procese, sre ~ubdlvided the resLdual deforaaationn Lnto seismatectonic, gravitation~l- - seismocectQnic s~nsi eei~mogravitational (Solonen1cA, 1972a, b; Solonenkn, V., - 197'l, b, 19~3~-c). ' The xeisnotectonic deformation~ are c~nnected With [he tectonic saovements qf the earch's cruRt. Nith respect to theit gene[ic qttributee, encompassed area, awrphostruccural saorphaaculptucal expressiong, they are divided into regional~ r,onal and lo~al. Hefiional 5eigmvgenic Deforiaation~ of the Earth's Crust uhen examining the pleistoceism Zones of disastrous earthquakes in the - !'AnKol ian-Saykal seiswir. bel[, s+e arrived at the conclusiAn that the taove- c?cnt~ of the earth'B crust are not limited to the zones next to the f~ults, but ch~y encompasA si~nificant areas, at leaet. the sections of appearance of ~fterRhockR (SolonenY.o, V., et al., 1969), and in the case of crustal centers, they c~n ~ncompass areas up to tens of thousands and saaetimes - hundre~fe of thoua~nds of squat~e kilrnaeters. The area ~ of the residual ~ deforc~itivns of the earth'$ crust iQ ap;~ror.imately defined by the folloving ~nrmula as ~ funcciQn of the magnitwde of the earthquake (M)1 1E S ~(0.99 � 0.07) M- 3.6 (1) - ~Tii~ maxic~ volue is for broad ciarine seisaic areas encosapassing the sea - f~oor r~nd the island ~rchipelagos, and ti+e ~ainirrum value. for n.arrosr c~onttnennl Refa~ic belts of activate~! nlatforaas. 8 POR OPFICIAL USB OI~TLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 t~qK r)KM[CIA[, U5~ c~NLY - At the present tie~ aur concept nf regianal deformati~n of the earth's cru~t durinq poaerful earthquakes has receiv~d instrument Canfirmation. ` Nith respect to the mgreographic ~nd gpodetic (repeated l~velin~ and triangul~,tidn) data, for the Chilean earthqtui~c~s oE 1960 (the prin~ipal Rhock on 22 N,~y, 1t~$.4) vertical (to 3-5.7 meterg) and hcrrizontal ~o+vements - o~ the enrth'n crust were establiehed aver an are~ of 130,0~0 km2 (Plnfker, Snvage, 1970). During the Alaskan ~erthquake nf 27 ?i~rch 1964 (N+~6.6), the upliftg, sub- ~ gidenceB and buckling of l~rge blocke of the earth's crust cook pl~ce aver ~n area of about 100,b~4 km2 (9t~Q-g64)X(25~-44~J km) from the Aleutian Trench to the int~rnal parts of the Ala~kan ridge. The vertical displace- cr~nts on th~ dry lend were from -4 to +10 merQrs= and at the bvttow of the eea to +15 meters or uwre; the horizontal displac~~ne~te were up to 3 m~tera (H~nsen, et al., 196b; plafker, 1969). _ It i~ poesible that the ~aovemente of che earth's crust encomp~as still ~re~ter area~. A reaROn for thie assumption can be the eventg vhich occurred in 7rnnsbaykal afccr the Nuya earthquake. Th~ Eirst reports that Water h~d apppnred in the Torey a dry lacustrel basins after the tluyskiy [NuyaJ earth~uake s~zre received in the fall of 1957 (before the Cobi-Altay earth- quakc). Lle did not attach any significance tn this report, for the lakes ~re 750 to 800 km froc~ the epicenter. Houever, che lakes quickly gprkTad, and in 10 yeara the area reached ~17.5 km2 (the depth of lake yun-Tor~ya ` - r~ached .9 metera, Barun-Toreya~ to 3.7 meters). The area of a n~~e.r uf 1~kes increased not only in the southern part ~f ?, but als~? in :~orthern Mongolia where a lake 16 km l~ng appe~red, nnd the drea of the Khukh-:iur Lake increased hy several titaes; the L'ldzya River chan~ed its dirQCtion and flowed from Hongolia to the USSR to the TorevB basin8. ~ - The aajority of researchers of the yexre-loug complex expe+dition studying tiiis excraordinary event arrived at the conclusion [hat it is connected with _ the posrerful earthquakes of 1957-1958 ahich occurred t.n Hongolie end the _ Bayk,~l rift zone aitb 1~6, :.4, a.6, 6.9, 7 and 6.5. "fhe move:aenc$ (of !.he edreh's crust) are of a differentiated nature, for the scale of the subsidences ir~ the variaus lacuetrine basins i~ different"(ftarinov, 1973, p 79). The enorm~us epicen[ral distances, of course, provide a basi+~ for doubting she relat:on of such gign:ficant movem~nte of the earth'g crust, but exact coi~~~idencc of thea~ in time vith the poverful e.3rthquakes in !~tongolia arui the a~ykal rift zone and the ebsence of any relation eo the other causeA at least force che question to bQ stated of the possibility of movementa of Lhe earth's crust ower areas on the order of a million square kilrmeter,;. Is t}..s not the cause of the solidarity of the aoi+erful earth- q~~.~kes in the Mongolian-Baykal seismic belt CSolonenko, V., 1974)? 9 FOR OPFI~IAL USE O~1.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 NOtt t~PPICIAL U5L' ONLY Mon~olian Pe4ple'~ Renublic B~ykal Fift Zone Kyakht~ 6~'ebr~~ry 1957, tt=6 y Muyg~ 27/June 1957, M=7.9 C,obi-Altay 4 becember 1957, M=$.6 + Nyukzha 5 1Antt~ry 1958, H+~6.5 ~~yr~n-T~ngr~n~ko;~~ ~ April 1958, M=7 Ole~.m~ 14 5eptember 1956, Mi6.5 Mogodekdye S Janu~ry 19b7= M~7-3/4 Tae-Yuryakhskoye 18 January 1957 M~7. Urtil recently ch~e re~ional ~eismugenic movementg of the earth'g crugt vere nnt uged tn di~cover the disaetrous asp~ct~ di the past, glthough effnrts t+ere aadC td expl~in the formatit~n of t~rrdces by them (Plafker, 1968; 5igimura, 196$). tlo~+ever, ahen expandin~ the greas encrnnpas~ed by the _ ~eiRraogeological gtudie~ there i~ such a possibili~:�, especially in th~ marine ~eismic rc~ions. Ina~much ~s Che a~ov~rnentg of the earth's cruet frequently hav~ diEfer~nt em~litude and sign next to each other, thev can introduce significant disr.urbances into the normal evolutionary eeriee, of the relief. The simul- taneous variation in relief of different types (transgressive and regLesgive) cnn indieate its seismogenic nature. ihe problem still lies in exact dating - of th~~e chan~pg. Ttie r.onr~l seismoqenic defore~etions are o~uvements oE seisaagenic morpho- - Ktructures. A classical example of them is the disp~acanent of the mountain E,_ ~?roup nf Curban-Bogdo of Gobi Altay during the earthquake of 4 December 1957 (force 12~ M~8.6, center depth 18+8, most orobable 22-25 1~a). For the Eirst tirae in the hietory of seismogeology the possibility vas offe~red to a[udy the mnveaient during the course of the earthqueke of r~ large aarphostructure in a"clos~d gystem" ac the sarie cirae as the ~eistaogenic structures oE other strong eicher are highly complex or they do not have clear boundaries. and a~ost frequently they are covered with sea and ocean Water. - During the Cobi-Altay earthquake the mountain massif (275X30 kra, absolute 1ltitude to 4,p00 meters), similarly to an ic~breaker during laceral coahression of the ice~ rose and shifted to the east ([he apparent ampli- tudes of the di~placQments to 10 and 8.8 meters; true, as a result of bendin~ defornations, appreciably losier). Ptany explicit and latenc eler,ents nf the mechanisw of deformation of the c~orphostructure and seisca- genic cw rphosculptures of the Cobi Altay appeared (Solonenko, V., 1959, 1960.z, 1963a; 5olonenkn, V., et al., 1968; Solonenko, 1965, 1966). A~ysten ot faulcs nnd other residual deEormations of the earch's crust vas forned vith :~n overall length of about 85~ km. All of the kno~m and sorae of che previoufily unknwin types of dislocations in the structural peoloRy occurrcd: gr~vitational-seismotectonic s+edge vich vertical dis- ~lacer~enc acapl:tude to 328 meters, stripping of the mountain peaks, and so on. 10 ' POFt OPPICIAL USE dHI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OPpICIAL U5E ONLY _ UurinE; the Muy s ~~rthqueke on 27 lune 1957 (force 10-11, ~i=~.9, th~ depth nf center 22 km) twn aeismc~g~nic morphnstructureg were shift~d: the Namarnkit embryonic depreeaion oE the Baykal type ~nd the E�~ult-block upiift of the Udo~;an and Bouthern ttuya ridges. Durinp the parthquake, th~~ ba~ in dropped 5 to 6 meters and aas shi~ted to the southwe~t; the Udokan ridge ~hifted in the nppogite direction 1 to 1.2 met~rs, and it uplifted 1 to 1.5 m~ters, and it aas eimulteneously overthrust on the depree~ion with r~gpect to the gtrike-slip thrust fault. The vi~ible move- _ m~nt along the f~ults nGCUrred over an exCent c~f 140 km (90 km~ to the e~st and 50 km to the west of the instrumentally dptermined ppicenter), ~nd the extent of the rt~yg system of the fault itself connected vith the earth- qu~ke of 27 June 1g57, 35 km. Oscillations of the aalls of th~ old Eaults occurred over the reciaining extent (Solonenko, V., 1965). The principel residual defornint~ong for thi~ type of aeismog~nic morpho- gtru~cur~s are concpntrated Within the limitg of the moet part of _ the morphostructural system in the embryonic depressinn~ and in the lee~s nctively developed fault-block unlifts they are concentrated in the Lone of f:~~~lts d~limiting them on the depression side (Solonenko, V., 1965; - ACI'IVE T~CTO:rtcs 1966). 'fhe presented examples of the aonal dislocations i~dicate that when discover- ing their paleoseismogenic analogs it is necessary first of all for the geologisC to dismiss the cenonical postulates of the handbooks on structural analysis. Por example, a reliable sign of different age of the structures ig considered to be geodynamic difference in type. In reality, during disaxtreus earthquakes any type of structure occurs simult~neougly. The incomps~tible defora~ations are mutually trensitional; for example, an over- chruRc can quickly turn into a poverful tensile fracture or fault (Solonenko, V., 1960a,1963b). In the case of paleoseismogeological reconstructions of posrerful zonal - seismotectonic phenomena, one of the knotty problems is stratification of the zonal deformations ahich will permit determination of the recurrence rate of strong earthquakes, the "viability" of the seismogenic structure, and so on. Por this purpo~e, geological, hiseorical-archaelogical, ~ dendrochronological and radiocarbon methods can be used. The loc~l seisnatectonic deformations are direct signs of che residual - tectonic deformations of the earth's crust intt~e epicentral zones of poaer- ful earthquakes. Hi[h reapect to scale, cy~e s~nd structure of residual defora~ationa vhich are visible on the earth's surface, the fora~ation of - vhich is not explainable by any other causes except seismic, the locacion .~nd intensity of the earthquake, preseismostatistical for the Riven region, is detecmin~d. Thc first standard acale for deterr.~ining the intensity of an earthquake Wns established empirically (Solonenko, V., 1962a) ahen studying the powrer- ful ~nd disastr~us earthqunkes in the 'tongolian Baykal seismic belt. 11 FOR OPFICIAL USE OHLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Olt OPPICIAL U5L ONLY Then~ with the eccumulation of daCa on modern seismodislocatione, it became - poseible to give a general formula for the approximate c~lculaeion of the m~gnitude of the earthquake with respect to the ~xt~nt (I) of the seiamo- disloc~tion zone: _ lg L~ :(1.01 � 0.02) M- 6.1$.1 - 'The scale of the seismndislocgtinns d~pends not only on the m~gnitude and the intensity of the earthquakeg, but also on their depth and mechaniam oE the center, the geological etructure of the epicentral zone and other cgusea, as a reault of which it can be different for earthquakes with identical pnergy characterigCic. The extent of the aonea of seismogenic faults formed during modern earth- quakes fluctuates from hundreds of ineters (for '~i>,A.S). The maximum eatab- lished amplitude of vertical dieplacement is from tens of centimetera to 10 to 12 metere, eometimes more, and horizontal displacement, to 8.85 meters. Nhen studying the paleoseismodislocationa, it has been necessary more than once to deal with significantly greater amplitudes of the displacements by zomparison With the ones obaerved in the epicentral zones of modern earth- quakes Which can be explained differently, but tWO cases are most probable. 1. Paleoseismodislocation tias occurred not in the case of one but in the case of several earthquakea that have taken place close together in time, and it expresses the total effect of the displacements. 2. After the main shock, the movement of the Walls of the fault continues during the aftershock activity and, possibly, even after that, If the aeismodislocation is repreaented by a seisaw tectonic scarp~ When determining the amplitude of the displacement it i~ necessary to be especially careful, for on steep alopea the covering deposits or part of _ the old fault breaks away, and the clastic material can be absorbed by the fracture at the foot of the scarp. The illusion is created of a very large vertical displacement. _ 1The correction factor of +O.C~2 is of geological significance. It is equal ~ to 0 for faults, strike-slip faults, strike-slip thrustfaults (With a subordinate shift component), maximal for ehifts, minimal for upthros+ faults and A~is~i~ zones with snecial. types of stresses (for near vertical position of the major axis of the stress ellipsoid). If the shift component for the valls of the fault is simultaneously directed in opposite directions, then this preventa the development of faults, and their magnitude turns out to be less than usual (aithin the limits of un to tvice as ~uch With equal magni- . tude of the differently directed shifts). 12 POR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 I~Ott ONPtCiAL U5B ONLY In ehe cese of bldck typp seismogenic etructures the area of the atgri~~ea per.t t~~na houndr.rl hy thr. fnul t~ rencheg 250 to 30~ km2. _ P~rt of the eeismologista and atill adhere to the old idea ttiat the eeismoQenic fracture deformaCions ~ncomp~sa only the cover beda, nlthnugh thig also contradicrg numero~es known fa~ts. There i~ gctually little daCa oti the behavior of aeismodislocatione at depth, but thp exiat- _ ing obgervgCions more indicate an increase in diaplacemenC amplitudee with depth and not damping of the dieplacements. Thus, in the case of the Idzu earthquake on 25(26) November 1930 (M!7) g shift with an ar~plitude nf 0.7 meters tooic place nn the eurface, gnd at a depth of 160 meters (in a tunnel on the Tokyo-Kobde railroad) it became a sCrike-slip fau1C with horizontal displacement of 2.4 meters and vertical displacemenC of 0.6 meters. _ In ~.he case of the Cobi-Altay earChquake where it was possible to study the ehift surfacea in the cnver rock and bed rock, ~he amplitude of ChQ residual deformations apparent in the aurface horizons turned out to be half or - less than half the true displacement ampliCude at depth. The Eact of prolonged exietence on Che steep slopes of the rock of the seismotectonic Crenches is an index of deep occurrence of the joints Only in the case of constant absorption of the clastic material by the ~ ~oints is it poseible �or them to remain in the relief (see below). We have already given attention (Solonenko, V., 1913a) to the hypertrophy of seismodislocations at the bottomB and on the undervater slopes of large bodies of water. For example, during the Kanto earth~~iake on 1 September 1923, the relarive displacemente of the bottom of the Aay c�f Sagimi reached -400 and +250 meters, and Within the limits of up to 1170 meters (to -720 and '.�450)1 although in the case of like earthquakes (H=8.3) on the dry land, the scale of the displacement does not exceed the first tens of inetera and only rare structures of special type gravitational-seismotectonic wedges (see beloW) approach the aubaqual deformations with respect to their amrli- tude. In the case of the force 10 Central Baykal earthquake on 29(30) August 1959, the bottom oE Baykal dropped 10 to 15 meters (Solonenko, V., Treskov, 1960)~ and on the dry land in the ~aykal region the same earthquakes (M=6 3/4) c.tiuse~i displacements along the faults of a total of 0.8 to 1.2 meters. The eEforts to classify theae phenomena as the result of consolidation of sediments are connected With lack of knoWledge of the physical-wechanical lAfter thc earthquake, four special ahips aorked in the bRy. They took more than 86,000 measurements. 13 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OIt O~~ICtAt~ U5~ ONLY - properti~g of the bottdm gnil which ~C e depth of ~ever~l meters, ns ~ r.ule, hnr+ nrtill~;tblr rxr.rHp ~~ornatty, tn pny nothlna nf thr fnrt Chnt Chr riar af chr Hen ur uc~cr~n I'inar in genrrnl do~e not lenve room far such explnnntione (w~ nr~ not tnikin~ nbout bottom detormaCiong cnnnecCed wieh underwaeer slidpo Ch~y baeicnlly ~re ~11 r~cogniz~d nn th~ songr recordings). Thie phenomenon remains a mysCery. Cravitationgl-Seiemotectonic beforma~tions ~ T,~e movement of the walls of the faulCs during earChqual!E'.8 frequenCly cr~~tes favorgble conditions for moveme�t of Che roc~ r~asses under Che effect of ~ravity. The ~rovitgCinnal-seismotectonic atruCCUres are direcCly conn~ct~d wiCh Che - ~ctive seismogeniC faults, but enmetimes also with lnrp,e fracCures exp~riencing - pagsive opening during the oscillatory movements of the earth's crust during etron~ earthquakes. The length of the known eravitational-seismotectonic - ~tructures re~chee 7 km, for exAmple, the structure of Shartlay (Sol_onenko, V.~ 19h2h; SFIS:tOTCCTONICS..., 1968, pp 25~28), an area up ta 10 to 20 ~qu,7rc+ kilomhtct':t. ~ At this tiu?e landslips orcreep fault~ gravitational-seiamotectonic wed~es and in n~~ c~se, supposedly, rupturing of a ridge slope are known. ' L.andelip faults are formed on the steep slopes of mountains WiCh high - energy of relief, eapecially where the faults cut off the spurs of the - _ mount.~ins. The development of these faults is pror~oted by a combination of two systems of fractures: steep rear faults and more gentl.;? sloping weakened zones inclined in the direction of the foot of the slo�e. Un~er such conditions, even With small shoves of the blocl:s along the faults, the rear fracture at the crust expands sharply, and as a result of the _ stpepness of th~ slope, the imnreasion of significant vertical displacement is created. Por example, in the landslip fault of the_Snezhnaya aeismoRenic structure, the apparent amplitude of the vertical diaplacement is 25 to 90 meters, the width o~ the fault trenches is 35 to 9~ metexs, a~thou~h the - ~ crue mean-maximal. amplitudes with respect to the fault are 7 metets. In _ some landslip faults there are 5 to 6 series of separation ~oints,�and tiie landslip fault has a atep strur.ture (Khrcmovskikh, 1965, pp 15-64; So;onenko. V., 19Fi4a, pp 17~-180� SEZSMOTQC'fON~CS..., 1Q68, p 47-50). - The apparent amplitud~e of a landsl.ip fatilt 3oint downslope decreases, Ehe landslip fault acarp wed~es out toWard the thalWeg and has the anpearance oE Whiskers facing front on.licn+ever, sometimes the fault intersects the - thalweg and the next cape, at the same time exhibiting its tectonic and no[ Rravitational nature (Fig 1). Sometimes a true fault, emerging on the slope of a canyon, becomes a landslip fault. 14 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR d~~ICIAi. US~ ONLY - ~ , . S~:" G L " . Y.r~,. :i`. a ~ . S5 _ 1': , j ,S v `ii,"t^ ' ~ ,'.~rrt,,. ~ :S - �RF.. . l , s . ~ � .:k.H .`Y_-`.~ ~ 'T ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~4 K ~ ~ ~ ~ - ? _ i , ~ ~ ~ ~ ' L.. f ~~i I ~ . v ~ * 1~ ~ c, ~ 5a'fIS . , . , `4, ~ 1~, . . .r, ��`I , ~ ~ ' a. ~ Y ~ . ~7 ~~.ft r . : ~ . . ~ ~ y, y~r , ~ t., ~ ~ i'~'' ~ - ~ ~i'.t-� A r~ i~ ~ . .:.~i'. . , . ' Figure 1. Seismogravitational or Cravitational-Seismic Tectonic Structure of Akiba (the Greater Caucasus), photograph by V. M. Zhilkin nuring force 11 and 12 earthquakes, sometimes gravitational-seismotectonic Htruc[ures oE a special type are formed, the possibility for practical inatantaneous formation of which has not been suspected prev~ously by . anyone. These include the Rravitational-seismotectonic wedges and ruptures of the mountain slopes. '~he ~ravitational-seismotectonfc wedge combining the elements of tectonic s~ibsidence nnd collapse was established for the first time in the central part oE the nleistoceism region of the Gobi-Altay earthquake. Its location was predetermi.ned by a cluster of ancient, new and latest faults, iricluding three enormous EXactures connected s+ith recent earthquakes. In addition, it is 1or.~ted at tl~e intersection of tWO large local faults and is associ~ted with the north corner of the seismogenic central graben of Ik1ie-Bogdo (1OX15 km) formed on 4 December 1957. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOit OF~ICIAL U5~ ONLY nuring ti~e enrthqu~kc ng~inst n bnckground of g~nernl uplifr, th~ corn~r of thc ,1ninCs op~ned ~p'ancl pnrt of ehe mnuntain (3254 meCers high) mnde up of grc~niCi.zed ghales 1.1X3 km in area collapaed into tt~e earCh. The nmplitude of the verCica]. diapl~cement ot Che tectonic wedse Ernm euRt to west increa~ed from 156 Co 328 meCers (Che pr~ciginn of the � determinntion was Erom +0.2 Co +2 meeerg). As a reault of the wedging of ' force nn the free side of the Bitut c~nyon, along rhe fronC of the wedge extrusion of wedges of Che rocky ground Cdok place upward to 60 meCers - ttnd the forn:aCion of an overthrusC-seismocupola frontal sygtem Cnok place (Solonenko, V., 1963b; Solonenko, 1965)~ 'fhis phenomenon was so extraordinnry thnt some of the geolo~isCs are seill trying Co question Che possibility of the �orm~tion of such seismotecConic displ~cement of a ~mall bloclc of the earth's crust and r~+~a~idet' that an ~ extranrdin~ry cgve-in tool~ pl.ace here. A detailed aerovisual, ground nnd - photdgrammeCric study (by the aerial phoCo~rnph3 of the section made before and after the earthquake) leaves no room for such doubt. The disappearance of approximaCely t~alf of the volume of Che displaced block into the earth. tlie Eormntion of milonite~s along Che fronCal displacer, and be�ore them, . the nscending aeismocupola structures and overthrusts, the make-up of the body of r.he sCructure from monolithic rather than crumpled ro~k, reliably indicate the seismotectonic nature of the BiCut strucCure. lt is sufficient tor a nonprejudiced ~eologiaC to look at a photograph of Che 13itut structure (Fig 2) made during ita prolonged formaCion (3 January 1958) during the aftershocks to understand that it is not possible to talk about an ordinary _ cave-in here. The rectilinear faults on the frontal part of the strucCure are well visibl.e in the photograph. Later (in September 1958) during field.documentaCion we established that these faults dip steeply into the depths of the slope and are covered with tectonic clay milonites formed during the earth- qualce (Solonenko, V.~ 1963b; Solonenko, 1965). It is clear that the forma- tion and preservation of such faults in the cave-in is unconditionally included. The mechanism of the seismogenic collapses indicates this: during powerful earthquakes seismoexcitation of the crumbling mass takes place, and it goes at enormous speed to distances that are unobtainable in gravitational collapses (Solonenko, V., 1970a, 1972a,'b; Plafker, et al.. 1971; Solor~enko, 1972a, b), which did not happen in Bitut although _ the conditions were more than favorable for this. For subsidence of the tectonic wedge at Bitut, total opening of the frac- tures bounding it to 12 ra was necessary, and the apparent (residual) wi~lth of the fractures in the epicentral zone reached 19 meters. i.ater this type oE structure was established in the Baykal seismic belt (Solonenko, V, 1962h~ ~+CTIVE TECTONICS..., 1966; SEISMOTECTONICS..., 1968). The largest oE thc.~, ~~~e Shartlay str~~cture on the west shore of Baykal is more than twice [he size of the Bitut structure (length 7 km, Width more than 2 km, vertical displacement amplitude to 880 meters). , 16 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR OFF'ICIAL U5E ONLY Tne ~mphithenter of the atructur~ turned toward the lake cut into the I3ayk~1 ridge beyond the Leno~Baykal divide line~ RecenCly the gravitational~ae3emotectonic wedgea have bpgun Co be found not only in the ttongolinn-Baykal seiamic belt but also in other t:tghly eeismic zones. For examp]e, V. S~ Fedorenko (1968) considers dgmmir.~ ~f Lake Sarychlek on the ChaCkal'skiy ridge of WeBtern Tyan'-ahan by a seismogravitational sCructure of ehe Bitut Cype probable, It ia poesible that thia type of eeructure o ce urr ed �on the Yeniaey 6 km above the dam of the Sayanp-Shuahenakaya hydroelectric pow~rplanC. It encompassed - both shorea and the channel of the river ~ohere ite local increase in depth by 90 metera ha8 been establiahed. Cenetically the mountain graben~troughing (aubsidence) of the mountain tops established in the Stanovoy Iii~hland :(Solonenko, V., 1962b; ACTIVE T~:CTONICS..., 1966), in Che Baykal region [Pribaykal~ya] (Khromovakikh, 1965), and in Che Caucasus (Khromovskikh, et a1., 1972; Solnnenko, V., Khromovskikh, 19~4 structurea of Labakaldi Tseri) are close to the Rravitational-aeismotectonic wedges, A ch.~racterietic nnd obviously rare type of gravitational-seismotect~nic , atructure is the pu~nctures of the mountain slopes. Such a phenomenon has still been establiahed only at one point north slope of the Southern ltuy a ridge. Here Che rid~e in the form of an arc ii~ advanced into the Muy a rift basin. A slip-strike thrust fault runs along the olope of " the ridge, formin~ the chord of this arc at the same time as the frontal fault (strike-slip?) bounda it along the border of the ridge and the basin. The primary cause of the formation of the structure is assumed to be a strike-slip thrust fault occurring during an earthquake with an intensity . on the order of force 11 (M'>7-3/4). Here th~ seismic acceleration exceeded ~ .~:e gravitational acceleration which caused powerful stresses in the rock massif advanced iuto the basin, and a sharp shift fractured it along the surface ~ncJ.ined in the direction of the basin at an angle of 5�. The maximum hor!iontal shift reached 170 meters. A rupCure 6 km long, triangular in cross section, with an average width at the base of 800 meters and heiglit along the rear fracture of about 200 meters occurred on the slope. The volume of the rupture was on the order of 450 million m3. The structure, although documented (ACTIVE TECTO~JICS..., 1966), under the - conditions of its formation leaves auch unexplained, and it awaits additional. more detailed studies. 4Jith respect to the ~nechanism of formation, the structure obviously is similar to the shearing of the tops of the mountains the transitional ~ form from the gravitational-seismotectonic to seismogravitational deforma- tions. , - 17 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 . FOtt 0~'~'ICYAL USC ONLY - G : ,h.' 1~ { ~f'v~r~r~~~""~~1, ~ k~`;�~, ~ ~ ~{1~~_`~* ! * ~~,,~~~~~iFIF~~ ~~1. 4P~�. ~i 4Yi~ - ~~Fe~ ~4 . ~~r ~t' '..Y~{~tI~ 7~~ ~ i; f~~ ,~~ye~i`~ 1~1~. ~ `~c.. ..1 - r ~~mn } 1~ M ~ ~~~,h~~~fJ`}~S~a} "a Pt~~ {jkt~:r ~ 51 ~ a,y~,t. (1�:~rt~~ +t. ~~~t~ ~'~Jr, ~h,1 ~ , * ~ _ j ~ ~ ~ : 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ? : r r~R,+?~ 1' t ~ ~ x , { r . ~ ~ J ~ ' f 1 }~f ~~~ti ~ ~_e ~ ~ . . ~..t' V , . i., ' + . . t.i'� p~t: ~i, : ! t .'.l~ l~~~ . ~ i , Q. . S ~ �~\,L~ajrr'r~'.Yy ~ ~ ~g~+~::`~y ~ 4 , l44 ~ ~ i i~ ~ ~ �~INt y�.i, . ~ ~ , { : ~ i ~ ~ ~~'SYfi~~'r/+~, , I ~ ~ -1 r sv ' i . } h~~ tt=! . e! ' ' :'v.. r i ` t~. ~~~'~~~4 1 ~I~ `"t y., ,eti � ~'w~." P z'1 ~~1' i a~ r . j~ ' ~~C ~ t: ,1 ~x } ~3~~a ' r-t, , i .~~~4~~5 i;Y.z.- i ~ ~ ~iE,;~'~ r~Tj a ~~~~y rr aV~.{ , w`` ~ ~ 6 ' 4 � 1~ a",~;''~ . s. ~ ~~~r r b'r' ~~~i i: ~ ~I t a~ ~ ~ ~ F . ~~Yl.~! 1 y'~v ~..j t F .~,19 ~ r� ,.aa~r~ +r ~t~ ~ - . . d. t}ua y. f ~~~~~'i":r,~ . Figure 2. Bitut Structure. Photo by N. A. Florensov. a-- rear fault, amplitude to 328+2 meters, dip to the south at an angle of 70�; b--- faults on the frontal section of the struc[ure dip to the north at an angle of 70�. 18 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOCt OFFICTAL USC ONLY In the ~nse of disaeCrous earthquakes, egpecially in mountainous areus, often the greaCer part of rhe human victima and material losses are connected noC with the earthquakes themaelves, buC wiCh accompanying sei~mogravitaCional phenomena. ' The earChqur~ke on 16 December 1960 in China (force 12, M=B.6) killed 200,000 peop~.e; of them, na lesa than 180,000 clied in landslips, avalanches and ea~th flaws. During the e~rthquake of 10 Ju1y 1949 in the mountains of Tyan'-Shan' (force 10, M~~7.5) the rayon center of Khait was destroyed in a lattdslip, and the seiamogenic avalanches and flows were ~arried up to 20 l:m along _ Che valleys, destrdying dozens of populated places and fertile J.ands. _ Tn MAy 1960 (ri to 8.4-8.6) the Chilean earrhquake caused thousanda of . slides atid landalips~in part accompanied by the formation of new lakes, the destruction of old onea, mud flows aausing greaC material losses and lossofinany lives (Tazieff, 1960; Davison, Karzubovic, 1963; Weischet, 1963; and so on). - During the Alaskan earthquake of 27 tiarch 1964 (Pt=$.6) the greaCest material ~ losses were caused by slides, and loss of lives, by tsunami (Hansen, et al., 1966). The Peruvian earthquake of 31 i4ay 1970 (t4=7.7) came sadly to be known as the Guaskaran landglip. The city of Jungey and part of the city of P~anrahirka with 18,000 people 40% of the victims aad destruction of the earthquake were buried under the landslip mass (THE PERU..., 1970). ?'he greater - part of the remaining dead we*e victims of landslips, slides and mudflows (Plafl:er, et al. , 1971) . The epicenters of the Chilean, Alaskan and Peruvian earthquakes were in the _ Pacific Ocean, and on the dry land their intensity decreased significantly. Therefore the victims and loases connected with the seismic effect itself amount to a Cotal of 1Q to 20X of the total losses, and with seismogravita- ~ tional phenomena, SO to 90~6. Iiowever, not only are such unique seiemic disasters dangerous for man and nnture. The "routine" powerful earthquakes encompassing areas many times smaller are repeated hundreda of times more frequently, and their total destructive effect is comparable. Thus, for example, during the earthquake , in New Guinea in 1933 (M=6.1), landslips encompassed 240 km2. The vep,etation and soil layer were completely strippedover an area of 60 lan2. According to t}ie calculations (Pain, Bowlar, 1973), 60 to 70~ of the total denudation .layer w.~s removed by earthquakes. The presented examples (a few of the known examples) indicate how vitally imPortant seismogeological engineering forecasting is. ~ven if the time oE the earthquake were known, the settlements would still be destroyed, 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and Che ma~oriky of tihe people would die, buC not 3n their homes, but in ureas where rhey cooul.d look for sa�ety. Therefore engineering seismogeology ' which is only in its infancy must 3oin the ranks or the most importanC branches o� knowledge called nn to come to the defense of Che soci~ety and its achievements againse earthquakes. The sei~mogravi~ational phenomena themselves are varied and muCuall.y r,ver- - l~pping: settling and subsidence ofmbuntainsides,landslipe,sl~des,avalanches and'dirt flows, mudflows, and so on. They are known appreciably more widely Chan Che first two types of seismogenic phenomena, for, first of all, they are encountered apprec3abty more frequentiy, they have been observed many times during earthquakes, and, secondly, for understanding of them the - specialists do not need to croas tt?e barrier of tradiCional concepts of the slowness of tectonic proceases. _ In order Co discover the seismogenic nature of the graviCaCional phenomena, the identification of their age, discovery of the relation to seismogenic and seismocausative structures and the analysis of Che dynamics of movement of the mountain masses have primary significance~ The simul.taneousness of various shi~~ts o~ the soil masses over a large area is a reliable sign of their seismograviCaCional nature. They are usually distinguishable from the gravitational phenomena connected with disastrous :ains. The seismogravitational movements of mountain masses during disastrous earthquakes take place over a~ enormous area (of thousands of km2): rtuya, 1957, 150,000 km2; Chile, 1960, more than 130; Alaska, 1964,300; Peru, 1970, 65, and so on. Simultaneously, hundreds and thousands o� land- slip:~ slides,earth and mud flo~os are formed and so on. No other natural pr~enomenon can cause such enormous movements of soil with respect to size, amount and affected area. _ In mountainous regions of mod.ern orogeny, a significant part of the seismo- gravitational morphosculptures have to the present time been taken as exogenic (landslip.glacial, proluvial and others). This is connected primarily with _ the f.act ttiat the seismoexcited �landslipsand avalanches and dirt flows follot~T an unusually long procedure, and the seismogravitational facies of the _ sediments ~re similar to~glacial or p roluvial. The se-ismogravitational, destructive and accumlative and the corresponding - exogenic morphosculptures in indivi.dual cases are often difficult to distinguish or indistingu3shable. However, they have their own qualitative, ; nuantitative and temporal peculiarities. ; The tectonic stresses of the rocks, seismic accelerations and vibrations during earthquakes exciting the soil masses basically change the conditions of their stability and movement. Accordingly, the seismogravitational morphosculptures can develop under geomo~phological conditions such that the formation of the analogous exogenic morphosculptures is impossible. The formation of them itself in the exogenic version requires a different, usually prolonged time up to many thousands of years and in the 20 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 NUk p1~YiC1AI. Ug~ ONLY eci~nwprnvitr~tion4l verni4n, in nractice~ it tak~s piace inRtAntAnrously. Thc fir.nt in the reqion are of diff.ecen[ age (etretifie~d ~aornhonrUlptural gen~ratinne), gnd the ~ecoruu~ ~ee Rimulc~neaus (di~~ontinuous oe iav~er~d morphaRCU~ptur~i generetione). _ The chnny~e in nr.ql,i1 icy ~f the mountain r.?~n~Q~ durinq egrthqu~k~en ran ari~e - from differettt cau~es. The mo~t importAnt Qf th~m nre ch~ follrwingc 1) Aeismic ~ccel~r~tion~ en~ e~ decrea~e in ~tre~qth of the ru~k; 2) a ct~ange in nlope ur.qle of the un~table planen; 1) thixotropic liquefACtion of the aoil. Seismic ecceler~tionR Are the cause of slides,lga~ielipr gnd other qrgvit~- tionnl phenc~wenn Qn the $lop~,~, No one denies this, but th~r~ i~ nd qatisfc~ctory mathematic~l m~odel of the relscion betveen [h~ ~rthqueke and _ che gravit~tionetl ehift, s~d the ppssibility of so~ving thie probl~o iq gtil~ not fareseen. The calcUlations of the prabs~bl~ n:~ture oE th~ str~R~es occurriny, durinq the enrthquakpe on che Klopes nre being nerfbrmed in A re~ion tonnidered co be linear (QCCardt.n~ to [he calculx~~d notee, the ' s,ei~rav~rams, accelo~ran~s, velocigrame), but the instrumentR record the ~~scillatory end not the true noove~enta of. the Qarth's cruat. When cxemininR dieestroua earthquekes (~t>1-~/4, I~>fvrce l0) wherever it in posnible reliably co detera~ine (by the ~slip surfaces, sneciAl types of a~iRmoy,enic folded etructures~ snd so Qn), iC ig diacov~?r~d that thQ true novement ig reciprocnl (in the verticel end horirnn~tal direction~) with r~t:~cinn. The rotation~l deforrAinq movaaents ere clearly raanifesced elsa in th~ fqrce B xone of force 9 estthquekes (So~onen~.o, V,, Tre~knv, 1960). in ~ddition, Ear che cnlcul.ationa it is ngce~sary to coneider the depth of occurrence of the parting surf~ce, the aeight of the ective and passiv~ parts of the landalide-slip,the stress-rupture ntrength and the s~rength nt the cira~ of the tret~or, the snRle end dirpction of rapproech of the seismic aeves, the d~arstion of the tre~or, the degree of floodinq, th~ dey,ree of ~tree~ relief or, on the contraty, the degre+e of preparation for shif[ing of the mount~in niaeses by the preceding ear!hquake~ and a nu~bcr oi other indexes, the wa,jority of ahich are irapossible to establish in practice. especi~liy for a rep,ional ev~luation of laadslide-sli~ dQnger. A Renernl !_dc~e of the effe~ct of seis~aic accelerstions c~n be obtained !f u~ rvnRider the sei$mic effect on the ~lope as an increase in its slope _ ~ngle 1 ~t w .~.s� 5 ~i-~/~ 12-23 0.5-t,S 6 25-5~ f .5-3 7 M/~-bi/~ 34-100 3--6 . 8 'S'/r-8~/~ f00-2r10 6-f2 9 b~l,-~ 20U-~Op t2-25 10 ~40-500 23-38 where I iR the fqrce acc~ording to the MSK-b4 scele: 't is the ruignicude for deptha of centere of 15+5 km; m i~ the eeiemic ecceleretion (csa/nec) for the perioda of 0.1 to 0,5 sec (Medvedev. et el., ~965). 21 FOR OPPICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 p0a OpPtCtAt. tl~~ t7NLY The pre~entE~ Ci~ure~ indir.~te thc~t under the ~nrre~pondinv, c~,nditions _ force 4 nnd 5 earthquakc~ ~gn alrQady be th~ csuge of nltde~ and 1and~lipg~ such r.n~es are kn~n. However, hy long-term dbserv~tions Qf slidee in ~ the Crtraes~ tt ha~ been Qgtr~bl ished that ~uring the period of excees~ cnoiature, the f.orc_e 4 enrthqunkeq even c~uRe Rlide activation et the same ttme na uith ~ nh~rte~ge of c~oi~ture they have n~t ~hifted fc a fnrce 8 e:~rthquake (Clukhov, 1959). tt iR mu~h rnore r~liable to dQt~rmine ~he danqerau~lnndelip z~n~~ by the ~ ~nd paleoaeismogeoloYic~l (Solanenko, Y., 1962b, 1973a-C) dr~[a tlian by th~ rs~thematicel awdelg. The cc~mbin~ti~n o~ the+~~ tWO raQthads ' bffer~ the po~eibility of nocing the boundariet~ t~f qrQas en~ompas~ed by thc aei~r~ogravitAti4nal phQnoAena during egrthqual:e~ e~f defined inten~ity, determinntion of cheir typeg, dyn.~~icg, snd go an ~h~rncteri~tic for the ~ivrn aeinmic r~giun with ite gpecific peculi:~ritipn of enqine~erinR seinaw- ~;~c~1~,~;y and ni.~nife~tatian~ ot ~e~rthqu~kes. 'Che seisrnoPravitatianal phenoaena have ma~a develdpment in the isoseismal ~rena of for~c 7-6 e~nd hi~her. The tt~ta~ area in Which it ig possible to expect th~ developtacnt of seiRCroqrgvitativnal phenomens~ coincider~ ~pprc?x~ra:~tciy with thc c4[dl nrer~ of poesible defarmationx aE th~ ~earth'n - cruat ~nd tn tn a rnam depree gubordiriate tv the ~bove-pres~nted relgtion - frtce p A). V~rintion of che Slope Angle of Unstable Planes y - ~ror., chc~ thcory of slidea snd landslips it is Y,notim th~t on metest~bl~ ~l~s;,ea cliang~s of. the slope angles by tena of seconds ere Aufficient to digtu~b the equilibrium of che elope and fvr potenti~l or stabilized elidea and lnnd~lips so be put in motion. ~n~ of the most rel.ieble caees oE such slides was described by H.adley (1964). ~urin~ the }icb~en ea:thquake (ti~7-3/4), depth o� center 10-12 km, fnrcr l~; ~ee 2durphy, Brezee, 1964) a long ecabilized slide vas cut by - a fnult aich nn ac.c~licude of 0,9 raeters. M a result, thc slope of the slide aurfnce incre~sed by 23 minutes.� This diBturbed che eatAbLished eq~~i 1 fbriun s~nd 5 days af[er the earthquel:~ the alide t~as set in aa[ion. r.}1:lf1~{C in Rlope angle iR possiblr for all types oE seigraocectonic d~_?fora?.~ttona reRional, zonal and local. _ Ic is naturr~l th~t the altered slop~s afe not sufficienc aith respec[ to che rncire deformed area for the appearance o~ slides end landslips, buc durin~ reKional forecaRts this posaibility mvst be considered. Obviou8ly~ n~rt c~f tt,e glides havc taken p1ACe during the time ~f or eoon afcer the Chf i�.~7n e~rthq~k~l;e (T:~zieff, 1960; Weischet, 1963) ~rtd having no OL~i~[ ~pn~rent c~vAeB. aere connec[ed aith the change in slope of the veakened j1IAi1rR in the rwuntein cu~ears. 22 - FOR OPptCIAL USE OM.Y � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ pOtt O~PtCtA1. U~~ ONL1' 7'he zonal ~eiemotectonir di~l~z~tion~ are ~cr.ompanied by a~ignifirant numt~er o~ differenc l~ca~ ~~i~mate~tdnie deformationg (fauit~, upthrorr fault~, ~ qrabena, rtrike-glir ~aulte, c~nd ~o on), "Cogptheri th~y ra~ely ch~nge thE gn~le~ ot nlope af tt~e weeN~ned r,anes in a~n ~re~ to )~1 t~ 2h,~Od nqu~r~ kilo- meter~. Ila+ever, the b~nic volume of unetabie mount~in rna~~p~ her~ ar~ fractur~d during thQ ~arthqtt~ke attd ita aftprgho~ft~ a~ a result of eeismic g~celerAtions. tf ~he ~eir~n~ie gtruetur~ find~ expiirit g~olo~ic~1 rpflec- ti~?n i~ the favlt zone, th~n the r~~e ~iqniflcant chengpg in ~lopeg ee~ur alnng thi~ tone. tn the ea~e df powerfui egrthqu~kes, gy~tcro~ of eei~mo- _ di~lticati5n~ accur in th~m, the ~pproxim~te pxtent of uhich ~~n be deterr~ined in the a~qnitude nf expe~ted earthqu~k~s (gee p 11). Thixotrapic Liquefgction of 5oi1 nurtn~; an earthquake thie ph~nomenon causeg s~b~idence oE the ~eaeth's ~urf~ce, nud vol~Anoe~, and alid~g. N~ecous de~truccive ~lides of this type vcrurred durin~; the r,hilQ~n ~nd Al~sk~n ~arthqu~kes. in Ala~ka the dam~Ke in~.he cities of 8ewgrd, Veldez, Nhittier, Anchorage, were reckoned in the hundr~d~ of miltion~ of dollar,~. The Ternahein ~lide encompa~~ed the grelter p~rt of the rity df Anchorag~ (Han~en, et el., 19G~). tihen explar- ing ttie nlopp at thp port lgt~r it axe egtablishpd that for the ~tatic position :he sLope here is cotap1et21y eteble. Tf~e thixo:ropi~ liquef$ction of th~ ~oil not onlp reducpd the bearing cap~ricy ~~loaet t~ zero, but algo caused a pu~+erful dyn:~mic effect on the c4ver. fr+rqu~ntly ~trdng bede ahich brokp out and ghifted. 5imil~r phenornena vcr~ ob~~~wed on brosd areas during the earthquakes in t:ongolia (Khan~ay~kiye _ un 9 r~nd ;!3 July 19A5, M=3.4 and 8.7; Gobi-Altey, 4 Dec~*mber 1957, ?t~1.6; Nny~dskoy~t 5 Jenuery 19G7, ~t=7-3/4), It wag pr~~pose!d earlier [hat predc~minantly silcy $and (true quicksand ~nd pAeudoquicksand) are predoaiinancly capable of mass thlxotcopic liqueEactian, but efter the earthquakes in Chile, Alaska and ttiigata (16 June 1964, M~7-1/2) it aag discovered th~t often even sand end gravel, inoreine and other similer ~oil~ liquefy. ~then forecestinP sefiauwqrnic slides oE chixotropic rareEaction it is necenaary to pay ettencion pri~sarily to the coascal regions t+her� earch- qu~kea uith an inteneity of ~ore than force y~re poe~ible. Th~e~ fol loving taain typea of eei~ua~enic slides and landsllps can be noted. I. SeisraoQentc stripping of eoountein peaks aas escabli~hed for the first tiee in che pleiecoceir~ zr,nr of the Gobi-A1tAV earthquAl:e. The stripping occurred n8 follosrs. During the earthqu.:~kes che Amplitude of the displace- ~,rnc of the mouncein eaaasifg vae more than [uice che amplitude of che - irrev~reibl~ deforaa[ions (Solonenlco. V� 19h3a~ pp 326-329). during the �n.~in ~i~oct: thc ~aouncnirts shifced Ear to che eait and qbove the position ~f equilibrium, ~nd thrn they returned to the vest end dosm so energetically 23 poe ~~rctu. vse o~.v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 pOtt Op~'iGIAL U5L' Ofn.Y that th~y ag~in passed the point df equilibriun, but in the opposite direction. The peaks of the mounc~ins ha~1 qreat~r amplitude of digpla~etnent th~n theie baHe, n rp~ult of ahich *.her~ a~~ a lag af momentum nf the pe~1~c~ of the m~uttt~in~ behind their f~et: r~h~n the b~~e began thp return movEment~ the peaks ~ere ~till tnovin~ to che ~8gt, in cor~nerti~n uith uhich po~?ps~ful ~hearing fdree~ oecurred in the~ (Sc~lenenko, V., 1968, 1963~; ~vlonenko, 19~55, pp ~45-~4fi), The l~a ~ngle ~E ~h~e~r slape of tn 15� en the ea~~) indica~~~ that ~ue nf. the twd ~rtive fdrepg, ne~r hnrizontal geismoinertial ~nd vertic~i gr~vit~tinnal, the fnrmer gi~nifi~cantly exr~ed~d the l~tter. ?he crn~~ sections ~E the cleava~e pl~ne~ vet'e from lOn ta ~c~bX1500 n~eters, their ~~currence uae At a depth frrnn ten~ t~ ~5~1 meterg. 'Che p~akg either ahifted to thQ ea~t vith r~eeti~n COUf1tErC10CRM~ge or th~y aere thrrnn+n into thP ~anyon. 'Che ~hearin~ r~f the mountain peak~ w~~ egtablished in ~outh~rn Pribaykal'ye (fsaykal region~. tn the 5nezhn~ya seigmic structure, the sharp pointed grnnite reaks wAre dEC~niteted to 100 to 15~ meterg (basc area b.3!t1.7 km), and the heakg aere thro~m into the canyon af the 5nezhnny P.iver (Khromovskikh, 19~i5, ap 59 ~nd 99). 2. T~ctdnic-Seiemogenic Landsli~tes and Lattd~lip~ in the mc~dern orogeniC b~lt~, the overwhelmin~ m~,~ority df enoraious landalip~ and Iandslides are cied to the znn~s of neismo~ctive frgctures ~nd are directly or indireccly connecced vith ~arthquak~e (Snlonenl:n, V., 1950, 1972g, b; Chucinov, 196L; Zc~lotar~v, ~t al., 1968; Fedorenko, 1968; Solonenko, 19~2a, b). The geiss~otectonic movec~ents of the earth's cruat creace instability of the rock s~~sses, and their disastrous move~ents are caused, as a rule, by earth- quaY,eR. ::ot anly are landslips and landslideg fonaed, but n~v ones are prepnred siraultaneously. Tt~a teccanic-setsr~ogentc landslips develop predominantly as landglide-`laad- ~lips Haturally, avalanching takes place aftpr the most serious sei~mic ~~scill:~tion~, and the avalanching a~asB has extraordinary dynamics. including t1~e ranqe of it$ ~pread. in tiie areas ~de un of ~;foderately dislocated seditaentary or volcanogenic- Redl~ent~r~ fortaations. in the presence of severe ~arthquakes, bands of bedn up co several equare ki~omet~rs in ar+~a slide (se~ Pig 1). Enor~oous cr~ck~. bench~s up co teng of ineters high in che forra nf scigaacectonic ~cnr;~a are forsaed, and a n~taork of tpctonic ,~ointe aPpears, and so on (5ol~nenko, V.. 1971a-b; Solonenko, V., Khrocwvskikh. ~974). l. Seinax~genic L.~ndslips vith SeiRmically �xcited Avalanche Nass - For the fnraacion of euch landslips obviously tan conditions are necessary: inRtanc~n~eoue collepae and cruahing of the rocY, and the effect of pos+erful 24 PJK OPPICIAL U5E ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~a~ dpptctai. us~ orn.Y aeiamir, d~cfl]atlhng c~n th~ plunging fine to medium lumpy mn~~, excitinq it ~imil~rly er~ n vibratinn ecreen ~t th~ or~ enrichment enterprige~. 'Che geiemieglly exCited aval~n~he mag~a mov~g at ~ndrmoue velc~ciey, it tr~v~l~ n p~th many time~ 1dng~r ehan nrdinary, and it ~an ~rogg brd~d vnlleyg and ri~e high on th~ oppa~ite slopee. Th~re ~re f~~cg indiC~tin~ che po~gibility oc ~ueh ~n ~valgneh~ a~ee eroesing ~ canyon (Shcon~nkd, Khrda~vekikh, 1974). 5o f~r g~ i~ knnsm, only ~np ~uch lgndglipg h~g bppn do~um~n~~d (5~lc~n~nkd, V., 197~) in conn~~tion uith th~ Kh~ie p~rthqu~k~ on 10 July 1949 (farce 1n, M~7.S). 'Php landglip in the D~rikh~uz Cgnybn (Pig 3) mov~d ~t n ep~~d of ebo~t 100 km/hr, it crneg~d the Ygrkhyeh River (~biic~bud) end rns~ td ~ 15-~etpr t~rrac~. Th~ ~rp~ e~E the iandslip rmrs vas 10.7 ka2, and the 1ong~~t p~th vag 1~J.5 km. In the ca~e of ~n ordinary grevitationel ~valanchp it did not ~xceed 1.5 to 2 1�.m. A poa~rful ~ir aeve p~g~ed befor~ the le~ncleliu~ It ~wept aaay etructur~~, bral~~ off tr~~a or tore thrm out by ch~ root,~ ~nd toseed th~n hundr~ds _ oE m~ters through thp air. A cascade prufile is cher~eterietic of guch r~v.~tan~hee: ehe weakly inclined gection~ ~nd in ateep scgrps (there are ~ix 1s~rg~ aeves Wich che ~cerp hei~ht up to 50 to 60 m~t~r~ ih the Uarikhaux C~nydn). 3oi1 gpurte from the s~iemic~lly excited mass, forming charn~teristic ~arth pyr~mids vhen it fa11s, ~nd it eque~z~g th~ l~rge ro~k nwnolitha into the ghapp uf obelisks. With eome pl~nation which ig unavoidable ~.t time~~ th~ morphosculpture of the avalanche field could ~~~ily bp teken es glacigl. Tr~ces of the seismically excited ~valanchpe hav~ bQen established in varioug highly seiea~ic regione. On che Zaali~sl;iy ridge the eeisnog~nic avalanchee h~ve traveled a path up to 30 km, they have departed 10 to 15 k~a Erom thp fooc of the aauntaine, thpy have croASed an int~raantan~ begin ~nd ro11~d up the elope df a ridge. The avalance mass which Was previously taken ae ~lacial denositg cov~red an area of up to 150 km2 (Kurdyukov, 1964). Obviously, che Saidrnarreh landalip (Iran) one of the larqest in the aorld wich a volurae on the order of 30 km3 (length of seperation aa11 14.8 km) is of the same type. The avelanche mas~ traveled up co 17.5 km, croseing a ridge up co 600 ~eters high on its way and covered an arQa of 16S km2 (Herrisen, Palcon, 1937). 4. Seise~ovit~ration Landelides and Laadelipa Obr~iously, in individuaY rare cases the ecale of eeiswic dislocations depends noc only on che incensity of the earthquake, the depch of the renter, the cype c+f aeismogenic structurp and geology of che area, but also the duration of the semisaic vibrgtione. Thus, on che 81eck Sea co~~ac of the Caucaeua (Tuatse-Map) A. 8. 4etrovskiy (19~Oa,b) egtablished masx developa~nc of characceriatic landelides, shifts of the ~ountain elea~ents, poaerful fcaccurea. and so on, the fot~ation of Which is connected aith the diaastrout~ eacthquakea of the pasc. Nhen gtudying this arcn in 1971 on the Abrau Peniosula (bet~+een Novorossiysk and Anepa) ve encouacered tha basic tyne of geodynamic phenoraena: enormous - 25 POR OPFICIAL USE OM.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 POtt O1~I~ICIAL U5g l~Nt,Y ~ (i) e . ~~f " . . ~ � . _ c~~..~~~:; ~ ~~2~ .c9~ . : . ~ , . ~1~~ . ! . � . . ! ~w r . ~ , . , . � . . /r ~ ~ . . ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ � d. ? ~ � .I � . � . : . : ~ ~ � , ~ ~ ..j:;. t ; , ` ~ i~: ~ ~ . � ~ ~ ~ y ~ a:? ~ ~l , ~ Pt ~ ~ � ~ ~ g ~ . ' t ~ t!1 7 ~s ~6 ~t.`, ~ . 1 D Qb, (~n ~'on~ ,.,~;;;drw:~ri~+~~~.0~ ~ K ~a ~ (6~ 0,~ ,��aQN~~C~ Figure 3. Pl~n Vi~+ of the Khait Landslip on 10 July 1949 dravn by P. Solonpnko. 1-- s~+e11s of ancient avalanch~s; 2-- Y.hgit Landslip; 3-- scarps of the avalanche maes vavps; 4-- rock-avalanche ac?phitheaters; S-- landslip amphitheaters in loess; 6-- aeiamogenic rocky landalide-landslip and direction of its movement� 7-- landslides and protruding knolls; 8--direction of motion of the landslips (I-IV cheir auccessive phases); 9-- seismogenic upthro~? fault; t0 seismogravitational landalip-landslide iointg; 11 mudslide ri~l; 12 divides; 13 caraine; 14 proluvium; 15 ailuvium (Q3); 16 Proterozoic (Pt(?)) and Siluri~a (S) ~aetamorphic series and granites; 17 outlines of populated placea buried under the avalanche; Key: 1. north S. Yaqman 2. south 6. Flond plain of the 3urkhov River 3. Khisarak 7. Yarkhych (Obi Kabut) 4. Khait 8. Dokhaitskiy debris cone 9. Darikhauz 10. Leke 26 FOR OPPICIAL USE OtJLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~dtt nppiCtAL U5~ nNtY with re~hert to width (up td 100 to 150 meter~) ~nd depth (to 9d meterg), but ~hort Cnd more th~n 4 1~) gplitg dr ghifts of �drts of the mountaing (~i~; 4) rnvering ch~ v~ll~y~ With rogtge~lumr rock fldwg running up to 3.5 km frdm th~ir gour~e (dnang them, up to 7 km into the ~ea), ~t the ~~me,time a~ Ear e grdvitaeion~l ghift the gv~l~n~h~ m~eg could tr~vpl nd mdre than Sb tn 100 meter~ f~om the foot of the avalanche glopp Cm~ximum het~ht le~~ eh~n 400 met~er~). y~verth~l~g~, pven during ehp mdgt poW~rEul earthqu~k~~ knnwn on enrth, guch f~rm~tinns hav~ not acCUrred; in ~ddition, they hnve not been CntltleCted aith explieit gpigmag~nir f~ultg gnd th~y se~ rtot ~eri~mpanied by ~~eigmo- ~ravit~tinn~l dhgtrurtion of ine~untain~ of the ~orr~sponding srale. We have come tn th~ ~nnrlu~ion th~t here ae ~r~ d~~ling with ~ tt~w phenamenon hrevioug]y unknown in geology with ~ type df seigmog~nic-vibr~eion~~l rre~p ~nd disintegr~tion of the mountain maggifs rauged by prolong~d seismic vibrntiong of mod~rate int~n~ity frorn ghallow eenter zan~g in th~ ~he1f zc~ne af the B1~ck S~n. Thig phenom~non whiCh we have called the "Ponti~n phenompnon" (Shcc~nenko, Khromovskikh, 1974) r~n al~o occur in the rtediterr~ne~n 5ea a~iere extraordinarily long-lagting ear[hquake~ h~ve been recorded more than on~e in history (th~ last of them wes on 9-13 Augugt 195~ aith tt up to 7 on the Ioni~n Islands). ~ _ !ti ~ 4 ~ . ~y - . ~ # ; , ~ ~ . . ~~ti~ S � . ,y. rx r� ~v:,~� .���T�: ~ -.,~p", ~rr t �:y'`~ ,_,t_ . � . . ~�'r.. � ` � ` ~ ~ ~ . � . . l~~4 . . ~ ~ - ~ - A , Z~ ~~~r~t ~ ti.ti. ti ~ 1 � F'ip,ure 4. Vibr~tian-$ei$motecconic Joint oE the Utrish Structure on che Abrau Peninsula. Photogroph by V. P. Solonenko 21 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY 1 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 Fdtt U~~tCIAL U5~ ONLY - 5. Spi~mogr~vit~einnal Lgnddlipg nn ~n Air Cughinn A uniqu~ nv~lnnchh orcurrpd during the t'eruvian p~rthqu~k~ nf 31 Mgy 1970 (?t+~'~.7); 50 million e~ 1h0 milliun m3 of ~oi1 end ice broke lnnse from Cu~gknrm ttnuntnin ~t nn eltitude of SSIIA t~ 6400 meters. The nvnlanGhe fel] 1 km vprtiC~lly, and eh~n ie ran 3 lan along a~2� ~lnpp ~nd 10 1cr~ ~idng a S� ~1ope. Thp eval~nchr~ dev~lep~d ~~p~e~ ~f na le~~ eh~n ~~0 tn 385 1%m/hr, xrtd ttccordin~ eo b~lligti~ celGUlationg (the multitnn lumpg - were thrown to th~ ~ide up ta 1600 mee~r~), th~ ~p~ed r~~~hpd tnor~ th~n 450 km/hr Whi~h mad~ it ~a~~ibl.~ for th~ av~lanche n~gg to be hurled hrrdgg a ridge 230 meter~ high, ~erdgg the Rio S~nt~ V~11~y ~nd ergvpl 83 mee~r~ up thp oppu~ite ~id~. *tud trav~led 160 km aldng thp Rid 5~nt~ River td the gen, destroyinp, n bridge nnd n hydroelectriC po~rerrlnnt. tn pl~ceg where th~ evalanche pneged~ the vegetation and soil 1gy~r turn~d out to be undieturbed. Th~ invegcigatore di th~ avalanch~ ~xplained this fact (~ugt ae the enormous speed of the avalanche) ~y the fact that the ~v~~lgneh~ m~gg mhved on ~n ~ir ~uehinn (Pl~fker, et al., 1g71). 6. r LippinR Lttnd~lide5 In ~re~s m~d~ up oc mndernCely dislocated sedimentgry or volcanog~nic- sedimentary forr~atione during earthquakes in gCatically atablp spctions bands oE beda up to several square kilometers in area slipped. Thus, - during the bagestan earthquake on 14 May 1970 (td=6.6, Ip=force 9), numerous slipping landslides aere formed. The Achiygkiy landslide (~10 million cubic metera) 1 km lon~ croseed the Chvakhun-Bnk Valley and bloct;ed it. The qraben-like trench up to 180-20~ metera aide and 40 met~rs deep formed on the slope. Higher up on the slope another seiguwRenic line of Soints Wae Eormed ~rhich prepared a neW landslide (Klimenko, Tearev, 1971). At - another location, the sliding of one of the peaks of the cuesta crented the illusion of ehearin~ of the mountain peak. In the case of sharply exF,resaed bedding, schistoaity or tectonic jointing planes, the slipping landb~lides can also occur in crystalline rock. 7. 5eismogenic Earth Avalanchea and Streams On the slopes of mountains covered with talus, placers, and, especially. loess goil, a mags of landslidea, mud streams and landslips develap The latter are especially dangerous. 1'hey move similarly to sno~a avalanches. The individual earth avalanches can cross valleys and travel hundreds of ineters up the oPposite slope. If there is a sufficienCly oowerful stream in the valley they can turn into mud streams. In the case of mass descent of avalanches (especially with countermovement), on collision ttie earth masses acquire powerful dynamic momentum, and they rush do~ard at enormous velocities, forming a high-speed earth stream. 28 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~o~ o~~icr~, us~ orn.Y ~ -x~r~~.. . . .;4 � d ~ ~ i kr . ' ~ . !F ~ _ ~ f,~,. ?j~ s _ . "~~~~i ~ . ~ ~ i~'i~;ure 5. Chnrnct~ri~tic Microrelipf of nn ~arth Stre~m. Photograph by V. P. 5dlonpnko. In ttie case of the l~ait earthquake, the enrth avalanches and streams traveled into many of the valleye. Along the broad, gently sloping vnlley c~f the Ynsman River, the earth str~am, in gpite of small bottom slopea (2 to 3�) traveled 20 km, destroying 20 ki~hlaks [Centr~l Asian viilages) nnd fertile lands. This caused the first investigators of the earthquake to concl~de that a mud streara had nassed through the valley. However, the - seudy that we made later of the morphology of th~ slide rock, its internal strurtur~ to a dePth of 15 to 20 meters and microrelief demonstrated that ~ scismically excited earth atream had passed through the valley alEhough in places (in areas where the aater from the submerged stream broke [t~rauRli) the earth mass could have assumed a mud consistency. The first insrectors did not note Che mass development of the hummocks caused by the earth spouts, a diatinguishing feature of geismically excited earth strearas (Snlonenko, V., 1970b). This microrelief (Pig 5) is usually taken as sedimentary hummocky-sinkhole relief or periglacial earth cone relief. Sec~ndr~ry spouting channels terminating ac the surface in residual sinks oE spurious craters can be seen ~.n the cross section oE the cones in the seismically excited earth streams (~ig G). This is a reliable characteris- tic of the spouting cones of the seismogenic earth avalanches distinguish- ~ ing them from earth mounds of other genesi.s. 29 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ott Ut~i~ICIAL US~ dNLY ~i f:- ~ ~~?M h I ~ ; ~ y.' , ~ . ' ~ ~ , .'~:,~?:;t!;~~. ~ ~i~fi~!~1`'t - ~igur~ 6. ~~rth 5pout r.iound in Ch~ KheiC Avalanch~ in ehe Yn man River Valley 1-- p~1p ~Q11oa etructurelege logm; 2-- th~ a~m~ wirh r~stnr~d 1o~~e ~CrucCure; 3-- dnrk broan Iogm with flow t~xture. The muund w~g formed on 10 July 1949 end it Wa~ digcovered nn 21 October 1968. In geigmic erp~g with thick lopea d~poaiCe on e,~geneially any geceion with ~ glnp~ of more than 10 to 12� Che occurr~nre of earth avalanches and gtr~dms ia possible. Ther~fore che most dangeroug greas must be distin- ~;uiql~ed. :l~ese ehould include the nrobable pleistoceism earthquake xones aith Eorce 8 intenaity and higher. The vall~ys parallelto seiemically ~ctive faults are the moat dangerou~. The f.ormation of powerful earth streams ia most prevalent in them. Under p~rmnfroat conditions the formation of earth atreams during p~werful ~arthquakes dependa to a high degree on the etate of the active layeri in the winter when the active layer has merged with th~ permafrost, th~y cannot occur in general (the Tas-Yuryakhskoye earthquake on lt3 January 1967, force 9-10, ?t~1); at another time the melting part of th~e active layer slips, and depending on the degree of wetting, earth avalanches or mud floas are formed (the Oymyakonskoye earthquake on 18 May 1971, force 9-10, M=7; see Kuruahin, et al., 1972). In che seismic zones with broad fields of thick friable deposits, especially loea;,, the earth avalanches and atreams can be widely used to discover the pleistoceia m regions of preeeismostatistical stron~ earChquakes. t~ihen there is aufficient flooding, the earth streams Lecone the mud �lows whicli in general frequently accompany poWerful earthquakes (Solonenko, V., 1963c). Role of the Paleoseismogeol.ogical ttethod in Forecasting Landslides and Landslips - In the paleoaeismogeological method broad use is made of the trsces of ancient seiamogravitational deformations. 30 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OEt OF~ICIAL U~B ONt,Y ~ The p~l~nepiemoR~ologic~?1 d~ta nn Ch~ p1~i~CoC~iem zone~ nf the mo~C gcverr eerehquakc~n of. thi~ r.enCury gccompnni~d by di~aetrou.~ ~eiemo~rgvita- ttonnl rhenom~nn indiCat~ th~t thp lergest landglidee and lendslina hev~ a~table tendency to reppat in G~rtnin areae (Solonent:o~ V.~ 1972a, b; Snlon~nko, 1972g, b). AGCOrding to our ob~~rvations, Chie ie ronnect~d with tao princio~l ceuses; 1) high etree~ of th~ rock maeses in the body of th~ s~isnsogenic etruceur~ and 2) with the preparaCion of new rock ma~se~ for avalanching during preCeding earthquak~s. The strega of the rock in high].y active aeismogenic etructures is ~o gre~t ~ that the landelipe frequently occur wirho~t any app~rent reason even on ~lop~~ Chgt ar~ gtable with respect to ouCward ~igas. Thus, in the C~ntral Graben of the Dovachanakaya Seigmog~nic Structur~ (sep Fig 7) by aerovixiual observ~tione we were able to photograph th~ gvglanching of _ n slope 2.~ km long (Fig 8). During field examination of the etructure in _ 1962 two aval~nches occurred before our eyes on a single day. The cheracCerisCic aign of the landelip~ in the overstresAed maseifs ig splittin~ of thc~ rock, Erequently independently of the existing weakened plnnes. The blocks (in our caee up to 1.5-3X5 meters) have the shape of decritus obteined when ta[cing eamples of rock for cruehing, and the fresh cleavag~ planea are powdered with granite dust (ACTIV~ TECTONICS..., 1966, P 30). These l~ndslipa cannot date etrong . earthryuakes, but they are a reliable index of the hi~h seismic potential of the eeismogenic etructure. In the area~ With powerful seiamogenic landslips and landslides, conditions are simultaneously prepared for the following shifta: Eravitational- seismotectonic and seismogravitational ~oints encomoass neW large areas - (Sotonenko, V., 1978, b, 1972a, b), often reaching the divide on the oppo- site slope. To the side of the seiamically active faults on steep mountain alopes amaller landalipa and landslide~ are prepared s~hich ia reflected in the seiamogenic (Beismogravitational) settling of the slopes. When predicting landslides $nd landslipR it is necesaary to realistically consider that the estimation of the seismogenic-gravitational stability of the sloneA by mathematical nodele (considering the regional forecasting) is impoasible; therefore the forecastin~ of seismogravitational danger must be carried out prir~arilq by the seismostatistics and the naleoseismo- geological data (on an engineering-aeismogeological base). The enRineering-seismogeological re~ions Where there are eraces of posrer- ful Reismogravitational phenomena must be closed to large-scale construc- tion. For example, the village of Khait. Which Was destroyed by the land- ~lips of 10 July 1949, was conetructed in the path of two earlier such landslips, and now everything is ready for a fourth seismogenic landslip (Solonenko, V., 1970a,b, 1972a, b). 31 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ ~o~ n~~t~tnt~ us~ o~tt.Y _ , . ~ ~s~ I! ` i ~i' 1 ~ , , � . ~ ~ ~ ~ ` . ' ; r . ` ' i~ y~,�~ ~a 'r , ,t� r ~ ~ r, ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ ~ ~.'i - ` - ~ ~ ~ � , E~ ~ d ; i ~t ~ ~ ` r j~' ~.r 1~ i ,~"~?~1.~,~ . : ~,,.~�~t.`~,1 u :4~ ~ I~ t ~ ( i.} � `~'1~~ ' ~ ~y Mt~~ 41 I ~ ~ :1~~~~ ~ ~ ~ .4 ~ ~ (~1 � u , u 1 ~rl ~ ~ M~~ ~ ~ h, ' ~ ' y~` , 0 I ~ ~ ~~r.. , ` ~ W . ~4` ~ { - ~ ~ '~~y~� ~ . ! t, ~ I ~ ::y . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � .c a ~ uM I ' .r~� i ~ ~ ~ a'4 , ~ . ~ w d ~ O � ~ a ~ ' a~, . ~ ~ ~ ~ .a ~ ~ ~ k v a ~ ~ R ~ f o ~ ~ a o ,a~. ~ a i . _ ~ i ~A . - ~ ~ ~ ~ _ w . . M ~ x ~ ,;h. 1 ~-.r.s j._.. i-~. 32 FOR O1~FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OIt 0~'1~'iC~AL US~ ONLY _ ~ ,�~~-r i ,r. - ~ y ) Mi~ ".~y V Y } 1~'{ r~ ~ .`~~r.y~~yL~,.y, i ti. i`Y' ; , ro~ ~~;tc 11. ~t: ~ �N- ' ,i - � L ..z , ~ ~ 1~ r~ ~ _ + ,w ~�el' ! � .Q 't.~Ry. , '1 ' t~+t:1, 1 ' - ~:}`r`.~3~s~~ )�'~r +,n 1.~~. '.ylJ . 5s~ ~Y.,~.,~ ^e - ~.tF' 'W.~ 1' ~ r; ~ `7"~ ~a r I ~ '~`^r a,~~S.'. - k y~:~.~ 'VA � A ~ , y {t ~J( ~ ~i'~ . T ~ ~ L~~ W Ki`~:~% ~~a s i~'tr~x'~ ~s~.~~+ ~~t.� ~_r ; f. :..a~ 4,' i - ~ = r 1H~'~ ~i ~ ,Y ~ ~ t ~`rP ~ k~!}s ` ~ ~-~rp,~qi `p h', r A ~y,~j'� ~ , ' . 'Y V ..Fr �;S~i M1 Y � ~ r ~ ~~1 ~y~ ~,"r.~~C~,et ~ , i. 7t ~ . _ '~y 4~'' r ne~ ~ e , f� ~;r� ~ ' a . - ~ ~ ~ ~ j~ . , . T�~ , v'~~v` ~ ~ .F ~ ~ ' e - . r'.� r ' ~ . .0.'~M,~,,,,~~. Y. r ~'~x ' ~ ~igure 8~ Avalanche in the Central Graben of the bovachanakayg Structure (left scarp in :ig ' Photograph by V. P. Solonenko. In tl~e vicinity of SArezakoye Lake (61 km long, up ta 505 meCers deep) formed ~7s a result of the seismogenic landslip on 18 February 1911 (*i~7) there arp traces of far more ancient landslips. At the present time on the right bank of the la~Ce more than 2.2 km3 of rock are ready to avalanche. On the left bank fissures have loosened a mass of rock extending 2.5 km. Thus, it is clear that the Sarezskoye Lake can at any time become a source af disaster in the Aartang, Pyandzh and the Amudar'ya Valleys. A special commission on Sarezskoye LAlce working in 1967~ U11~@ A conceptually correct decision tut one that is erroneouswith respect to specific recommendations: in orclcr to g~sarantee stability of the Sarezskiy slide rock, it was - proposed th~t the level of the lake be loWered by 1~0 to 150 meters, Uuildin~ an 800,000-kilowatt hydroelectric powerplant (Poslgvskiy, 196E). 'Che commissionbegan with the fact that when more than 2.2 km3 of slide rock - nvnl.7nches into the lake, its level can rise 50 to 60 meters and reach the c�rest oE the slide rock, that is, only the possibiliCy of a simple rise In w~~ter ]evel wa~ taken into account. By the existing analogy, the wave hc(~ht Juring auch a siide can reach many hundreds of ine[ers,1 and even if ~ tl)urinfi the e.lrthquake on 1.0 July 1958 in the Lituya Day, a landslide tnt.hl inF 3(1. 5 mil lion m3 c~~used the Water to splasr to a hei6ht of up to 516 metcr~. Giant wnves were noted in the same bay during the earthquakes of 1853 or 1054 -12~ meters, 1874 �25 meters; 189Q 61 meters; 1936 147 meters (Miller, 1963; Tocher, 1962). FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY 33 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ - FOEt OFFICIAL USE ONLY it doeA not brenlc thxough rhe glide rock, on fa111ng ~rom ehe kiLomr_�tier heigl~C it wi11 desrroy the hydroelecrric powerplnne, and everythinE; in the 13nreang Valley below~ Inasmuct~ as the statistical data have deciaive aignificance �or predicting seiemo~ravitaCional phenomenn, we conaider it exCremely important to catalog them. Seiemogenic Sedimentary racie~ Tn addition Co the direcC signs (seismic dislocaCions and seismo4ravita-� _ - Cional phenomena) Che seismogenic sedimentary facies can indicate earlier powerful earth~unkes even for periods when there have been flareups of seiemic activiCy (ACTIVE TECTONICS..~, 1966, pp 29-34). The intrusion of th~ coarsely clastic, unsorted sedimenta which were unlayered or have uncleveloped bedding, into the rhythmically cons~:ructed foothills section , ! intermontane basina and largz valleys,especially wiCh anomalous development with respect to area and remoteness from rhe feed areas, can indicate the - relaeion of such deposits to the disastrous earthquakes. On the contrary, the introducCion of fine-grained sediments into the coaraely clastic alluvial and proluvial deposits of Che mountain valleys and basins indicates the sudden formation of subchannel f.acies which can be connected with covering of the river beds with seismogenic landslips or seismoCe~tonic dams. In the mounCains of. Tyan'-Shan', Par~~ir and the ad3acent regions of - Af~l�nisCan, many lakes are known which were formed as a result of chocking of Che rivers by aeismo~enic landslips from tens to many hundreds of ineters high. The valleys of many of the streams flowing into the Baykal were covered by the landslips, in part seismogenic. For example, the valley of the Selengushka~ River (the right tributary of the Snezhnaya ~tiver) at the Snezhnaya seismogenic structure was �illea with slide rock to a hpight of ahout 100 meters. The dam obviously was broken ttaice, but now a chocked lake about 2 km long still remaiae. The s}~arp replacemenC of the litholo~ic types of sediments can be caused by earth and mud seismogenic atreams. Thus, in the case of the ear;hqual:e of 9 June 1887 in Zailiyskiy Alatau (Mushketov, 189Q), there was a mass ' Eormation of earth (loess) streams. In the ore-bearing valleys, they EYequently became mud f.lows. The deposits of these flows formed terrace:.~ up to 50 meters high. Many of them went out on the plain and covered , it with a slick up to f3 to 12 km in radius in the mouth of the ravines. - In all of these cases the fine-grained deposits, without any intermediate sedimenKs with respect to granulometric composition covered the coarsely , clastic alluvial-proluvial deposits. It is nntural that it is impossible to isolate the seismogenic facies of the sediments onty with respect to sharp renlacement of their lithology, _ and careful complex analysis of the paleogeographic conditions of the 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 , Y~lt OppICtA1. US~ pNLY ri~'~�~u�ul~~~ lun ~?f nrdimrntN. thr t~rtnntr~ rr~,tmr nt thn dfnrrtrtn nnd thr Nc~tMmu~~~~nl~~ plic~nnmrnn c~f ntl tyaea ia necenKaty. '~I~e col ~uvium r~t ehe RJ tde r~ck fn~i~d in the ~onea wi[h higt~ gei~aicity t~ ~iqnt[iC~ntly more utd~eeprtad thAn uen Assua~ed ~e~rlier. ItK qre~ter part ig docurnenced s~A gl8cigl depo~sits dr vateht'OCIC ~tr~ms. The coaipoeician of tt~e lAndrlide o~p~ deppnde on the geologicat, t~ectnni~c, ~~Q~oarphologir~l conditi4ns, the kineti~s of thp landKlip, th~ incensicy of :!~e ~enrihquake, the degree of intensity of the roek c~~nifs and g~oqr~phic mQdiwn. in the c~~e of the land~lip fsules, the shifteel rnr~~ges ar~ ~plit intv Qnormous block~. In the firet nc~ge oiten the sail Af1d ~1I8f1CN lnyer iA retained. The surfa~ce of the edvsnce, ~anrt ahifted stqp,eg ie covered gr~vel-block landalide n~[erial cominq down off che slvpee of [h~e uf~per ecr~rps, On the surface of the land sl ip- f au1 t etay,ea, the loose tmterial duting the ~ourse af the shift (u?ore pr~~i~ely, at tne tirae of it~ sharp inhibiCion or cegnetind of motion) spurt~ ~nd Eorms d~o~itianson~ts.~e surfare of the scarpe cdv~red vith ~~u~h c_nners, reAemb2ee in the fresh form the colonien of teraiite etruet~ixc~r~ (Solunenko, 19b3a, 1974), and sub~equently, their enict~relief is ~imilar , to the Hoffoaion-subsidence relief. = Un the frontel edges of the seismogtnic landnlides ~oeaetic~s characteristic cun~,l are forAed frosn extrusion of. clAStic materi~l up to 10 a~etera hiKh or more (SolqnQnko~ V,~ 1953, b, 1966, p 11). ~ Th~ inJex of seisraogenic nawre cf e 18ndaiip can be the na[ure oE the clastic rn~~terial itaelf $nd the morpholoqy of the l~ndslip maas: the cnRCade profile, the large block~ obeliska, end so on squeeaed out of che eeneral, ~re ~r less unifora? ma~s (SolonenY.A, V., 1970b). Soraetim~s it is possi~le co e$teblieh the correletiun betaeen gn ex~otic lay~r ~ediments and a specific seisa?ogenic structure. Thus, for examplc~ tao 1nrKe l~ndslips chocking the ShAr[lay River Cenyon e~re qeneticnlly connectad aith the Shartlay seis~aogenic structute. The tr~ceR ~f the vater and rock saud~lide fora~ed an breakthtou~gh of the land- Klip d:~c, can be Reen in the c~osn aection of the ren~ ina of che debrie c~ne nree~erved in the mouth of che canyon. ?'he debris cone of tfuit tiae ~l~,ny, the upthrusc bank was droDpnd er?d covered aith aodern proluvi~m. The up~er li~riz~n of the nroluvi~l depo~t.t~ differs shhrnlr frow che ntratifi~ed, ordirwry proluvial deposits uadNtlyinR it it is larRe- _ blu~.k vitt~ bouldec-block-rubble fill. 7he basic aa[erial of i[ ia ehar~ctertstic of landslip facics and not fot pr4luvial-alluviel faciea liY.e the ruiterinl uf the rcxs.~ininR horizons of the debriR cone. Zt doe+~ noc hnve anything in comnan vith [he materiel of the aorAine deposits. T'tic cr.otic nature of chis layer indicetes the exotic conditions ot its for~ati~n (SolonenY.o. V., 19b2b, 1963c). - 35 F0~ OPFICLAL USB 0lfLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 POii OPpIGiAt. U~L' Ot+iLY ~in~ult~neou~ly, the diaegtroug development of the lendglide f~cies of ~~i~niEt~nnc ~rea can bp a sign +~f their r~lation td ~trong e$rthquakeg. 'Che~e tAndhlide f~ciQn ~re knnwn nn thp south ~hare of geyY.a1 ~nd in th+~ virtnity of Lske Guninyy in 'Ccansbaykal. Vu)~an~Yeric term~tiAnn r~n in~iie~t~ arcivatian of aeinmic sctivity. in the 5t~novoy ne~toc ~f th~ fiAylc~1 rift ~y~tem it in pvn~~ble tc~ ~~ee four nqe~ af ~eignic e~tivetfon when the d~ep a~agaaa-Cdnducting fractureR vere forraed: in the Upper popleir~tocene, thQ louee plpi~tocene, the upper plei~tocene to louer holo~~ne ~nd uppec holocerte. We ~te bb~eev- _ lnp, echo~n df che~e event~ ~tt che presenc titae. The ~pi~enter~s of ~ny veak Qhrthquak~s, ~om~timQe ~~rthqu~ke teenche~ (to de~xe~~ per d~y) aith ' ~ depth nf centern of about 25 kta ~re coordin~tpd with the pl~i~tr?Cene- holncene and holocene velc~noes. 'Che conatsnt faraeation of. neptuni~ dikp~ takes place in the ~ei~mically nctive reqi4n~. ~n exla~ninin~y the pleistoceis~ zone~ df r.wdern p+~+erful ~ e~tthquake~ (farcp 9-12, M�f,.5-8.6) and ~tudying the paleoseismadiglocatiAng~ w~ observed the forrnAtinn oE ~~is~aogenic nepcunie dikes of t~m typeg: ascendinP and descending. The nscending dikes r~re Eot'med by [he introduc- tion ~f vet ~r v~ter-beering eoil into the fieeuree, a~ a rule, sand, qflty, ~andy Qnd other type~ of soil. When reaching [he surfACe they aps?ut nnd fot~n ~ud cones. The neptunic dikes (or gystems of the~) can be ~f atp,nificanc :e~qth. Por ezamrle. in the cgse of. the central 8~yka1 rnrthqunke of 29 Au,~u~tt 1959 (force 9, !t~b-3/4) che main line of the mud di~r_I~er~yes wae nbouc 10 k~ long. The ntripping of the ~nil d~mnnetret~d tt~~t chere ere fissures filled vith silty sand quicl:~and running betacen che Gn~d cone~ (Solonpnko, V., Treskov, 19fi0). The descending dikes are fotaEed on filling of the aeist~ogenic fissures vfti~ cingtic materiel ahich travele upw$td. Thia tvpe of neptut~ic di~e is developed quice broadly in the seismic region~, especially where che sa_isawdi~lvcationa ~re connected aich shearing of the earth's cruat. Ab~nrpti~n of cleRtic a~aterial place in the fisaures for tens pnd hundreds o! years. Thc preservation c,f the g~iss~ioc~ctanic figsurQR in the reltef ta poeaiblc c?nly au a r~~ult oE thiB eaechbnism; otherviBe tiiey are _ quic'r.ty leveled, in auch fissureae fre~uently sinka are obeerved nb~nrbinY ati+allos~ holes ftoo~ fractione of ineters to tens of ineters deep nnd in disneter. In the fiseurea and ~+alloa holpe, not anly is finely rinacfc sn~cerial ebsorbed vhieh is retaoved from the slopea. but slso blorka up co enoraaus on~s of 12 to 15 roec~re inclusively (~CTtY~ TF.CT~;i1C5,..,, 1965, p 193; Khro~averikh, 1965, p 60). The chick (up to tenR of inetere) neptunic dikes Eillpd vith their ovn breccia. extra- ordinarily nonuniforsa vith respect to Rranul+~aetric cosaposi[ion are 1 f~?rm~�d in chie aay. Theae dikes reach soc~e depch still unkno~m, but in mnny c~n~~ ic is n~ lese th~n many tenn. and raore aften, hundredn of eaetera, for thr depch of the svellosr holes in cheir body reachee 54 ~ ~e[ers or care f5olonenko. V., KhrosaovskiY.h. 1974j. ~ 36 pOS OPi'LCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 t~Ott nppiGtAL U5~ I~NLY 'Che mylnnitpr ("tectdnic clay") er~ a~p~~igl eyne of ~ei~tnogenic (aeisrao- tertonic) f~r~tion. Ag thp experience of thp Gobi-Ait~y parthqugke h~~ gfinwn, th~ mylr~nite~ are fe?t~~d Et'c~ the most varied rock (froa~ ergilltte~ to qr~niteA), but they bggi~Ally Are o~ one ~~~poeitinn hydrosnicg- ~onta+orillonice. Their e~t~blishpd thicknpg~ ig up cc~ 1~aeter. Th~y have b~een far~ned not anly it~ pra~etir~ inet~ntaneuugly, but vece gqueexed out of thp rracke like p~sEe And in p18c~g fora~ va11~ sore th~n 1.5 m~ters hiqh C."~olatt~nko, V., 196~a, PP ~23-~26; Salonenko, 1~G5, 1966, pP ~42-~45). The depogite nf the ~o-e~11ed turbid flovs can dccur ~s e Bpeciel type of Aei~raog~nic sediment in the 1er$e bodie~ df vater. _ previou�ly Attention wa~ ~iven to th~ Eact that the ~h~rp replaee~nc nf the deep watpr ~edi~ents vith rh~llov vat~r ~neg, the aare st~, aith coa~t~l f~une ~nd rippie anrke ~ith ~cr~tige~phic diecontinuity ig ~on- sidered nA unconditional prooE of th~ courae of eventgs t-- r~pld tectonic uplift of the ~Qa floor~ 2-- regreseion of the ee~, 3-- coaci~ nQntai devie~ion, 4-- tr~ns~ression, 5-- reetc~retion oE the deep vAcer rrKfine. It ig clear co ~very geoingigt that at le~~c tens of ~illione of yearR ~re needed for this eourBe of. pventA. In re~lity, this can o~cur - tn calculabl~ numb~r of hou~s (Solan~nko, V., 1974a, p 25). This cype of ~xtrc~ordinary etrAtigraphic section can be created by ~eigmically - excitrd earth str~am~ sub~qual aud Elovs (5olonenko, V., 1973a). As a result of ptecise recording of the cis~ of ~gr~hquakes gnd damage to undergrvund cebtes, significant fectuai data hae b~en accumulated on thp n~vetnent of the seismic~lly excitpd subaqual eaud flowe. Th~ Grand 8eni~ earchquake of 18 tiovembpr 1929 i~ a cl~egieal example (force 9-10, ~t+~7). During thie earthquake, 12 cgblee located up to $00 km frc�a the epicenter vcre succeesively broken. Tt~e apeed of the suhaqual aud flov vas about 90 ksn/hr on the continental stope, and 36 km/hr in the abyesa~l plain. Uuring th~ Algerian earthquake of 9 June 1954 (force 9, 1~N6-3/4), five undervacer cables aere broken laid at a distanc~ of 6 to 1~0 iu~ froa thp _ coast oE Algeria. The gpeed of the fla? on the continental slope vas 60 km/hr; on the deep aater plain it dropped to 8 ken/hr. 't'heae apeed~ end the tength of peth oi` the eubaqual a~ud flows nac r~tcainable vithouc seisoic excitation exp]ain their gigantic erosion activity, the ~enetracion to a depth of up to 4240 meters of the coastal caarsely clastic deposics (Cudzon Canyon) forming cones e[ the mouths of the unden?acer canyona vf?i~t~ are worphosculptur~lly s Lniler to the proluvial debrie cones and ~beence of a connection between some of th~ canyone no[ only to the continencs end s~outha nf rivere, buc alao to the shallow aeter (the canyons on thc H.~rian underuacer ridge Z00 km eouth of 3apan). Tt~e undrr;rater cenyona and anomelous distribucion of the sedimencary _ Eacieg .~re charact~ristic noc only for thc eeas, buc Also for the large contlncncnl bodie~ of water in the highly seiamic regions. In the seykal bnsin there are undervatcr canyons And intruaione of coarsely clascic depo~ita into the deep-vgter eecciona ~f the basin and eections free of sedienenc co e aiqnificant depth. All of thia is unexplainsblp vithout considering the iwr+erful aeise~ic osciltatione. 37 FOk OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 wOk ~fNptC1AL U3~ c~NLY The l~olntion nf the ~~igradgenie facipe of the ~ediment~ from litholdgiealiy ~tmitqr fnra~~tlr,n~ rpq~~ir~a ~~r~at d~a1 of ~tcpn~idn and ranndt al~ray~ be epli~biy ~eee~pli~hrd. Th~ moet ~requent ~rror whi~h nugt be ~neountpr~d t+hen uAin~ th~ nt~teri~l~ o! dth~f ~edlogists is the cla~aification of the g~i~rnap,enic land~tip and proluviai-1ar~d~lip faei~g ~a gi~~i~l, ~lthnugh, in ~ur apinian, they ~re eamp~ra~ively ~~~iiv digtinguighed (vith re~pert td ghape of the clastic mateei~l aad bloek~, cumpd~iti~n, nature gnd car.rpveition di the filler, th~ gl~rial gtri~tian t~r ~b~~nce df ie~ the cumulative micro and me~efar~ag of r~lief, the ronfiguration di th~ e~rth covered by the deposits, Ehe ~cco~panying mnrpho~culptur~l ph~nomen~, and ~o on). It i~ anpreci~bly mere diEfieult to digtinguish the ~olifluctidn rock ~tre~tt~~ froa~ ~he ~~ist~g~nic l~ndglip and landslip~prvluvi~l forcnationg ~ ~t the feet of the mduntains (the oblique piedmont plein~). H~re it ie necexBary to cangider th~t in the plei~tocene and pgrt of the holocene the permafro~c aae developrd eppcecidbly more bcdac~ly th~n at the prpsent time, e~nd the ~oliflurti~n proced~ea had ~ region~l ns~ture. tn ~ome ca~es, - the coaatr~l bre~cie of the die~ppe~ring bddie~ of vacer, che aval~nche d~pr,sit~ ~f dth~r ferrn~ti~n~ ~f the eoliuvi~i typ~ c~n ~au~e c~nfu~ion. ~ Far di~gnaeis of the ~edi~ent~ it is nec~~~ary to gtudy the gr~ag oE [heir pr~p~getion, thirknpse, co~o~ition and relatinn~ to the g~iemo~enic structure~. and eo on. Age of i~aleogeismodtelocations The d~[ermination oE the c~ore or lesg exact age of the paleoseismodisloca- ( tions etill rea~aina a Weak place in the pal.eoaeismo~eolo~ical method. This is connected noc only vith procedural but also practical difficulties. Until recently both in the USSR and World practice only our s~aall - coltective at the Laboratory of Seismogeology of the Institute of the E.~rch's Crugc has bpen eng~ged in sygttm~tic paleoaeistaogeological research. in che remaininP highly seismic regiong of the earth, che method, alchough used quite broadly in recent timee, hae been u8ed sporadically, for the most part vhen examining the pleistoceism zoneg of awdern pvwerful and dis~ucr~us earthquekea. The determination of the exace age oE the paleo� - ~eiam~~dtstoca[ions requiree peinatakinq, detailed ecudiee, as a rule, aich ~ a iarke volume of entth �ork. 6'or detern+inatton of the a~p r~f the rQSisfuel setgraodeformacionR, the Cntlrnring methods have been used end can be used in the future: geologi- r_wl, englneering-geolaRical, hietorical-archaeola~!ical, dpndrochronological~ ~nd rndio carbon. Ry chr ugual geologicnl saethods, in the overvhelmin~ majoricy of cases t1~r n~e ~f the residual seisnwdeforniations can be determined highly npproxfm.~trly, which can have grent si~nificance for knos+ledge of the - evr?lution of the aeistaic activity of the region, buc noc for applied tiUt~AREA. In order to deter~aine the level of iaodern seiswic eccivicy of the neotectonic atructures it ia necessary to knoi+ the ~vents of no more 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 Pdt~ dpt~ICIAL U3~ ONLY th~n the firdt thou~nnd~ d� ye~rg agd. Th~ ~xtr~pnlatinn of th~ ~v~ntg further in th~ pngt to mnd~rn tim~g cgn i~~d to thp gr~a~p~t ~rror~: in n11 seismic region~ Wher~ corr~~rehding mat~riaig apr~ c~btatn~d ~.ttongoli~- tl~yk~l~ C~ntr~l A~i~, thp C~ucggug, N~dit~rrgne~n, Iran, end so on) ehe artamlC nctivity ef g~verel thoue~nd~ nf y~~re ago Chnngpd nherply~ e~ n rul~, in th~ dirpction op a dpcr~a~e. `Ch~ p~1ea~~ismog~ologieal daea ~re ~ chronirle ~f the m~gt poo?~rful ~~rthquake~ iMprinted in the g~olagiCai-geom~rphoingie~l d~~um~nt~ of th~ perth'~ ~~rface. By eh~e~ d~cg, in the Baykal rift xnnp we have e~tpbliehed four outbreaka of ~Qiemic ~~civity. In ehp r~~ion of the expangion of th~ riEt on ite ~astern f1~nk in the upp~r hdldc~ne, the ~ei~mir ~~Civity inerea~ed ~harply in conn~ction vith the migration di th~ riftngenir proce~~~g cn �he ~aet ~f th~ apparerit end of the rift ~ygtem (5olnnenko, V., 196E3a, b), and on thp gouttn+~~tern periph~ry, in eastprn 5ayan, it Jecreaeed. tn the norttnr~~cera Ceuc~eu~, according tn the pgleogpiemdgpological nnnlysie A. B. O~trov~kiy (19~Oa)ieoleteg [~?o ageg of activatinn of the a~i~micity: 1-- ~pproxia~acely in the middle of the lat~ plr~istacene ond 2-- historic, ending at the b~ginning of che first thougand ypars A. U. Nith re~pect to the paleo~eismodiglocgtions in th~ vicinity of che Ta1nAO-Pergan fault, V. K, Kuch~y (1971) establiahes the maximum vf the Aeismie accivicy Ac about S~J~000 years a~o, a r~duccion in thp maximum forc~ of the e~rthquake~, 10,000 y~ar~ ago. Thp cadern earthquai:es are the weakegt in a 50,000-year period. The paleoseisawdislocations have been videly developed in the vicinity of the Uzhungar fault (Voytovich, 1969). Nevertheleae, the modern eeismic activity of it is los~. Thie can eitt~er indicate recent chaagee in the seismic regime or temporary seismic - quiet. The importance of che statement of epecial paleoaeisnageological rpsearch in such area8 ia obvioug. it ie possible to use the engineering-geological methods for approximace dacing of anecific seigoiodielocations. Data on the rate of deatruction of che rock and raovemenc of the eoil on the slopes can be uaed for this - purpoac. I Wherever the b ed ro c k has heen uncovered as a result of seismic deformaciona, che time of this slipping can be calculated by the depth of destruction of che rock. Under the conditions of che Baykal region, the formation of talus, including structural, tat;es place at greater sreed (cm/year): diabases 1.3; granite~ 2.3; granite-gneies and gnei� 3.3; crystal limeetones~ marble, maeAive Jurn~sic sandstones 4.4~ thin-layered Jurassic sandstone 9.~ (Solonenko, V., 196~b, p 17). 8. A. Agafonov (1974), vrho perfonaed speciel observations in ex~erimental areas on crystalline rock obtained 39 FOR OFPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 POit bPnI~tAL U5~ ONLY the gnrne r~t~~: 1~.5~87.b rom/ye~r. It i~ ng~urgl that th~ w~~th~ring praeeed~ n~nUnif~rmly, th~ r~t~~ ~redu~lly chdng~, end dn reeChing ehe thirkn~g~ df ~rintpr freezing af th~ ~rdund, th~y drap ~h~rrly ~lehou~h the formation of the talus does noc cease (as a result ort annual flur-tu~cion~ in temperetur~ c~nd chemicgi W~athpring). In thp ~ae~ df eons~rv~tion nf th~ gpi~mogenic d~form~tinng nn ehe gC~ep glnpeg dr dt their ba~~, geme id~~ of th~ir ~gp ran be dbtnin~d :rw.n the cnlcu~atinns of the ~peed of movem~nt of the ground. Nowev~r, in thig case We cnn, as a rule, obtgin only the upper ag~ limit~�or in the seismo- ~enic ;~o inte uauatly int~ne~ ~bec~rption ~f ~lasri~ matprial takeg p1~C~, ~ncl th~ h~ighe of th~ se~rp~ ~an vary during eh~ courg~ of gubs~qu~nt (nfter th~ Qarthquak~) raov~m~ntg of the egrth'g ~ru~e. 'fhe speed of the lonee ~aterial und~r the cr~nditiong of 8aykal seigmir b~lt ig v~ry high: in the bald peak zone, on gldpe~ ~f 3q ta 3S�, thp gnil ig ~hifced 4 to 5 cm/yenr (Agafnnov, 1974); che speed of movpment nf t1~e placers ie up cn 145 cm/year, the denudation meter is in placeg only 210 yegrg (5r~lon~nl:o, V., 1950, 1960b). ProgpeCting ch~nnelg fre~ quently are completely leveled in a fe~+ yeare. The cuts on the KYU~t~baykal _ railrnad up to 6 to $ metera deep abandnned in 1912-1914 not only were filled wtth e~lug by 1941~ but in places forests had aopeared on them. 'Chese conetantly active factors, to eay nothing of the "volley" removal of ineterial from the slopes (during rain, avalanches and go on), mugt level the static forma oCCUrrieg during earthquakea of an intensity of force 9-10 during the courae of 10-~5 to 1~0-150 years. No~,rever, the ~o ints remain. for a longer time, fur the clagtic material is absorb~d - in them. In recent times efforts have been made to deterniine the seismodeformationa and their approxia~ate age by cave etructures (Langer, 1970). The archaeo).ogiral and hiatorical data can give more exaCt information abou[ the seismodislocation time. The breaching of encampments gnd gettlements by a seigmogenic structure offers the nossibillty of determinin~ its upper age limit. ~or example, by the presence of the _ tate neolithic culture, the age of Pogdl'al:iy Sor the analog oE the i'rovc~l $ay on Lake Baykal has been established at no r.are than 2000 to 3000 years; by the dynamics of the shoals and sandbars, no less than 500 years (Rogozin, I974). The second [igure is cloger to reality, ~ for at the end of the 17th century and beginning of the 18th century the rcmains of the trunks of a aubmerged forest etill stood in the bay. There ~re especially broad possibilities for using historical data in long inhabited areas With a thousand-year culture. For example, ahen study- inr tl~e consequences of the earthquake of 31 August 1968 in Iran it aas extablisl~ed thac in the last 100 to 20~ years the underground water galleries are shifted by more than 10 meters to the left (Ambraseys, et al., 1969, p 10). 40 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 p~[t UNt~tCIAL U5~ ONLY V, ti, ~'rifhndv (1971) tlr~rribpd th~ ~hift of the Kahriz-w~] 1 lin~ nbnv~ thc undrr~reund ueter ~nlteci~A ~.n thp vicinity of th~ t'din Kobpt-ba~ Eeu1t. Dep~ndin~ on th~ eime o~ eongtru~eion, eh~ K~hrix 1in~~ w~re ' ~hift~d ~rom fl tn 3 m~Eerg. No~r, from the hietorie~~ ~nd er~h~eoingical r~tudi~g ~~iemaloqi~t~ ~nd s~i~mo~eologigte e~n ferr~t out ~ grpat d~~l df import~nt information ebout poaerful parthqu~kes fr~quently W~i1 d~c~d, t~g We h~ve done ahen ~tudying thp epismogeologyr of th~ aeet~rn Gaue~~ue � (5olnn~nka, V., Khromovekikh, 1974). The higt~ri~~l ~nd ~rcha~oldgical d~tg cnn be direet Qnd indir~ct. There i~ no doubt that their rol~ in the dating uf th~ powrerFUl ~~rehqual:ea of thp pagt, th~ time df fdrnation nf the eeisnagenic strupturee, d~t~rmine~ tion di th~ recurrence r~t~ of th~ Gacagtrophic earthqugkes, and evolution of gei,~mie prnc~~ges will increas~ quickly. 'I'h~~ dendror.hrennl.o~icr~l method ie appli~~bl~ for dating eei~mogenic stru~tutep in th~ fore~t zone. It moat pa~ily offer~ th~ poesibility nf det~rminin~ th~ loWer ag~ l.imit nf the atrucCure with r~spect to th~ age di the trees grnwing in the seismodeEormationa ("a struccure no younger chnn ii yenrg old'') . L�'xnct dntin~ is poseible �nr young etructurea 1n ahich Che trunks of the felled trees or, by fortunate gccident, uprooted treea were pregerved. The rnrrelation of che annual ringe of live and dead tr~es c~n permit determinn- tidn of the year of formation of the aeiemodislocation~ 'Che dendrochronological method has be~n used in the pleistoceism zone of the Tiississippi earthquake of 1811 for separation of the Niseissippian and ~ pre-Mississippian dislocations and in Alaska (Page, 1970). ~ The experience of the application of dendrochronoloqy in the Baykal region has demonstrated that already at 10 meters �rom the seismodislocation the trees do not experience significant digturbancea in the nature of the Wood~ al~ich must be strictly taken into account when using this method. Tt~e radio carbon method appears to be the mosc nrospective. For certainty of tiie correctnesa of the an~lysis, it is neceseary to extract from ti~e seiamodislocation organic remains ahich could not be brought in after the cr~rchquake, which is impoesible to do without Rerious mining operations, but we still have not had this possibility. Nevertheless, its application offera the poseibility not only of dating the time of seismic dxuasters, but algo determination of the direction of [he s1oW movements of the earth`s crust during the period betWeen aeismic disasters (Plafker, 1968). in spite of the tempting nature of dating the seismodislocacions bv the rnclio carbon method, it is impoasible not to give attention to the~fact th.~t the seismically active fauits are special geochemical zones, and the primary C12/C14 isotope ratio in the plants in the seismogenic zone cnn be different than usual, ahich can lead to sharp diatortion (increase) in age). 41 FOR OPFICIAL USE Ot~tLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 t~0it OI~I~ICIAt, U5~ ONLY - anrCr ~~elr Wherever you g~e ra~k wieh er~ck~, the tracea of an ~~rthquake ar~ unque~tinn~d; th~ more s~vpre, the mor~ ungeable the d~brie, the rac~ and Ch~ m~d. M. Lrnnonosov (6 5ept~mb~r 17S7) Th~ ~mpirical d~ta obeained ahen 3nvegtignting powerful e~rChquak~g indi~ . CA[EB that the ~iz~, Che tyn~s and mnrphoingy of Ch~ reg3dual dpformations for the ~eismogeologic.~lly unifom zones nre mor~ or lesg constant. Thie of~pre thp poagibility of enlvin~ rh~ invprg~ probipm; with resp~ct to the ~~ismog~niC re~idual deformations to determine, of.cour~e, approxim~tely the intensity and magnitude of the pr~e~i~moetgtistical earth!~ugkeg~ Thia s:ale c~nnot be universal for a11 seie?nic zoneg~ Th~ acale and type of the ~eismodielocntions and tl~e gravitational phenomena d~ppnd not only on the energy of thc earthquake but aleo on many other factorsi the depth and mechanism of the center, the type of aeismogenic structur~, the orientntion of the center zone, the geoingical structure of the relief~ and eo on. For examplp, the area encompasaed by the geismogravitational phenon:ena, their type and sixes depend on the regional engineering-geologi~ cal (including the geocrynlogical) condiCions. Therefore it is imposaible mechanically to tran~fer the force acale from one seismic zone to another. It is also impoaeible to create a universal forroula for calculating the theoretical igoaeisn~l lines, although seismologiste propose and use them for theoretical and applied purposea. One thing is certain: each poarer~ ful (M.6.5) earthquake aith a crustal center leaves ita traces on Ctie surface of the earth, but until recently only a few simply kneW hoW to se.e them. The scale of the residual deformations usually is aapreciably greater than indicated in the scales of the seismic intenaity, including in the most perfected of them the MSK-1964 (Medvedev, et al, 1965). The Eirst scale aith respect to residual deformations was proposed about 15 years ago (Solonenko, V., 1962b). Recently broad ne~+ factual material has been accumulated Which Was collected ahen studying both modern - earthqunkes and paleoseismodislocations in various highly seiamic zones of the earth. On the vhole, it confirmed our scale of 1962~ and has not , required the introduction of theoretical changes into it. ~ Force S(ti=5-1/2 to 6-1/2). The regional and zonal seismotectonic phenomena can be established only by geodetic studies, but they also still do not alwnys provide undiaputed material. The changes in the relief and hydrography from tl~e paleoaeismogeological pointe of viea are difficult _ to detect and atill more difficult to prove. :he io~si ai8io~acio�8, as a rule, do not reach the aurface of the earth or they are insigni�icant - with respect to aize; therefore they are quickly destroyed by denudation. 42 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 l~Ott O~~ICIAL U5~ dNLY Neverthelee~~ under fnvnrgbl~ condiCiong, egp~~ittlly in the dry eteppe re~idn, on the bn~i~ nf ~hc nerir~l photograph~ th~ loc~l seismodislocntionB ~nn~eim~~ gre mnnif~c~t~d dn eh~ eurfn~e of th~ p~rch end can be det~~t~d, fnr eheir extent Aometime~ is quite si~ni~i~~nt. Fdr ~xgmple, for the enrthqunke of 14 n~c~mber 1950 in California (M~S.6) three fqults w~re Cdrm~d with a vereicel dieplncement emplitude to 0.2 m~ter~ on n parh witf~ n totgl ext~ne of abauC 9 km (RichCer~ 1963, p 477). In the centr~l Sudan in Che case of the force $~~rthquake (M~5~7)~ a etrike-glip fault - ~bout 4 km long aas formed in 1967. In the Baykal seismic zon~ alc~n~ in one case opening of a fault was oba~rved for an earthquake of mddern lntensity (.to for~~ 3?) 2 Ndvember 195~ (td=4-3/4, but, posAibly, 1ow) . T!~e epicenrer of the earthqu~ke wag loc~Ced in the vicinity of the Kh~niyskiy fault at the point of intere~ction af the blekma River by it. Along thp fault cuCting the ailicified precambrian crystalline limestone of th~ Udokan series of tt~e late proterozoic, ~oinCs were formed running 200 to 250 meterA. As a result of the opening of the old fault, absorption of the block materi~31 0~ th~ placer covering.the rent began (Koct~etkov, 1964~ p 41). They diEfered from the aeiemodi~glocations connectied with the force 9 earthqur~ke by the amall amplitudee of the shi~ta (the difference in maximum ehiEts wns 10 to 15 times)~ In order to :iscover the epicenttal zones of the force-8 earthquakes, the seismogravitational phenomena appeared to be more reliable. The basic - difficulty here is to establish thQ simultaneousness of the �ormation and independence of them With respect to exogenic cauaes. In the force S isoseism~l field of earthquakes with an intensity of force 9 or more, the residual seismogravitational deformations develop o~er a larger area than for the force 8 earthquakea. Pseudotectonic deformation can occur here. For example, in the case of the central Bayral earthquake of 29 August 1959 (M-h-3/4, force 9, h=18 km) in the force 8 zone, a line of mud eruptions about 1A km long Was formed (at an epicentral distance of up to 43~45 km). T}~e cones of the mud volcanoea are a~sociated with the cracks which are - oricnted along the lines of the large blind faults covered by a series of neop,enic-Quaternary sediments 370 to 100 metera thick. The establiahed uidth of the cracka ia to 10 cm. They were filled with sand and quicksand inJected from below (Solonenko, V., Treskov, 1960). Such neptunian dikes can be uaed for determination of the pleistoseism re~ions of the preseismostatiatical earthquakes. They differ from the ordinary neptunic dikes by the presence of, repeated spouting channels. Oti~erwise they are difficult to distinguish from the exogenic neptunic dikes. in che sharply broken mountain regions in the force 8(and higher) iso- seismal area mass landslips occur. Under other equal conditions their 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ ~OEt U~I~YCIAL USL ONLY number, ~iz~ and pnthg o� mntion nfCpr a fdree-8 isog~igm nre aharply _ r~duc~d, which for r~gidnel engin~ering~seismdgeologicnl etudi~~ wi11 rermie mnre or lea~ certain outlining of th~ fc~rc~-8 zane~ ~orcr 9 (i~t~6-1/2 to 7) Thc r~ginnal .~nd zonc~l def.ormatinn~ during fnrre 9~arthqunkes ar~ clparly exhibited only und~r ~gpecially favorable cnnditionq, predominanCly on the low-lying banks of large bodiee o� water. The g~odeCic sCudiee indicate movement of the earth's crust with amplitudea exceedin~ the pogaibl~ dbservaCion errora in an aren to 600-Sflb km2~ 'The locgl seiamodislocgtions are repre~enC~d predomin~ntly by seismo-. tectonic frgcturea and only in two casee have we been able to observe gravitational-seismotectonic subsidence which can be connected with the force 9 earthquakes.l _ On the pnth of the seismogenic faulr or in the cracks connected with it, jointe ~re formed which extend tens or hundreds of ineters and, rarely more than 1 km. The total extent of the ~oint zone reaches 2 to 3 km, and in the case of. predominance of the shear component, sometimeg up Co _ 10-12 l:m. In the latter case obviously we are dealing not with the consequence of an earthquake, but with total residual deformations connected with the main shock, its aftershocke and the shifts taking place after the egrthqunke. The initial maximal amplitude of the vertical dis- plncement can increase from O.f3-1.2 to 3-5 meters. The significant seismogravitational deformations are observed over an area of up to 600-80~ km2, randomly to 5,00~ to 6,000 hn2. In the force 9 isoseiemal area of force 10 earthquakes under the corresponding conditions, seismically excited earth and rock streams occur. Force 10 (rt~7-7-3/4) In the c.~se of fdree 10 and more powerful earthquakes, depending on the type of seismogcnic structure, the morphostructure and geological struc- ture of the seismic re~ion, the regional and zonal residual deformations of ttic earth's cruat are manifested to a different degree, and various types of seismodialocations are formed with different extent, amplitude oE the vertical and horizontal shifts, gaping of cracks and the nature of the seismogravitational and other accompanying ph~no~ena. In the case of the u~thrust faults, powerful, but short (from several kilometers to 15 km, in the case of strike~slip normal faults up to 30 km) 3oints 1STRUKTURY LABSKALDI I TSERI ~A KAVKAZE [Labekaldi and Tseri Structures in the CaucasusJ (Solonenko~ V., Khromovskikh, 1974). 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ott U~~tCIAL U5~ ONR.Y nrrur ur to 15-20 mpter~ wid~ (for upChruxr fnultg~ gtrik~-~lip thru~t fr~u1~H nnd uvrr~hruNtr~ thc Crnc~urea nrr rreclominnntl,y rldprd) aitii nn nmhlitud~ nE v~rticnl di~plarement of up to 7 eo 8 m~e~r~~ ~'or ~hifCg, the ~ninC~ gre 1eg~ ~xpr~~~pd~ but the total extent of thp zon~ ~~n re~ch 100 km. Th~ xon~i defnrmatlon~ are th~ r~ogC obvidue in thp e8s~ af b1nc1: eeiemog~nic gCructureg. The blocks 2S0 to 300 lan2 in grea are ~hiftpd. Sometimeg grgb~n-likp sub~id~n~~~ gnd ~tir~,pp~ of Che mount~in pe~ks oceur. The s~iamogravitational phenompna nccur over an ar~a of uh eo 40~000 kmz. The landelipg reach gigantic dimeneione and oft~n ~enerate geiemicgliy exrit~d rock ~Cre~me. Under Eavorable geologiCal~geomorphologi,coi _ conditiong, eapecially in the lae~e areae, mass developm~nt of ~arth gvalanchee is observed which can form seigmically ~xcit~d e~rth gCreamg often more desCructive than tf~e earehquake ite~lf~ In th~ cage nf ~uffici~ntly decailed studiea, the morphogtructure and internal grrucCure " oE suct~ atreams permit reliable distinction of them frnm the formc~tion~ of other genesig (5olonenko~ V.~ 19~Ob~ 1973a). Force 11 (ri=7-3/4 to 8-1/4) The regional aeiemotectonic movements of the earth~e crust encompa8e c~n area of up to 100,00~ to 120,OOU km2, possibly, even more. The nrea of zonal deformatione depends on the type of seiemogenic structurea, but, obviously, it is no lees than 60~90~C20~30 km. In order to diacover the regional and zonal paleoseismotectonic movements of the earth's crust, detailed and exact geomorphological are � required over a broad area which will permit establishment of a sudden aimultaneous change in conditions of denudation and accur~ulation. Such studiea have still not bpen performed although the first ateps in this direction have been taken in Japan (Sigimura, 1968), Alaska (1'lafker~ 1968) and the Caucasus (Solonenko, V., Khromovskikh, 1974). The local seismodislocations in the case of force 11 earthquakes are formed over a significant area (tl~ousands or up to 20,~00 aquare meters). Two extreme groups have been isolated which have diff.erent mutual con^ versions (Solonenko, V., 1962b, 1973c; ACTIVE TECTONICS,..., 1966). 1. Itt the strain 2ones in the case of fault mover~ents, poWerful~ but not extenaive (20 km or more) ~oints are formed with observed amplitude of vertical displacement to 10 to 12 meters (Assamsl:oye earthquake on 12 June 1897, force 11, M~~.O), and with resnect to the paleoaeismo- dislocations, up to several tens of ineters. 2. In the case of ahifts, extended (up to 350 km) fracture zones are forcned With amall amplitude of vertical dieplacement. The main fractures are nade up of fea[hering tension and compreseion joints, in placea 45 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OIt O~~ICIAL US~ dNt~Y (asprCi.7iiy ih th~ ~ectione wt~ere th~ ~hifCChgngpg gtrike) th~y be~nme q~iqmntectnni~ tr~n~hE~ up tn 8�1~ met~r~ nr mare uide~ A~c~rding eo Eh~ pal~naeiamc~g~old~ie~1 d~e~, in Che pr~sence nf fnrc~-11 ~~rthqugke~, thp "brok~n p1~t~" geruetureg enn b~ fnrm~d toith rgdially diverging ~nd brenching n~twork df ndrmal Enule~ gnd fau1C tr~nCh~~ up td x0 m~terg wide in th e ro~:l:y ~round ~Khromov~kikh, 1~65). Thp grgvit~tiongl-~ei~mntectonic and g~igmugr~viegt3,ona1 d~formaCion~ c~n b~ rerre~ented by nll known type~. `Che lntr~r enec~mpase an ~r~~ of up to 150,000 i;mZ or mnre (et ~n epicentrel digCanc~ of up to 350 km). The farmer nr~ coordingted with rhe ~ei~megeni~ faule~ ~nd h~v~ an ~mplitud~ of verti~~1 di~pl~c~ment to several t~n~, pog~ibly~ a hundred m~e~r~~ ~orce 12 (M,~$-1/4) The shnrp chang~s in reli~f and hydrogr~phy nver th~ entire ar~~ of zangl movementa of the e~rth'g rrust (pgtabli~h~d areA to 7,OOb ro 10,000 km2) nnd noCiceable regional vari~tinng, over an ~rea eo 300,000 P.m2 ~nd morp. The fr~cture zones, reactivated and newly formed, extend up ev 450 km, pdgsibly, even more (in the Chile~n earrhquakes 21-22 tlay 1960, according - to the geismologiC data, the fracture xone at the boCtnm of the Pacific . Ocear~ w~g 960 to 1280 1:m long; gee Plafker, Savag~, 19~0), and the estab- lished total len~th of the fract~res in the pleiatospism region of cnntinental enrthquakes reachea 8S0 km (Solonenko, V., 1963a; Florensov, 5olonenkn, 1965, 1966). The specif ic cieformations o� the force 12 earthquakes are gravitational- _ - seismotectonic wedges with an amplitude of vertical displacement of hundreds of inetera and shearing of the large mountain peaks. Inasmuch as the seismic accelerations during such earthquak~s can be twice the gravi-~ t~~tional acceleration, it ia necessary to assume the posaibility of the formation of the most improbable deformations~ Until rer.ently, only one pleistoseism zon~ oE a force 12 earthquake _ completely located on dry land had been investip,ated in detail with the ~pplication of a special aerial photographic survey, the informativeness of which was almost exhaustive. All of the known types of dis~unctive dislocations and previously unknown deformations gravitational-tectonic wedge with a vertical displacement amplitude up to 328 meters and shear- ing of the mountain peaks have been established in it. The instantaneous Eorm~~[ion of thick arylonites obviously is also a specific feature of the force 12 earthquakes (Solonenko, V., 19GOa,c, 1963a; Florensov, Solonenko, 1965. 1966). Seismic Conditions and Paleoaeisr~odislocations None of tl~e existing seismolo~ic and seismogeological methods offers the pnssibility of reliably determintng two in practice r~ost important elements of the seismic regime: the maximum intensity and recurrence rate oE powerful earthqc:skes. 46 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ult d~~tCIAL U5~ dNLY it is impos~ible in thi~ xe~pc!ct tn under~~t3met~ Ch~ ~ignifi~~nc~ nf th~ r~~urr~n~,~ r~ee rhares~ the a~ismi,e ~~eiviey Chart~, the K~peak and the ~ g~i~mic ~.~u1n~r~bility, that ie, ehe ~~i~mol~~i~ method of determir..cng ~h~ ma~t impartnnt param~t~rs of .th~ seigmie ~'~~im~n d~velo~~d by X~. V. RizniChpnko, p~ al (Rixni~henko, 1958, 1962, 1966). How~v~r, w~ ~hduid ~1~~ not over~~timace thc~n, for th~ deEQrminarion of th~ m~ximum in~~n~iey 8nd r~eurrenc~ rate of the mose pow~rful earehquak~~ r~maing ~ Ch~ir "Ar.hill~g hp~l": accnrding to rhee~ dgta it is impo~~;,b1~ to d~termirn~ on wh~e lev~l eh~ carve should be disconeinu~d or infleee~d ~nd in each r~~ismic zone 3t ia neceseary to propose the possibi.lity of a farce-9 ~arthquek~. The r~currence rat~ of the earthqualces which ia clo~e eo tru~ ~an bp obtained only for broAd (a minimum o� eens of thousands squ~r~ kilamptere) ar~as, and the ar~a df destructive tr~more Cof fdree ~ or mor~) in the CggE of forc~ 9~nd force 10 earehquakeg ueually i~ a tdtal df 6,500 Co 8,000 kmZ. 'Chie ~reatly lowers the applied signif icance of t1~r. indic~ted methode during seismic dereilin~ nnd micr~regionalization. = Yu. V. Riznichenko emphasizes thae Che dependence of K on the activity is nf n general nature and is almoat identical fdr nllmo~ the seismic regions - wcal;ly nnd highly active. Therefore the moat difficult problem is di~semination of the poesible intensity of the earthquakes which requires ~athering of historic material over Che longest possible time (Risnitschenko. ' 1973) . t,ie have already demonc~trated (Solonenko, V. , Khromovski~:h, 1974) ~ thr~t ~ven for such a seismic region that is rich in seismoatatistic~l data ~~s the Caucasus, the Riznichenko method can givp distortions of the true pi~ture as g result of incompleteneas or nonequlvalent seismostatistical dat~h. In particular, on the KmgX map of the Caucasus (Riznichenko, Dzhibladze, 1972) the K-16 isolines cut the seismic zone of the main Caticasus �ault (insufficient information!) which is unique with respect to paleoseismogeological data, and the seismic danger of the Tbilisi region (K-17, that is, more than force 10) is high (the relative redundancy of the informntionl). There is no doubt thaC using paleoseismogeological data would make it poasible significantly to refine the K~aX map of the Caucasus. Thc prediction of powerful earthquakea by seismic cycles pr~?osed by 5. A. :edotov (1968) at firat glance appears enticin~. At the present time this has served as the reason for broad popularization of the method. - For large seismic zones it can be and is applicable, but within the limits - only of theoretical-reference goals. In order to predict seismic danger for a specific local section, it is more than risky to use this method. "The main assumption of this procedure is the hypothesis of constancy of [h~ seismic regimen. Without this hypothesis, it is impossible to determine [he recurrence rate of the earthquakes" (Fedotov, 1968, p 137). Neverthe- less~ it is well known that we cannot talk about constancy of the seismic re~;imenfor the local areas (the earthquake prediction used in practice is expedient ~nly in the case where we can). 47 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR OF~'ICIAL US~ ONLY y. A. l~eclc~~nv r.nnHicir.zH th~tC for Che J~panese-Kamch~Cka secCion of Che 1~,7~~ifir~ hc~cr~n ynnr thc~ ~v~ra~e ~furatinn oC Che ~eismlc cvcl.e (ehe time I~r~Wnr~tt fw~~ rv~rllih~int~~~~ r,f. mnximiim fnt~rr~ M�,~7��1/4) 1ra 14f1+fi0 vrnrn. Thr nv~~i�ii~;~~ ~lul�~~I l~~n ~~I ll~~~ IurrNliurlt ~ncl riCrerNl?uc~le l~~~r1~uIH tr? I~ Yl!l1CH en~~l~. !t tp propn~ed tha~t nErer n powerful earChquake and powerf~l aftershock n"nnrmnl" sei~mic regimen ariaea, of course, without d3snstrous earth- - qunkeg in t1~e center zones (their dimensions are up to 100X50~ km; see ~~dotov, 1969, Fig 1, but the fact rhat this is not the case is obvious frnm the dnta on eh~ zone investigated by S. A~ Fedotov. Near Lake Hakknido in 1894 there was an earthquake with P4>8 and consequently, in the "cenCer zone" a subaequent earrhquake with 2i~7~3/~i could be ~xpected (wiCh an average duration of ~he seismic cycle of 143 years; see redoeov, 1968, p 124) only at the beginning of the 21st century~ Actually, on 4 t4arch 1952 the disastrous earehquake occurred M=8,6~ aad in 1971~ with tiQ7.2. The latter earthquake cannot be considered as an aftershock of the 1952 earthquake (latel), nor as a foreshoc~ of the nexC maximum earthquake (early!). From the pracCical point of view it is enti.rely _ indiEferent whnt this "seismic cycle" element is; the epicenter was locnted nearer to the island Chan the epicenters of 1394 and 1952 and, consequently, although "nonmaximal," the earthqual:e could turn out to be morc lilrmful than the "maximal" enrthquake with the epicenter located far.ther from ehore. On the Kii Peninsula in 1954 there wer.~ two "most powerful earthquakes" in a 24-hour period (Richter, 1963; p 546). On 7 December 1944 and _ 20 Uecember 1946, two maximum earthquakes occurred in th~ same "center zone" (M=8.3 and 8.4) with close epicenters. Earthquakes (M-E.3 ar.d S.6) with merging center zones occurred near - Honshu Island on 23 October 1894 and 31 August 1896. It is possible ta present a number of other examples both with respect to the Pacific Ocean and other less active zones, r~here the duration of the seismic cycle - "is many hundreds of thousands of years" (Fedotov, 1968, p 126). The lat- ter immediately �excludes Che possibility of the applicaCion of this method _ for the ma~ority of seismic territories (80 to 90% of the seismically active area of Siberia). How canfusing this method can be in its ~ractical application of earth- quake forec:asting can also be seen in the example of our Baylcal seismic zone. For its greater part it is necessary to consider the earthquakes ' witti M,6.5 (force 9~~nd more) "maximal." During a decade there should be on the average three such earthquakes over an area of 221,000 km2. In - reality, in 1957-1967 theie were five earthquakes ~aith M=6.5-7~9; of them, three (Nyul:zha, M=6.,~; Olekma, *t=6.5; and Tas-Yuryakhskoye, _ M~7) were in an area of less than 500 km2. - In the vicinity of the Selenga River delta over an area of about 1,000 km2 , three "maximal" earthquakes occurred in a century; 12 January 1862, Porce 10 (Pts7-3/4), 26 November 1903 force 8-9 (ri"6-1/2), 29 August 1959, ' force 9(M=6-3/4), and their zones af destructive tremors (�orce 8 and - hi~;her) overlapped each other. 48 FOR OFFICIAL i'JSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 P~it t7YpiC1Ai. U5~ ANLY Al i uf the existi.n~ a?~thnd~ ot anr~lynis and fore~a~tin~, vf the seismi~ candi[i~ne nr~ ael~mnntntlRticnl, but th~ ps~leot~eisrno~yentop,i~a1 methnJ lir~a the pa~at,bi 1 ity of obtaininq dr~ta about th~ gtron~eat Qarthqual:rg in n mor~~ prelonped timc~~ period, Theref4rQ the determinetinn of thp r,~xinu~l enrtliqunke~ must be r.amptex wich r~apect tn AhiAmal~qicnl end palro~etamo- KCQI~y,ical d~tn~ '~he mnp Qf the maxir+wl e~rthquek~~s en~i their ~Vef~Ke ~lonY rnngc) r~ccurrence rnt~ mugt bc m~tclied with th~ ~~iemngeole~~i~al dr~[~, aithout ahich no mnp ~nd n~ forec~~t enn be r~ecoP,nized as antinfsr.tory innsmu~h the eeismic pracees i~ n qeotaqicgl pr~c+~ss, vhi~h i~ facp,ott~n c~r not considered tn qenerel by t6~~ atu~,~ority a[ aeir~molaqiste, Kesrntch E'rocedut'e PirRc of all it ie nQCeeRnry t~ ~onsider that the paleosr.ismng~o~ogi~~l ~~hRCrvntiQns ~re r~ camponent port nf the ~rnapl~ex Qei~ulogical, s~iarao- _ ge~~lopi~:nl dnd qeephy~sir,al 14tU~iQB. in tf~c~ ~nsg uf r~giAnel ~nd detnilQd K~~isr~ir. reqionnlizoti~n, nnd in thc esp~ecially highly ~~i~taic zdne~ evcn durin~ mfcr4.rrgioneliaAtian ~E4r morc~ prec~s~ det~erminntt4n of the - tnitinl calc~~lnted fbrce) it 1A neceas4ry to cn~am~nsx or~ag nf tena ~nd hun{ir~,d~ o! tt~oueends ~nd ev~n morc thdn n million aquere Y.itrnneter~ - r+ith [hc~ p~lc~oseismogcol4qi~c~1 ~bgervati4ns, It irs natur~l th~t t~iChout pr~elir~innry ~eriouR c~nd c~snprehenstv~e prep~rntions for field etudt~es in ~uch ar~e7a it is poRRib14 tA search un~ucc~ssfully Ear tacrrc thnn 1 yenr f~r ~?~leoReteawdinlottt[ions, Thcrefore, durin~y the palcoseiRawqenloPic41 Atudfes~ they hnve themselves been divided into the Eolloti+ing st~p,es. 1. Prc~l iminary [.eboratory Pcepuration _ Accurding tc~ the selerstioet4tiRticgl. historicot-c~rchaeolopical~ seisawlQp,ical, ~e~~logic_ri~ s~nd qeophysicnl., $eor~rpholoKical and other materials (depend- tng on lacnl conditions) the Areas oi probnblt manifestation of powcrful - ezrthqu~k~s have been isolated. and in them, in accordanc~ vith the proposed ~r knvc+n type of seisrrwgeneratinq structures, the geosaorphological and e?~gir,eering-geologi~al conditions, the aec[ions oE morc probable sppenrance ~f reRicli~l seiRmo~e~ic ~deformacions. 2. Uecn~ling ot Aeri~l Chotographs Pr~r th~s [RQlated regiona decodiny, of the aerinl phocoRr~phs tak~e~ plece. 'Phc� opt ia.zl Rcnl~e uf the phoeoqranhs is 1:300~0. On [hc 1:60000 scalc phutny,rnphs, 4s our mnny yearR of experience have demoru;trated, frequently tht~ am~ll seiRraodisloc4cionss do n~t find expressiQn ot they are difficulc ~sr ir~posxible to distin~uish from the photoeffect~ of other taorphosculptureg~ c~xp4ri~11y in fores:~d nre.~a. The l.~rqe-ec~lc photagrsphA ate decoded for th~� K~ec[lonK of ptcviously i~vlAted structures And in the case of tf~tir ar:rovlsu~l ex~raination end field documen[ation. ~ 49 POR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 pOEt OppiC1AI. U~~ dNi.Y in Qrder tn abtain ~r~e1 iminary r~uantitgtive parttm~eter~ of the ~ei,~modi~l~ca- ti~n~ tt iR n~c~+~s~ry to p~efacm inetrwnent prores~ing af ,~e ph~td~r~ph~. it !a r99y fnC the t14t1!lpQC~~l~~t to manter qu~ntit~tive decoding on ~n interp~r~~~gcon~. ic t~ imp~rtAnt that the parci~tpanr~ in the ~~!i~mo,ppalo~irdt etudi~en knna hoa to abtain AE~'i`t?A@EEQCtt~ without a atereoecope, qr~atly~ ~ ~r,celprgtes the ex~eninntic~n af the phr~taqrr~ph~ (e~nd for ane field sse~,son it i~ nrcesn~ry co examine thounendg or tpns af thaUA~ndg nf them), i~� mhke~ tt po~~tbl~ t~ tnake full Ug~ ot thQ ph4to~r~phs dire~tly in the Cield ~nd soaaetin~e~ to con~idQr [he dc~tnils af the ~eisnwgenic and nc~n- seism~genic r~orrhosculpcures which rannot be cauqht with ~n ordinary gtereoR~op~ (the photoqrephs are bent for thin purpoee). Thr r~s~ult~ nf the decading are plntted on torographic niape c~n ahich gero- vlaunl rout~s atli b~ drevn, Aerovisual Observationg h~er~~viRUat obs~rvetions munt be performed not only in the sections of ~r~pvaed pr~leoaeismodt~lore[ions isolr~ted by the aerial photographs, but atao in the ~ercionr~ of poasiblr activc ~eismogenic atructures i$alAted in ncrordrlnce aith the geological-geophy~ieal d~ta: in ronnectinn aith the concittianA of the die~uesion during the ~nerial phntograph assembly som~- ttmeu even highly diatinctive s~iemodisloCations are not recorded on [he pi~ocoy,raphs or are vcry unclesrly expressed. Previously in rNmote areae wc performed the ~erovi~ual observationn on the AN-2 or YaK-12 eircrnft~ nnd in nearby arens, espectally during Rround field o~erAtions, on the Mi-1 Ar the MI-4 helicapters. Nos+ the ?t1-2 turboprop helicopter is the most cnnventent for these purpoeee (When flyi~g over seismodislocations nt ndmissibly lrnr xpeede). With some akill wo observers (on the helicopters _ ;4I-l, M[-2 or from the copilot's seat on an aiYCraft and the 1tI-4 helicopter, even one observer ) usu~lly are able to see the details of thP cwrpho- ' - sculpturea indicating their eeiemogenic or noneeismogenic nature, to plot the seisruodislocation plen and the plan of the accompanying phenrnnene on thc s~~p, detcrmine the type of etruc[ure, gpproximately, and its pacameters (crnc~k atdth, .~mplitude of vcr[ical and horizontal disPlrrcem~nts, and so on)~ to tr~ke photographs and rnake recArdings, to note the tfaces of the p,round r,~~prooch to the atructure c~nd toqeth~?� With the ~ilot, select the ne~rs~pc lnndinR ai[e suiteble for 14nding the helicopter. - 4, Nic1J Cxamination and Aocuments[ion lturtnc; the field examination it is nec~essAry first of all to be convinced ` c?f t}~e rseismogenic nature of the morphosculpture isol$ted on the basis ~f tlie rertnl phatographs and aer~visual obsQCV~tions. A[ firs[ glance this atmpl~ prohlec~ often re~uires sharp obaervotion on the part of the y,coloPist ~nd free orientntion in [he problems of tectonics. geomorohology, enp,ine~rinA geoloAy~ field lithology~ petrogrAphy, end so on. . 50 POR OPPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 p01t UNpiCiAL U~~ t~NLY 'Chr broY.en nnd plicqtive ~tructure~~ $ravitationai defnc~aatibn~ ~nd Cnr.i~s a~ the ~edtments ~~n be A con~equence not nf che eeiamogenic hut other proc~as~~ (4olonenko, V., 1962b; 196b~ p 33). 7't~r fn 1lnwtnq rnn reaemh 1 ~ gei~mod~forn?~tion~ s 1) Ps~ud~t~ctanic ,~~iat~ frequently developed alon~ th~ enei~nt f~ultg g~d ter,tnnic ,~dintg volcenn-tectonic dame~ gnd d~epeee~ion,~, exotpcEonir (di~piric ~nd ~in~ii~r structurp~~ exnfolding in the river valleyg), ~nhydridn- ~Yp~Ud1 LlCt011~CB~ Sointg of mud volcenoeq, ~nd in rare e~~ea, ~gtral ~tr~cture~ of ineteoriti~ cr8terg~ the ~dints in th~ folding nf the he~ds of che bede, exogenic 18ndalipr, gubsidence trenrheg ~nd ~ediments of the elopee, lsndslipg, l~ndglides, including rock, cannected aith them. - tn th~ CAUranug cce ~ncountered curioue exog~nir fdrn~g re~drded ant unly by aerigl photographs d~ring aerovieuel oba~rv~tion~, but glgo nn the fir~t grnund expeditionr ~e reisnwgenic faults thege are th~ upp~r ed~;e~ nf canyons [illed aith the landelip ma~g (the vicinity of Amtkel Lake) or encien[ nlluvium (the kolkhid foothills on thpiGoredi4tiver ~nd ~n~t of it). The edg~ di the canyon itgelf excellently eimulates a fnult q~nrp, and che subeidence jointe, thQ accotnpanyin~ seiaeateetanic ,jointg. ttoreover, in the walle of euch joit?te, the slip surfaceg _ wrre forned in placeg With striaCion of the gcrike-slip fautt type. Only det~iled investigacion (in the latter rase~ h~s made it poesible to escc~blinh that the general direction of th~ "structure" aas decermined by the edge of the ancient ranyon longitudinnl to the ridge, and the diBplacemenc in thc couree of thp eubsidence of part of the blocks in the direction of the modern cenyons tranaverse to t~~e ancient ones, created ~n illusion of ~hift. inasmuch as the subsidence ~oints qo deeper tl~en the mod~rn ~urface of the nncient nlluviuia, in placegdisplaceoreotoookplace under - compresaion conditione, and ~rooving and slip striations occurred on the valls of the ;oints in the liaestone; 2) ~laciol and nival forcaatione: lateral, radinl ~nd especially raarginai channels, preseure rtw raines accompanied by glaciel dialocationa (~specia:ly overthrubtg and large glacial erratic ma8aes), groovea on the ehoulders of the trough valleya, subglacial holla+s, multistory valleye, longitudinal ranparts of lateral moraines on the slopes of the valleys, fluvio~lacial forms of relief, nival trougha and eWells, and so on. Thc periglacial fields of the earth conee, somet Lnes the cones of the soffoxion-subsideace relief cnn be eimilar to the seismically excited enrth nvdlenches and atreams with regpect to morphosculpture. The ~ Rei~a~ogenic forraations differ froai the latter, as aaa noted above, by the nreqence of spoutin~ channelo ahich are established on excavating the cones; 3) The erosion foros, including the rnud flov canyonn, the runoff troughs, e8pcci4l ly in the field sric!~ large tectonic f ointing ahen hollorr massive-- Peeudotectonic forms of relief are created; 51 POFt OPPICIAL USE OHLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 p0~t C~pptCtAL U5~ ONLY 4) ~x~~enic-~r~vitntidnnl fdrm~ (lefld~lide~, land~lipg, lnndglide ~nd 1anJslip trench~e~ uhich ~ometime~ create thp illuainn of eei~mogenir ghearine of the m~unt~in cc~p~ ne~r the ~orries ~nd horn peak~); _ 5) ~orrns df gelected denudation prepared contact~, includittg te~ta~ti~, veined hndie~, in the ~rid end semiarid land~ca{~e zotteg, d~fintion fnrmg Whieh ~r~ th+~ gh~rp~~t on cdincid~nce of thp ~crikp of g aeak lgyer or ~ Jetritug, zen~ Ntth prev~iling dire~tion ~f che uind; 6) Und~r permaf.rost ronditiong roelting of che v~eined iee, ~~lifluction saellg dnd mountain terrare~, che front.~l ew~li~ of the rork gtreamg, ~nd ~prtng ~offo~ir~n rille; 7) Artifi~iat ghape~ ancient irrigation gystems and oth~r hydrd- enE;inp~rin$ etructur~~, ritual ~nd other path~, ancient def~nsiv~ ~tru~- tue~~ ahich can ~xtend tens and hundr~ds of. rilometers (the GenghiB Kh~n r~mparc in South~en~cern Tranebaykal and Horth~r~ rtongolia), ~ometimeg mr~ktng ~ood uge of the t~~ctenie scgrps in the r~li~f, under~round wor4:ings, r~nd ao on. _ With the expansion of the eeismog~ologiral ,~tudies in the various geologi- - c~l-~eomorph~logical and landsrgp~ zones, the liet of pseudog~igmngenic furms, of cnurse~ Will be expended, but the qualified seismogeologistg aili digtinguish the seiemogenic formacions from similar forn~ationa nf ocher genegis Withaut ~error if not by aerial photogrephs and aeroviaunl nbgervations, then by ground observations, although (in rare casea) ic is lmpo~~ible to do this aith certainty aithout c~ining operations. Thi.a is ahy in the initial, stages of the development o: che procedure we Warned against excess involvement of paleoseismogeology (Solonenko, V., 1962b). Unfortunately, at the present time reports and articles have appeared on ti~e problems of paleoseismogeolo~y based on the published data, sometimes reinforced by deciphering the aerial photographs. This~ of course~ is an easy~ quick aay to accumulate information, but it is the shortest vay to the grossest errors. Tt~e Reismnj;enic structures arc carefully docuc~ented: a general seismo- j;ec?ic~Fical ~lnn and the most detaileci eeismogenic deforraations With its morphometry are compilcd. The relaci~~n of the seismogenic Eormations to t{ie tectonic structures and Reological foraiations of the area has been discovered. The age and force of the ~ea~~hquaYes and algo the potential seismic activity of a large morphostructure or part of it Within the limits of ahich they have developed, and the moat probable sections of reRidual deformations and probable paths of movement of che seisnagenic ~ landslipx, earth avalanches and streams, and so on, liave been established by coraplex 81$ns. In the case of detailed regionalization and microregionalization in the _ vicinity of paleoseismodislocations, teraoorary seismic stations have - been set up to determine the degree of modern seismic activity of the 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ FbR ~ppICLAL U5~ ONLY ~trurtur~, cierth nnd mechani~m of th~ C~nter~ and th~ ~olution of other qriamnqenl~qieai prnbtc~m~, Nhen orgenizing eeiemoingical ob~ervati~ne, ag uur experience hag demon- ~tr~t~d. it i~ n~cesaary to consid~r chet th~ younger end mor~ pow~rfui th~ ~~i~mic dielocetion~, th~ loaer their modern s~igmic activity. Por ex~mpl~, in th~ pdwerful Chin~-V~1c~t~i;aya atructure obviously foctn~d on 1~ebrunry 1725, only dne epicent~r Wae re~ord~d in 196~-1964. The powerful zone of young sei~mi~ diglocatinn~ on the apgtern shore c~f Baykgl ' is ~1i~htly activey Ther~fore, in guch seismic dialoeation~ it is ne~~ss~ry to plnnnere prolonged sei~mic observntions than in th~ diglocationg with an age of a~ny hundrede or a feo? th~usand ye~re. _ During the period since the time of firat ueilizatlon of ti~e residual epismogenic d~for~tiong to diecover the seir+mop,enic tectonic ~truct~res and ~picentrel zonea of powerful earthqunkes, the correctnes~ of the p~leoseismog~ological method hes be~n confirmed both by subeequent spiemic eventR and the reeulte of our application of iC and ite application in almoet all highly seismic xonea of the world. Thus, in the northeaetern pnrt of the Baykol seismic belt noted at the end of 1956 (Plorenaov, et nl., 196A), eartfhquakea occurred: Muye 27 June 1957, force 10-11 (M=7.9); Nyukzha 5 January 1y58, force 9(ft~6.5); Olekma 14 5eptember 1956, force 9(M�6.5); C~ntral Baykal 29 August 1959, force 9(M~6-3/4); Tes-Yuryakhekoye 18 January 1967. force 9~10 (t1=7), for Eorce 8(?t~S-3/4-6) and more than 30 of force 6 to 7. The paleoeeismogeological studiea in the Central Asian and Caucasian seismic provinces demonatrated that such earthquakes ns Payzabad, Ashl�tiabad, Khait, Chkhalta and othera t+hich turned out to be unexpected, anomalous Eor seismic regions distinguiahed With respect to seismo- statistical, instrument and geological dat~ occurred in areas ~shere therc are paleoseismogeological traces of the same type or even more powerful earthquakes (Solonenko, V., 1970b, 1972a, b, 1973a-c; Trifonov, 1971; Solonenko, Khromovskit;h~ 1974; Nikonov, 1974). On the other hand, ithas been eatablished that at times the seismic danger or probable recurrence rate of seismic disastera is unreasonably high (Solenko, V., 197$). The paleoseismogeological method is still the most reliable method of determining maximum earthquakes (aith M>,6.5) with crustal centers and thcir average recurrence rate and the only method for determining the potentinl seismic danger of aeismologically uninvestigated territories and Wiien reconstructing the geological history of the development of the seismic processes. Paleoseismogeology has at the present time such a strong base that it is impossible to shake its foundacion, and only people Who are unfamiliar With the reaulta of the investigations of the pleistoseism regions of. p~erful earthqunkes of the highly seismic belts of ~urope, Asia, Africa, Ye~,r Zealand, North and South America, can doubt its effectiveness. 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~~x drxictnL us~ orn.Y The pnleoBei~mo&~olo~icgl methnd ha~ b~~n ~u~firi~ntly well cheCked oue that it cnn b~ included in Chp mgndntory ~et of criterig for ~aubgt~nti~eing thp geiemic rpgional, detailed and microregionalizgtinn mapg. Disc~seidn We h~ve alre~dy nor.ed (Solon~nko, ~1., 1973e) that the paleo~eigmdgeoingical meth~d has nnt been ~ubje~ted to subgtnn~Ciated criticiam. Moreover, ~om~ of th~ sp~ciali~te in ad~acent acience~ with seiamogeoingy have ~aeily Come to detect paleoaeismodislocations wh~re Chey cannoC oCCUr or takp formntions of other genesis for them dr to us~ the mpthod to discover enrthquake epicenCers in ancient (before th~ arch~an) s~riea, and so on. 'fherefore, at the beginning of the development of the method it was emphasized that excessive uge of the proposed method can do it greater hnrm thnn unqualifi~d criticism (Solonenka, V., 1962b). We t~nve conetanCly emphasized Chat the palenseismogeological method ie ~ component part oE the complex geologicel-geophyaical mpthod of determining the level of seismic ar~ivity of aeismogenerating morphostructures. The gtntement that "in the w~rks of certain Siberian scientists the paleo- seismodislocatioas have been taren as a barely unique geologic~l _ criterion of seiamicity" (Petrushevskiy, 1967, p 65) is based on misunder- standing. In our publications on the aeismicity of large regions the mnin body (G/5) of works deal with the geological, ~eophysical and aeismologic criteria of seismicity. The quite ordinary ob~ections of our opponents include: 1) residual deEormations can occur during slow movements of the earth~s crust; 2) resid~sal deformations are noC tectonic, but gravitational formations; 3) it is i~rpossible to determine the intensity of the earthquakes by the size of the seismodislocations. 1. The occurrence of deformations of the earth's crust without perceptible - earthquakes morpholoAicall.y similar to seismic dislocations is actually possible (see p 51). However, the paleoseismogenic structures have been discovered, as u rule, not by one sign, but by a set of signs. The combination of seismotectonic and (or) gravitational-seismotectonic deformations with seismogravitational is the most reliable. The slowly - developing deformations are not accompanied by gravitational ones which could be taken as seismogravitational. 'fhe seismo~enic deformations, as a rule, are under �geomorphological conditions such that preservation of slowly developing ~oints is impossible (sec p 43) . 2. Some ~pponents, who have not seen seismic dislocations in reality doub[ thetr ~eismotectonic nature and try to show (not by fact, but by subjec[ive ' notions) that they have a gravitational or seismogravitational nature. 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~dtt n~FYCIAL U5~ ONLY ~r.~2`p4~~j . ' � .tj~"~ f�t_ ~r1e ~a ~ I i~ S"~ ~ ? " . ~ ~ 1J+ ~ ~ 4 . ~ .r : ~ ~ ~ , . : ~ " ~ ~7 . . . , _ . i ~q~i~~~,' R. . ; ' T~~T `.y . . ~ . ~ ~ ,~'j~ ~ ~ ~ t-:f ~ , � :'d z '~a ~tr... . . . . d~ yt t',~ . .i . ~ T ~ ~ . . . . . ~'~$"~'s~y`y-}~ ~ '~Y.~ 4F . ~ f . i � .,ef" ~ ; ~i L'~ ; ~ . , .fp ~{i ip~9 I tP ~~.f l F ~ r r ~ . 3 � ~ t Y'; ~ MS~~~~ rt3 j`t ` _ r .~7`S i y.~:'9 t i 4- + f-~t` � x~: . ' fa , y : r fi. ~ ~ ~ i , ~ ,~~1 -~~*~.t~*'~e~'ii sT ~~~1`y .fi ~ . ~ ~ ~e'~ t t dn t ~ ~ ~N . , , ; ;,,r ,~k ~~N {~~_Y ~ ~ .;5 ~ y^~ i� . ~ ~r . ~ . y ~{P~`~} ~ ' ..'~'.~i i . Y~y 's1 .1 f & ; . . . i,.~ ~ ~ xt ~i Ca" :r~ ~ 1 i . P~ ! ej', ~y' . .i f,~- 7'. t~ ~ ~ . t ~ � . . ~-T c.i..~. ~ . . ~f -iC~Y"a i ~ ~ t : - . f y j ~ ~ , ~ ; t ) i ~ r ~r�. - ~ ? i . , , r j... . ~ . r 's~. s .+f #'~~t ~ - e:i. � . .I~.: Z~ e`~~f. ~ ~c~ _ . ? _ ~~r'~ , . Figure 9. Seismogenic Structure of Abal;ura in Svaneti a. Strike-slip Normal Pault in Crystalline Rock. Photograph by V. P. Solonenko 55 FOR OFFICI.IL USE ONL.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 h'Ok qF'F'IGiAL U5~ nNI,Y Such ide~~ gr~ the le~~Cy d.f the d1d view~ Chgt the r~~idu~l d~forn?~tinn~ pert~in only tn the loose cov~r edil, Thp Gobi-Aleay ~~rthqugk~ fin~llv r~fured such idea~, buC pffnrC~ ere made to revive them in one form ar nnoCh~r from Cime to time. Ie i~ ~ympComatic that nmong the proponene~ of th~ ~urf~ce nntur~ ~eiemndigloc~tidn~ Wp do not know a gingl~ author _ who has examined even onp disastrou~ ~arthquak~. The irr~fue~ble f~ce~ cnnfirming ~hp teCeoniC ngCur~ of gpismodislocaCiong ar~ available in ag lnrg~ ~ numbpr one might lik~, and nlmoer pv~ry tt~w ~arthqual:e wiCh M>6.5 ~nd a cru~Cgi cent~r incr~~~pg thp numb~r of guch factg. Th~ - compnrieon of thp m~chanigm of the mdv~menC di the e~rth'e cruat cnnnpcted with p~rthquakes determined by seigmogeological gnd seigmo- ingic methodg (Balakin, et al., 1972), of course, if Che s~iemodiglo~~tiona - were comptetely and qualifi~dly mapped, is in itself irrefutable proof of th~ d~ep ngtur~ of seiAmodiecloations. W~ pncr~unt~red, perhap~, the most active desir~ Co refuCe the tectoniC nature of the dislocationg nfCer their diecovery in the greater Caucgsue. 'Che Jiscuseion in this area only inhibits the developmenC of paleoseisfio- beological research in the Caucasus without subatantiation. Th~refore we shall present two examples. dn che left side of the Tsintskali River Canyon (15 km east nf the Inguri llydroelectric Powerplant), the Kvira structure has been mapped (~ig 9). ~rhis is a fault extendin~ about 2 km with vertical displacement amplitude i7 ti~e Jurassic sandstone-tufogettic soil. A one-sided graben hae been formed on its southern section (60X500 meters). The fault cut through 5 channels of temporary streams previously flowing into the Tsintakali River, and it aent their f1oW together with the waters of a group of powerful springs aseociated with the seismodislocations through the bro~:en d~.vide into the Dzholori River. Two large landslips are connected with the structure. Inasmuch as the structure cuts the divide along the - diagonal, it is not appropriaCe to talk about its landslide origin. On tlie divide of the Inguri and Khumpreri Rivers in Svanetia, Che seismo- ~enic strike-slip normal fault (the Abakura structure)rQjuvenated the previous deep Er,~cture (hyperbasitea with aulfide minerAlization are tied to it in tf~e structure zonea). The strike-slip normal fault (amplitudes 0.5- 20 and 50 meters respectively) 3.7 km long intersects the divide diagonally (Fig 10). The fracture is continuing to absorb clastic material. - The depth of the closed absorbing swallow holes reaches SO meters. A line of powerful landslips is coordinated with the zone (on its continua- tton to the easC and west). .1ust as in the first case, the gravitational nature of the Abakura structure has been excluded. 3. The intensity of the earthquakes with respect to seismodislocations is determined, as a rule, quite reliably (some examples are presented in Table 1)by conversion in terms of magnitude (according to formula (2), p 12). 56 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ` I~OIt Ot~PICIAL USL OM.Y u ~ ~ a u 00 a r, M N !V N N ~ n ~ ^ r'1 QI w w w w rl Y~~1 01 ~ v r.~r ~ Vl ~D 00 rl ~..r r..~ ~rl ~ pD 11 Q) w rl ~ ~ .G ~7 f~ M Q~ ~ V1 4! - H M � � . . ~ M ~7 W ~O .C 00 00 00 t~ OO 1~ I~ ~ ~~-1 p, ~ w ~j ~ o, ~ v ~ o~ ~c r~i ~n ~i - � � � � � � w 00 CO 00 1~ CC f~ f~ CS .~6 D1 r G ~ G~! .!L ~ � t~A m u~ ~ u r~l ~~-~i ~ n Q 1~+ ~ Cl tA ~rl O.G O~ tlf tn 0! ~-1 .C .C M O'?'~~ .G .C O N OHO w ~ a u q r, ~ u o m ~ 8 ~ ~ ~ w ~ w v M a n~i �7 W ry M rl rl r~l .14 W ~-1 rl rl � w I W 1+ O(~ 1+ tA 41 M v~1 W j~ ~ ~ 1~ M 1+ v ~ ~ O ~O ~O .G ' M GI O M ~rl ~ L u ai rr (3. Ud ( iJ u ~.1 (11 .~i M fA .1L 61 .1~. ~.1 ~.Yi l.l � w ~ 1-1 ~ GI p. r~l ~1 W O~rl ~ M r-1 M~-1 M~-/ N1 E-~ 'L7 rl ~ H~ M CL 'L~ 1+ 1+ "�1 F+ "J w w~p w ~o ro ~ ro .c a ~ .c a, ro ro c+ o ~ tA W Vf W tA O M RI L tA W tA W tn W e-1 R ~ Ml .C ~ al O 01 TI ~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ o�~i a ?-i u M d.C N ~ ~H G ~ L (b w N R t~'p ~ D cV ~ 1 v ~ N 1�~ 1 C~ ~ ro~"~ ~O ~Cl O O u1 . 'L7 u'1 " N ~T N ~-1 01 O O M tq ~ ~ ~ ^ OQ w A M ~ .~C ~ w w ~ . � M ~ C~ ~ ~ ~ q1 M W ~O ~-1 ~ A+ w ~ 1~ 'O c~r1 ~-~1 ro W v'b .-1 ~ G! C p: ~ u d ~ a '~C ld,+ '-7'1 01 N w ~ ~ C T .G 00 ~ W N v~ o E~ v~ cn ~ ~ q ~ u a.~c ~ C? L � +"+o.i a ~ u d o. d.t M - ~ ~ ~ ~ ^ 1r O �w 01 ooe~x ~ ~ y ~ o~ ~c o~ m ~ ~ v F+ V1 u1 ~o ^ ~-1 C~ ~G r-1 C.~ o' Q 41 01 O~ C~ C~ d ~ ~ TI ti-I w a~i = rl ~-1 .-1 .-1 .G S.~i u ~ tU M W O ~ CI a~? 7 ~ � O o'~y v ~ ~ G! ~'~,1 7 u~vf 1.,i 1 a ti a o ~ a o~ r~ ^ y~v ~4 r. N N ~ ~ ~ P'1 57 POR OPFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ox n~~icini. us~ oenY . . y m ~M ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ n x ~ f ~ iri ~ M M ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ Fi ~ 'L7 _ (.~j M ~ ~ ~ ~ - N w w ~Mr+ ~ M ~ ' ~ ~w Q � ~ ~'i, ~ ~C C~ ~ ~ W t~ ~ $ - ~ ~ ~ ~C NO 6! ~ ~ !i y ~-1 � C~ 1-1 Zi+ ~ N ~ 'r y ~ ~ ~ w~ ~�w w O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ w ~ N �w w * ~ W q ~ 1.1 1/~ ~ fr1 O~ ~ ~ tJ rl ~Q O~ ~ ~ aD ~-1 O '~7 _ ~ tl ( ~ ' ~ m ~ ~ ~ ~ LJ w~ G ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ lQ R~ ~3 CS O lG e _ .Owl C!M 00 0~ ro a ro y w Q1 i ~ G~ItA O~f~ � � . ,O �U O ~ ~ ro g ~ ~ 4~ ~ I R ~ ~ ~ a~i u~N~ m � . d ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 00 � 6' 0~ 4+ ~ ~ A ~b ~ ~ �c o ~ p' � O R1 oD u 1~+ . ~ a~ N~ w ~ ~ ~ oou ~ ~ d ~ ~ ~ b ~o u a~ ~j e w e~ ~ ~ b F+ M N+1 Q! ~ 1 M ~ R o0 I ~ O V1 � tJ ~ �w ~ ~ A� ~ Q t0 f~ ~~I O Cf M U1 ~ � ~O ,G y~ ~ ~ � Q~ O ~ L ~-1 ~ M rl ~~-1 O 7 R~ ~ w Q~' w ^ ' `w ~ ~ ~ ~e � w w ~ � w 1'/ R~ �Y q p ~ Iq ~ ~ p r? �~~-1 w d ~ ~ ~ ` ~ 4~ ~ ~b ~ eo p ~~e ~c o~i ro ~ a�o _ � 1 a ~ ~ d.G u co G ot ~o~ >um~vo s:: m� ~ 3+ 'v o ~ q ~ ~ w ~ ~ R ~ ~ f~ ~ ~ ~-1 .C 41 x = .^~j, y~ ~ to Sb R ~ ~ N O�~ O~ c0 ~ u O ~ ~ � w ~J '~C iJ X. ~ ~ L~ YI F'rl 'l7 ~ R a) ~ n ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ Y~ ~D ~ t~ ~ p W f+ ~ f+ O 0! 'O .~C p ti ~ w u~-~+ u uw o~ y.: - . v' ov O u Q+a u o� M a cd cn co b u.e .~a ~ ~ � O ~0 v p ~i " ~ ~ ~ QO oC ~C .-1 ~1 ~ Q~ rl ~ ~ ~ P. T G. � ~ T ri ~I 1~ ~ � 9 r, m N pp C~ ~ ~ N v .1L ~ W ~ O ~�a ~ ~c ~C * 58 t FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR AFFYCIAL U3~ ONi.Y t` ~ ~ f ;-f;~ r; t' t f _~~,f~ ~ . � Figure 10. Kvira Structure. South Slope of the Greater Caucaeus. Photograph by V. P. Solonenko. The ratioa of Ip and M(or K), according to different authors, are within - the limits of accuracy of the analysis (see Table 2). Therefore ehe objections to the determination of the force of earthquakes by magnitude in the absence of corresponding macrosei~ic data in the epicenter are clearly meaninglesg. Nevertheleas, theae ob~ectiona have been encountered in recent yeare ~hen diacuesing the method of compiling the new seismic regionalization map of the USSR. 'Che force index remains and will remain for a long time the base for seismic regionalization for utilitarian purpoeee. For the enormous uninhabited areas or apareely inhabited~areas the determination of the intenaity of earthquakes in the overWhelming ma~ority of casea ie poseible only in = terma of tnagnitude aed seieaadeformationa for stron~ earthquakea. 59. FOR OFFICIAL USL ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Utt n~~ICIAL I15~ ONLY - CNAPT~R II. STRUCTURAL-T~CTONtC 1t~GI0NALIZATION OI' TN~ FR~CEN020IC BAS~M~NT The gtructural-r~ctonic regionallzgtion of Ch~ ~duth~rn part of ~a~tern 5il~eria (~ig 11) was carried nut in ~ccordanc~ wiCh thp formgtional- Htructur~l and tectonic Aigns (time of formation of the etrucCureg, true compo~iCion, peculiaritieg~of lithogenesis, m~tamorphigm, magmatism, fold- ing, pogition in the geogtructural sysCem and the gequence of the transieion Erom the geogynclinal developmenC to platform). The reader will find ~ det~ileJ atructural-tectonic description of the Baykal mountain region in the paper by L. I. Sa1op (1967). Region of Pre-Riphe3n Folding . In the southern pnrt of the 5iberian platform a moat ancient folded base- ment is mnst completely repreaented in the Cerritory of the Aldanskiy Shield. The outcrope of the pre-Riphean tectonic complexes on the surface, their geological atructure and metamorphism indicate the complex heterogeneous structure of the lower platform sta~e, the greater part of whi~ch is covered under a thick mantle of slightly dislocated Paleozoic _ and !lesozoic seriea. Aldan Shield The age of the most ancient Aldan metamorphic complexes (the Iyengrsl;a~?a and pzh~ltulinskaya series) is 2.640 billion to 2.340 billion years (TEKTONIKA YL�'NRAZII (Tectonics of Eurasia], 1966), which permits them to be pnralleled with the saamides~of oCher shields. 'The structures bordering the ancient nucleus on the west and south (the Olel:ng and Stanowy = zones, including the Kodaro-Udokan trough) belong to the Karelian phase of the folding, for the deposits of the Udokan. series are ' penetrated by the synorogenic intrusions of the Kuandinskiy complex of ~ranitoids (1.650 billion years). Severnl stages have been i.solated in the nost ancient history of formation oE the southwestern part of the Aldan shield. In the beginning the Aldan lithoplinth was formed (Dzevanoyskiy, et al., 1968, 1970) made up of the early Archean formations of the Iyengrskaya and Dzheltulinskaya 60 � FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~'OR U~FICrAi. US~ ONLY . geri~g d~Cermining eh~ laCer etru~tur~l level of Ch~ Upper Arch~gtt complexeg of th~ St~nnvoy ~nd Olekma zottes~ '1'he pl~t�oXm atage c~f developmenC oE Chp Aldan ~hield iCsel�, o~hich was ~ub~ected Cn ~aignificnnt reworking diirin~ quh~equenC ~pc~rha of ter.Cnnic ~rci~ario?,, be~~n with Che I,ower !'rc~eerozoic. ThuA, thp weeCern p~~rt oQ Ch~ inveatigated ,territory (Che ' Kodarn-Udok~n. R~gion) served the accumulation baein of the terrigenic- rdrbonnceous bede of th~ Udoken aeries during the Lower Prot~rozoic. 'Th~ pliraCive dislocetion~ of ehe Aldan Shield have been sharrly cor~~pli- cgCed by fracturE tecto~nica. The lgrgesC faulta enter into ehe system of th~ Str~novoy structurp~l surure which extends hundreds of kilometera to the west and the eeet. ~t ia controlled by the basiCe and ultrabasite inCru- siona, a wide band r~f diaphthoritic and ca~aclase rock, crushing and sct~iat- �ormation zones. 'fhe development of the deep atrucCural auturea and large dislocatione with, a break in continuity on each new level of tectonic activation wae n~redetermined to a significant degree by the plan of the ~ncient faulte, and frequently proceeded along the folded substrate not yet touched by the dis~uncCives. All of this together created a mosaic-block structure of the Archean basement, especially broken in the deep fracture zonea. ~eqion oE Baykal Folding The Eolded etructures of Baykalide in Eastern Siberia border the pre- Riphean Siberian platform on the south in arc aeparated from the latter by a syatem of marginaldeep faults. They separate the Angara - prn~ection of the platform into two branches western (Sayano-Yeniaey) and eastern (Baykal itaelf), ~ained together in the vicinity of the southern extremity of Baykal. The Yenisey -Sayan Baykalide region forms a narrow strip extending along the southwestern edge of the Siberian platform. It is divided by the Bol'shoy Sayan fault into two tectonic zones. For one of them, the platform zone, block uplifts of the ancient Baykalide foundation are � typical, and the other, the outer one, is a deep Riphean trough. The occurrence and development of the Aaykal geosynclinal took place in the marginal part of thQ Archean foundation of the pre-Riphean platform which was either partially broken and reworked or was involved in a power- ful geosynclinal procesa. Correspondingly, in the modern erosion section, large and amall blocks of reworked Archean rock~ developed oredom~nantly in the platform parr of Eastern Sayan bounded on the southwest by the main Sayan fault~ emerge at the surface. The Archean structures inside the Baykal geosynclinal tectonic complex itself make up the Garganskaya block isolated at the beginning of the Proterozoic in the form of a stably uplifted block. Later, participating in the qeosynclinal process, it separated the sedimentatian basin into individual aublatitudinnl trougha (Okinskiy, I1'chirskiy). The uplifted Garganakaya block was the nucleus of an anticlinorium. 61 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY ~y ~4 ~3'~/% ~ T ~e ~ '49 ~ , ~o ~ _ (I~{) n~ ~ V I#) ,1 - ~ ~ 6o3~ubo - ~ ' I' � 6pamcr ! 0 I ) , ~ ~ (I) ~ a yr' pl o ~ t ~ \ ~ , ~ ~II) ~ o ~eqa ~ r ( t.. / ~ � ~ ~ ~r~ ~ O � e~"~ ~ ' . I u wo _ ~ pnymcx ':,w . - o.. \u~a~ yna~+- 83 r ~ t Ce~�M=� . , - V Figure 11. Schematic of the Structural-Tectonic Regionalization of the Pre-Cenozoic Basement of the Southern Part of ~ Eastern Siberis. Compiled according to data of A. L. Yanshin (1966) and T. tJ. Spizharskiy (1968) 1-4 region of folding: 1-- pre-Riphean, 2-- Baykal, 3-- Caledonian, - 4-- Hercinian; 5-- mantle of ancient and epiproterozoic platforms; 6-- faults; a-- basic, deep, b-- other, undifferentiated; 7-- Mesozoic basins and troughs; 8-- tnain rift basins; 9-- b~undaries: a-- of the re~ion of Mesocenozoic activization, b-- Baykal rift system. Key: I. Bratsk IX. Lena II. Angara X. Olekma III. Irkutsk ~ XI. Shilka IV. Selenga XII. Chita _ V. Ulan-Ude XIII. Vitim ~ VI. Lake Baykal VII. Vitim VIII. Bodaybo . 62 - FOR OFFI,IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 _ . POIt pPPiC1AI. US~ APtLY The B~ykalide ~c~mpt~x w~s represented by m~etAmorphic rocls m3kin~ up the two lncR~ nynrifnnrin ~Akinskiy, I1'chirskiy) gnd the Khara~r-Dnbansl:iy nnti~:linocium, The net of Proterozoic effusive e~nd ~~dim~ntnry focmationR metnmorphos~d under tfi~ conditi4nx of the green ghale faci~s ~f regionnl metnmc~rphinm and retlecting n deEined P~ntectonic rep,ime aill perrait th~e cnnsi~l~.�ration th~t hare, in the encient Arche~an found~tipn an independent Rn.aKynrl in.'tl ~y~cem ~rose r~nd devQloped. _ The int~rru~l a[ru~tUre Af the synclinorta i~ made up of syumetric anti~lin~ls nnd gyn~lin4ls; che overturned fc~lds sre observed only along the periph~ery nr in contect aith the Archea~ bl4cks. The qeneral sublatituciin~l plen AE ~he folded str~ctures mm~etime~ ie disturbed. 'fhi~ ia explnined eitt~er by the ~fE~~~t ~n~! the reuorking of th~a by the C~ledonian mr~v~m~ntg ar tl~e prim~ocy nAnuniform Qrient4tion of the PrAterox4ic structures cr~u$~d by the folded-bl~~k nnd blq~k ~tructure of the bs$ement ~~ayteev, 1963). Tt~e Khnnuir-Uabr~n enticl inorium is msde up of ~a~rbonsceous rACk af the - mt~~ ~~riex, snd the limbs Were rpade up of gnei,~e uf the Khangarul'sfsAyo s~ri~c~. The t~inge of the anticlinoriwa is undulAting, aavy in plan vie~+, ++ith K~en~eral aublatitudinel striY.e. Its limbs are ma~e up of folds of hiy,t~~r ord~r~ hnving nnalo~ous orientation. . Tf~~ f~nYY~I zone encompaRSes the vestern and eastern B$yknl regiqn (t'rib;~ykul'yeJ, the Bayk.~lo-Patom~koyc highl~nds and a significant part of - che StnnovQy hiqhlAnd~� - Tt~s Arch~enn bASea~ent protrudes in ite nad~rn Rtructurs In the form of K~y~ral blo~ks bbunded by fault~ ~ayknl, *'uys Aa~latRkay~, ~ - 7nd x4 An. The bloc{~.$ sre aiade up of gneiss-shale and carbonaceou~-gneis~a = Rnri~e~ With a t~tal thickne,s~ up t~ 10 to 12 kca (Prolova, 1962). Linear ful~lR Qf predoainantly northeasterly strike are charecteristic for the Ar~h~an aupcrcrystnlline formation, The complication of th~e large fold~d - farm~s by smsiller ones (to miccoplication) snd n~es grani[iz~tion of the r~~ck i+s npt~~ everyHher~, The ~;~en~yn~lin~l compler. Af ~aykalide~ ia "ncoken down into the outer mio- s;c~,Rynclinnl An~f the inner euy,eosynclin$1 zones (TECTA:i1CS AF BURASIA, 19h5). The forraer, in the for~ nf A broad src which i~ convex to the - nnrth, ta lracated alAC~~ the p~riphiry of the Siberir~n nlatforra. Un the ~outh Lt is bound~d by n Aystr_na nf deep fault~ separatiny, the An~Aro and - tht Ald~n pr~o,~ections nf thc platfArra froca the folded Bayisalide system. in th~~ n~~rth its fald~d Atructur~ea con[inu~e po~sibly in the direction of tf~~s ~ilyus~~ya synQClfse. In the outer zone, in addition to the already m~cntioned b1ocY. projections of the $ncient baseraent, a n~mber of large fnld~~d ~~ructures are isolat~ed: ?~e~herskiy, Tonodsk.iy and ChuyaY.iy ant i~l inurin, Nac~xkiy. Ek~daybinskiy and PribAyks~l synclinoria~ Thc~ fnternnl baykAllde aone occupi~es the rentral zone af the Baykal s~r,unt~fn r~~io~, raa~ing upthe broad, zonstructed Barguzino- ` t'i[im synclinoriura, The r~ide of the s~nclinoriwa in ao.ade u~ of a thick E~ 3 pOK OFFICIAL USE OKLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 Ppk OPt'LCIAI. U3~ QNLY (~ip tn 12 krn) ~c~t ~~f. bnnic e[[uaiv~s and [heir tuff~ af ~pilite-keratophyre fnrmnttnn nnd m~tamnrphoeCJ ehnles, sondgtonee nnd lin~atonrs meking uP _ che loacr etructucal ~tnge. Len~ ahaned bodiea of hyperbanite intrusivee are conneeted aith chc f~ult~ af the pre-geykal de~osie separatinE thQ ~ puccr nnd inncr rane~t. Rrginn of Cnledoninn i~~ldiag ~ in aastern Siberia, in acc4rdnnce aith the modern ~conc~ptg (Yanshin, et nl., 196fi; Stizharskiy, et nl., 19~iA), the strip of C.aledonian structures bocders the 3lberinn Bnyti;n).idc reqion ~rom the south (aee Fig 11). The - nr~a of their propogation is bounded by the structural autures nr.hidi~o-Vitim on the northwest and tt~nqola-~khotAk nn the southeast. Out o( the two r~�cles af Celedoni4n folding develApracnt, early and late, _ Anly the former hns found reflection here. The ~e~,synclin$1 regime of - carly Cnledonides begins to be exhibited from the Kiphenn, the completion of it tnkNS plnce at the end of the Middlr and beAinning of the Upper - C,~mbrtnn. Aver the extent of the entire period~ fonaations ha~?e occc~rrgd _ ahich ar~ At~ndard for eArly ste~es in the development of the geosynLlinul re~;inns. The Cnledonides of the investigated ares can be divid~d with respect to _ structural-tectonic peculiarities into tWO parts: Sayano-Altay ~5~rkhuysiriy synclinorium) nnd Trans-Baykal (Dzhida and Udino-Vitim synclinort~m3. ~ Snynno-Altay Zone - The lcnaer Paleozoic structures are repre~ented here by synclinal folds in the tr4ughs ahich are complicated along the perimeter by upthrust faults .ancl overthrusts. The ~edimentary complex of the lower to middle Cambrian - ~effusive-terriRenic and terrigenic-carbonaceous rock occurs on tiie erosion Rurfnce Af the Proterozoic and Archean blocks. ?he ~nst completely Casabrian deposits are presented in the Sarkhoys~iy aynclinorium where the total thickness af the geosynclinal complexly dis- ]orated Reries 1A b.2 I~. Alonp,Withthe isoclinal and syaa~etric folds with - Rteep (7Q-80�) limbs gently sloping folds ~re noted which are made up of (lexures (Vo~.kolEkov,196A; Arsent'yev, Volkolakov, 1964), - The l~er Paleoaoic folding stage turned out to be the final one. The ~ - tectonic structure, the set of formations, magniatisni and metamorphism _ indicnte that here the geosynclinalregirien ended in the pre-Cambrian time. - Tn tlie west the SarkhoyAkiy synclinorium is bounded by the Shutkhulayskiy _ up)ift b.~sically made up of the pre-Bay{%al metamornhic complex belonging to - the rcy,ion of Fiayk.ll folding (T~CTQtiICS QP EURGSIA, 1966) , _ ~ b4 - ~ POx OPFICIAI. USE ONLY J APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 pOR OPpiCIAL US~ ONLY Transbnykal zane 'I'~+n auhr.onee nr~r iRC~l,ited in tl~~ 'Crnnsbayknl zonr. One af them tncompnReine th~ hnain oE thc upper couree oE the Dzhida Riv~r and the left bnnk of the i4dngolian port of the Sel~ng~ River is repregented by the gtructurea of the bzhida eynclinoritnn m~dQ up oE tao ,atages of 'Aend�Cambrian depoeits. 'fhe centrgl end edge parts of the eynclinorium gre made up oE faults end folds of difEerent order. Pirst of all, this pertains to the ~outheaetern limb which is connected with the pxoximity of the active zone of the. bounding deep Eoults (AfanAS'yev~ 1973). Simple linenr fo~ds, in places ieoclinal and overeurned, perticipaCe in _ the internal formation of the synclinorium. The centriclinal closure ta cempliceted by o deer fault with northeasterly ~trike. In the axial pnr[ of the ~ynclinorium a centc~~l nnticlinal is isolated ahich runs from the borde~r, of the USSR with Mongolia to the central course of the Darkhituy - Rtver. 'I'tce ~eoeynclinal developn~ent of the Dzhida subzone itBelf ended in ti~r Ffiddle Cembrian. In Che enst the Dzhida synclinorium becomes the Udino-Vitim (the sec:ond Rubzc~ne) through the basement protrusions. Its boundary runs along the Routfic~xtern slopes of the Khamar-Daban ridge: the Vitimkan and the _ Tsipikan Rivers on the northaest and the central course of the Chil%oy, Ing~da r~nd Tungir Rivers on the southeast. Similarly to the Dzhid$, it occurs on the broken pre-Cambrian found$tion, individual blocks of ~?hi~h _ l~.~ve been retained in the internal geoenticlinal uplifts (Zaganekoy~, Yablonovoye, Malkhans~oye, and so on). Hercinian Folding Region On the Tectonic Map af Eurasia, the region located southeast of the - tlvnRolo-Okhotsk structural suture (see Pig 11) is all consider~d to b~ - part of the eastern Siberian hercinides. However, in the description of - the map it is stipulated that this region hns mixed structural features, _ .7nd the problem of ahether it should be classified among the hercinides ur meso~oidea cannot be considered finally decided (TBCTONICS OP Ei1RASIA, 1966), Ttie geoRynclinr~l coa?plexes of the lower structural stage of the hercinides be~an to be formed in the Ordovician or Silurian, and the end of tfieir formation beiongs to the middle or ttie tops of the *[iddle bevonian (T~~TA~iTCS OP EURASIA, 196b). Begianing with tl~e Devonian and, anprox- _ imately, to the upper Carboni.ferous (in the Aginskiy trough to the Lower Triassic), the complexes of [he upper structural stage Were formed. ~ In tfie trouphs Where the hercinides are deposited, there are silicide- torrigenic and terri~enic formations; in the uplifts, they are supplemented _ Iy volcanogenic, volcanogenic-plutonic diorite-granite and intrusive p,rnnodioritic complexes. h5 FOR OPPICIAL USE OM,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 NUtt 0[~PICIAL U5~ ONLY 'Che fnlded xerie~ in the outll.nes o� the geoAynclinol nre det~rted in the zachikoy~kiy, Dnurskiy, Aginekiy and the Pri~rgunekiy Ravons. A tt~ick (6-7 km) annd-ah~le Zach~koyskaya series oE pre~Permian ege hn~ dev~toped in the 7.~chikoyxkiy Reyon. With re~pect to formr~tions it is ~imtlnr to the Centrnl rnleozoir formations of the Aginskoye field and northeg~tern Mongolia. The rocke oE the Zbrhiwoyskaya series are in pleces penetrated by grenites 395 million to 425 million years old, which indi- - cqtea the possible presence in its compvaition of Lower Paleozoic rock (Kosygin, 1965). In the bottoms of thi~ series the polymictic sandstones predominate. At the top of the section they are replaced by congloneratea _ and striat~d shn~es. The largeat folded forms here are the Aginskiy enticlinorium and the Chikokonskiy ~ynclinorium. A characteristic feature of the Aginakaya structural-formational zone is the fact that here the geosynclinal reEimesihas been retained until the Permian to Central Triassic (Amantov, 1963). In the Upper Pnleozoic tc~ i,ower *+esozoic, thick (more than 5 lan) series of terrigenic sediments have nrcumulated: aleurolites, polymictic sandstones with lenses of conglomerates anrf arPillaceous shales. The rocks are crushed into linear folds of different order. Intensive plication and razval (disinteqrated blocks = piled up on mountain slopes] formatiori have developed in them, and numer- ous extended fractures are observed (predominantly overthrusts and shifts). In the Daurskiy synclinoriur.~, the section of the sedimentary series differs sort~ewhat from the ad~acent accumulation regions~ Here carbon-quartz- sericite shales (in the lo�aer section) and schistose ~olymictic sandstones (in che tops) are isolated. In addition, interlayers and lenses of greenstone metaeffusives of basic and me.dium position are encountered in the section. The total thickness of the deposits is to 5 km (Corzhevskiy, ~ and so on, 1970). - The PriarRunskaya ~eosynclinal zone is predominantly made up of larg~~ clastic deposits and limestones. Sometimes acid tufogenic rock is - encountered among them.The apparent thickness of the deposits is more than 2 km. In the basement rocks they occur with sharp angular mismatch. A br.lchyform nature is characteristic of the folded structures of this ~one. The hercic~ide section is crowned by proterogenic continental or marine molasse ~~nd granodiorltic Permian-Triassic forniations (Zonenshayn, 1967). With respect to their lithologic attributes they are very similar to the - hercinide sections of many other regions of the eastern part of Central ' Asia. On the other hand, similarity of ther~ to the ~eo~synclinal sections - of soa~e of the mesozoide regions of northeastern USSR is detected. The most ch~racteristic in thi.s respect is the Priarpunskaya zone sahere in recent years small fields of marine L'pner Triassic and Lower Jurassic depnsits were detected. This has permitted some researchers (TF.CT4:JICS 66 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFI~ICIAL U5~ ONLY - OF' t',(11tASTA~ 1.9~i6) to ronsider the ~iven reginn ne n trnn~itiona] ~tructur.hl r~�Yf~~i~ h~~twrr.n typl.~~ni I~errlnfdr_H nnd mceozoides. - Region of ttesoznic Activntion The Mesozoic tectonic-magmatic ~activation has encomp~ssed an enormoue areu: the periphergl part o� the ancient Siberian platform, the re~ions oE pre-Riphean Daykal, Caledonign and Hercinian folding and southeastern Trnnsbaykal where up to the Upper Meaozoic obviously the subgeosynclinal regime was retained which was caused by Che effect of the Mongolo-Okhotsk synclinal belt. The evolution of the meaozoic structure is preaented in the following form. Since the end of the Upper Triassic, large arches have been formed the Sayano-Baykal arch and the Yablonovo-~Stanovoy arch (Bogolepov, 1967) or n single archeJ uplift (Koreshkov, 1960), In the Middle and Upper ~ Juransic, the differentiation of the movements has led to isolation of the folds with lar~e radiua of curvature: the Sayano-Stanovoy outer and Khentey-D~~urskiy inner belts of block upli�ts, the Selenga^Vitim zone of relative subsidence (Arsent'yev, 1967)~ the Irkutsk and Chul'man foothill coa]-bearing troughs (SAlop, 1967). In the Upper Juressic to the Lower Cretnceous, differentiation of the block movements are intensified, which _ promoted the formation of numerous intermontane br~sins and block anticlinals ([vanov, 1949). Thc ;tiddle Juraacie volcanogenic-sedimentary rock of the Selenga-Vitim . zone of relative subsidence are made of acid effusives (felsites, felsite- rorphyries, porphyritea, quartzitic porphyries, and so on), tuffs, tuffoconglomerates, large block conglomerates, gravelites, aleurolites , and .zrgillaceous shales. The series are usually metamorphosed: chloritization and silicification appeared in the effusives, and argillaceous shales were converted in places to quartz-mica shales. The deep analogs of the effusives in this age are the subvolcanic formations: microdiorites, dioritic porphyries, diabase porphyries, alaskites, ~ranosyenites, and so on. Inside the western, eastern Sayan part of the outer belt of. the block upllEts with block differentiation, a group of Urda-Oka grabens was formed. They are bounded on all sides by the fracturea of the !'.ain Sayan System. Here the Niddle Jurassic deposits are separated into the Naringol'skaya series (Florensov, 1968) with a total thickness to 2.5 b:m made up of breccia, conglomerates, sandstones, aleurolites, carbonaceous argillites, gravelites covered by coarsely-clastic c~n�lomerates ~nd fan~;lomerates. The _ rock is intensely dissociated. Near the fractures bounding the grabens and m,zking up their internal structure, overturned folds are observed. On the whole, simple synclinal folds predominate here (Basharina, 1973). 67 POR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOit OF~ICrAL U5~ OM.Y In Che Centrnl Juragaic Cime, enatern 5uynn gerved ~ts Che bnsic of clustic mnterial for Ftlling the depresaions of the Irkut amphitheater. ` Tlic eouth edge of Cl~e latter wns ~t that time a foothills trough which _ orcurred at the ~unction of the pre~Mesoznic folded sCructures of the Bgyknl (northeastern) and 5ayan (northwestern) directions~ The principal age of sedimentc~tion the Middle Jurassic was preceded by the formaCion of the basal series from 50 to 300-400 meters thick. The amounC of coarsely clastic materinl inCre~ses to the south. The sand-aleurolite horizons contain numerous coal beds. In the southern part of the Irkut amphitheaker n combination of two troughs of Sayan r~nd Baykal orientaCion converging et right ~ngles is noted. The Mesozoic ~ynclinals frequenCly coincide with the ~~nalogous forms of the Lower Paleozoic. Here the former are more gently sloping and are somehow embedded in the latter. The dip anglea of the Jura~sic layers on Che limbs of the synclinals reach 20 to 25�. � The Chul'man trough is located in the basin of the upper course of the Aldan. Structural-geolo~ical complexes of the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous have developed here which make up botii the Chul'man basin and the system _ of grabens containin~ it to the east (the Kudulinskiy., Khaniyskiy) and the relict 1�[esozoic denressions of the Kodaro-L'dokan- P.e~ion. The western r~nd of the Chul'man basin was represented by the tJizhnetungurchinakiy or Usmunskiy trough (Dankevich, 1969). It was executed as a thick series of continental coal-bearing deposits (Itokrinskiy, 1961, 1962; Mironyuk, et al., 1971). On the whole, with respect to composi- tion they are alike and are made up of rhythmically alternating conglo~- - erates, Rravelites, sandstones, aleurolites and argillites with interlayers of coal almost completely compensating for the troughs; clearly expressed geologically, it is weakly manifested in the modern relief which makes it - similar to the type of inverted structures. The ~otal thickness of the Jurassic sediments is 1350 to 1500 meters (Ishina, 1961), and with respect to geo~~hysical data, 4.5 km (Mikunov, 1965; Dankevich, et al., 1970). _ By the end of the Middle Jurassic the volcanogenic formation gradually is replaced by the coal-bearing formation. The conditians of sedimentation in the Upper Jurassic age were favorable almost everywhere. In Trans- Bayl;al, the coal-bearing Gusinoozerskaya series was formed in the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous 1.2-2 meters thick. At the same time, conglomerates, sedimentary breccia, gravelites, sandstones with interl.zyers - of aleur~lites, argillites, carbon-argillaceous shales and coals were ~r.cumulated in the northeast. 'fhe formation of the Mesozoic structures was a direct consequence of the ~ wavy distortion of the earth's surface with the formation of parallel swells (arches) and subsidence belts between them. The slow wavy bending (surf~ce Eolding) was initial~ but not decisivp, for the faults and bends hang on each other and follow one out of the other (Florensov, 1954). 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOIt OP~ICIAL USB ONLY In the ex~mple o� gevex~l o~ the bael,ne N, A~ ~lorensov C1960~ comprehen- sively investignted the basi.c atzuctural peculiarieiee and deri,ved some - generol lnwg of their d~velopment~ In the ma~ority ttie basina are synclinat b~aement Croughq compensaCed for by thick sedimeneary aeries. They are not syannetric either in atructural or in facies reapecr~. The bottoma of the troughe were nlmost flat and level, and the maximum depresgiona arf eomewhat ehi�ted to one side, The marginal faults are n~ted along both sides of~the basina. Many of the faults have l~ad an active influence on the course of aedimentation in the Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous time. The transverse faults had great significance in Che poataedimentation period. The overthrusCe occurring in the latesC stagea of Mesozoic activation possibly occurred from the more ancient faults. All of these atructural-gPOlogical peculiariries are characteris- tic of the ma~ority of Trana-Baykal basins. Basic Abyssal Fractures The natural boundaries between the regions of the Saam, Karelian, - , Baykal and Hercinian folding are usually the large zones of abyssal _ fracturea extending 800 to 1000 km (the ttain Sayan, Stanovoy, and so on) to 25Q0 km or more (Mongolian-Okhotsk). As a rule, they are accompanied by thick (to tens of kilometers) zones of tectonically reworl:ed rock, large and sc~all hasite and hyperbasite intrusions, the centers of volcanic eruptians, gravitational stepe usually depicting discontinuous variation in thickness of the earth's cruat and characterizing the great depth of penetration of them into the de~~ths of the earth. - - The time of occurrence of deep fractures is determined by the age of the ge~synclinal systems developing in the adge paxts of the formed platforms (epiarchean, epibaykal, and so on). Over the extent of all of the subse- quent ages of tectop,enesis, these linearly extended structural sutures were the moat mobile and penetrable aectiona ~f the earth's crust. A high degree of fracturing of the rock and intensive metamorphism of it are characteristic of them. In addition, the deep fractures are accompanied by a dense network of contiguous subparallel and f~athering fractures of different genetic type (faults, strike-slip normal faults, overthrusts, and so r~n), and also thP depressions next to the fractures in which relicts of [he Paleozoic and Mesozoic deposits were retained. The genetic variety - of dislocations with a break in continuity in the abyssal fracture zones is caused by variability of the tectonic stress fields with time. Accord- ingly, the ages of predominant developr.?ent of the upthrust faults and over- thrusts were replaced b}~ ages of fault formation. The role of the shifts - remains unclear to the present time. The Stanovoy abyssal fracture extends 800 to 900 km from the Vitim River in the west to the Dzhu~dzhur ridge in the east. Over the entire extent it is accompanied by thick zones of various tectonically reworked rock, large and small intrusions of basite~hyperbasite composition~ depressions of different age and fields of Cenozoic basalts (Kazmin, 1962). The 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR O~~ICYAL USE ONLY Erncture bounds Ch~ anci~nt nucleue n� the Aldnn ehi~ld from Che snuCh nnd inr.ludee a seceion betwepn the Chul'm~n ~verthruat, th~ 5Canovoy and Yuzf~nn-5tnnnvoy nhy~~nl frnrtures in the inveatiRnted t~rrieory. Arcording tc~ th~r ueorhypicnl dnCn, n zone hne been establiehed h~re with a density de�icit of no less th~n 0.1 g/cm3 with respect td the encircling aeCtinns - of the ehield and the Upper Archean fold~d re~inn. It exCendg up tn 10 km - in depth with a width from 25 to 80 km. This zone can be caueed eiCher by local dispersion of the Archean complex of the shield as a result of the granitized rock, granitea, diafluorit~ea or ehickening of the earth's crust connected with tte bending under the effect of the overthrust of the Stanovoy region onto the ancient nucleua of the Aldan shield (Uankevich, et al., 1969, 1970), The Main (Greater) Sgyan Fracture exCends 1000 l:m from the southern - extremity of Lake Baykal to the norChwest (300~-310�) almost to Krasnoyarsk. In the modern denudation section it is a system of fractures with powerful zones of crushing, ~ointing and m~rlonitization. All of Che rock from rhe _ Arche~~n to the Paleozoic inclusively were sub~ected to dynamometamorphic reworking. The basic "trunk" of the fault is accompanied by numerous subparallel, longitudinal and feaChering fracCures of sublaCitudinal (270-290�), submeridional and northwestern (330~350�) strikes. The entire system of fractures from 5-6 to 8 km wide (Smixnov, et al., 1969; Derzin~ 1967), and in some places uo to 30 1�.m, forms a characteristic - "horsetail." Small hyperbasite bodies, basic rock dikes and numerous granitoid intrusions of different age are associated with the fracture zone. The occurrence of the fracture belongs to the Late Archean to the be~inning oE the Proterozoic, and the subsequent shifts were manifested more than once to the present tim~. The analysis of the structures in the vicinity of the Main Sayan Fracture and its walls leads some researchers (Arsent'yev, 1965; Ptusatov, 1964; Berzin, 1967; et al.) to the conclusion of the participation of horizontal differently directed (along with vertical) displacemenCs along the fracture. Being the boundary of the structural-facies zones, as the aeromagnetic research has demonstrated, ` - a fracture separates the differently oriented linear magnetic anomalies. The magnetic fie3d of the fracture is characterized by a narrow, linearly - elon~ated zone of sigr.-variable anoroalies and large gradients (?lusatov, 196~). With respect to the gravimetric data, the fracture has an inclina- tion of the displacer plane to the southwest at an angle.of 55+5�. The = rooE of the basaltic layer southwest of the fracture occurs at a depth of 14 km, and northeasC, 8 km. Thus, the fracture is interpreted as a fault _ with an amplitude o� about 6 km ('fonseyenko, 1969). Pribaykal F'ault In the western and southwestern Baykal region [pribaykal'ye] the system of abyssal fractures separatin~ the ancient Siberian platform from the _ folded structures of the Baykal mountain region framing it on the southeast, 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR OF~ICIAL U5~ ONLY becumeH pnrt oE tl~e Obrur.hevekiy fnult aygtem. It i~ nisn knnwn under thc ~~um~ o~ Che l~ribnykn] f~ult (5nlop, 1967) or the t3nykal m~r~innl euCure (YeRorov~ 1971). it extende 1300 km~ In tiie dpinidn of cert.7ln resenrcl~ere it b~~nn Co he Eormed in the Archenn (Zamnr~yev, 1961), nnd r nccnrdinq to other~, in the Lower Proterozoic (Salop, 1h67). The faule outlines the platform From Sourhern Baykgl to the Patomgkoye Highl~nd gnd ~ predeterminea the orienCation of the geosynclinal eysCem of baykalides ad~acent to it. - Tite syatem of faulte of the Baykal marginal auCure obviously is reflected in the sCructure of the fields. Tn Che magnetic field it is obvious with reapect to the linearly sCriated anomaliea. The radio- active field in Che fracture zones ie high, and the gravitaCional field, - on the conCrary, ae a rule, is low. The auture boundaries are most clearly expresaed in the radioactive field by replacement of the level and struc- ture, and in the magnetic field, in addition, by variation of orientation of the anomalies (SEISMOTECTONICS..., 1968; Yegorov, 1971). In western Pribaykal'ye, the presence of a marginal suture is well. conEirmed by deep seiamic probing. In all the seiemic sections intersect- ing tlie Baykal basin, crosewise from the Selenga River delta to the head- waters of the Lena, an abyesal fractur~ hae found reflection which extends along the weat banlc of the lake. It has a vertical dir and runs below the Mokhorovich divide. At the intersections of the southwestern side of the basin, a scarp-like uplift of the mantle aurface in the direction of the lake witl~ an amplitude of 3 km is noCed (Puzyrev, et al., 1973). - _ The Dzhidino-Vitim abyssal fracture (structural suture) is extended in the - northeasterly direction from the boundary with Mongolia in the vicinity of the upper course of the Dzhida River, along the Uda and Vitim Rivers and then along the Kalar River. It obviously runs to where it ,joins with the Yuzhno-Aldan marginal suture. Its total extent in this direction is more than 1000 km with a width from 5-10 to 50-60 km (Arsent'yev, 1965). The beginning of the formation of the fracture pertains to the time of completion of the Baykal foldfng and the beginning of the manifestation of . the Caledonian folding, that is, it serves as an interface between the two , regions of appearance of the folding of different a~e. In structural respects the suture is represented by echelon arranged fractures with which the breccia zone, the zones of cataclase, mylonitization and cleavage of rock of different age beginning with the pre-Cambrian are connected. According to the geophysical data (Arsent'yev, 1965), the fault bounds the maRnetic and gravitational fields which differ sharply with respect to nature and intensity. The Atongolo-Okhotsk abyssal fracture (Gorzhevskiy, Laz'ko, 1961) is a suture zone from 5-20 to 60-80 km in width extending more than 2000 km within the boundaries of the Soviet Union (Misnik, et al, I969). The fault runs fram the border with Mongolia along the Chikoy, Ingoda, - 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 - ~Olt t ?ICIAL U5~ ONLY 5htik~ ttiver vnlley~ und then to rhe northea~C to th~ ~har~g of the gen nf OkhoCgk. Alon~ ~~imngt ehe ~ntire exCent, the fracCurp ig the ittC~rf~ce I~r.tween tl~e Hcrclninn nnd C~ledoninn folded ~CrucCurep (~ee ~ig 11). Itg nceurr~ncc b~lon~~ ,~t len~t to the L~re I're-~ambrian. The EnrmaCion~ nE rhe t,nt~ Pre-Camhrinn nnd Ghe ~nrly Paleozoic in the Mongolo~OkhoCsic Eruce~re zone are repreqented b,y greenatone, ophiolitic formaeiong (zdnensh~yn,1967). The depth of the fracture and thp duration of ies existence are emnhasized by rhe relaCion to it oE numerous massifs of inCrusive rock of differene compnsition and nge. The shArply elong~Ced masaif~ of Upper Mesdzoic gabbro-dioritea And monzonites, Late Lower Cret~ceous granitoids and Paleogenic bagalts. According to the data from deep seiamic probing (Iiulin, et al., 1972), the - fracture zone coincides with the sectiona of the shPrp scarpa in the surface relief of Konrad and Ptokhorovichich. The amplitude of the scarps of the Konrad boundary reaches 3 to 6 km. In conclusion, of course, we must attswer the following question: do the structural-tectonic elements of Eastern Siberia have any effect on iCs seismicity, and can the hiatorical-structural analysis be used under our conditions (Petrushevskiy, 1965) even for the general determination of the _ seismic potential of the structural-tectonic regions? On the whole, the answer is found to be negative. It is unique but it is possible when determining the seismic potential of the pre-Cenozoic structures to use the fact that this is in practice aseismicity of the greater part of the region of development of the Siberian platform mantle, but strong shocks often occur here (M to 5.2, K=13). Another eleuient of the Siberian platform the Aldan shield (a region of pre-Riphean folding, ; see Fig 11) in its different parts has seismic potential almost from 0 to 14=7.9, possibly even more. The same thing can be said of the region of Baykal foldin�. We are not talking about the rift zone as a specific neotectonic struc?.,ural element, but other parts of the baykalides, with like mesocenozoic rejuvenation, uniform with respect to its seismicity: from .~seismic (Vitim Plateau, part of the Northern Baykal Highlands) to force 9 _ or more (~astern Sayan). The zone of Caledonian folding over its greater part is almo.~t aseismic, and only in the region bordering on Mongolia are there individual epicenters of modern earthquakes, but then to the west, in the territory of Mon~olia, its activity increases quickly and reaches maximum values (to N=8.7) although with respect to external manifestations the Cenozoic activation in tt~e entire zone is essentially light and all the more so in the seismo- active part it is yuantitatively less expressed thanin certain in practice aseismic region. The s~me thing can be said of the region of hercine folding. In the - extreme northeast (Shilkinsko-Argunskiy Rayon) only rare earthquakes are 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR ~~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY known with M to 4-1/2. Then stretching 650 km to the southweet, only indivi,dunl epic~nterg of weak eaxehhugkea are known. On the D~urak~~~ Ridge Cher~ ie 7 Elnccid ep~cenetral �3,eLd with enrthquakea of mod~rn ine~ngiCy (CO fnrce 7, rt to 5^1/4). In the territory o� Mongnli~, the eeigmic nctivitv of ehi~ region ryuickly increases on moving to the weat, and the magnitude of th~ earthquakeg reaches 7-3/4 (ttogodakoye earthquake on 5 January 1967), and with respect to paleoseismogeological data, eo 8. The sei~mic potential of Che abys~al fractures is not uniform. The various parte of Obruchev, Mongolo-Okhotsk and other fractures are in practice now aseism~,c and now they have limiting seiamic potential (earthquakes or traces of preseiemostatistical earthquakes with Pi to 8.7). The sCrucCural-tecConic level has no defined effect on the apread of the tremors. If the level o� high-force (force 8 and higher) isoseisms is subordinate to the level of seiamogenic atructure, then the subsequent isoseisma extend noio along and now across or diagonally to the structures visible on the earth's surface. Previously the existing concept of regular _ orientation of the isoaeiams in the Sayan (Northwestern) and Baykal (North- eastern) directiona was not confirmed although for individual earthquakes the isoseiamal fielda as a whole or individual sections of it turn out to be extended along the regional structural fields. The real composition of the geoiogical complexes is felt more definitely in the spread of the seismic oscillations. The decisive predominance of the seismically active regions of dense zrystalline rock causes weak damp- ing of the moderate (~.ess than force 8) seismic tremors which extend to significantly larger areas by comparison with seismic zones made up of , thick series of sedimentary or volcanogenic-sedimentary rock (Central Asia, the Caucasus). It is natural that under favorable conditions the seismogenic movements are using the existing weakened sections of the earth's crust independently of their age, including the transverse and diagonal fracture zones of ancient - occurrence which are isolated in greater amount in accordance with the detailing of the geological and especially the geophysical research. However, it is quite definitely obvious that the seismogenic movements with respect to the ancient structures take place only as a function of the modern seismotectonic processes, and the latter are genetically independent of the ancient structures. 73 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOEt OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY CEIAPT~R III. BASIC CHARACTCRI5TICS OF TH~ LATEST STRUCTUR~ The Cenozoic tectonic activation in the southern part of Eastern Siberia ~ was preceded by a comparaCively long (Upper Cretaceous to Paleogene) - tectonic interval during which Che denudation planation surface was formed. The development of the large laCest structural forms (in parCicnlar, the - rift Uasins) began with the end of the Paleogene to the beginning of the Neogene. In the Middle Pliocene, the 3ntenaity of the tectonic movemenCs increased sharply. However, the increase in rate of movement was not accompanied by radical rearrangement of the structural plan. Therefore - for solving the general problema of genesis of the lateat structural forms it is admissible to consider them as the final reault of the deformation of the basic (Upper Cretaceous to Paleogenic) planation surface. The - mapping of this surface presenta known difficulties and it requires special ~eological and geomorphological studies. Unfortunately, these studies were made in far from all of the areas nf tfie invesCigated territory. The approximate representation of the modern position of the deformed initial planation surface in the uplift regions can be given by the imaginary surface env~loping the mountain peaks. It is possible to construct this "peak surface" by sufficiently detailed topographic maps considering the geological materials. In the basins, the basic planation surface is buried under the Cenozoic deposits. If the precipitates are not thick (the basins of the Transbaykal type and certain small basins of Pribaykal'ye), tlie approximate representation of the structure of such depressions can be given by a smooth sedimentary surface relief. If the thickness of the deposits is large, then for analysis of the latest structure it is necessary to use the geophysical materials. The large basins of the rift zone have be.en most completely investigated by the gravimetric method. The quantita- [ive inCerpretation of the negative local gravitational anomalies observed over these basins combined with the electrical prospecting data, seismic ~ prospecting and drilling offers a representation of the relief of the ~ crystalline bed under a powerful series of weakly lithified continental deposits.l = 1 A procedure for interPretation of the geophysical data with respect to hasins, just as the procedure for conatructing the "neak surface" in tite uplift regions was discusaed in the monograph by Yu. A. Zorin (1971). 74 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY In the s~h~mntic oE the laCesC strucCure cpmpiled Uy ehese methoda (~~e ~ig 12), isohypaes o� the deformed planat~on eur�ace nre depicted whlrh oF~er the pns~ib~,liey of c~uanCitntive estimat~,on of the amplitudes uE the vertl,cal tectonir movrmenCe. The faults that are active ar the lntepr time ~re depicted in Che dictgram. The faults have greater amplitude, they are well exhibiCed in the planation aurface acarps. The faults with small displacements are plotted on the map according eo ehe geological daCa (ACTIV~ TECTONICS..., 1966; SETSMOTECT~NICS..., 1968). ~ The southern part of Eastern Siberia is divided into ehe following regions wiCh respect to degree o� manifestarion of the latest movements: the Sayano-Baykal inteneive mountain formation, the Transbaykal moderate mountain formation and rh~ Siberian platform (the re~ion of weak mountain formation). Sayano-Iiaykal Region of InCenaive Mount~in Formation In the investigated territory its greater part enters into the Baykal - ' rifC zone extending alniost 200 km from t~e vicinity of the Khubsugul'skaya and DarkhaCakaya basins in the territory of Mongolia to the vicinity of the Tokkinakaya basin in Southern Yakutia. Here we are talking about the re~ion of development of the standard, morphologically well expressed riEt structurea. Obviously it is necessary to include the high mountain ridges separating and surrounding the basins in the rift zone. With this - interpretation, in structural respects it coincides witt~ the greater part of Che Sayano-Baykal arch uplift isolated by Ye. V. pavlovskiy (1948b). The average width of the Sayano-Baykal arch uplift is 200 km. The tops of the ridges entering into it reach 2000 to 2500 meters with respect to - the most stable internal parts of th~ Siberian platform. The arch uplift is nonuniform with respect to irs strike. It is divided into three parts by transverse reduced peak surface: Eastern Sayan (to the lower course of the Selenga River), Bayl:alo-Barguzin(from the Selenga River to the sub- meridional section of the Vitim River Valley) and Kodaro-Udokan. The rift zone borders the Siberian platform only in its ~aidsection (with respect to strike}. In the southwest of the northeast it is separated from the platform by the transitional structures the shield type uplifts: - Prisayanskiy and Baykalo-Patomskiy (Solonenko, V., 1968b). _ The large rift depressions usually have a length of 150 to 200 km and a width of 35 to 45 l:m. The Baykal depression extends to 670 km with an average width of 40 to 55 km (maximum, 70 km). The interbasin commissures usually are characterized by lower altitudes than the uplifts surrounding them. Therefore the basins are joined together, forming extended branching rift valleys. Th~is, the n_ aykal basin is joined to the Tunkinskaya, the Upper Angara and the Bargu~ir. basins, an1 the Chara basin is ~oined with the Muya and the Tokko Basins. 75 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , The gaykal Uasin is di,vided by the diagonal up1~.~C o.f the Academic Ridge into the southern and nox~thern ba~i,na. Judging by the gravimetric~ ` seiamolog~cal and elecCropxospect~,ng data, Che th~.ckness of the Cenozoic _ - continental deposiCs in the f~,xst basins reaches 7Q00 meters (.rhe vicinity _ of the Selenga River de1Ca), and in the second basin, 4500 meters (the vicinity of the mouth of Clie Upper Angara). The absolute elevaCions of rhe crystalline bed in these areas drop to ~6500 and -4000 meters, resrectively. ' In the other large rifC basins (Tunkinskaya, Bar~uzin, Upper Angara, Lower Muya and Chara) the thicknesses of Che Cenozoic deposits - reach 2300 to 2~00 meCers, a~lthe absolute elevations of the basement surface, drop Co -1500 to -2000 meters. These thicknesses are characteris- tic of the inCernal basins which with respect to strike are separated by the saddle commissures in which the thickness of the sediments usually decreases b�y 2 or 3 times, There are many cases where within the limits of the saddle commissures the basement rock is denuded on the earth's - surface (the Tunkinskaya basin). The age of the sediments filling the - large rif.ts is from the 0ligocene to Che Ho~ocene, inclusively. The altitudes of the denudation planation surface to the beginning of. the latest activation obviously can be estimated at 300 to 600 meters. Con- sequently, ~udging by the modern hypsometry of this surface, the uplift of the Baykal arch and the subsidence of the basement in the large rift basins are absolute and not relative. The full scale of the vertical movements in th~ rift zone will reach 5000 to 6000 meters, and in the vicinity of Lake Baykal, even 8000 meters. It~ addition to the above-enumerated basins, quite broad negative structura 1 forms with respect to area with comparatively small thicl:ness of the Cenozoic,Neogenic and Quaternary sediments are encountered within the boundaries of the rift zone. These slowly developing structures include the Bauntovskaya and Tsipikan basins in which the thicknesses o� the Cenozoic deposits do not exceed several hundreds o� meters. - Comparatively small ne~ative structural forms are also developed in the _ rift zone: embryonic basins and basins being born (Solonenko, V., 1968b). The former have a length on the order of several tens of kilometers with a width to 5 km. The tt~ickness of the precipitates (predo:ninantly Quaternary) in them is 100-200 m. The basins being born have begun to be formed at the end of the Pleistocene and in the Holocene. Their length is less than 10 to 15 km, the width to 0.5 and 1 km, depth from several i meters to 100. The sedimentation in such basins is in the initial stage , (Solonenl:o, V., 1968b). A characteristic feature of the ma3ority of large rifts (basins of the Baykal type) is unique asyr.unetry of the transverse cross sect~ons: their ~ northwesterly and northern sides are the larger. For the Baykal, Tunki~skaya ~ Barguzin and Chara basins, this characteristic has been established ~ 76 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 Ppk ~fE'YtC~AI. I18~ APILY ~ - _ w. � ~ w . ~ ~ q ~ ~ ~ : c t*1 . , , . ~ ~ , ~ , ""~.w. . ~ , ~ ~ ' ` � ~ _ . ~ ~ ~i 7 ~ : ' ~ ? '4~~J `,!!L - r ~ ~ ~ I ~ � �~I^,~ ~ ~ ~1 I. 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S:i 12 '~1I 1!Ifi!1 IS-"_5 z~i 5'..1'i3 10i.:2 3:if3 1J 1~i0 i!~ :.':31 5'S 13 14;IX f:~G9 1'S-I'J ~S S:S.P~) l1~1~'.a ti5 1i :."J'J S.; i4 :.'8111[ 1:~7U U!)-SS 5~/_ ~3.~'U IO.i; I'~ 2~3 iU I1~.I E'rJ : ii 3~ 'Grtp:~~uH~~:nii paiui:t ~l?) 15 Zli~'[[ t:tf~f ~�-u!1 5 5'~.l:i il~).IA1 ~:~'i ?,3 1ll if ~~~8 li3 !6 !U[ 1~)6'. fi-lu Sf,SU tlt,~~ 1&1 9:t1~2 SS 33 17 9i[ t'JIS.'i ~'3-~`~ti 'i ~.~i3 tt1.i7 3~'Q f5 lG'3 i3 i0 ~4 - 18 S~[[ tAr~~ ZI-5f; ~b 54.34 :11,37 G9 tn 3t6 Su ~'~l; 19 i4il[ 1'1Gi �.l-~J CS Si,i~ i11.&; '.'.l'~ 13 Vi~J S.i 53 i:l - 20 151(I 14)fi:3 1S-i!) -.,'i 55,23 111.1.~J 94 '3.. 3tl 7? 2ti 7; 21 1ll[V l9G~ f i-1~3 5i,31i t l I,~i 1~3 lG 3:.~? 87 ~3'= i i sfl~ql~:rKfI/Z ~MIt~rYl ~13~ 22 ( 21/Vl[ i!1(i3 ~ Of-4l I 5 I:>i.18 ~ 113,i:, I 15.i 1 Z~ ~ 345 ~ G~ ~''a: ~ 9~i . eC~r~,~~~~.~~r~ (-4) - 23 :;~i~r t~a~~ p~-it 4~~, tt~~.t~ u~3 s 3~s s5 ;8 24 1".'1I[ 1!Ni:~ ;,1-I)7 ~i ;~li.117 Ul.~t 11? 2l~ 3323 75 'Sii ig 25 18~UI 1!Ni.1 'L'1--U'! < i :ili.l$ 11'.'..1j ~J IS'~ 81 JI 26 li:C[I 14Htii tIS-'_fi S,i.87 1l'l.U;i .�,~S 21 1:"�l 7v '11 3; ' - 27 111X1( 1!Mi~i 0i-:r'i ,ri,~i.lii 11U.81 i:~!~ 8 2!W 'Si 3l1 SIi . 'l8 t5?( 1!N;7 1:1-SS S ii~ :~i,;a8 t10.8.3 .li 3i 317 4~ tii ~ 2!1 IB/!C I!niT ;.r{-1l1 i 55.85 t 1 L~?D t f:' :.''L 3S4 S~1 :'tAl i'~ 3~1 UI; IX 1!NiK u7-i~i ~ S Si.~ 111~.~11 '313 'l'~ :i'ii i i i~' i 1 3l ~~ti/XI i!NiK 18-:i1 5~/~ S.~i~IU 111.~i!1 ?~:il 11 1i~ 911 ~5.1 32 17/\'[ 1!Hi9 Q'~-;w ~~i S.~i,.~Hi, 111~.'.~.s` il~'S :,ti IU ti3 '~i!) S:s ' .1lyiu.'curl /M;~n,~ (1S) 33 '171VI 1!137 (lIl-IM1 7 J ~(~,1 111i,~i ~lii 47 3:S ~Nl &i ~i 34 t1?~Vttt f!,~'?'.~. ~Y3-.i_ 3 R:, !ti 3"_ ~ 35 1SII ISN?i U!1-1(i ~i S:i.77 ll'~,'.1:~ ~'Si 3G 1'rti 78 i8 a7 313 :il/Vt10 I!I~iB 18-(ki .i t~i- SIi.4U 11~.723 ~".lg ;iU Ui8 iii 74 i5 5 37 81~[ 1!n~i u2-:}3 ;,r,,t: it3,73 2t4 1~~ f?G 8~? S~ 7i [see key on p 99] 98 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OPFICIAL U5E ONLY [ Key Co 'Cabl e 4 ] ; 1. No 10. Tunkinskiy Rgyon 2. DaCe 11. Bsykal'skiy Rayon ~ 3. Time in the center, hours r minuCes 1?. Bsrguzinskiy Rayon 4. M� 13. BaunCovskiy Rayon 5. Coordinates of the epicenter 14. Verkhneangarskiy Rayon 6. Stress 15. Muyakiy Rayon 7. Compressive 8. Tenaile - 9. Intermediate - Note. See the note to fiable 3. o ~ a = � 2 � ~ y ~ ~ _ p 0 0 7 F~O~ 0~ ~ t O W ~ ~;9 � e o~ o ~o L ' � 9 Ofo yQ � ~s~ � ~ii~~,f`~ . A s: F 0 f2 L ~ t . ~ ~ o ~ ~@ . 1 .a ( ) ~ : � ~ ~ . f~~ ' ;`' :ix~:':~. ~ a ~ - a o " ~ ~o ~ 4~ 1S 0 1S dOKM ` F ~3~ o ~ _ ~ Casdt b G f.~ � ~ l ~s i? lt Figure 14. Orientati.on of the Stress Axes in the Centers of - Earthquakes o~ the Barguzin District 1-1A epicenters of earthquakes~belonging to groups :Vos 22~31 respectively in Table 3; 11 seismic station; 12 basin region; - 13-14 compressive and tensi.le stresses, respectively, indicated for e9cli ~roup in t.he example of one of the earthquakes (the length of the .~rrows is proportional to the cosine of the slope angles of the axes to tlie horizantal plane). Key: 1. Barguzin ridge; 2. Alla; 3. Ikatskiy ridge - 99 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICTAL U5~ ONLY It wna noC isolared by seoingical meChods, the flexure was nnt - expressed even on aerial photographs obviously as a resulC of tt~e large radius of curvature. In the Bauntovakiy Diatrict three groups of egrthquakes have been isolated. One of them belongs Co the westertt part o� the Tsipa~Bnuntovakaya� Basin _ and ad~acent regions of the uplifts; two stretch toward Che central part of the basin. The maiority of shocks in the last two groups are afCer~ shocks of the earthquake of 21 July 19h8 (see Table 4) and Che earthqualces of the swarm occurrin~ in Se�tember-Decemner 1969. In all cases the orientation of Che compressive sCresa axes epicenCers is cloae to verCical; the axes of the tensile and intermediate stresses are near horizonCal. In the sequence of aftershocks, ~ust as in the earChquake awarm of 1969, shocks of both types isolaCed in Che central part of the basin are~ 1 encountered. In the Verkhneangarskiy [Upper Angara~ DisCr ict the direcLions of Che stress axes in the centers are defined for 11 groups; of them, the processinR is carried out for nine by observations only of weak earth- quakes. In two cases the weak shocks were invesCigated in combination with stronger earthquakes for which the individual determinations were _ made. The observation data for group No 35 (see Table 3) made it possihle more precisely to determine the orientation of the axes in the center of the earthquake on 10 September 1968. The earthquake of 26 November 1968 was included irt. group No 40 (see Table 3). In addition to the two indi- cated earthquakes, the individual processing was carried out for eight more shocks (see Table 4). _ In practice, all of the investigated centers of the Verkhneangarskiy Rayon are characterized by near vertical orientation of the axes of the compres- sive stresses and the near horizonta]. orienCation of the axes of tensile and intermediate stresses. For group No 36 alone (see Table 3) inclined - orientation of the axes of the compressive and tensile stresses was detected for the earthquake center of 17 June 1968 inclined orientation of the axes of the compress:Lve and intermediate stresses (see Table 41. In the Muy a District,the d+3ta on the stresses in the centers were obtained - for 17 groups of earthquake~s. One of them (No 56, see Table 3) is ch~racterized by inclined o~~ientation of the axes of the compressive and tensile stresses and the near horizontal orientation of the axes of intermediate stresses. In the remaining cases, the axes of the compressive stresses are near vertical, and the tensile and intermediate, near hori- zontal. The individual determinations were made for five earthquakes - (see Table 4). Three of them are similar with respect to nature of center mecii.~nism to the basic mass of the weak shocks. The centers of the Muyskiy earthquake of 27 June 1957 atdthe earthquake of 15 January 1963 were cl~aracterized by inclined orientation of the axes of the compressive .1nd intermediate stresses and the near horizontal, the tensile stresses. 100 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ In the Udokan DistricG ~ study ia made of 11 groupa of earthquakea, the r.entere oE seven of them are charACterized by near vertical orieneation nE Chc nxeA o~ thc~ compreAAive atresaea and the near horizontal orientation oE the uxea oP the tensile ~nd intermediaCe atresses. In thr. earthquake cenC~rs of two groups, near horizontal orientation of the axes of the compressive and tensile streases was detected ancl near vertical for the ' intermediaCe ones. One of these groups is associated wtth the Muyskoy- Charakaya [Atuya-Chara) inrerbasin commisaure; Che orher centers of the other are located in the northeastern nart of the region in the fouthills of the Udokan ridge. One of the groups of enrthquakes of the Chara basin is characterized by horizcntal orientation of the axes of Che compressive and intermediate etreases and the v~ertical, the tensile streases. NorCh of rlaloye Leprindo Lalce, within Che ltmits of Kodar ridg~, there are = epicenters of a group of earthquakes, in the cenCexa of which the axes of - the tenaile and intermediate stresses are oriented near horizontal and the compressive stresses, inclined. ~ From the presented survey of results it follows that the near vertical oricntation of tl~e axes of the compressive stresses and near horizonCal orientation of the axea of the tenaile and intermediate sCresses in Che centers remaina most general for Pribaykal'ye [the Bayical re~ion] even in cases where the weal:eat recorded shocks in the zone are included in Che ~ investtgation. Out of 73 groups with established orientation of the _ atress axes in the centers, 57 are characterized by near vertical _ compressive, near horizontal tensile and intermpdiate stresses. The tensile stresses basically operate approximately across, and the inter- mediatc ones, parallel to the s trike of the structures. The conclusions oi the orientation of the stress axes in the centers of - ttie Baykal earthquakes were drawn within the framework af the theory of the center mechanism developed by A. V. Vevedenskaya (1969). According to this theory, the defining role in the occurrence of movement in the center is played by the maximum tangential (slip) sCresses Q1-Q3 ak 2 + operating in the planes mal:ing angles of 45� with the axes of the greatest (Q1) and least (Q3) principal stresses. Itt the uced force model of the center of these pIanes are the bissector planes of the axes of compressive - .hnd tensile stresses of equal magnitude ~the third principal stress, intermediate, equal to 0). Thus, establishing the orientation on the axes of the indicated stresses on the basis of observations~of the shift field, we determine the orientation of the axes of the actual principal stresses in the center zone of the earthquake~ However, inasmuch as one and the same max~mum tangential stresses and, consequently, movements can occur for various values of ol and o3 (if the difference between the latter is the same) the established urientation of the axes of the principal stresses can corresnond to different stressed states. 101 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOEt OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ ~ If we assume (Treal:ov, 196f3~ V�vedenskaya, 19691 Chat the directions of the nxes A� Che compreaeive, tensi'le and intexmediaCe stresses in Che cen~era of the Baykal earthquakes are determined by the directiona of the stress o� CI~e least, greaCest ar~d inCermed~.ate tensions in the correspondinp volumes of the earth~s cruat, reapectively, then the daCa obtained indicate that the basic regional �ie.ld of the Cectonic stresses in Pribaykal'ye is characterized in the horizontal and perpendicular structurea by or~.enCation of Che axes o� greatesC tension, the horizontal and p~rallel structures by orientation of the axis of intermediaCe tension, - And the vertical structure by orientaCion of the axis of least tension (Fig 15 and 16 ) . The regional diagram of the atress �ield i3 maintained with high sCabiliCy almost over the entire exCent of the Baykal rift zone, at least from the southern extremity of Baykal to Che western part of Che Chara basin (see Fig 15, 16). The local peculiarities of the stressed staCe of the crust in these regions making an impression on the mechanism c,f the earChquake centers of individual groups as a rule do not contradict the get~eral nature of the stresses characteristic of the Baykal region. This uninue- ness is disturbed only on the flanks of the zone, in the Tunkinskiy and Udokan Districts. The overall resulC of Che investigations of the stressed state of the crust within the limit of the Baykal rift zone is the conclusion of unconditional predomina::ce in this territory of the stress field of the rift type under the influence of which the cenCers of the absolute ma~ority of r_arthquakes, both strong and weak, are formed. , 102 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOIt O~FTCIAL U5E ONLY ~ . - u. f ~ ~ v ? _ ~ ' r ~ r~~ m � w ~~,LG ^ . - ~ ao,~~ ~ r ~ ~ � N w f r 1 ~ ~ a ~ ~ C`~ � ~ 4" ~ r 1 ~ ~ ~ M r ~s! v _ r p~ ~ J V J ~ R~ . N ^ ~ ~ dr - , ~ c~ _ l~1 ~ ~ ~ v v r " ~9 ~ O v ~ ~ + ~ , �A * � * i~~ S�`~.;~\~... � w , C } 0 ~ r O ~lb~t r,1 r-I~ ,r N ~1 ~d~ ~j`i:~o M ~ - ~ :6 ' ~ Y" 1 r - ~ ~NQa ~ A ~I 6~~ e r ~~`.I~~�Ir ,Y�o � r _ ~ ~ ~o ' o 1-~ ~ ~ ? s~ y Z< ~ ~ . ~ N ~ � ~ . ~ ~ t~ ~ ~ r rr r,~~ r t ^P ~ W !A ~ ~ ; ~ � fA ~ +t ~ ' 9 ~ v ~ K ~ ~v ~ r c0 U a ~ 's' ..C ~ O ~ + 1 ~ ~ ~ d ~ . t ~i W Q' Gl ~ ~A - .a ~v ~ O .C Y+ a ~ o . ~ ~ t~ G '-I + ~ a ~ �r1 G~ , L O v � ~ ~-CQ? �rGi OR10 7' ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ x v ~ al N rl Gl Cl T1 ~ a < - - N tA ~ R 4 O Uf - cC ~ � ^ Gl .-I ~ '17 ~ ~ ~ � .~L ~ r1 ~ cd O~p ~ rr - N '--I ~e-1 r-1 ~ r H rl !-r / ~ ~ ~ ~ oOC~ Q~1 w ~ � " ~~l~/ ~ w ~ ' ~ 103 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - [Legend and key for Fig 15, p:L03] 1,3,5 near horizontal, incl.ined and near vertical stress axes in Che = earCl~quake cenCers investigated individually, respectively; 2,4,6 tlte - same for earthquakes combined into groups; 7-- outLines of Ch~~ re~ions - - encompassing the earthquake epicenters witll a single cenCer mechanism (orientation of the stress axes is shown in the examnle of one of the earthquakes. The total number of them within the limits of the region - is designated near the outline or inside it). I~VI ~ regions of the Baykal seismic zone; I~- Tunkinskiy Rayon [DisCrict;,Il Baykal~skiy, - III Barguzin, IV Verkhneangarskiy, V-- Bauntovskiy, VI Muyskiy [Ptuya], VII Udokan. Key: - 1. Kitoyskiye bald neaks; 2. Tunkinskiye bald peaks; 3. Khamar-Daban ridge; 4. Irkut; 5. Irkutsk; 6. Angara; Primorskiy ridge; 8. Baykal ridge; 9. Lake Baykal; 10. Barguzin; 11. Barguzin ridge; 12. Ikatskiy ridge; 13. Ver.khne-An~arskiy [Upper Angara] ridge; J.4. Verkh. Angsra (Upper Angara] River; 15. Delyun-Uranskiy ridge; 16. Muya; 17. Yuzhno-Muyskiy (Southern ?~Iuya] ridge; 18. Vitim ; 19. Udokan ridge; 20. Kalar; 21. Tsipa; 22. Vitim ; 23. Ulan-Ude 104 ` FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 _ ~'t~k dF~tCtAL ~J5~ ONLY C~ M ~ 4 ~ ~ � ro ~ ~ M ~ ) u tA O Cr - 4+ ~ N . � ~ 0 N 4+ O r~ . ' ~ ~ ~AO O O - . O u tA ty G r~ +ti Vi F+ : W ~ d a G7 N V r~/ ~J rl 'ro r+ w ~ v ~ ~ ~ � v~ GI i!f tJ 'ir M O ~ ~ ~ C fA rr ~ ~ ~ ~ w > t~. M e~ ~ r� u~ 0! FC+ ~ t+~ r � ~ . 'y+ `'r { ) v ~D GI 1: ~ ~ r"~ 01 ~ s ~ W r0 1~ aL .C 00 ~ ~ di 01 ~ u +1 u~'1 ~ t O ~ 0~0 {r ~ D. 00 01 M O 6? 6r . . , ~ w o ~ a% a~i ~ � ' ~ \ / ,ai ~ ~NM~ M~~7r ~ \ . N _ + ~ � _ . , ~~~v � ~ + ~ , ~r� ~ W b t /~I ~V i~ Py~ + 1 ~ ~ CJ , ~ _ ~ ~ / / I ~ !r w i ~~f" ^ �~~w ay ~ ~ ~ ^ < v ec r r s O ? ~ � � _ ~ ? . ~ ~ ,,,i�~ 1 . ~ ~ v - � � � 1 r. J`~~ ~ ~a t v j h ~ ~ t i~ ~ ~I ~ ~ � v V ~ ~ ~ ! v = ' ~ ~ ~ - ~ ` - ( ~os _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OR O~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY CHApT~it VI. ~1ERc,`Y CLAS5I~ICATIOh OF' EARTHQUAK~S At the preeent time in Pribaykal'ye, juat in the majority of s~ismically - ~Ct~Vp regiona of the USSR, the energy elassification of Qarthquak~s i~ rarried out by th~ proc~dur~ developed by T. G. Rautian (M~TNODS..., 1960). The nomogram constructed by thi~ authc,: with re~pect tn the nbservation data at the sei~mic statione of C~niral Asia naturally tak~g into account the dissipating properties of the substrate of the giv~n . region. When applying this nomogram for the classification of the - Pribaykal'ye earthquakea, it ie neceseary to b~ certain of the correctnesa of iC~ us~ in an are~ vith entirely different geological structure. ~or thia purpose~ f iret of all it ie necewsary to compare the damping laas of the elastic oacillations aith an increase in the epicentral distgnce in the corresponding regions. Damping Law of Seismic Wave~ in Pribaykal'ye An estimate of the parametera of the damping law vas made by us using several procedurea. Firat of all, this is the procedure fnr constructing a free graph developed by'T. G. Rautian and the so-called difference - proced~re (Gayskiy, Zhalkovskiy, 1971). Along aith them, the procedure ~ras also used which takea iato account the dependence of the energy Eg defined by the formula of'B. B. Golitsin (1960) on the epicentral distance (Solonenko~ A., Tatarenko, 1972a~. Experimental data are presented in Fig 17 for the T. G. Rautiaa procedure. Fig 18 shos+e the distribution N(n+~egf) for the diffexence procedure vhich gave the main value of the index of the damping function of the maximum amplit~ades of the soif displacements (for epicentral distanceR exceeding 300 km) equal to 1.99+0.07. Calculating n~eff for the energy flux denaity e in the eame distance range by the formula lg Am (mk) ~ 0.49 lg e(ergs/cm2) - 0.12 (1) relating e aad AH (Solonenko, A.~ Tatareni:o, 1972a), ae obtain n*eff~4�06. 106 FOB OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OR Ot~'~iCtAL U5~ ONLY T'his valu~ of ~?*eff ~grpe~ huite w~11 (withl~ the limitg of error) with the v~~ue c~f the index of the damping funetion abtained from the summary gr~ph (~~p Fig 19). Th~ figure slgo preeenCs the curv~ obtdin~d u~ing the funCti~n Er~ (A). The comparison of the results obtain~d by Ch~ ehr~e = procedures ia good, WhiCh permit~ ug to draw thp certaSn c~n~lugidn eh~t ~ che data~ing inw of the energy flux d~ne~ity iB charact~riz~d for pribaykal'ye by the folidwing aver3ge parem~ters: ~ fo xuCe~ 70 Ku, ni ~4,2: i0 toti N w ww 134 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~ t~Ott Ut~t~ICIAL U5L ONLY ~ ^ Y, _ ~ ~ ~ V ~w - ~ ~ V L ~ 61 ~-1 O .r ~ t.lL 0~ ~ O y, . ~ ~ y ~ v ~ ~ Ri ~ w ' ~ a,{ p 1+ tay ^ ~ G1 � ~ ~ ~N H 00 ~L` ~ s� � M ~ m N i a.c H ae - w�j ~~i i 4t 4~ 'y ~ 1~. O M O C,~ v a. !~'M a~i ~ ,c~ ~ m u x N.G ,~~i ~ ro ae . ~,~i u u d u � � r0 ~w t b ~o N r.l 3a 1+ y~~+ .~L y ~g N u 0~0 a~ b ~ 4 ~ v Mb.Cd ~~~Oz h i ~ v ~ .~L aL � ~ ~ a~~ t ~ 00 l~i W 00 C ~s� � Y~"! ~ ro ~ ~ Fj f~ O�w ~.1 J V �w Yhr v ly, ~ .~O YI ~ l9 C ~L � 8 ~ , ~ ~b t~ ~ ~ v~f C 1~.~ ~ O k'3 .~C ~j x ~o . ! d+~ ~00 ~MMO � � ~ �w ~ ~ ~ � � � N ~ r~ ~ a Q ~ w a~i > .n h' ~ ~J t ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ; tS~ ,G ,0C! ~ ~ `a ~ ` v " ~ ~ u H ~N .-~1 C O~C~ .~C ~ ~ ~ ~ = w� ~ O 'd H~~ ai C aC ~ �e~ Y � ~ ~ ~ ~ cJ e~0 � > d .MC ~ ~ b ~V = v s~? C~1 IM+ w~ r.Gj N~'.T'. A < 1R 41 ~y � Q~ � C C~ib M t~ ~ ~ 'l'� ~ ~ o A 'r ~ e ~ ^ ~ ~ N e'~1 ~ N 4! ~ ~ w a a � ~o .c � V a ~ ~ ~ ~c 3 ~ ~ ~~b ~ ~ ~o ~ C o v u al ~~0 ~'YI~ ~ Y Q~ aJ ~ ~ �w ~ ~,1 �w �w ~0 'L7 .~L ~-1 M N yC q~ ~ ~W ~a 4?a V ey C ~6 � ~y w w u � ~ . ,C _ ~O � O o O ~ u aC u. V,C pp b Ir 1+ ~0 V - � � ~J ~J � w H1 � w � {d ~ ~ e~ ~1 ~ Oq IJ F GC C1 ~ u _ ~;~~~'~~ooz r ~ R~ G1 b u~.� Op N O C ~ w ^ u a~iwH.~ ~ Ox ~ ~v ~ v tn N O~ CS CO p O� w i.'' ~ JD � ~ . C . ~ ~ i � 'C V: N � .-1 ~ ^ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .w 7 W -r1 ~O . w . w W .C ~~~,r s y~ ~ ~ v CJ 7 tA L~+ 0~0 ~ . ~s ,p ~O h� L. A c3 G f. 1~ ~ a. ~ 1+ � DO Q e0 E 00 .Y C L. @ ~.~'d~ (~y ~ �w y 9!, � G V v ~ G N c'~J f~ ~ ..~zx"'dF � ar . ~i aLr;f+ 7.C1~ 135 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR Ot~FICIAi. USE ONi.Y . , , . . . , . , . . ~ � � . .s.' � , , , ~ . f .~~i,. . . ~ � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a. ~ � � ~ , � ~ ~ \~I// ' * ~ � ~ l � /f I ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ? � ~ � ~ ~J s~` t` s. ~ . a 1~ ~ s ~/:a. ~ +`?r ~r~ ' n` ~ r ' \ ' r ~ I ' ~ r \ t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � 1' l ' , I ~ ~ S~ ti t~' ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ � ~J~ ~r ~ ~ ` * . r / ~~t~~ ,~1 ~ !y.'~ + 4 '.:.s:~.~l' y~I 1+ ; i f 1 + + ~ l~�' ; ,~o' r~ ~ I . I + + i + ~ ~~:;o~l�. I +i + * ~'t+',~I ~1 1~ ' + Q~ I` ~~6 `~~'~N ~';b~ ~'r~~:~ + ~ / t .t ? _ . , ~ ~ i ~ , s ~j6 :~~:~:~d~ t ~ 1 + i': � t F'~ ~ nso Q~Q ~ ~ riEure 32. Schematic of the northeastern flank of the Yanchukanelc~yg etructure. Compiled by - R. A. Kuruahin 1-- alluvial deposita of the continental delta of the Yenchukan P.iver; 2-- heterogeneous clastic accumulations of the rubble drain at the foot of the mountain; 3-- upper Qua[ernary terminal moraine formation; 4-- mountainous (altitude more than 2000 meters) border of the Verkhneangarskaya basin made up of granitoids of the Barguzinskiy complex; 5-- debris cones of the temporary streams; 6-- facea of the divide capes; 7-- divide lines (a) and thalvegs of the temporary streac~s (b). Seismic dislocations: 8-- faults and their ~anplitudes (h, m); 9-- tensile cracks and magnitude of their gaping (s, m); 10 morphologically weakly expressed sectione of the dislocations. Key: 1. Yanchukan 136 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 . ~o~ o~ict~, usg orn.~r - , ~ - - ~ - - - - ti ' . < . , ; i . . , y Y.. ' _ , � ' ,'s{ ' - ~ ~ f n r i~;'s L' t ' r ' `E . ' x ~ ~ ~ ~j''~ iy i�~. . ` ta. ~~'V'1 ~ j, ~ d ' � ~ ~ ~ ~ ^1 � '~�~e f ~ ; : - a~ -71 F j ~ ,s.'' f~~ ~ +F ~ i� `~j F,~~ c ..r~ _ ~1 ~ ' f ~4 l y , ~ t r {x at a _ ~ Pigure 32. Tenaile fracture cutting the nwbile large-,block ' ~ placer granites on a 21� slope. Photograph by R. A. Kurushin. 137 FOR OFPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~dtt ~~~tCtAt, U5~ dNLY � ' ~y~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ; ~ w ~ ` a~ a+ o a~ w ~ 1i ~ ~ H � y~ � ororon~i"a~o~~'wu ~ ~ ~ v~~~ ~ W 41 a~ iU M tiM y''' ' �,'i ' j ~ ' ~ r~i ~ ro ~Cf e~tl ~ \ , m rw m af N�-+ w ~rw ~r. aa o0 . O Rf M ~ a vl .C G / ' \ ~ ~ ~ -`i a~i ~ 0 ~ R ~ ro M ~ ~ I II I! 7 O W O W Oi d ' ~ , / ~ ~ ' ~I ~ O tti ~ ~ O ~ N t~J ~ ~ ~ ~ w o ~ o. ~ r, ro d�~ u ~ oo d w+ u u r~ I ' - y ~ ~ l~~i N~'~ tA G~1 0~1 G 1H ~~�~J . uaw.�0�,~~ w 1. ~-1 ~ ~ O'U rl ~ L ~ r. ~ ` u ~~t ~ u ~ 01 N ~ } v 1 u ~ oro.-+ ~a � ~ ~ F+ ~ M M fA fA = 1~ M W fA �w 0` 41 4~ ''.'~e :~+:~^,.1~' ~ ~ ~ � N ~ C~ ~D O 41 V, M .C ~ � b t/~ fr ~ 1+ 'C N J a~'1 '1 ~ ~ � ~ � ~ l{t u v ~ ^ 01 .~0 a~ ~ O ~ / . ~ . : ~U 41 1 I e0 Cl ~ ~ ~Q ~ M tA v 1 F+ 1+ C , Y . ~ ~tll ~1+ ~r-~100~ 41~ 1~JM 1.r ~p O C 1 a? . � ~p , ~ ~ � ' ~ ~ ~ � ~ .1C Q.'L7 .L1 ~ 41 Ri I ~ 1~+ . ~ ~ a o ~o u?+ e~ � eo ~ ' ' ' u �~.~c ~v ~w ~'~'b na? , o e ~ C I a~ d m.c 1+ ~ ~f . ti l0 YI ~ W 1~.r d al ~~W fp M'O M � + ~ ~ .C ~ M N O~ 4? u~~ O CL ~ ~i ~ ~ H ~ a? ~ ~ ~ W M ~ N ~ e 41 aL +1 M Cf O O u 61 t0 ctl . q 'J ~ Ql 9 a1 C W a~ u u~/ , �a- ~ ~~~o~N~~~~~~ ~ ai .'p M u al l.~ CL t0 TI a! C ' ~ W ~ ~ � ' ; ~ 04 p. ~ 7 O 'C u M ~ W r-1 1+ O.L1 01 r-1 t0 O ~ t ~O O D, W I a+ .c R at tJ . .c i m a a? a, a . � . u ~ .c oo d ~ m d i~' ~ ~ ~ ~ i:: ~ ' M 'L7 ~ M '!L al N O u fA M 00 a+ a r+ u~ d ro~+ b at S .L~ �~~�~.~~~j~y~� ~ ~ rl ri �w Q ~ 41 ~ e~l 41 _ M W/~ r-1 1.~ ~ ai Cf r1 R1 ' Y.~. ~ � ~ � ' � ; ~ � ~ G1 t1 ,a +1 O 3+ i t0 47 ; . ~ .C 6 C d s.+ .G G. 1 I tJ r-1 � U O Ir u ~ ry e0 1+-~ t~ ~:~?i�~ ' tA C~ 41 ~0 1 W 61 rl a~ .~�'ti � 'C7 GJ E .C u'1 ~ ~~F�.'�',~~.~,. ~ � ? ~ Y ~ ~ ~ ~ �w~ '~'L~ ~ � O , �R~. ~+1 m1 1A V1 W/'~ ~ 0! , . + \ ~t'~'.~�' . � 1 .C O ~ O .a 1 m ' ~ , t~~i~ ~ d ~ 6 ~ ~ v ~ G. ~ 1+ ~ W M'C1 O tA 'O .C LL w ~ l.i Nf al r/ u~s GI ~ ` ~ 00 R! 61 O v ~~0 N Of M C C O. w O C+ d O~+ C � � w d ~ a w I - ~ ~ ~ ~ ; � � ~ � , 0i 43 'O .-1 00 u O +1 I . � u 1+ C. OO W fA 1r .C ~ ~ ~ ~ � � ~ � ~ R1 O ~ ~ G Y~ LL W ~7 .C ~ ` ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � a ~ ~ l.. ~r~l W r/ . ~J 'C ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ ~ ~ � C' 'U v 1 ~,r~ 1 ta R ~ � ~ ~ Mi~ ~ ~ � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C1 t0 F ~f1 ~ ~ O ~ W C W ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ � . . ' ; a ao o~ a a .o o a~+ � . 1~�,~. . a d H d 6~-+ o,~, ' � a C a+ 1+ a~ .a f. u r-+ ~ � ~ ~ ~ : . a~ ~ a eo a u a~ . ( W ~ v~l ~ ~1 ~.~1 C1 C � I Ir tJ fA u tA CI .-1 1+ O?. ~ ~-i @~ p O.O v 1+ W'C7 aL . . . 138 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OR O~~ICIAt. U5~ UNI,Y ~ - 'Chr. mddrrn ~ei~mic nc~tlvley of tt~~ ~tructurp ie appr~~i~b1y inw~r th~n ehnr obe~rved in th~ ad~~c~nt region ~i~ng ehe Severomuyakiy lin~~m~nC. t1elE of the earChquait~ ~pi~~nC~r~ ~tr~~~hing toward thp ~eructure pt~9) _ aich ~qu~i probabiliCy ean b~ conn~at~d ~i~n aith th~ ~eeir~iey of th~ l~tter. ~ormally, 29 ~Qrthquak~ ~picpnt~r~ bplong to thi~ gtructur~. A/3-4. Th~ Kovoktin~kaya [Kovokta~ ~truGtur~ (~ee ~ig 34) ig locat~d in _ the h~~dqu~rt~rg of eh~ Yanchuk~n gnd Kovokta itiv~re, ~i~ng eh~ ~nutheaet~rn ,~id~ of eh~ ba~in With th~ sa~e nam~. The genprai directian nf th~ di~locarions of rhe atructure i~ northeast 60�, and the total ~xtent is 28 km. Th~ predominant morphc~logical type of a~iami~ di~locatio~ of th~ Kovaktg etructure i~ the tension ~ointig (.eectonic trench~g). Signific~nt eegment~ of th~ etructure ~re rppr~~ent~d excluaiv~ly by th~ae dieturbanc~g. Their trangition elong th~ strikp to th~ faults i.~ ob~erved more rarely. In the laee caee the limb at the foot of th~ mounta~tn (northwpstern or narthern) eubeid~d. The ~ectonic cr~nche~, ge g rule, have V-type transver~~ profile and - depth and magnitude of gaping varying signific~ntly aloeg the strike. 'Che m.~ximum morphometric indexes of the faults are ordinary at the paint$ oE intersection nf the sp~rse positive forms ~f the relief the crusts nf the side moraineg, the divide capes. The Width of thp separation 3oints then reaches 10 to 15 meterg, and the depth, 5 to 6 meters. Often in auch gections the te~ton~c trenches are complicated by seiamogravitation~l landslideg up to 3S-40 meters long and 10 to 15 metera Wide. ~aults are observed over a short extent and neceasarily in combination with tension jointa. The maximum amplitudes of the vertical displacement of the limbs (S to 7 meters) do not d~pend on the relief intersected by the fault, but the quickly damp With respect to strike. In the southWeatern part of the atructure, in the vicinity of the divide of the Yanchuy and Yanchukan Rivers, the mass development of the seismn- - gravitational alope proceases is noted. In the vicinit~ of the highland limb of the etructure over an area of no more than 2 km there are four concentrated large (approximately 0.25 to 0.5 million m3 in volucae) rock glides and a large number of small talus piles. The slides have well- expressed eeparation amphitheaters which cut the divide capes or the slopes of the divides and penetrate farther do~m the thalWegs of the slide cone ravines. The planes of the displacers of the landslips are associated aith the numerous subparallel faults making up the tectonic zone of the Yanchuy-Yanchukanskaya echelon structure. The age of the structure is estimated at a feW hundreds of years aith respcct to the degree of preservation of the fractures and the presence in them of macure arboreal vegetation. The magnitude of the earthquake accompanying its formation, ~udging by the dislocation scales, cannot be less th~n 1-1/2 to 8(force 10-,11). 139 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR ~FF~C~AL fi7~~ dI~fLY ~ N ~ t ~ ��e I e t{ :z ly ' . � 1 . . ~ C~ . 1~~. ~ ~'M ~w . \ ~ ~ / ~ ~ . � � ~ ' , y ~ i , ~ Y .o.~. � � ' P .i~'.~ � . w . . . ~O> A~ . . ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ tif ~ e1~'/` ~ � ~ rjiM~r~ ~1 ~ ~t . ;,'';,~,"�'~:i ~ y ~ ~ b v ~ ~ . . ~ ~ O ~ . . . . I. ~~ti . ' - ~ ��O�~'e ~ � ~ . ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ 41 j . I . ti 1+ . . � ~ ~ ~ . � t M . . ' W � '~I. ( . ~ � 1. � . ~ .�0~ . . � .�'1e~ ~``~1 . . . � ' ' ,rl , , , . ~1~ :y~. . . ~ : ' . o ~ . N _ ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~. o ' d I d ~ ~ 140 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 , ~OR O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY . , ~ . , ' . , . 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' ~O.''~ b ~ ~rIW lq~ Or~1 ~.ld � ?.~a~qu , ~ � , . , u oo a a,~+ o ~~o' ~ ~ ~ ' a ~b ro ~ u . . . . .e , . , , ~ ~ ~~i i.cro++a.~ ~i ~ b~o~.cH~oe�oY�, ~~�'0~~ ~ , ~ r+~ ~~+,na? ~ . . . ~ ' ~ � ; ' ' . ~ o eo a~ w ~f I'~ ' ~ ~ ~ � ~ � , ' � U ! q M F~i C1 ~I k~ la ~ ~ R1 ~ ~ ~ V I ,1 � ' � � ' . l0 a~l O! t{i 1 O ~C ~p Ir - ~ � � � ~ ~ � t~U ~ dD N CD ~ f~ p � ~ . . ~ � Qf ~ ' ~ ~ , ' '}~p P'" M ~ rl ltl 0 ~.1 ~ l0 Q . ,Cf M rl fA 'Q~~~~ ~~~.�0 . ~j' I' ~ w ~ C ~ 41 R) ~'i 41 � ~ ~ � � ~ ~ ttl ~1 O O ~ w ,~p RI M , � , ' � � ~ � � ,r~ '.~l. ~O tJ ~ tA I ~ 0. . / ~ , 0 . ~ 0' ' h .v.f V ~ w ~-1 41 M ~1 � N lti N 01 1 C+ L." t~ R~ � � � � � ~ , F+ ~-1 .C .C C~ O O Q ~1 ~D � � , ' . � � ~ ~ 1 . 1 ~ ( ~ t~J ~ O 4~ r~-1 ~ Ou! 1~+ rw , , � ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ � 0 ' � .il~ ~ ~ W N u0 C~1 ~ r~1 O w ' ~ . . . . ~ ~ � ~ / tp (fl C: ~ . . . � . . � ' ��.0~~ i ~ ~ ; u ~ ~ ~ Q ~ d p ~ ~ V p - ~ ' ~ ~ ~ � ~ ' .1 ~ :.J ~ O ~ ~ a~i t~ v? ~ p ~ A4 at �I ` a�~~ a~i ~ o s�~+" a~sb v ~ � ~ e � ~ � y � y ~ � LL M ~ O 0~! N ~-1 ~ .'0~�' ~ ~ M N Q Q. t1 ~r1 H~ W W G . 0 � ~ ~ ' � w ~ . . ~ � ~ . I . . ~ ' ~ ~ pG ~ RI ~ O M ~ N ~ tq ~ . , W I M~ t+ ~-1 00 ~ C .C ? ~J~N~-~1 ~ ~ I~+~r-'~1'L! ~ ~ \ 71 'd ~w ~ I a~ d tn 00 ~ a~i ~ t�1i .t�e aVi ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ ~ ~ " 6 w " �0 c~i ~q..~ ~ O 0. ttf W O ~ M'L7 0.g'O b ' u o a~ � �o � ~ ~ ed a~i ~ ~ ~.y tn C~ al fA N~ Cl L ~ M 1+ W M O ~0 'rl i+ O ~ , . , ~.M � ~-1 Cl ~ O OD ~1 ~ d p, ~ � ~ ~ ~ �~�.ua?�.wm~d . v~ ~ 7 0! ~ O 01 C al N 0'~0~ I.~i a~i aMi ~~-~1 M R r-~1 � w W ~ r-1 ~ W Gi i C1. r-1 tC .]G .G M ~~.SL 0~1 Q~ CJ 4! fR ~ ~ ~ 0~ 1R ~ w ~ Ol ~ CI .w M rl ~ W - 0 . b~ ~ 'C +~1 .O d! M 00 ~ ~N �-~1 � ~ ~ O~y c ~ B I~ t0 d'O W~ .-1 r I y ~ p.o x~ 1 v ? ~ ~ ~ oMO I( I ~ ~ f ~.-`�i ~ ro ~ a.~'"-~ a�'i 141 POR OPFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~ FOtt nF~ICIAL U~ ONLY l- 'Ch~ gei~mic ~ctivity n� the Kov~ke~ gtructur~ ge th~ pr~~~nC tim~ i~ ~dnfirmed by 12 e~i~entcr~ af we~lt esrthqualte~. di them, three epicenteirs with K*~10 ar~ ~roup~d in rhe norrh~gse~rn p~rt of th~ Kdvdkt~ b~~in. On the whnl~ the mod~rn activiey of Che viCiniCy of eh~ ~tru~tur~ i~ ~i~nificantly inferior to the ~d~~c~nt re~ion~ of the V~rkhnegngarsko- Muygkayg interbs~in commi~~ur~. A/3-S. Th~ Muyakansknya etru~ture was det~~ted by the a~rigl photngrgphs. A ground etudy of iC wga not mad~. `~he structur~ ig genetically conn~ctpd With the zone nf th~ large neoCectonic fault bounding the rtuyakansknya ba~in from the south~ast. The syatem of dislocationa followe alon~ the = foot of th~ Muygkanskiy ridge in the we~tern hglf of the b~gin in Che north~aaterly (65�) dir~rtion. It ie obvioug ge a di~ranc~ of 26 km. The dislocations defnrm the proluvi~l d~pogits c~f the debrie cone~, the slide rock cover of the slope and mnre pnggibly, thp basir gr~niee autcropg of the Barguzinekiy complex. The fractureg with verCical digplaCem~nt are c]enrly isolated among Chem, th~ maximum ampli~ud~ af which r~gchps _ 6 meters according to the ~tereophotogrammetric meagurpmente. Thick mud fiows, the aeismogenic nature of which is entirely probable, are asaociated - with the northeastern flank of the atructure. A/4-1. The Taksimakaya atructure (Fig 35) is located in the western part of the Muya basin on the left bank of the Huya River~ to the north and th~ northeast of the village of Taksimo~ The general strike of the - - gtructure is northeasterly (60�); it extends about 15 km. 'Ch~ atructure kas detected during chamber deciphering of the serial photographs in 1965. - Tiie aerovisual (V. P. Solonenko, S. D. Khil'ko, A. P. Shmotov) and ground (5. D. Khil'ko and S. V. Lastochkin) investigations were performed in 1967. The Taksimo structure occurred in the zone of contrast tectonic articula- tion of the bottom of the Muya basin and its northwestern mountain border. Southeast of the structure there is a broad flat swampy floodplain of the Muya River with a set of oxbow lakes and streams. On the right side the river valley has cut into th~ lower to middle Quaternary sandy seri,es - making up the basin, and on the other side, it is recumbent on the steep high slopc of the small ridge the Adyanskaya ridge. Thig ridge extends _ in a northeasterly direction from the mouth section of the Kelyan River 20 km With a Width of 4-5 km, and it is separated from the northern Muya (SeveromuysiyJ arch-block uplift by an erosion-cectonic through vall~y of the Adyan-Kelyanskiy and Adyan-Paramskiy creeks. At the southWest end of the ridge (the left bank of the Kelyana and ltuya Rivers) there is the well-knoWn Kelyana massif of ultrabasic rock - (predominantly srrpentinites and listveaites). The massif is extended in che southwesterly direction orthogonal to the neotectonic structures of the region; it is no more than 2.5 km wide. Then to the northeast along " t he strike of the ridge, the serpentinites are contiguous along the tectonic compact with the sedimentary series of the upper Proterozoic: metnmorphosed sandstones, aleurolites. shales crumpled into linear folds 142 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OR O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY nf r~nrthw~~t~r1y (1~0�340�) ~erik~~ Af~er 2-~ km th~ ~~dir~enenry ra~k ' ia rrptnced by ~ ehir.k ~~ri~~ of 1~y~r~d 1ime~ton~~ gnil doidmite~ nf th~ - l~n~ki ~e~g~ ~f ehe low~r Gembri~n (eh~ir ~trik~ fg 3~0�335�~ th~ angle~ - df incid~ne~ ~re SO-~i0�)~ `Che carbonate rocke ar~ tr~e~d ~1an~ ee eh~ - Al~k~n Cr~ek. Ae th~ b~~e of th~ ~outh~~~t~rn ~lep~e df ~hp ridg~ ~b~v~ th~ er~~k elong eh~ rtuy~ Riv~r ~rnnitoid~ di th~ Muy~ rnmpl~x w~rp d~t~ct~d. ~h~ t~~eonir contant of carbon~c~ou~ form~tiong WiCh Arr-h~en gr~nite-~n~iss ~~ri~~ e~umpled into compiex ieoc11n~1 foldg ~f nor~h~ ~~sterly (40-50�) strik~ rung ~long th~ A~akan Cr~~k~ 'The ~rti~ulation of th~ ba9in and eh~ Ady~ngkgya ridg~ i~ ghnrply ~xpr~~~ed, rectilln~~r and emphas~z~d by eh~ triangular ~ee~p ~30-.40�) cut~ of the divide c~p~e located 8lmoet in on~ plan~. 7'h~ ~an~ nf grti~ul~tion is covQred by ca~reply cl~~tic rn~kgiid~ gnd proluvi~l deposit~ forming a narrou (0.3~i.2 km) bou~der tr~in gt the fdoe of gh~ mcuntain to 80-9~ meters~ The di~incations of the Taksimo structur~ arng~ ~g ~ r~g~1t of thp s~i~m~g~nic opening of the pow~rful n~oteetonic fgult bounding ehp Muya-Kond~ basin on ~h~ nbrth~test and north the 1e~gt bread and deep of th~ two negative morphoetructures meking up thp :tuya ba~in. '~hp b~~~- ment of thp begin on the southeagtern limb of th~ fau~t ~ubsided to a depth of more than a kilometer (2orin~ 1971), at the sam~ timp as thp elevation of the northwestern limb, judging by the el~vgtion~ of the divid~ line of the Adyanakaya ridge i9 1400 to 1500 merere. Thus, the di~per~ion of th~ blocks of the lithosphere along the fault bounding th~ Muya-Konda b~sin in thia area ~xeepds 2000 metprs congidering th~ fl~xur~ comp~n~nt and the eroaion cue. The analogous ~mplitudes of the vertical movem~ntg during Neogenic-Quarternary time are characteristic alsn for the sub- latitudinal segment of this fault eagt of the structure ahere it controls the intrabasin longitudinal commtssure. ~ The fault zone in the vicinity of the Tak~imo structurp is m~de up of thre~ gubparallel echelon fractures. The southWegtern echelon formation fc~llow$ ~long the Muya alope of th~ Adyangkiy blork ~t ~n ~~iselute el~va- tion o� 800-900 meters approximat~ly from the mouth of the Ke~yana River tn the central part of the ~tructure. In relief it is clearly ~xpre~sed by gharp inflections of the slope and deep ~addle~ dissecting the divide ridges of the left tributaries of the Muya River along a atraight line. The latter fact indirectly indicates the subvertic~l position of the plane oC the fracture displacer. Its extent i8 about 10 km, and the general strike ia northeasterly (65�). The second, central echelon structur~ is generated 3 to 3.5 km northeast of the beginning of the first, it folloas nlong the articulation zone of the ba$in and the mountain border to the Alnkan Creek under the loose depoaits of the boulder train at the foot nf the mountain. It i~ oriented Along the 60� azimuth. The angle of S� determines the gradual approach of the upper and lo~+er eehelon gtructures in the northeasterly direction from 1 to 0.5 km. From che location of maximum convergence (approximately at the center of the etructure) to che northeest there ia only one neotectonic Eracture ahich 143 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~t~tt d~F~tC~Ai. US~ ~NLY t~ ~ C~ntinu~~i~n of dn~ af ~h~ ~~h~lon ~~rueturpr~. tf wp tak~ it ~g ~ continu~~i~n ~f ~he lau~r e~h~ldn g~ru~tur~, th~n ~he e~t~l ~.engeh ~f ~11~ ~ra~eur~ ig abnut 13 km~ ~inally, the nnrEh~a~te~l~+, hypgometri~all~+ it)Np~t ~~he1~n ~t~u~tur~, eh~ ~rp~e~r p~r~ ~hich i~ ~oc~~~d be~+nnd th~ limit~ ~f eh~ gygf~m ~xt~nd~ p~r~il~i Ed th~ e~ner~1 dn~ ~n eh~ l~~t bdnk di th@ Muy~ ~iver, ndrthea~t af th~ Ai~k~n ~r~~k. ~t i~ p~g~ibl~ th~t it~ ea?~ehwegt~rn ~i~nk i~ ~dv~r~d und~r th~ ~11uvi~1 depo~it~ ~f ~he river fl~ddpl~in. 'Ch~ m~in aygt~m d~ ~Qiem~g~nic di~locatinn~ di the ~tru~ture fdllc~a~ eh~ ~~ntr~l ~chplon ~trureur~ di the n~dtc~c~oni~ fgule. Suppo~~dly, eh~ gduth- Wp~tprn f1~nk of the upp~r ~~h~lon ~Erueturp ~xpprienehd ~~~iv~ dfi~fl~fl~~ ~nd it~ r~mmainin$ p~rt, pa~giv~. prab~bly, e.h~ ~orfh~~ge~rly, i~w~r fr~eture u~g not touch~d ac ~11 by th~ rpepnC g~i~mdg~nie re3uvengti~n. - On ehe s~uthW~~t ~nd of the Ady~ngk~~+~ rid~e the di~ld~aei~ns ~re di~ein~ gui~hed by th~ re~ult~ of the dpc~ph~ring of th~ a~ri~l photagrgphg. `~hpir Edrmntion can b~ ~onn~ceed ~ith p~r~ia1 r~~uv~na~ion o� thp upper echel~n _ grrueture ~f the n~ot~ctonie fracture ~nd eubgpqu~nt tran~ftion c~f the digidc~tion gygt~m from the upppr echel~n gtrurtur~ t~ th~ iot~er (or vie~ v~rg~). ~n thp ~lop~ of the ridg~ turn~d tnward th~ K~lyan~ Itiv~r, th~ Eault ~ucg and ghifts ~ tQrrac~-lik~ b~nch borderin~ th~ ~lop~ at an ~l~vation of appr~ximgt~ly 350 mee~rs above th~ riv~r flondplain (8S0 m abeolut~ el~vation). Thp bench is up to 200 meters wide, the gldpe ~n~l~ is 6 tc~ 10� and it is traced in fr~~mentg boeh alang th~ northWest~rn and th~ south~~~t~rn slopeg of the Ady~n~k~ya ridg~. An an~ld~au~ ~earp at this ~lcitude ig ob~erved ~1ong th~ periphery of the Muy~ b~gin and, most probably, is a lacuetrine sc~lptured terrace. On the dcnmthroWn limb oE th+~ fault, che amplitude of Which is no less than 40 meterg, th~ terrace is not expressed in relief, merging aith the divide of the mount~in spur dipping deeply into th~ basin. An obvious fragment of it ~pp~ar~ on onp of th~ divide capes 2 km northeagt and ngain on th~ highl~nd limb c~f the strueture. From the divide of the mountain gpur made up nf s~rp~ntinites the disloc~tiona (nbviougly fgult~) inclined slightly to the Qase, are unrlearly traced downward t~ the foot of che ~outheast~rn alope of the Adyansk~ya ridge Wher~ th~y are in contact With the main di~loc~tion gyst~m oE the Taksimo structure. 'the main disldcation system extends on che Whole re~tilinearly along th~ fooe of the slope gt an absolute elevation of 540 to 6~10 m. The diglnra- tions nre represent~d by a spt of faulcs and th~ tension ~ointa accompany- tng them (tectonic tre~rh~~). They mase fr~qu~ntly deform the 1oos2 boulder Erom block accumulations of the boulder train at the foot of ch~ mouncain. but thcy are also noced in the carbonaceous and igneous bagement rock. All of the dislocations, independently of their morphological type, nre nricneed in th~ northrasterly direction. The largest number of mensur~ments indicate a gtrike azimuth of 60 to 70�. 144 FOR OPFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 . , ~Olt O~~~CIAL U5~ Ot~L.Y ` ~i~, ~~',,1~~~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~4`' ~ ~~'r:~ ~ a~, ro ro , v , ~i. ~ N 'Cf w ~ - ; ~ ,;.:~.~o,~;.~~~~~~~~; ~ ~ ~ b - ~ ~ a a~ a..a a, ~ q ~~y ~dy ~I~i''~~~~ ~~1~~ ~ 1 `I~ ~ 'V V ~~~~saa~a~r~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ ~1 1"'~ ' � ''''~','~`'~~.Z� ~ ~ C) ~ ~1 ~ J1.~ PI ? ~,�~y~y~s,i / ' ~ y~ ~ wMM W~ ~"1 V ~~~1~~\ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~,C Y/ C M ~ 'V M~ ~ lC. KA ~ 1 ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ N ~ aV ^ , , , ~ ~.1 O M u I w t '~~Qi~ 1 R 0~~ W ~ r1 O~ ~,~...,..e � Y~ ~ ; ~ ~ 6alp. A! Gl~T ~ M ~ ~ s~~~ ~~~i ? ~w ~ i ~ " ~ F1 !.i i~.~ EI C tJ ~ Q +~i ~�1wwaaaro . ~ ~tl ro w ~ ~ ~ , , . ~ ~ p ~.Gj O O v ~ ~ ~ ~as~ ~ . ~ ; s ~ ~ 81 ~...~~i'~ ~ ~R ~ ~ ,e~; ~ ~ a, a~ a ~ s~rr~ ~ f+u~ ~ "C~ 41 41 b 0 41 }I u 0o p ro m o0 I�a'~~~ r W ~ Q~ N ~{~~�MN ro i+\ I' ~~~~~'~~~~'~a~�~+~~ ~ ~ W F/~ W V vI ~ /r ~ ~ 1 d v`1"1 CS !~1 111 C 1 Q? ! ' ~ pf CG ~ .G l0 w N ~ N ~ ~ �s` N � ~ ~ 11 t ' ' � ' ~ ~ ~ w troJ ~ O , ~ ~ . . . ~ 5+ ~ C~ ~ ~ O O . ~ � , . , . ~ ,c �w . ~ ~ 4 �w ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ W p ^ ~ ~ ~ ?Yi ` ~ : � ~ ' �r~~~~' ;!t , ~ ~ ~ Q M ~ r. Q~ TI 01 t~ ' a a~ d m~o .c o ` ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o � ~ c ~ ' ~ u ~i a~ / � ' ~ M~.7 o t~ o d aM+ d ~ t{1 vi O W ' � . , � w ~ V Ild ~ f~' ~ K . : o ~ e~ ~ a~ ' ;i' d u d d o d ,~i'~ ~ ~ a ~ q ~ a~i ~ ~i v .~-i u ro ~1 u u~ ~ i a t d a : � ~ G! o a, ty r ~o ~ D 1~+ 'C! O~G al ~-1 ~ ~ ':ti~~ , t~ 41 C W a+ ftf ~C ! ~ ~ M� Q A � ~ afl M Gi � w~ ~2 ~ a ~ ~ M N~ ( ~M~0le~ . .O ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~ a~ ro ~ ai a aao a +e�+ I � . - ` ~ . ~ ~ Ei O N ~ 1~+ ~ R M ~ ~ ~h�t.....� ac d~ A... ro o u,~ ; " ~ ~ . II Q~ � � w J.1 M n) 4) 4'1 R) rl .C ~-1 N Rl 'C! 'O H N 1+ Cl ~ L` ~ ~ h`r u ~0 a+ 'L! C'~ N f.' e0 '!1 ! ~ . ~ ~ eo a+ m ar a a � ~ ~'?N +~j~,~ ~ O ~ C GI ~ ~-0l1 '-a~l R ~ M ~-1 N I I ~!�������r'p ~~CC/~'~~i/� � I I E3 A 6a! 'C ~.G c0 ~ I i r-I Cl ~ p tJ tQ 'C 'fl O t0 1 e0 00 . ~-1 al TI 41 ~-i C 'O I ! ~ � ~ , ~ 00 Vf ~ u ~-i a~ 8 ri c'1 O M ~ ~ � t ~"~i � � � t~ RI M Ri C! ~ M � 'rl W W O R l+ rl al � LJ ~ ~ w N~ caoa`~a�~a�~a~ai`~+� ~ ~ i"` ' ~~I'~�r� ~ i ~ 'C7 lr ~1 41 ~G 'rl w (3. M at ~ ~,...r�"'' ~ ~n o 3 u ~ ~w a~i u ~ ~ . ~ � ~ . N ~ ~ W~ w CJ r-1 0~ ~C ` ' ~ 1+ 1 ~W~ 4lrIM ~N a J oo a, cr ~ 3 a oo,+ ; ~ � Y+ v en oc u ~ o a � A :�:Fi; : w ~ ~ a u ~ o v~ ' ~ ~ �:'1 ceooeou~..c i - :i: . ~ ~ . ~ i u ~ a i ~ � � � 1 W ~-1 u 'O G? M ~ ~~Y, ~ � ~ � ~ � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1~1 O GI GI C. .C O ~T OI ~ � � � ~ � � � ~ iJ L1 L l0 LJ S ~-1 .Y. 145 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~ox a~~YCZa~, us~ ocnY - 'Th~ amplitude of the faults measured by the diaplacement of ehe peak parts - of the debria cones flucCuatea from 1~3 to 2~. m. At the base of the - fault ecarp or on Che subeided limb of tihe fault parallel to it ehere are one or ~ev~ral Cecton~c Crenchea of eriangular or trapezoidal crose g~ction (Fig 36). The ~oidCh of the trenchea at the eop ia from a few m~eera Co 20 metera, moat frequenCly 4 to a meters, and rhe depeh ia - from fracCione of a meter to 10 meters, predominantly 3 to 6 meters. The wnlls of Che trenchea are broken, steep to vertical. In the loose proluvial material, their ateepneas reaches 60�. Frequenrly the part of the trench - aC the �oot of the mountain rurns out to be more steeply sloping than Che oppdaiCe side. UfCen in the boulder Crain at the foot of Che mountain along the base - of the slnpp a dislocation zone is observed which is made up of 2 to 4 subparallel tectonic trenches and sharp peaked and ~rapezoidal ridges aeparating them. The difference in alCitude of the oppoaite walls of Che trenches indicates that in this case there is a system of stepped faults - - and tension ~nints accompanying them with a total araplitude of the vertical - di~placement to 6 to 7 meters. Along the strikes some of the dislocations quickly c~amp and reoccur; others continue Co a more significant distanc~, but on the whole Che structyral dislocations are traced over the entire - extent of the cenCral echelon structure of the neoCectonic fracture, - discontinuing only at the points of their inCersection by the channels of streams. M ~~:t,~ ~h,~~~.. ~-~;v ~ ~^3 ~y.i ry r ya L - ~Yl~/."t~ ' ~ 4' I y . J .4 ' , , t ~ h~~ . a rr~.I �V ~ "f ' , ' ~,1 . ~ ~ k r~r : .c ; ~'~;a < < i t~ N A93~ f ~t~t ~.Y.: A: r. r~li,. J r~ . r~'15, ~t,(~ ~ ' i~~ J . .~{,:��r ~ y~., y V .y . q',t ~~r~a~yi.~~l:? ~~l j - ~ ~~~rt w'i`_ k~" ~ ~ ~ . . ~4; t . y Figure 36. System of tectonic trenches (tension ~oints~ cutting the deposits in the vicinity of the boulder train at the foot of the mountain in the central part of the Taksimo structure. Photograph by S. V. Lastochkin. - 146 FpR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 . ~Ot~ O~~IGtAi, U5~ t~N1.Y In the rentt'r~T pnrt o� the ~tru~turp between thp two echeldna di the E~ult in the vicinity of their ronximum apprnach, there are two chara~teri~- tic rnck~lides. They nr~ ln~nted in Che low~r Combrign limegtnn~g dipping 6b� n~~rthen~e nt en nngle of 50�~ and rh~y er~! mar{,~ un af ste~~ (~y") CrtnnF;ulnr f~r.eH ~f nd,~ncene divid~ c~pea. 'Ch~ ~.~rbo~~~~eou~ ~eriee ~uppd~poly occurg in the ign~ous rock of th~ ttuy~ c~mpl~;; out~rdpring dt _ ehe surfac~ at the ba~e of the e1op~. The Arc-~f~gped g~paration i~dg~~ ef the l~nd~lide~ gre loc~ted at an altitude of 200-25b meterg from th~ foot of the root slnp~ of the Ady~ngkayg ridge. In rhe n~ar v~rticgi wa11~ of thp separatidn, no lese th~n 3~ m~ter~ high ~t th~ ~outhu~~t~rn lgnd- ~lide and 6 to 10 metera high at rhe norChe~gt, g rock a~~ep r_over th 2 to 3 meCers thick end light grny limegtone~ in Che rnoC ~ccurrenr.~ are detacted. In th~ lime~ton~~ at the t~aep of the wall, g erench is trgeed (sedimentation ,~oint) to 5 metere deep up to 15 mpterg wid~ in th~ upper p~rr up to 3 meter~ at the bottom ig trac~d. The northeastern flankB of th~ lnndalide cirques oucline in gently aloping ~rcg the body of th~ land- glide block, descending Co the foot of the ~lnpe. They a1~o are ~xpre~eed by the eeperation walle up tn 10 meters high (in thp areeper lendelide). On the southwest aide the landalide blocks ere bounded by the V-shap~d valleyg of ama11 temporary streams. The landelid~ area ig approximately ~ - 0.3 and 0.1 km2. the volume of the landglide masges i~ unknown, for Che position of the slip surfaces has not been determined. The morphology of the largeat landalide block and ite relation to the undisturbed parts of the elope indicate the detruaive nature of the land- - slide displacement. The maximum displacement which is more of a fa~lted nature than landslid~, was experienced by the upper part of the landslide block along the s~paration plane coinciding aith tl~e displacer of the upper echelon structure of the neotectonic fault. Th~ frontal pare of thp land- slide cut by the central echelon of this fault apparently does not have a horizontal component of tnotion. As a result, deformation of the surface of the landslide maes took place: in its rear section, a broad, flat trough was forrt~ed, and the part above the frontal section acquired a convex surface (Fig 37). ~rom the two exogravitational phenomena accompanying the formation of the Taksimo structure it is necessary to note the mass rock talus located primnrily on the mountain limb of the upper echelon atructure in the vicinity of its approach to the central structure. The talus makes up the morpl~ology of both the northeaetern and southaestern slopes o~ the mountain r.~vines cutting the Muya slope of the Adyanskaya ridge. The area of the l.~ry,est of them reachea 0.1 km2. 7'hc process of the formation of the Taksimo structure, a~ it appears to us, Freatly resembleA the *tuya earthquake of 1957. The relief of the stresses (the initial epicenter of the paleoearthquake) began with the southvestern flnnk of the structure where [he intersection node of the rift controlling , f~~~lt with the transsverse Kilyan~kiy deep suture is located. tn practice, the instnntaneous opening of the fracture occurred in the northeastern direction, initially along the upper fracture~ and then through the system 147 FOR C~PFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott ~~~ICtAL US~ ONLY cfi "trnnaitihnr~t" uninherited di.~lnci~tionq, encnmpa~g the rentrr~l ~chelnn aC che frn~curc. At thc~ gam~ time, nnt dnly th~ ad.~ac~nt reginn dE the Muyn-Kondn bd~in wa~ involv~d in thp f~ult~d sub~id~ne~, but ai~~ th~ ~rogion=t~ectonir rommiq~ur,~ gepar~ting th~ Muye ba~in Erem th~ U1~n- ttakit~key~ bagin. Simil~r di~a~treug mnvempnt~ of the ~arth'g cru~t oecurr~d hpr~ durin~ the Haic~eene, dbvidugly more rhan once. in rgreicu- l~r, thig is indi~aepd by the gr~du~1 migr~tinn nf Che Muy~~ ltiv~r chgnnel in th~ dir~ction from the center of th~ ba~in td the eouthe~gtern glnpp , of th~ Adygnakay~ ridge. The 'Cak~imn ~tructure ig ~ elpar ~;;~mpl~ of th~ ' ~ontinuing proc~~~ nf de~penin~ of the ~ayk~l typ~ b~ein~ ~nd their longi- _ tudinai growrh. ~r C3 (1) e~'.'y ! 2 ~ .J ~00 + ~ ~~`y,j d ~ , ,.r! S J00~ ~ r .i, ~d ~J, ~ ~4 ~ 4~I~'~ ~1,J ~ 'ti i ~ ~ ~1 f f ' , + { ~'.~~.I.~~. . ( t + t tF~ _'e � ~ � . ~r' ~ Tr_ 0 P00 ~00 ~ 6GC B00 M Figure 37. Geological-geomorphological section through the axial part of the seismogravitational rockalide on the southeaet slope of the Adyanskaya ridge. Compiled by R. A. Kuruehin 1-- loose deposits of the boulder train at the foot of the mountain; 2-- igneous rock of the Muya complex; 3--- limestones and dolomites of the Lenskiy stage; 4-- fracture zone echelon structure of the neotectonic fracture; 5-- landslide block and the propoaed position of the slip surface of the - landslide; 6-- surface profile of the elope before formation oE the landslide; 7-- seismotectonic dislocations oE the Takaimo atructure. Key: 1. northaeat; 2. southeast 'Che time of formation of the structure is approximately determined at - 150 to 250 years with respect to degree of preservation of the seismic dislocations and age of the arboreal vegetation growing in the tension ,~oints (pines. larch). The magnitude (~t) of the earthquake was in this case approximately 7 to 7-1/2 (no leas than force 10). The modern seismic activity of the Taksimo structure, just as the other pnleaseismogenic atructures of the Nuya bagin is low. In the 10-year 148 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OR d~~ICIAL US~ ONLY p~rind nf ehp im~trum~ne ob~~rveeiang h~r~ three ~pieenterg of repr~s~ne~- - tive enrthqugkeg w~r~ noeed. Almoet eh~ entire zone of th~ neotectonic fault bounding the t4uyn~Konda b~sin nn the northWe$e gnd north ~lao i~ ~omp~r~tiv~ly e~eiemte~ ~aly to the east of the appar~nt dnmpiag of the ~ene, in chp mouth parC of Che M~~~a River appraximately 20 Qarthquakes of diff~r~nt energy levels~ including the Ust'-Nuya earthquake of 1968 (tt~5-1/2) were recorded primari~y in 19b4 ~nd 1968. A/4-2. The.Para~mskaya etructure (Fig 38) extending 21 km is located in - rh~ artieuletion zon~ of the Muya baein (the Paramskaya depre~eion) and . the arch-block uplift of the 5evero-,ttuyskiy [Northern Muyg] ridge beeween the S~mokut and Kamennyy Creeks. The atructure w~s studied in fragmenCs and with a different degree of det~il. ita eeparate elements were dptecCed and documented by L. i. Salop at the beginning of th~ 1950's and Ye. A. 2elenskiy, et gl., in 1966. Accnrding to Che data of Che indicated researchers, the observations of covorkerg n� the IZK Inetitute of the Siberian bepartment of the USSit Ac~demy of Sciences S. V. Lestochkin and the results of the etereophoto- grammetric nrocessing of the aerial photographs, a scheiuatic of this structure (see Fig 38) has been conatructed. The northern eide of the Paramskaya [Paramaj depreasion is made up of thicl: deluvial-proluvial accumulations over almost the entire extent merging into a solid train of rock waste at the foot of the mountain from 0.~ to 3 km in aidth. Numerous debris cones of small temporary and large ~ermanent streama running off the SE~:ero-Muyskiy [Northern Nuya] ridge ' are clearly diatinguished on its aurface. At the center of the depression, from under the c~oarsely clastic formations of the boulder erain at the foot of the mountain, sandy Lower to Middle Quarternary sediments appear, the thick series of which obviously make uo a significant part of the Muya basin. The set of floodplain and terrace deposits of the Vitim and Parama Rivera cu~t in[o the sandy series. Some large streams (Samokut, Bulunda, Kemennyy) also are accompanied by terraces up to 25 meters high in the lower aecitions of their mountain valleys. - The narthern mountain border of the depreasian is made up of nre-Cambrian sedimentary-volc~inogenic beds of the Muya series, breached by the massive or gneisa-like b:[otype granites of the Muya complex. The complexly dislocated eedimi~ntary series have northeasterly (40-60�) or submeridional strike. According to the observations of L. I. Salop (1964), when the Samokut Creek leiives the tnountains, the sedimentary-volcanogenic formations of the Muys seri~as are separated by a zone of cataclasites of sublatitudinal strike 4~ to 5~ cneters wide from migmatized amphibole gneisses of the Archean detected a[ the base of the socle terrace of the stream and aupposedly makin~; up the basement of the depressions. In the Vitim part of the north sid~~, numerous dis[inctive dislocations of ancient occurrence have developed wl~ich make up ttse Parame zone of the deep fracture of north-northvestexly atrike. The introduction of the Parama massif of ultra- basic rock (serpentinites) occurred along it in the pre-Cambrian. 149 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~o~ o~~ictnL us~ o~t.Y . ~ vi,~.~' . ~rr ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~~r~ ~ ` ~ ~ ~ ~ ' � ' ' ~ �~r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � h/, ' . ~ � ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ O ~~f~' ~ ~ ~ ~ W ~ . ~ � � I . ~ � ' � �r ~~f ~ ~ � 1 ~ G' C tJ b ~ ~ i ,~e ~ u O�~ u t0 u P ..r.~.~�,t ~ ' ~ ~ ~-~1 G! O ~-~1 v V C! - W ~��1 � . � p~ ~ rl ~1 ~ M O G! ti ~ ~ \ r ~ ~ ~ � � ~ ~ d r ~ ~ ~ ri ~ ~ a 4 � ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ � � ~ � V f'~ ~ ~ V 1"~ b ~ Y~ t . � . . . eo ~ o ~o ~ m nt ~o w c~ u C~ eo k ~ ~ �II~~~~~~~~~�~':: ~ C'.. 'O't7 M M tC .G ~i~~~~~~~~~~~ d! ~0 CJ L~' M Q O C! ' 4! .C M D Rf b1 'r? M r-+ E� ~ 'C7 ~.1 YI v~l vi 00 l0 � ~ � � ~ � ~ i H 'C ~ ~ ~-1 ~ M O r-~I ~ 1� � R~~U+ 1+ U I M O i: ~ � ^ G! /O.l ~ C VI ' 1 L: a . . � � � � � � � ~ 1+ C C) ~rl 1~ Gl 1+ ~ � � � � � � � ~ (0 l0'!7 i ~ f3 f." R) _ _ / ' . � ' ' ' 0 u at u ~ p 1+ I 1 ~ ~ ~ .~L ` . . . . . . C 1~+ ~ C~ ~ ~O ~ 00 I M a,1 0~! H A ?.1 GI ~ rl Cl ~w Q~ � w Q~ CJ ~rl N t~ Z I~^~~~~~~~~~~ ~ Vl 41 ~ W YI tl) O aG .'f'. ~ ~ ~ ~~yL~~ ~ ~ Q1 R1 � a 41 i.! G! 1/1 v ~j ~-~s1, ~ ~ 2~ f: 9+ C'. C.C R 00 O N F+ S � � ~ i � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � � M iJ Gl O ~J 1 N~ ~ M ~A ~D f~ 00 � � � � � � � � .1G 1 u C v ' ' af m I w af m c~ c0 c~ R - ~i'H1HQ E~ O O u,a d~ ctl V ~0 N a,1 r-1 1+ 1 3+ y 3~+ N O.G 1 u w W ~ . ~U .Yi ~ {r ~ d al Q~ 0 � , � � � ' . ~ a u o 3 i ~v .a ~v ~ ' . . . U - ~ Cl d ~Vl w O ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ C~1 El ' ~ ~ ~ ? ~ : : � ~ � S � ~ ~ a. .C ~ a.i ~ d L~+ ~~-1 F b ~ � OG dJ a~+ 1~ u1 L O CL t0 M _ C � : ~ W 'C7 ( Gl d C.'. E .L1 p4 ' � ~ '1 iJ ~ ~7 ~ ~a ~ ~ ~ CJ ~ YI ~ ~ 'fl G! 1/1 LJ L e0 � � ~ � � ' ~ : G:; ; ~ ~ -r-1 'C7 ~ R'. � ~ C! 'O ri ~ri ~ ',s~ ~ ~ a.1 CI r-1 ~ri tlf M i~+ CJ 4! +~1 ~ u~. a eo s. o c3 ,+C .e v ~ . . ~ ,a ~v d a .c ~ u u v 1~~`�'�'�'.': a a o~, >~o i a - ~ - ~ t. . . . .c ~ o ,i G I w ~v ~ u o~--~ 1+ H 1+ +1 I o C Cl � .�.1 t/) C~ W G! 1~ ~0 ~0 O .G ~~r ~ � � � ;.Cf�' � 'C7 ~ ~ N W M e-1 L � � � � � ~ � w C ~ ~ ~ � ~ ~ ~ N J ~0 U ~ Gl J.i O � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � . ~ d O ~ 1 O r-1 ~1 'G p C'. 0! @ tA ~-31 ~ GO 4 ~ ~ 1 ~ � � � ~ ~ ~ � � � ~ C! @ Ql O W Gl tJ .G W W ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ },i .C ~ .G td C7 7. 1~~� ~ 1 iJ ~ JJ L~ I L' M _ 4: - ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ . . � ~ � 00 1 C! I f+ 'C I d! 1~ ~ J +~1 W,G W Gl C L+ 7+ 1 0 W ~ O u.7 O u c0 00 u ~ ' t � ~ W ~ 1 ' 'd" ^ . ~ � ~ . . ~a o ~ ~v eo ' ~ . / ~ . � ~x ~ E ,i . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .-~1 1,~+ ~i: ~ y. . . � . c, a .�~t' � � ~ RI ~ e0 _ ~ � . ~ � � . � v~ cn aa - ~ t ~ . . � , . v j ~ . . . . . . . 4 .~-i cr ri .t ~ i.. ~ � ~ � . . T - � t.\~ . \ ~ ~a~ N ~ ~ ~ ~ . '~l FOit OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ 150 ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 _ FOR O1~FIC~AL U5~ ONLY '~h~ ~ar~mg ~tru~ture aros~ ~a ~ r~gu1C of th~ Holnc~n~ re~uv~natidn of th~ powerful, 1on~-1Sved ~ublatitudin~l fr~ceur~ which aepgr~C~d Chp two tectonic structur~g with different dir~ctional movemenC in Che C~nozoic th~ S~vero-Muy~koyh ~Northern t4uya~ uplift and the Muya baein. In Cl~p Nrc~~enic-f~uat~rnnry time the amplitude of the vertical dieplacemene of the blocka of the ~arth'e crueC alon~ it reached 1500 meter~. The aeiemogenic dislocatidne of Che strucCure ar~ represpne~d by f~ls~ and t~ngion ~oints (tectonic Crenches). 'I'he latter, ae a rule~ accompany th~ frgcturee with vertic~l diaplacement or occur independently. Whereag on th~ Whole the system of eeismog~nic dislocaCiona is ~longgt~d in thp aublatitudingl (with slight slope to the northwest~ direction, Che individual fractures or segmentg are oriented differently. The north~ easterly (60-80�) and sublatitudinal (80-100�~ etrikes are most frequently observed, and northweaterly (290~310�)~ more rarely. The greater parC oE the dislocations are asaociated with the contact of the looae Quaternary deposita and the rocks of the ateeo ~lope of the ridge. However, deforma- tion of the Quaternary formations of the most different age is often observed. Thus, in the weetern part of the structure, the faulta, except the terracea of the Samokut Creek, cut and ahifr the terraces of the Bulunda Creek and its large left tributary (3 l:m to the east) of different r~ltitude. The amplitude of the vertical displacement here reaChes 16-18 m. in the baae of the ~ault acarps there is a fault trench from 3 to 10 meters wide and 1.5 to 3 meters deep. Itg south walls are not always clearly _ expressed and are usually more gently sloping. The dislocations of the aestern part of the structure deform the alluvial denosits of the 25 and the 14-15 meter terraces. The channel alluvium and low floodplain terrace noted in places are not touched by the fractures. The relation of the morphological elements of the terraces of the left tributary of the Bulunda Creek on the opposite Wings of the faults provide the basis for proposins the presence of a left shift of small amplitude along the fracture. Further to the east the dislocations run along the contact of zhe loose deposits and the root slope or, more rarely, along the slope in such a way that the displacer plains and the steep scarp of the slope coincide. Accordingly, it does not appear possible to determine the true amplitude of the vertical displacement. Only in this case is a system of three stepped faults noted cutting the debris cone of one of the temporary streams 2.7 km aest of the Vitim River. The total displacement amplitude along them is no less than 10-12 meters. The e.~stern part of the structure on the right bank of the latitudinal segment oE the Vitim River is expressed most effectively morphologically. - The system of dislocations here extends almost continuously from the Ozernoye Creek to the Kamennyy Creek a distance of more than 5 km. The low, flat, divide cape east of the Ozernyy Creek is cut by 2 sublatitudinal faults which bound the graben about 1~0 meters Wide and S00 meters long. The fracture bounding the graben on the north has a vertical displacement amplitude of up to 20 meters, and on the south, to 4 meters. On the 151 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~ox o~~icrnt, us~ orn.Y upliEt~d limb nf eh~ norehern f~u1t~ 100 t~ 12U m~terg from it th~re is pnathpr fr~cture par~llel Cn it with ingign~.firane (no mor~ than 3-5 m) vertical displacem~nt, quickly damping to the flank~. 'Che disloc~tione Eormtng the grab~n m~r~p ineo c~ gingl~ f~u1C in the eagtern part of Ch~ divide, contin~ougly running along th~ K~mennyy Cr~~k. In iridividu~l gections it i~ aCCOmpanied by f~ath~ring ~oinC~ forming a gygC~m of ~C~ep fault with a total displac~m~nC ~mplieude nf up tn 10 metpra. Th~ fault i~ traced hoth glong thp ronCact of th~ st~ep (to 25-30�) root slop~ and th~ loose dpposies of rh~ b~gin ~nd in the boulder-block proluvium of the larg~ and sma11 debri~ ~oneg. 'I`wo k~n west of ehp Kamennyy Creek'it cutg acroas the ad~oining debrig cone 270X350 met~r~ formed at the foot of the slope opposit~ the small runoff trough. The gmplitude of the fault is 9 km, the aCeepn~sa of the fault g~.~rp ig 35-40�. The scnrp ig completely cut by a temporary gtream, and ~t its bagp g n~W debris cone ia form~d 30X40 meters in size superpos~d on a more ancienC one. Between the Kamennyy Creek and the unnamed creek ta the west, Che proluvial depoaits of their combined debris cone represented by metaeffusive blocks, snndstnnea and granites are deformed by twa parallel tectonic trenches. They are 15 meters apart, and the strike is latitudinal. The southern trench is expressed morphologically more clearly, and its width at the top is up to 10 meters in depth to 5 meters. The sides of the tre~ch arp asymmetric: northerly with a slope angle of about 30� and 3-4 meters above the southern, more gently sloping (15�). The unper trench doe~ not hr~ve a vertical component, it is not as wide and shallower than the lower one. In places, the southern walls of the trenches are missing, and the dislocations are traced only along the scarp of the north wall, the altitude of which does not exceed 3 meters. To the east along the strike of the described dislocation, the Kamennyy Creek changes direction of its current sharply from southwest and meridional to latitudinal. Its more ancient channels on the south limb of the struc[ure are of submeridional orientation. By matching some channels with the tension ~oints of the eastern end of the Parama structure, the stream has washed out a 25-meter socle terrace in the base of the slope (on the left bank). The socle terrace made up of alaskite granites lias been denuded to a height of 4-S meters. It is entirely probable that part of the height of the terrace is due to the vertical displacement with respect to the fuult, with which the creek is associated. The nature and the interconnection of the various dislocations of the Parama s[ructure indicates that it arose under the effect of tectonic stresses essentially not differing from modern. For them, significant tension in the direction transverse to the neotectonic structures causing the formation of faults in the separation joints was characteristic. As has been noted, the shearing movement along the shift plain has not been excluded, for confirmation of which careful ground studies are required. 152 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Olt O~t~ICtAt, US~ ONLY Thc avnilr~b~e mnt~ri~it~ da not permit uniqu~ Q~tim~tion di th~ tim~ ~f f.~rm~tion o� the ~trurturp~ qn 3te w~st~rn flank eh~ e~igmi~ di~lnc~ei~ng look appr~~iably o~d~r then on the right bank of th~ Vieim River. It i~ poasiblp ehat in the given c~ee a~ obs~rve th~ result of th~ euperpoeition af two ec~rthQuakes~ the aeiamic d~slocationg for which grea toward eh~ ea~c, in the direction of ehe ttuya-Chara int~rbesin conanis~urp. Th~ ~ la~t ~f th~se Qarthquakes, the megnttud~ of uhich eould r~~eh 7�1/2 (forc~ 10) ocsurred, ~udging by the pre~ervation di th~ holioW form~ of thp die~ocatinns, severai hnndred years ago. Im m~d~rn tim~s thp Parama gtru~tur~ in pr~ctic~ Was gg~ismiC. A/4-19. The Kemen atructure (Fig 39) ie located on the eouth eid~ of th~ Kemen embryonic bae~tn, in the vicinity of the m~rging of eh~ Naminga ~nd Kemen Rivere. 2 km above the mouth of th~ Namin~ftivpr on the right bank g~arp, ~ Erncture zone wng diecovpred. The layer of gleciel bouldere orcurring on the granites and underlying the seri~s of boulder loems wag shifted 12.5 metere here. The etrike o� the ahifter Was northeaeterly 30� at an angle of ]5-80�. The interlayer of boulders on the subsided limb npar th~ ~ ~ dieplacer~ occurs on a alent WiCh a dip to the eaet ~t an ac~gle of ZO�. In the southeast along the gtrike of the fault in the glacial depoaits, _ gently gloping scarps up to 3-S meters high are obeerved frequently becoming broad trenches to 8-10 meters deep, cutting the mor~ine crust and the dumped moraines. On the right atde of the Kemen River 5 icn Erom the channel of the Naminga River, a scarp deforming the terracPd moraine is noted by the aerial photographe. The second fracture of the northeasterly (60�) strike folloWS along the right bank of the Naminga River Valley and close to the right bank of the Kemen River. Locally, it is isolated in the form of scarps on the slopes of the valleys or stepped trenches with a difference in wall heights of 10 to 12 metera. The rock which has been crushed to the maximum is 8 meters thick. By the fracture. the glacier-WOrn rocks and other glacial Eorms are deformed. The fault With an amplitude of 15-20 meters shifts the debris cone of the emall atream; the cone overlaps the lateral mc~raine. The displacer dips to the northwest at an angle of 50-70�. In the loose . deposits the f~ult is expresaed by a low scarp ~ith a steepness of 28-30�. The root denudations Which carry large (to 15 m) fragments of 8iir surfaces, emphasize the fault displacer. Tl~e total extent of the traced seismic dislocations is 4 km, and the widti~ oE the zone is up to 0.5 km. The a~e of the seismic structure is determined by the deformations of the glactal and proluvial fonaations and by the comparative preservation of - the dislocations in the last hundreds and first thousand years. The ~ 153 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~a~ o~~tctnt, trs~ orn.Y intcn~iey af the pazthryu~ke ~r~~ting :h~ ~~i~mi~ diginc~etong wn~ n~ 1~~~ th~n Enr~~ 10 (~ty7-~1/~) ~ A/4~20~ `fhc Cbgnl.hlir etruetur~ i~ ~s~driat~d wieh thp nutsid~ di the . 't'~kkin~k~y~ b~~in. tn Che ~~etion b~tw~en th~ Puri~hik~n and ehe ~bga~hlir ~iv~re~ the cr~gt~d divid~~ arp cut by see~p ~ed 40�) faule ~earp, a r~~u1t of which ~lmoffit r~gula~r triangul~r fac~tg ar~ formpd. In eh~ ba~e of on~ oE th~m, thpr~ i~ ~~t~pp C60�) ~earp from 4-5 to 15 m~tpr~ high mgktng up che morpholo~y of th~ ba~ie disloc~tion wich ~ br~~k in ~ontinuity - ~nd emphasizin~ itg lgter r~~uv~narion at a digt~nc~ of ebout 5 td 7 km. In th~ p~~k ~~c~ic~n of one of th~ largest hanging cdrri~s ae ab~nlut~ ~l~v~tiong of 1300 tn 1400 me~ere, in th~ gn~igs~B, th~ ~~paraeion w~il nf the powprful roek ~lide ie fix~d. Th~ entir~ valum~ c~f the l~nd~lid~ ma~g "gplagh~g" ~ndth~ hanging cgnyon in it~ mouth se~Cinn Where modprn d~pogics of the debris con~ dv~rlgp. Th~ 1and~lide front is cdmplicge~d by l~rg~ and gig~ntic block acute-anglp mat~ri~l gnd rocky bloclc~`. Th~ ~pprnximat~ volwne of the lende~.ip mas~ is 4.5-5 million m3. _ Judgtng by the nature nf variation of the rock slide mass and the tectonic srt~rp by the ~up~rpog~d erosion-denudation processea, the age of the strurture daeg not exceed a fe~r hundred years. A/4-21. The ttedved' etructure (Fig 4~) ie located in ehe eastern pgrt of th~ Verkhnekalargk~ya [Upper Kal~rJ basin, on the left bank of the Chitkanda River (the left tributary of th~ Kalar Rivpr). The basic seismogenic dieturbances occurred along the Chiticanda f~ult With northeasterly (45-SO�) etrike. The displacer dips to the northWest at an attgle of 58-75�. The amplitude of the vertical displacement (15 m) is establiah~d most exactly by the difference in levels of the bottoms of the hanging valleys and their continuation in the do~mthrown side. The outcrop of pre-Cembrian rock surrounded by Cambrian deposits is deformed by the fault. A trench extending up to 2 km Was formed along the Eault zone. The trench controls the faot of the ~~paration Wall af the large seismogenic landslip of basement rock 400 meters long (along the foot of the separation Wall) and more than 150 meters high. T'he Well preserved separation plain aith enormous step surfaces drops to the norch- wesc r~t nn angle from 58� to n~ar vercical. The tot.~l extent of che traced seismic dislocations is 4 km. The .~~e of the dislocations is deterrained on the basis of the defot~ations oE the ~lacial, cumulative and erosion forms as Holocene (the first tiiouaands of years). The dislocation parameters indicate the force to an intensity of the enrthquake creating (it~7-1/2). 154 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~'Ott O~FtC~At, U5~ ONLY ~ e ~ . a . � � � . ~ ~ � . ~ ~ ~ I � � ' e ~ . . � ~ ~ I , ~ � ~ I a, ~ 1 Y � ~ ~ ~ ~i~ � ~ ~ : ~ , ~ r. ~ ~ ? ? ~i ? a~: ~ ~ ~ e 'i ~i 'j' � �ld6S,ee ~ ? � � � ~ ' s' s � ~ s ~ "i i` s � 'i' e � ` �1 ~ e s s ~ 1 ? a e e a~ ~ 1~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ a � e ~i ~ s ~ ~ � ~ 1 ' e . ~ ' , e s ,~1 � `i Y � ~ 1~ ~ , s � s e : ~ T~ 1 r~ ~ e S~, , . ~ � � ~ ~ ~ : ? ~ s � ~ � ~ ~ ~ ~1 '1` _ : e e � � ' ' ~ e � ~ � � r e s ~ ~ ~ ~r~ � ~ � � . f- s s~ ' ` ~ . ~ ' ~ ' ? s ~ � 4 ~ ~ � ,e. , ~i~ ~ , e ',M M~0 s s ,O~e � - ~ ~ ~~r�~,~ ~ � ,1,, "hf . _ .r E' ~ , ~ 1~i~ s ~ 1~ ~Y ! M'~ b ~ ' . i � 1 ?i ~ ~ � � ~ . ~ � ' ~ ~ ' 1 ' '0. i'~ ~i i ~ _ }~f~~1 ~ ' ~ ~ . ~~i ! , -;~,,y,*,'~ +`w ' i' ~ �e� r � � ~ ~ / . . ~ ~ ~ . , � � ~ ~ ~ ~~~.i~ ~ ~ ~ i � s ~ ~ ~ . � ~ s ~ e - � . ~ ~ ~ ~1 ' ~ ~ � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � 1'~ j ` ~ ~ ~ . ~ ' ~ ' ~ � ~ � � � � � r � ~ / ~ ~ ~ ~ � � . ~ ~ � � � ` e ~ 1 � � ~ � � ~ ~ � \`a~" ? ~ ~1.. ~ � ~ � ~ � � / ~ � � ~~J~ � ~ ~ ~ � ~ � a ~ ` ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 'j . , ~ ; j ~ . � � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ � ~ ~ ~ 1 1~� ~ 1 / 1 1 � ~ � ~t ~J ~ � ~ s s Qe . ~9 ~1D ~ll ~/1 ~!J ~l4 lS Figure 39. Seismogeological schematic af the Kemn basin. Compiled by M. Dem'yanovich. 1-- granitoida; 2-- sedimentary-~metamorphic formations of the i.ower Proterozoic; 3-- glacial deposits of the first glaciation; 4-- glacial and aater-glacial deposits of the se~ond glaciacion; 5-- glacial-proluvial dia~ointed dislocations; 6-- proluvial depoait; 7-- alluvial Upper Quaternary and modern deposits~ ` 8-- ice �ielda; 9-- Holocene fractures and amplitude of vertical ahift (bergscrich in the direction of the subsided limb); 10 fracturee activated in the Cenozoic; 11 pre-Cenozoic fracture~; 12 eei~,i~ trenches; 13 glacial-cectonic trenches; 14 _ glACia1-tectonic acarpa; 15 glaeial trenches (relica of multi- story valleys). Key: 1. Kemen; 2. Naminga FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY 155 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 - ~~tt O~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY _ ~ _ _ _ . - � . � � e L e~~ i r ~ e s.r~ ~ ` e e ~ ~ s e s � e � s ~ ~ e / z~ 1~ e r . ~~d`'~' ' ; � . r ~ , rr r rr a � � 'i' h=/ M ~ 4~~'~' r~r~r r~r ~ ~ ~ � . ~i" ~ I ` � / � s ~ ~ ~ al~ 1 a 1 ~ � ' ~ i ~i ~ ~ � i~ - 1 � '1~ 1i � ~ � � � � � � � � ~ ~ ~ l .~J ~S r � ~8 ~ ~ ~S. ~ ~8 Ql0 ~/1 - ~igure 40. Plan vi~ of the ttedved' aeigmogpnic gtructure. Compiied by M. Dem'yanovich. _ 1-- modern and Upper Quaternary alluvial depoaits; 2-- Niddle and Upper Qua~ernaty glacial deposit; 3== terrig~nic- carbonaceoug rock of th~ Pgle~zoic; 4-- pr~-Cambrian s~dimentary- metemorphic formation; 5-- granitoide of the pre-Cambrian; 6-- gabbroids of the pre-Cambrian; 7-- seismogenic fractur~ (bergstricha of the direction nf the sub~ided limb); 8-- pre- Nolocene fracture; 9-- landslip,fault plaina; 10 direction of ancient vall~y; 11 aeismogenic trenches; h-~- amplitude of verrical displacement of the landslide-fault; the arroW aith the numb~r ia the dir~ction and engle ~f incidence of the di~plac~r Key: 1. Kalar; 2. Chitkanda; 3. MedvEd' Creek A/4-22. The ArguP.en structure is traced to the east of the river of same name on the south gide of the Tokkinskaya bagin. The seisa~ogenic deformations (nbout 3.5 km long) are accompanied by a crushing and schist-formation strip (100-2(10 mpters) in th~ Archean granite-gneisses. The rock haa been strongly broken doan and is intensely jointed. An abundance of small cleavage jointg are noted Which can be connected yith shearing displncement. Thia ia confirmed by noticeable lefthand achists of the nxinl perta of the sa~all dividea. 156 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott d~~ICIAt, U3~ Oi~fLY `C1� vereie~l digpi.~~pm~n~ wieh re~p~et tn th~ ~r~~ture ~eh~ dd~mehrawn uplnhd gidp) i~ ~xhibit~d in th~ ~xi~i g~~tion~ of th~ dir~id~ wh~r~ ~ru~h~d gr~ni~~-~neie~~~ ar~ uncdv~r~d along eh~ ~oine~ At ~u~h pl~~~g, ~ "eorn" ~eper~Cian ~urfec~ ie ob~~rv~d aiong Whi~h pune~ur~ ~f individu~l enk~~ pinre. Th~ ~npin~ ef ch~ ~ointe r~~r.hp~ 4 t~ 5 mc+t@r~ in el~i~ en~c. Un th~ cfivid~~ wlihr+~ g~hick e~lu~~~luvi~l Covet' hag developed, ehis ~one i~ u~uaily tr~e~d in eh~a fdrm of ~~h~11d~~ Ct~ O~ S-1~ 5 m~t~rs) ~r~n~h 2-5 m~t~r~ widp. ~n plac~~ th~ tr~neh ig ~ompl~t~ly ~tr~~n aith talu~ ~~terigl. a n th~ ri~ht gide of ~h~ traugh vali~y of the At~~uk~n Riv~r, ~meli rockelid~~ end i~nd~lidee of th~ t~lu~ ~ov~r ~re conn~c~~d uieh thi~ zon~. A/5-l. The Kuduli atructure ia lo~~t~d at th~ fooe d� the nor~h ~id~ ~f th~ Kuduii River vall~y (the right tribueary of th~ Oi~kma Rtver) ~nd i~ ~~edei~ted with thQ line of dielocation~ with ~ break in continuiey of thQ ~ubi~tieud~nal ~trike~ The geigmog~nic r~~uv~n~tion is repr~e~nt~d by ~ tWO-m~Cpr faule ~e~rp nf n~rthae~terly (2~0�) 9trik~ ext~nd~ng 0.5-1 km and c~~arly ~xpre~e~d in ch~ r~lief. A xone up to 3~4 m~tpr~ aide of gh~rpiy diglocated b~dding nf Jura~~ir flaggy eandst~n~ is traeed. Ingidp this xon~ ~ v~rrical ~ rdgitidn of the individual platforms ~aving ~n ~r~a ~c~ 2 r~2 i,~ nbted. nn the upthrnwn 1imb, sma1~ roclcel~de~ ~rp norpd in th~ dir~ction of the doanthro~m limb up to 40 m in area. Over th~ entir~ extent, the ~tructure i~ ~ccompan~ed by a strip of felled for~~t. The fa11En tree~ are ori~nt~d to the ~outh. The Eora?ation of such a dislocAtion occurr~d, judging by the fractur~ of ch~ gnil end vegetgcion layer~ r~rpntly (d~cadeg ago) ~nd could be ceused by an earthquake of force 9 intensity (by comparison vith the geismic dislocations in the case o# the Olelana and the ~Iyukzha earthqu~kes (1958). c (3) . :i . ~ T ? slwM�A:?r ~ I a P~3~'~~S Figure 41. Plan of the Sarkhoy seismogenic structure. Compiled by V. Nikalayev. 1-- Cambrian carbonaceous rock; 2-~ sceep (50~60�) erosion slope of the Sarkhoy River valley; 3--~ brow of the erosion scarp; 4-- plane of the sheared peak; 5~- faults Kcy: t. Sagnn-Ula; 2. south; 3. narth 157 FOR OFFICIAI, USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OR tlF~tCIAL U5~ ONLY g/1-1. Th~ 5grkhdy ~eru~eure (~~g 41~ ig ~.tlC~Ep(~ dn fhe i~~e b~nk df ehe r~v~r Wieh ehp g~m~ n~mp, fh~ right tribut~~y di th~ Ti~~~ ~i,v~r, at 3~g~n-U1~ Moun~~in (2437 m~tQr~)~ `~h~ ta~ p~r~1~p1 f~ults pxt~nd fn th~ naeehe~~E~rly dir~~~ian (~5~4~") ~nd ~tr~ obvinu~ly ~xpr~~g~d in th~ fd~n of ~t~~p ~e~rp~ dipping e~ eh~ ~nu~h~a~c ~t an ~n~i~ ~f 65-70�~ Ttti~ f~~lrg ~hif~ Wieh eh~e ~h~iW~~~ of thp t~mpor~ry ~ere~m~ ~nd thp divid~~ ~~p~r~eing ~h.!~~ `Che fr~ctur~ ~dnpr~ ~r~ n~comp~ni~d by light gr~y, w~~kiy e~mpne~d br~~ei~g Wieh ~ia~~i~ r.?~t~ri.~l frdm O.S tn 5 cm in gixe~ 'Th~ Mdge pxtend~d ig th~ ldw~r r~~arp h~ving ~ l~ngth nf 2 km ~nd ~ vprfi~~l digpl~eement ~mplitude nf 2 meterg. pernlipi to ie 200 m~t~r~ highpr ~1ong th~e glope~ cam~~ ~h~ g~cond fraeEur~ 1.5 km lon~ Wi~h n v~rtir~l digplac~m~nt ampiieud~ of 0~5 t~ 1 met~r. 'Ch~ fir~t ~nd ~~eond Eault~ ~rp ~eeampani~d by f~~th~r fr~eEur~~. ` lt 0 1, A~10-/SM ~ 'p A�1,3-2,0~+ 1 , a~ . �.I ~ , 1 . y,,,~. to~ro:or ~l ~l QJ QS QB `~7 R~~ 9 r' + figure 42. Scheroatic of the Tologoy structure. Compiled by M. Dem'yanovich. 1-- levelled surfaces of the peatcs and their brovs; 2�~ slop~; 3-- flattened part oE the divide; 4�-- side of the Tissa River vnlley r~nd the broW oE ~he divide; 5�-- r.ival cirques; 6-- acarps oE th~ bald peak terraces; 7-- alluvial-proluvial d�posit; 8-- vy~ypka (rock fragmeats scattered sho~+ing the presence of bed rock) of large block material on the divide; 9-- proposed dielocations ~,�ith a breek in coetinuity; h vertical dieplacement ~mplitude. Key: 1. Bnruun Dabaeta; 2. Shuluuk Tologoy 158 FOR OFFICIAL USE OM.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY f~n Ch~ noreh~a~t~rn ~nd o~ eh~ ~~i~mog~niC ~oint ~yeCpm~ ro~k,y seripping df eh~ eop~ ~f eh~ ~~climpnt~ry ~nlumne noted glong the pl~in (aboue 4000 m2 in ar~~) di,pring at an angle of 25-35� eo the eouthwest 230-~40�. ~ Judgin~ by the acal~e of Holocen~ re~uvenaeion o� ehe 5arkhoy fault, ie - ig po~e~ble,to propos~ th~t th~ form~tion nf th~ S~rkhoy srructure is eann~cted with ~n ~arthquake w3th an ine~n~i.~y ~o force 9. The eime of ferm~tian of the erructure ie determin~d wi~h a large proporeion of ~onditionaliCy. Th~ geofl preaervation of the fgult scarpe in Che ehalwega ~nd on th~ dividee of the emall r~vines indicates thgt the age of rhe gtructur~ ie a f~w hundred yeg,r~ oid, The mod~rn activity of rhe a~cructure ie emphasized by ehe epaCial coordination wiCh the Sarkh:oy block of I~r~l'ehoy Sayan of ewo epicenters of ~tr~ng earthquakes with, K~12 end 14 cforce ~-6 end 7-a, reapeceively). tl/1-2. Th~ 'Tologoy gtr?acture (Fig 42) is locat~d nn the left bank of ehe Tt~ega Riv~r betaeen thE~ Shuluuk~Tologoy (absoluCe elevation 2328 meters) nnd the Zholgyn-Sar'dag Peake (abeoluCe elevation 2442 meCera). Th~ bnsiC disloc~tian is expreseed in the form of a scarp with northwesterly - strike 1.5-2.Q metprs high on Che flat divide of Che Sentsy and Tisss � Riv~rg. The gently sloping scarp (lesa than 30�) is traced at a distance of gbout 5 km. In the individual extended aections it is emphasized by linenr concentration of the abundant brushwood vegetation. - "Che goutheaetern end of the dislocation with a break in continuity in the - divide part of the side of the Tisea River valley is expre~sed by a tr~nCh from S to 12 meters deep and up to 15 meters wide becoming a ravine dipping into the Tis~a Itiver valley. Along the sides of the trench, silieified and ferrugittized epidote-chlorite shales are exposed. The rocks are sharply ~ointed with a large number of slip surfaces. A scarp about 1.5 meters characterized by the same attributes runs from the basic dislocation to the east. In the upper part of the root slip of the valley, the scnrp is traced in the bedrock at a distance up to 200 meters. On the gentle slopes of the adjacent levelled peaks, linear scarps are observed which are similar to the basic one, sometimes extending more than 2 km~ coinciding in indiv~dual sections with the slopes of the bald peak terraces. On the right bank of the Baruun-Dabaat River, an erosion- tectonic acarp of aubneridional atrike is traced. On the surface it ~ becomes a linear strip of finely clastic material with dense vegetation. 'Chis zone extends more than 5 km. Cases of it are noticeable on the raot divides, in the levelled bottoma of the saddles, and on the gentle slopes. It is poasible to propose that some of the above-described deformations could be �ormed in recent decades the �irst hundreds of years ago during an earthquake with force 9 intenaity. 159 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 - FOR OFFICZAL U5E ONLY v v V ~ ~ ~ ~ v . y yi . v ~ ~ v v ~ . ~ ~ , . ~ / v . I ~ . - i' ~ 1 ' 'II � . ' � � : ~ v v v ~ ~ ~ . . Y hm G.T-20n~.; . . ,i�~~ ~ 1 h ' � : ~ ~ -2s-.~o~ . , . . . , , _ . o . ' ' : ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , . ' , � ~ ol'O n~4o ~ ' ; ru'c'c~ o _ q ~ ~ ~ 11 ,;:o % ol oto V y v ~ v r ~y o . o~-p~ v V V V V - ~~o V Q . � ' !L-3.f0-~DOa-~-~~ ~ v v , ~ ~ v V ~ ~;'�I ' ~ ~ V V ~ ~ ~ ~ : . ~ ~ ~ ~'1 V V ~ y y V V � v - V V ~ V , ' I I I V V V V V . ~ Q 2 �/0 ~ 3 v V~~.S l6 6~~ Q 8 :i: 9~~~ . Figure 43. Visual plan (with refinements by aerial photograph) of the Dugaray structure. Compiled by M. Dem'yanovich - 1-- sand-shingle channel and floodplain deposit; . 2-- bottom moraine deposit; 3-- debris cone deposiC; 4-- Neogenic basalts; 5~- pre-Cambrian epidot-chlorite shale; ~ 6-- faults activated in the Cenozoic; a-- established, ' b-- proposed; 8-- brows of the seismogenic landslip; ~ 9-- formations of th~ landslip facies; 10 brows of erosion, scarps; h-- height, R-- total length of the landslip zone Key: 1. Tissa - B/1-3. The Dugaray structure (~ig 43) is located on th~ left bank of the Tissa River between its tributaries Terp,ete and Dabaat. ~ On the slope on the left side several fresh landslips are noted traced for a distance of 350 to 400 meters. The landslips are located in the ! tectonic disturbance zones oriented on the northeasterly and near latitudinal directions. The west landslip has an area of 100X50 meters. It is undoubtedly the case that the outl.ines of this landslip were greater, - but the annual mud flows have reworked it. Along the rear o� the debris - cone, a trench of sublatitudinal strike about 2 to 2.5 meters deep and about 200 meters long can be traced. On ~he slope along the strike of the trench, erosion cressts of temporary streams are complicated by transverse scarps and saddles. ].60 FOR OFFICIAL U~.iF: ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 Fa~ ~~~ictat, u$~ oxt.Y - 'the lyrow o� the g~p~rati.on wall of the uest land~lip Co the ~nutha_~gt coinci.des with the li,n~arly ori.~n~t~d e~arpe to 3 meC~rg high~ To the north~ast there c~re two sm~ll close lgndgl~p~ with g total l~ngth of bbout 250 m~Cers. The height of the eeparation walls of the landsli~s is - to 30 meters. The deposits o~ th~ proluvial debris cone in the eurface of the Cenozoir basalte o~curring in the valley arQ covered with landslip materigl. , It is posgible to determine the gge of the geigmic etructure by the over- lep oE the landalip formationa on the glacigl depogiCe and the faults. During preglacial time~ the cover of the basoltg Wag deformed and shifted wiCh rpspecC to a step aystem of faults r~f northeasterly gtrike. During che glaciation, ihe surface of the doamthrown blocks Was prepgr~d, and the baealt cover was partially deetroyed. a typicgl exaration relief wae , cre~ted in the area. buring the poatglacial Cime the tector?ic mnv~mpnts led to furrowing of certain faults. Accordingly, the formation of the seismic landslips which covered the accumulative and exaration glacial forms took place. Judging by the par~meters of the seismogravitational phenomena, they could occur for an earthquake of force S-9. ' B/1-4. The Zabit atructure is located on the right bank of the Zabit River ~ 2 km north of the mouth of the right tributary of the Sakhyurta River. On the south slope of the mountain With an absolute elevation of 2414 m, an erosion-tectonic acarp is traced Which runs c.o.the northaest into the linear zone intersecting the highland terraces, divides and individual J bald outLiers. _ The age of the formation of the tectonic disturbance ia provisionally established as the Holocene on the basie of. the deformations of the fora~s of b~ld peak planation Which are formed intensely from the end of the Upper Pleiatocene to the present time. The total extent of~the fracture reaches 3 l.m, the maximum amplitude of the vertical displacement reaches nbout 2 me[ers. These deformation parameters can char~cterize the intensity _ oE the earthquake generating them at force 8-9. - D/1-5. The Shulun structure (Pig 44) is l.ocated on the south slope of - the Kropotkin ridge which borders the Oka basin on the north (3 km north~ wer~t of Khuzhir) . At the foot of the mountain With an absolute elevation of 2887 meters, a fault of sublatitudinal strike aas uncovered with vertical displacement of the ~ralls of the fault to 25 meters. The south Wall at the foot of - the mountain was dovnthrown, The fault scarp is most sharply er.pressed in the dlvide of small streams (the tributaries of the Oka P.iver) Shulun and Bulag-Shebey, s~here the fault cuts the Upper Proterozoic granites for ~ distance of about 2 km. On the surface of the moraines in the trough valleys, the traces of the fault are noted in the form of 161 POx OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOtt OFFICIAL US~ ONLY twc~ comparatively ~ently eloping egymmetrir crench~~. In the mndern c~rnpton cut in the ~lttrinl depositg under the trenchp~, an inciined Htrip i~ obeervcd which correepond~ to the dieplacee in which thp mo~t conreely claetic mat~ri~l i~ ~oncentrgted. . f . ' ' ' / ' ' ~ i � Y �r ~ ��r J~ ~ ; ~ ~ ~ ~ , ' . Y ~ ~ r~ ` : e ~ ' , = - ~ ~ I / 1' -r,, 2 ~ : ~ ~ _ ~ ee~. ; ~ ~ , ~ ' ~ ~ ~i s ( _ ~ ~ ~ w ~ 4 � ' 1 ~ � ~ ' : _ ~ ~~�p � r ~ ~ ~r ~ i � e e . ~ a_ ~ y a~alnr~ - ~ � ~ ~ ~3}~ �o -r ~ e h� tO~ MJO?~ a~ e E � r I r ~ s s ~ ~ ~r so � � ~ ' y ..i .�:r ~ 0 � � . . e - ~ ~ \ , ~ ~ ~ ' � � ~ O~ O ~~1~� _ � 1 � ? ~ ( ~ ( ~~0/~ / 0 ~ ~ . ~ i . . ~ ,r, xy 61(7p � / � ~ � ~ ~Mt~ i ~ / ~ ~ ~ O j a ~ � f ~ V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~IS N f\ V ~ y v V~-~ V ~ ~i P I ~1 v v v r v v ~ ~ V v y v V v / _ v y v v v V V V vV V V V '~~..r~ ~ ` 1 V y V V V V V r ~ _ ( V V V ~ V V -i ~j ''f ~ V V V V V y J ~ ~ ~ V~ V V V r ~ - ( V V V V V V ~ r j/~ r 'i 'i '~f' V V V V V 'i , ~ ~ r-� ~ o~o ~ ~l~P l~J~ ~ ~v~ S ~6 -r 7 ' y 9 'O ~ 9 f0 Q 1 f ;r;~:� f2 '~M fJ 1~I Pigure 44. Plan of the seismogenic Shulun structure. Compiled by M. Dem'yanovich. 1-- alluvial depcsit; 2-- seismogenic landslips; a-- deposits oE landslip facies, b-- separation wall; 3-- deposits of the boulder train at the foot; 4-- glacial formation; 5-- Holocene basalt; 6-- Pro[erozoic scarned rock; 7-- Proterozoic graniteids; 8-- faults active in the Holocene (bergstrichs in the direction of the doWnthrown side: a-- reliable, b-- proposed); 9-~- fnults active in the Cenozoic; a-- reliable, b-- proposed; - 10 ancient fault; 11 erosion-tectonic scarps; 12 zones o� intense brecciation in the scarns; 13 hei~ht of the fault ~carps; I4 a-- direction of dip of the displacer, b-- pro- posed limit of spread of the landslip mass. Key: 1. Saylag; 2, Ikhe-Sagan-Sayr; 3. Bulag~Shebey; 4. Shulun; 5. Oka; 6. Khuzhir _ 162 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OF1~IC~AI. U5~ ONLY ~ a ~ The Enrm~ti~n~nf the ge~.~motect~nic dieldcetinns of the Shulun gtructure wns ~ccompnnied by num~roue seiemugrnvit~tional ph~nomena, primarily rockslidea. Th~ larg~ ]nndRlipa occurr~d direcCly in the zone of ~,reak cectonie dieeurhunce (~he right aide of the 5hulun River vallye and the = leE[ gide of Chp Bulag-5hebey River valley)~ The two sma].1 lan~del.ipa in _ - the mouth part of the Khara~Zhalga River~ Che right tribuCary of Che 5aylag River ar~ ~esociat~d with the Saylag fault. The divide cap~ in th~ vicinity of Che pmergence of the 5aylag Riv~r in the Oka basin was deformed by the landslip. The landalio material covered the moraine depo~it,. The outline of the landalip amphitheater is drawn along the large-lump material on both banka of the Saylag River. The maximum land-- slip masa wae concentrated at the aeparation wall over an area of 0.7 km2. The separation wall with a total area of 0.8 km2 oriented along the long axis to the souCheast ia sharply eroded. Carbonaceoua roc~: in~ected with - gneisa granitea is~exposed in it~ The rock is intensely crushed and milonitized. All of the seiemic dislocations of Che Shulun structure are within the boundariea of the large Oka fracture zone branching from the Main Sayan fault. The nature and the dimensions of the seismotecConic and seismo~ grnvitational deformations of the earth's aurface permit estimation of the interisity of the earthquake of more than force 9 creating them. ? The age of the seiamic structure is established by the deformations of the glucir~l, erosion and other forms and by the superposition of the formations of the landslip seismogenic faciea on the glacial and alluvial deposits _ (the latter occur on the Holocene basalts) in the Oka basin. The age of ~ - the seismic structure is hundreds of years according to the abovP-presentea data. There are reasons for assuming that epicenters of the strong earth- quakes of 1858 and 1859 could be associated with this structure, especially the strong earthquake of 19 Noveaaber 1859 when the force of _ the earthquake reached 8 in the Aliberovskiy mine 90-100 lun from the Shulun structure region. B/1-6. The Khazalkhy structure is located on tlie divide of the Oka River and its left tributary, the Khazalkhy River 14 1�.m south of Sorok. ~ I[ is a rectilinear zone about 2.5 km long traced in the metamorphic shales dipping to the northwest 350� at an angle of 65-78�. The stril:e of the geomorphologically expressed line is northwest 280�. In the terrain it is a acarp ~.5 to 1.5 meters emphasized by abundant grass and moss vegetation. The impression is created that the modern denudation surface of the divide is deformed. The ampli[ude of the vertical displace- ment of the denudation surface is lowered from the center to its edges. On the slopes, the scarp is lost in the deluvial deposits. . B/1-7. The Tustuk structure (Fig 45) is located in the valley of the middle course of the right tributary of the Oka P.iver of the same name. The geomorphologically proposed seismogenic rejuvenation is expressed by 163 ~ - FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY ~hnrp rectilinear scarps. At their base �requently gently sloping gubaidenceg are observed wiCh the small lakes elongated in the lntitudinal direction are asaociated. This entire sublatitud3nal zone of struCturxl forms expreoaed in relief is 6 kr.~ lnng~ The eroaion-tectonic (7) acarp to 3~4 meters high is traced moat clearly along the left side of the Tustuk River valley above Che mouCh of its left tributary, the Dooda-Unagan Creek. A second,clearly expressed fragment of the structure is associateci with its eastern f2ank and is located along the right side of the Tustuk River valley above the mouth of Yakhoshop River. This ia also a linear scarp 5-6 meters high superposed on the glacial forms of relief. It is identi cally obvious on the surface of both the bedrock and Che loose rock. This ia expressly well expreased at the termination of the fault scarp where it ahifts the debris cone of the unnamed right tributary. The amplitude of the vertical displacement ia 3-4 meters. On the north, upthrown wall of the structure, Che stream is cut into the debris cone, and on the downthrown wall, accumulation of the loose material is observed, so that a young debris cone of smaller dimensiona is fnrmed on the older one. _ ~ ~ ~ y un . ~ ~ i . I i .1_~ . _ . y�.'Yt: - ~1 ~i~y [~s Figure 45. Plan of the proposed seismogenic Tustuk structure. Compiled by V. Nikolayev. 1-- slopes of the Tustuk River valley; 2-- alluvial channel deposits; 3-- debris cone; G-- faults: a-- established, b-- proposed; 5-- stripping of the eluvial-talus material� Kcy: 1. Tustuk - The clear expression of the scarp in the loose deposits of the debris cone and its good preservation indicate that this formation is quite young within the limits of the first hundred years. Whereas in the process of the farthest, mo~t detailed seismogeological studies the seismogenic nature of the young fractures can be confirmed, the Tustuk structure can be certainly coordinated with the seismic dislocations formed during the force 10 earthqual:e. 164 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ The mod~rn lev~l oE eeiemic activi,ty o� the vicinity of the Tustuk ia determined by the cnordination of the weak ~K~6-11) and moderate (K-12-13) earthquakes wiCh it. g/2-5. The IaCokakaya aCructure (Fig 46) occupies the Sor Cherkalova Bay (rhe Istokskiy Bay) [the underwater portion of the partially aub- - merged river basinJ and the lowland and aharply awampy sections of the ahore ad~acent Co it. The bay is located within Che shallow part of the souChwestern edge of the Selenta River delta and has a maximum depth of up to 12 meters, gnd over the larger area, no more than 3 metera. The Istokakiy Sor is separated from Baykal by a aubmeridional elongated barrier of sandbars (the Karga Lemeaova Peninaula, the Bab'ya Karga Island), and on the southeaseer it is bounded by the narrow (0.2-1 km) strip of lowland awampy shore ad~acent to the rectilinear~scarp 10 to 12 metera high, the gncient Fofanovskaya (third Selenga) terrace. In the expoaed acarp dike Che fine-grained sands are revealed. According to the data af the geoohysical work of A. P. Bulmasov and the prospecting holes of V. V. Samsonov and G. P. Ponomareva, the vicinity of the large Del'tovoy fault in the crystalline basement _ coincides with the acarp line on the surface. Another fault bounds the bay on the west, being placed in the basement on the sandbars separating the bay from the Baykal water. Thus, the structure in plan view is approximately equilateral tectonic wedge with approximately 10-km sides. On the norCh where it smoothly joins the floodplain in the surface terrace of the Selenga delta, the wedge is about 5 km wide. It is proposed that the terraced section of the shore outlined by the Eaults was downthrown under the level of Baykal as a result of the earth- quake, similarly to the Posol'skiy Sor (Solonenko, V., Treskov, 1960, p 4) and the Proval Bay, and subsequently was buried under the beach sands and bed loads. The Kudara (second Selenga) terrace, fragments of which were preserved on the southeast shore the bay and, possibly, the part of the Fofanovskaya terrace next to thc: lake were involved in the seismogenic burial. The maximum deformation of the earth's surface appeared in the southern part of the bay, in the vicinity of the 3oining of the faults bounding it. The ar~plitude of the lowering here is no less than 10-12 m. The great similarity in morphology, size and structure of the Istoksskaya [IstokJ structure with the Posol'skaya [Posol'sk] structurel and the obviously seismotectonic formations of the Proval Bay permits consideration of common genetic roots in their origin. The subsidence permits iThe calculations performed by A. A. Rogozin (1974~ with respect to the buildup rate of the sandbars in the Posol'skiy Sor indicate that they _ ~ppeared for the first time in the bay annroximately 500 to 600 years ago. In the Sor, the older residents still remember the flooded trees, stumps and logs. Consequently, the age of the bay is about S00 years. I65 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 F'Olt Ul~'~iC1~AL US~ ONLY ~ c ~~0:: . - ' ~,;:;.;;s: ~o . ~ ~ ~ ~ - (s) ~ ( ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ s ~ � �J2 I '+c, + , /~/i I : o %f rigure 46. Ptan of the Istokskaya I and the Posol skaya seismogenic ~ structure. Compiled by A. Abalal:ov. / 1~- scarps of the terraces of ~ tic o// suopusedly seismotectonic origin and 1 their hei~hts, meters; 2-~ fault ' ~ zones in the cr stalline basement; ~ y \ 3 sections of seismotectonic _ ~ ~ " subsidences; 4 Kudara and \ ' ~ ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ' ~ Fofanovskaya (Middle to Upper ~ 'y~~~�'::'.;,..~� Quaternary) terraces; 5 floodplain 's and f irst terrace above Che f lood- plain; 6-- gas and thermal mineral O \ ss r water shows; 7-- epicenters of _ ~ ~ 1 force, 7, 5 and 4 earthquakes, ~ alD respectively. ~ J ` /loeonacrs ~ 4 Key�1. Povorot~ 2. Posol'ski ~3~ 1 ~ ~ v ~ S 1~::;�.;;~; Sor Bay; 3. Posol'sk; e '6o~'~~y � 4. Bol. P.echka; 5. Istok; s 1,�ti~: 6, Istol:skiy Sor Bay; ~ ,5,8 7. north; 8. south ~ �1 ' ~ O a s - ~ ~ � o ~ ~ ~ ~o^� ~ ~ o t~ / I7o.opo~n ~1) s ; j ~~1~~~~~~~~~~~~~:~. ~~.5 ~1~:~~~~: ~ L ~ 166 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~0lt O~~ICIAI, U5~ ONLY r.ongid~r~htion nf Cnmmon ~eneCic rooCs in th~ir nri~in. Thp Igtnkskay~ atructure is prababiy ydunger Chan Che Posol'gkgya sCructure. 'Thig ig indicated by thp gr~at~r depehs o� the bay, the ~mnller ~mnu~t df erosion - uf the shor~s, ~nd compnr~tively weak isolation from Che lnke. t3/3-4. Th~ Svyntonosskaya (Svyatoy Nnsj structure ~ig 47) ig locaCed on the Svyntoy Nos Peninsula (the east shor~ nf the central part of L~ke Baykal). The peninsula lies on th~ northeastern continuation of the O1'khonsl;aya br,anch of Che Obruchevgkiy fault. 'Che seismotectonic dislocations of thp structure are rehreseneed by fau2rs ~ynd separation ~oints. Th~ basic system of seismogenic faults was revealed in the headwaters of Che Markovo River where Chey are traced _ more th~in 5 l:m in the form of clear rectilinear, subparallel and inCer- secting fractures. The lengCh o~ the individual dislocations is up to ~ 1.5 km. On the top of the mountain which is made up of granitea, the lon~esC segroent of the fault forms a 30-50� scarp up to 10 meters high. 'fhe eastern wall is downthrown. In the snuthwestern part of the investigated area on the gently sloping divide of the Dolgyy and SneZ::~.yy Creeks there are two subparallel step faults bounding the block inclined to the southeast. _ On ttie northwest slope o~ the left divide of the Dolgyy Creek there is a seismotectonic graben. It is 320X17C;0 meters in size. Here along the system of step faults (northeast strike 45-50�) a peak part of the divide crest was downthrown. The wall of one of the faults at the foot of the mountain Eorms a tectonic dam 4 to 5 meters high and about 1 km long intersecting the bottom of the ravine (Fig 48). The gravitational-seismotectonic disturbances are r~presented by landslip faults and fractures with significant gravitational components. The formation of this type of deformation is connected with movements along - the E~zults with simultaneous removal by the gravitational forces of the - mount~lin masses dismembered by them. '('lie seismogravitational phenomena include landslips, landslips-slides, l;~nclslides and talus creating seismogravitational amphitheaters on the ~I~pe, hummocky and swell-sinkhole microrelief on the surface of the down- tlirown root blocks and among the landslip masses. The largest seismo- ~;enic landslide-landslip is cc,ordinated with the steep divide crest at the I~c:~dwaters of the M.arkov River. The volume of the landslip reaches 42 million m3. The displacement of the rocky massif occurred in the - n~,rtt~westerly direction to a distance oE 300 m. In plan it is circular in shape (350X200 m), 25 m hi~h. The smaller landslide-landslip wi[h - respect to tlie dimensio~is occurred on a steep divide cape of the left trihut.lries of the Dolgyy Creek. The surface of the separation wall has a slope of 35 to 40�, and the size is 250X500 meters. The total volume oE the landslip mass reaches 26 million m3. 167 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~dR f1~~tCiAL U5~ nNLY � r � 1 . 6 r ~ ~'C5 ~J ~ z ~ Q ~ (1) o ' 2t,/i ~ss~.. i 4 i o~~~ , t~ s i/y / e.~e i Q y~~~ G~ l96Be. U s � 1(6) 0 3 r8/x ~9s,., i . r . ~ � / i ~~P/XI J869t, � 6 _ 16,~V ~9J9e. J ~i~ ~ 9 (3) � s~'o~ ` ~ � ~ 6~ p'~ (h)~ ~ i A NKA n~CKOE ~~P~ ~ 6~' f;~�~ J ~p P1'~c H a r o o b c ~~N ~~oN ~ v E �b ~,Q' A~ . . ~ . o.~, o ~ = � � .AN~AV~ ~ � ~0 fi ~ � s ! - _ _ ~o~"` o . e~�~~ � m,,~rE6 ~ '6 E ~ E ' ~ ~ eq~ ~ .�C~~ ~ : o. ~ P ~ . Q ~ I ~(lE1 0 . : . ~ .b ~ ~d~ ~ ' ~r` ~ ~ I~ i O � ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ N., . ~ O M ~ ~ \r ' � ~ ~ ~ 8 ~o~. 4 � ~ ~ ~ .c,~ = b~ ~ r . ~l~`b ~o . ~ � S . o 1 ~ o � 0 ~ d~~ ? . ~ ~ ~ o - . . ,e . e tg~ ` ~ ~ , ~ o ~r ~1,~~ a � a.~ I `~t < 16 ) o i~ � ~ 0 P I P 6 6 ~ . Q O o ~ ~ ~ q o R~ . ~ . ~ , C , ~ ' ~ . ~ A ~ (15 ) ~ � ~1~~. � nA~ r b~yfAti o, b~, a~ ~.r, , o. o o , ~ ~ Q ~ p0 . 0 r � Q~" o ~ . (13) 60 (11) I ~o e o . ~ ~x B e � ~ , o ~ 0 ' . _ , D . o ' � ,A 6 n !i2>� � � ~ , 'o � , . i . . ~ ~ � { . , a � � ~ 0 ' I, � . O �O � 0 6% ~ ~ . . , O o ~O � � � - _ ~ (K~9). The numbera in the notation correspond to energy clasaes of the - earthquakes. ISee key on p 226J 225 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 rox o~~~c~nL crs~ orn.Y ~Kr.y cr~ r~~ ~a, rr 22aM2zs~; ~ 1~ Northt~rn gayk~l Hi,~hland; 2~ Upper Anggra r~dg~s 3. Delyun-Ur~n~kiy ridg~; 4. Kodar ridg~; 5~ Southern Muya ridgej 6. Udokan ridge; 7. Kalar ridgp; 8. Vitim plateau; 9. Vitim~ 10. Ol~kmn Seanovitc; 11. Bnr~hchovochnyy ridge; 12. Y'~Ulonnvyy ridge; 13~ Chita; 14~ Khilok; 1S. Ikatskiy ridg~s 16. narguxinskiy ridge; 17. Baykai; 18. ~aykgl rid~e; 19. U1~n-Burggey ridg~; 20. gAN; 21~ Ulan-Ude; 22~ Primorgki,y ridg~; 23. 'IrkuC; 24. Irkutek; 25. Khgmar-Da ridge; 26. Gueinoye Lnke; 27. Dzhi.da; 29. Dxhldinskiy [Dzhida] ridge; 29. Seleng~s 30. guren-Nuru 31. gulnay Nuru r3dge; 32. Khubeugul Lttke; 33. Voetochnyy Sayan [Eegtern Sayan~; 34. 2ya; 35. Oka; 36~ Angara; 37. Lena~ The manifeatations of Che seismic proc~~s in the Bgyknl sei~mic zone are v~ried~ Thp e~rthquake acoarms o�ten occur in the Barguzinskiy ~taynn, in the Kodarn-Udokangkiy Rayon, in thp viciniCy of Ch~ Upper Piuya-Muyakan baein~, along the Obrucheskiy fault zones in Central Baykal and the meridianal part of the Shurmaneko-Shutkhulayskiy fault in ehe extreme southwest. The earthqunl:e ewarm in the Ikatskiy ridge lasting several ~ yenra is unique. Ag a rule, th.e locations of the awarme did not repegt durin$ the instrument ~~ismologic~l observation times. Sometimes the awarme occurred in practice at the same places where at anoCher time - . seismic proceas developed fifferenCly a atrong earthquake was accompanied by a series of afterahocks (GoleneCskiy, eC al., 1973). Depths of the Pribaykal~ye Earthquake Centersl On the basis of the quite broad obaervations of the earthquakes of Pribaykal'ye, it is posaible to state with certainty that their centers are located in the earth's crust. However, the exact establishment of the depths o� the centers within the.limits of the earth's crust encounters great difficulties primarily as a result of insufficient density of the seismic station network. As a rule, the depth of Che center of an - individual earthquake with the existing network of seismic stations in Pribaykal'ye cannot in the majority of cases be establiahed with the necessary accuracy. Therefore it is necessary to be saCisfied with only a few average eatimates. There are several paChs for obtaining such estimateg. . 1. Comparison of Average Hodographs of the Head Waves P for Explosiona and Earthquakea By the observations of more than 20 industrial explosions from the areas of Cheremkhovo and Zhele~nogorsk~ the apparent velocities and initial orainates of the average hodographs of the head waves P were determined. . 1The oreater part of the factual data for the given section was prepared by E. A. Tret'yak. . 226 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 . FOR OF~~CIAL U5~ nNLY 'Chey Curn~d ouC ed be equal Cn ?~9~h0~05 km/gec g~d 6~9+0~4 sec r~~p~ceively. Th~ c~lGUlntion~ nf the hodogr$phe o~ thp ~ame wgv~e for tihp earthqu~kee with nn intene~,ty of mor~ th~n 200 in v~ri,oue yereione (~.n particul~r, for differenr parts nf the eeiemic xone) g~ve ~c~m~whet different values~ but valuee ~loee to thos~ that were obta~ned by rhe ~xplosione~ if we conaider that th~ ~v~rage thicknees of ehe earth~g cru~t aiong th~ rout~~ in Pribayka'ye doeg not change ~h~rply according to the eeismologic dgC~ ~nd th~ deep eeiemic eoUnding date, ehen the indicated cloeenese of th~ elemEnt~ megns thet the cer~t~re o~ the Qarthquakp~ are ehallow for the - mnst parr (they ~re loc~ted in eh~ upper S to 10 kilnmeter layer). 2. The construction of the earthquake dietributiions wieh respect to depths according to the formula for the travel time of the head waves ia . ~p _ h~ , /'v""�'~~ e' - p Mp vP - Key: (1) t. m~bn or excluding the center time, b~ Che formulas for the differencea in tim~ of nrrival of the direct wave (P or S) and the head wave p: . ~-p~ � + -(2N-l~, ~ ~ ~ e, y~ ! ~--~p-~~ Pcp " o~+~ i t e S-1~~-, _(2N-la) z - Z - s v~p Yp y-P~ where h is the desired depth of the center; VP is the mean velocity mean of the longitudinal waves in the earth's crust; Vp, Vg, VS are the known propagation rates of the P, P and S waves; e is the epicentral distanceg determined on establishment of the epicenter, H is the mean thicka~ess of the crust in the region (N=38 km is given for the calculations). The distributions obtained indicate the small mean depths of the centers . and the very signiEicant dispersion of the results as a result of the rnndom errors (~ig 79), The cnlculations encompass the obaervations for January-June 1971 of the enrthquakea from the varioue parts of Pribaykal'ye, The propagation routes of the seiamic waves Were not differenti$ted in this case, ~uat as the data from the individual etations aere not isolated. 227 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 I ~OEt d~~~C~AL U3~ ANLY - ~/~~,~.r 0 � .a~' ~ O O O o o ~ A ""~"~~r~' � y~`' p ' C ~ ~ ~ l!1 . � ~ ~ as . ~ � � p ~ x , . ~ o , ; . ~ a~ ~ a I~h ` ~ ~ ' ~ Y~ r~/ ? ~ V �O .~.~~r~.w ~ l~ ~ ~ , ~ ~O O f ~ ~ ~ ~.ti~~ ~ ~ ~w J ~ p ~ � O $ � ~ " .r _ ~ n a o ~ � . ~ . . c~ ~ � ~ , . a. . . _ ~ ~ ~ : f o_y,~ ~ ' ' ~ . o " ~ p ~ - , �r�v ~ iK O , ~ , ~ ~ M ~ ~ ; ~ ; � ~ '�o b ~ o . ,1 1 ~�~p O o~ ~ ` � . : ; ""'ti~ * ~ .ti : a� . ~ . ~ nr ~ ~ � ..a, r. } � a � ~ � . . .O ~ ~ ~ o � p . � . +h. ~ ..r . ~ O ~ ~ ~ . I. S ~ : . . i.~' G � ' � ~ ..o o . � � � t O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ = t ~ ' ~ p ~ ~ ~ '"�r� ~1 . CS., , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ w.~+.. � d ~ ! M ' . 1f ~ ! O ~ ~ ~ . � ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ . ~ . p a . . � i Q t ~ . ~ : : ; u . ~ ~ ~ . ll~a~ . b ~ ~ : ' : d . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � ' ! I~~~, 0. � ; ~ I ~ ~ ~ ~ i ; . C� ~ ' u 1 . � d F , o� ~ - ~ � o O , o ~ co - l = � o o o : ~ p ~ 's ~ ~ ~ v~ - ` ~ . . . ~ ~ J t t+1 ~ ' ~ a pO '~1+w~~) ~.e;~ . , O O ~ ( .~t ~ O. , ' q ~ - A~'~'~ O . ~ ~ . ~ _ Figure 75. Earthquake epicenter denaity mep for 1962-1971 vith R~9. 228 FOR OFFICYA2. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR d~~ICY~, US~ ONLY ~Key Cn ~ig,75, Pp 228-229~; , 1-- Uda; 2-- Iy~; 3-- Oka; 4-- Irkutek; 5--� Lake Kaeogol ; 6-- Orkhon; 7-- Selenga; 8-- Khamgr-Daban ltidge; 9-- Ul~n-Ude; 10 Ulan-Burggey ridge; 11 Primor~kiy ridge; 12 Angara; 13 Norrh~rn ~~yk~1 Highlgnd; 14 Lena; 15 Angar~kiy ridg~y 16 Virim; 17 Delyun-Urgnekiy ridg~; 18 Kodar ridge; _ 19 Udokan ridgp; 20 Baykgl'~kiy ridge; 21 Uda; 22 V~,Cimskoye; 2~ plo~kogor'ye; 24 Khilolc; 25 Chikoy; 26 Y~blonovyy ridge; 27 bnnn; 2g Ol~~g; 29 0lekmingkiy; 30 Sianovik; 31 Shilka; 32 Gaximur; 33 NErchinakiy ridge; 34 Argun'; 35 MNR; 36 KNtt 3. ConeCruction of th~ dieCributione bgsed on observationg of the - rravel time of the head wgves Co the individual gC~tione, as in the preceding iCem, but using more eubetantiated values of the mean Cl~icknese nf the crueC with respect to the deep seismic sounding profile of the Central 8aykal to the Barguzinekaya basin~ The htsto3rams conetructed by the data for 1962 to the middle of 1972 (~ig 80) are similar tn the graphs from the precding item. Obviously,' the greateet accuracy in eatimating the depth of the center c~n be achieved by uaing the known values of the thickneas of the cruet (for example, according to the deep aeismic sounding data) and observa- tiong of the wavea reflecCed from the top of ite foot. These estimateg of the depths of the centere turned out to be possible for the ~fterahock of the Central Baykal earthqrjake of 1959 for which in many cases reflected transverse wavea were recoraed at the seismic atation of Bayanday, and in the region cloae to it where the wave reflection pointe were located, an independent determination of the thickness of the earrh's crust was made by the deep seismic sounding procedure. The calculation of the depth of the centera h were performed in the given case on Che baeis of the exprnssion (2!1' - h)' ~s ~ rV r3t v~ Y~, ~ Y"9 , Where V is the mean velocity of the reflectsd wave in the earth's crust, dt :s t~ie difference in timee of arrival of the reflected and direct wnvea. Th~ results of the calculations Were �ormed by the histogram (see fig e), and they ~ndicate that the depth of the aftershocks oE the Central Baykal earthquatke of 1959 i.s quite shallow. 229-230 FOR OPFICIAL USB ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 _ FOR OF~ICYAL USE ONLY . ~ � ~ p, o0 ~ ~ ~ - . ~ ~ . ^ ~ ~ o c�o q . � ~ Q, ~ �ti . c~ .c ~ a H ~ oa~o x ~ ~ ~ a c~v ai M c~a .�c ~_rAa e~~ ~ ^ ~Ay VY o. ~ ~ 9N ~Y' t~~d P4 O M~'d P4 H - q , ~j, ~ td ~ ~J ^.,~,Y. �po v u 00 ~ ~ ~-1 M ~ fYi pe S~r � ~o' e-I . w ~ . w M . a~ w~ $d~~ p 0~~ ~ �,p R1 N N R1 d ~ , Y~ rv ~o` oP ~ ~ 4.. ~ u b~ 0~0 D~ b~ ~ ~ iO\~,~Mdumuy o v ~ ~ G~l ctl ~ 3~ ~ H ~ ~ yA ~ ~ � A1 r~i � ~ ~ a~3 ~MQ~N ~ �~7 ~ o ~~7' ~ O O~-1 r-I fA ul e u '~y y ~r,~ ~ v : U 'LJ ~ p ~'r1 ~ ~ ~ h / ~ u o~ ~j /~M e~ ~ o '~,7 . w . w R1 R) l'd - i) ~oms~ ~ r~) ~ ~ A,~ 7 O ~ rl 1~ rl 'U ~ r-1 00 Ki . ~i~ N ~I g ~ u ~ O ~J v r~l ~ P4 Pq ?'~l+ V) _ o ~o ~ `'r ~ 9,. p'" 1b/ ( 1~1 'J~ . . . ~ � ~ C~i N ~d ~rl 00 M O~ C', rl ~ a^ ~ j~~~ ~ O~ U T/~!~ �-I cV N.o _ ~M y b 4 ~V 1"~ y/ ~11 �I1 �w w `e � G! .sG c0 A � ~y, `~c~`.',~> \ 0. w cn ^o ~ i+ ~ `C'~~ a' ^�c'C cC ti-I tS1 ( 00 e^~ N ~i+ nr ~ 3 v~ t N ~ ~ 'J, ~ ~-~-1 " 6' 4 r~~ + ~ v rl ctl N N~~ � v ~kro.~ ~ ~ ~.~s K Q ~ ~ b0 O~O.~G ^ � ~ ~ v J.i P~l 'C ?a N 00 ~t v o~ R1 � 1+ fA N M F+ 1f1 ~ w �w (d '~c ~ u co cs G�.x r+ r+ ~~^l~ co cv N ao p, ^ Q ~ r1G r-1 N R G R1 � ~ ~ `bv y?''~ ~ ~.c~~p J.1 ~ .t ~ c~. d N _ a oo ~4 . $b o a~ ~ ~ K ~ o ~ ,-i ~s7 ro rn ~Mt P o ~y~ ~ c+1 ~ d'J+ � r-I M � N M - j~`~ O ~y~ ~ V b ~Cy p~,~~ �r ~-i ~ 1~1 I~ - b wg N G. 1.~ ~ N ~ ' ~ n �n $ Q ~ $ ~ w ra c0 ~ G~l rl . ~ e'Mr1 OO ~ ~ y � ~c'`~.,~ ~ a~i ~ ~ .r" ~ v ~ o` D, ,1i+ rl R. Rf ~ o: ~ ; ~ o c ~~~4'T.~. ~xN N N~~ ~ ~ ~rl 'J, H r-I R. ~ . . . u ~ Q! cq v � v ~ n M~~~~p~ ~ i ~~~r w � N a g ~ � ' 4a ~ o~`d' 1~+ ~U G~ ~o N�~rNi o0 d d' a' ~ ~ 00 r-1 c~ ~0 ~ ~'i � ~ ~ ^ . _ ~ w N F~+ l~U~ ~~L bj M aL 00 .C rl � w (d L~ lS1 {d 'Yi r'1 ~ rl .G ~ f~ L+ ~O~~UE-~00 G! . . 1ll O~P1 r-1 I~ ~ r-I O~ ~-1 N N M ~'~1 - 231 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~dtt ~~~IGIAL U5~ ONLY i , ~ ^ ad ~w ~ t8~ C~ ~ h~l Gl ~ ~ 'C ~ v 1 ~ .w ~ t-~ M ' w ~'1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ � ~ ~ , w ~ ~ ~ ~'P,f' e ~~!t' ~ ~ ~ 0~0 ~'"~-1 ro ro nt H ~ r~ t ~ ~ ` C~ ~.1~ d � w p d l.. ~ O G~ ~ d q~C M ~g ~ ~ ~ ~ M ~ v ~a ~ ~ . d r-~+ ~ N p ~ii1U + v ~ C) w.~ ~J v W e . e ~ ~ ~ � Q~Q ~ O~ ?tiC w ~ � N N ~ O ~w M v ~ ~ r~~l~l O 1r N W ^ ~ "s~ t c AD!!,r � f T~ .~C !r . ~ ~N U1 ~ ~ ~ ~ A ,d~ ^ ~ M ttl ld ~ M ~ ~ tr ~ y N V1 O O O~~t o0 .N.r A~~' uv a ~ v ~ M R ~ , aa .~y ~d ,q 1bb ~ ~ + ~ N ~ N u . !r ~ ~ 4~1 e'~'1 t0 .-1 ' ~16 N �w (~J �w ~~~i ~ e v~ ~ ~ 01 1~+ �w 0% !V Cd ~ Jy , D~ ~c~~~ $ d O ro M d ~ ~ ~ aC F+ ~t a~ ~ ^ ~ .~t ~ ~ ~v ~ ~w � ~ M �1~ 41 O~ ' A~. v ~j ~ 'O M U � CS 1-1 ? ~ ~y � n O ' F+ ~ N N .C � ' ~ ~ ? N � \ ~ ~ ( al 00 N . w ~7 v rl vl ~J .'C � w y L~ ~ ~ M ~i �w v e ~ ~C1 r-~1 1+ F~+ 'C7 � G u ~e Ii G R1 ~-1 M~0 - . M p O~~v n1 ; ~ ~ ~ .C ~ ~0 C7 ~ ~ M ~ C V ~rl .1C 'i~ u+~ ~i e c~1 a~ a+ O t0 ~ ro e~o v v ~ ~ N'~ e~v xa? C. u ~ � ' ~~ta ~ ~ d o~ TI CJ ~ w ~ w~ rl f+'1 l .r !~"1 1{1 00 ~7 ~ ~ � ~ 6 r 7 ~1 tJ .1L ~ ~ ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 61 r1 a~ N r-1 tA l+ G ~ ~pjb~ al M W � � e'~1 1+ C! u.-1 Zj � ~J V~ N N " O ~ a ~ � ~ a~0 � ~ �w �w ~ ~ C e+f A4 ^ M M 0~0 ~ c~1 OC~~.7 ~ ~ �wC. ~/b W � d 'C YI vl fA a � Cg e~ oo ar > w a~ a ~ ~ ~ �w M y � ~ � 4) o~ ~ ~ ~ g er1 Q . .1 ~ a ' v ~ ~ ai ~ ~ f~N~01 ~ C "M 1+ O M d X r~..�;~ ^ ~ a�ae~~b~. � p ~1 ep Op "''1 O ~-1 .-1 'C F+ f+ a+ k.w a. ~ ~ C~ .,~>o8r~ p~ . 41 �NOOv1 W f~ . 1L ~D r-1 N R~ e'~1 232 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Olt U~~ICIAL U5~ UNLY ~ ~w ~ N ,e~~~ A~~ a - ~'d ~ e~ \d ~ ~ v ~ _ ~w ~w e11 ~ ~ ~ 'C~ N I.i ~ M 00 ~ N ~ ~ M 1~+ v ~ N W ~ � ~ ~ , ~i0 M y M ~ ~ e' V rl a ,O' r~ M 1~ ~ V �w e ~d H O Or � ~ �~,f+ � y 00 e � ~ � ~ ~ ~ {?d ~ u \ e ~ ~ '.C v~l ~ y 4 , s* , V e ~ �w ~ ~ ~ GI N C ~ 1 � \ ` ~ ~ V 'd ~ ~ y D l' ~ b ~ ~ s \ ~r~d0~ ^ ~ ~1 ~ A v s ~d I ed CO i+ Iq �w ~ ~ GI l0 \ 1 ~ ~ 'U ~ ~ ; ~ rl ~ \ ~ s d � .C M N � ~M~1 ~ ~CI L~I ' O .SC �w 'O tA ~ YI ^ CA fA Gl r-1 GI ~rl .9 ~ O rl � ~ ~'p - GI .16 ~-1 *I ~ ~e 0 v e+1 e0 ~ n-~ Rf 4+ u ~ _ �w w c~ O~ 4. A 1+ e.~0 ~ 0! u ~ ~ c~i ~ r u~tl L~+M . ~ v ~ rt ~ ~ ~f~ M B ~1 ' e ~ 4~ . w xy rl � ~ d ~ ~ M ~ ~ ~ 00 r~l ~ tJ G M 0! ~ ~ ~ � 't7 'L7 N ~rl ~r~1 aO N ~ k .w~ N CI ~0 .o ~ ~ Jr ~ ~ Q . e ~ ~ ~ m~~~ a? a o N w ~ ~ MoHw ~ ,-,~~x � ~ ~ ~ a a o G ~ y . ~ ~ oo � u u G ~ ~ a`~ ~O al ~ i- / M �w ~J 1+ O~ L \ i ~-i al eti O ~ Vf O�-~ ~T ~ .G 41 r-1 ~D u ~ d . . ~ ~ o ~ ~ a s o :a ai . ~ ~ ~ ~ a~i ~ ~ C' p ?cd+ a1 N F~ ~ .4 ~ h � 8 1 Ri / ` ~-i YI C 00 0~0 C+ ~ ~ ~ ~ d . i ~ a N y~ d . . u, x ~n a~ - 233 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 t~01t O~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY n I~0 ~ I~0 n ~ 100 !00 ~ 90 � 90 60 ~-P S-P ~ =p so sn _ ,ra , -SO -A~ 0 0 60 ~ 0 -AD 0 PO 60 c'0 p 0 6O A~KM ; Figure 79. Earthquake distribution in Pribaylcal'ye according to , center deptha h ueing the differences in ti~mes of arrival of the P and (S) wavee and the head Waves P ~ and abaolute travel times of the head wavee P(tP) at individual atatione, n is the number of cases. 4. The calculations of the deptha of the centers of the earthquakes (along with the establiahment of their epicenters) by the observations of the direct waves in the presence of a seismic station at a short epicenCral distance (,10 Wn). A similar rare possibility occurred, for example, when studying the a�te~~rahocks of the Uat'-Muya earthquak~ of 1968. The calculationa performed on the computer on the basZs of r~inimizing the ~ eums of the aquares of the errora in the travel times led to the inclusion of shallaw depths more 0.5 km than 6-10 lan. The distribution of the ehocks of the Ust'-Nuya earthquake of 1968 with respect to depth is preaented below; Depth of center Waves h+ ~ used S P � ~ 5 12 S 2 3 10 4 1 15 0 0 - _ 5. The eatabliahment of the total statistical distribution of the depths of the centers of the entire B$ykal zone by the obae*vations of the direct wavea at the seismic statione wtth epicentral distances to SO l~ (for the defined, fixed poaitiona of the epicenter and values of the center time) from the center-epicenter-station right triangle. 234 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~01t n~t~ICtAL US~ ONLY n ~ + , 60 ~ , n 60 ' ~tl ' ~0 d?0 JO JD TiIPNM r0 . ~1~ YeN.?~?CZ' -~D -?0 80 ~D 60 -~0 ~d 0 p0 ~0 h,nM . - 6owMBs,i ' n ~o C3, . " ' c po soaoN (Sj d po Q po f0 6ep~y~~M~ 6 ~ !0 Awn~r ' (4) ~o -40 - 20 ~0 -~0 PO 20 ~O -!0 0 PO h,K~ Figure 80. Earrhquake diatribution with respect to depths. a-d by the obeervaCions of Che longitudinal head wavea P~ e-- by reflected tranaverse waves Key: 1. Tyrgan; 2. Uakit; 3. Bayanday; 4. Alla; 5. Bodon; 6. Barguzin As an example of the distribution we can use the histogram constructed by 952 depth determinations for 1967 (Fig 81). The histograms for the other time periods differ somewhat with respect to external appearance; however, fcr all of them g large number of cases of determin'.ng the imaginary depth of the center and Wide range of variation of it are characteristic. This is n~tural if the actual depths are ahallow (a few kilometers), and the accuracy of the individual deCerminations is low, which actually occurred. 6. Use of macroseismic data for strongest earthquakea. An estimate of the center depths was made for the ten strongest earthquakes of Pribayka2'ye by the rreviously constructed isoseismal maps. The calculntions were performed on the basis of the known macro$eismic formulas ' (N. V. Shebalin~ 1968) using the numerical parameters both specially determined for Pribaykal'ye and averaged over the various seismically active regiona. According t~ theae calculations, the centers of the quite strong earthquakea can aleo be located at ahallow depths (to 10--15 km), but as n result of low reliability of determinations only auxiliary significance can be attached to them. The only reeult in this case indicatea significant deptf~s, but they do not find confirmation from any other seismologic - observationa. 235 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~oR o~ic~ai, us~ o~~r n ~d ~o _ ~ I t ao ,ro ~+v ,o o " !0 20 JO l,~ , ~ Figure 81. The dietrihution of the dppthg of renterg of Prib~ykal'ye earthquakes in 1967 in ~ccordance with the o6gervatione of the S v~ves (n ig the number of deCerminations) Sunnning up everything that has been eaid abov~, it must be recognized th~t on the modern level of underetanding of earthqnakes in Prib~ykal'ye, the depth~ of the centers of the me~ority of them ~wpak, cnn~tantly recorded _ eArthquAkes) can be congidered to be shellov, that ig to gay, provieionally equal to -5 km. The correctness af thia aesumption i~ confirmed, i~n particu- lar, by the fact th~t at thia depth of center, the estimatea of the cruat thickness mgde by the observations of the reflected ~+aves during the earth- quakes agree in a number of areas of Pribaykal'ye aith the data obtained by deep seiamic soundinge. The conclu~ion of the ahallow depths of the centera also ~:,grees aith the results of the modern etudies of the seiemicity of other rift zonee, for exemple, the Eaet African rift in Kenya (Molnar, Agaewae, 1971), the Central Atlantic, ~n Iceland (i~iard, et al., 1969). This, c~f courae, does not mean that there can be no smaller number of earth- quakes With deeper centers in Pribaykal'ye. It is possible~ for examnle, that the Kodar earthquakEa of 1970 aere somewhat deeper. On the Whole, in solving the problems of eatimating the depths of the centers it is necessary to find additional patha~ in particular, obviously it is necessary to con- gider rhe posaibilitiee of the diacovery of the type pP (sS) waves at amall epicentrnl dis[ances, Recurrence Rate of the Pribaykal'ye Earthquakes The averdge recurrence ratca of the earthquakes of different force !s one of the moAt important characterietics of the seismic condition. It is of interest to study the average recurrence rate of the earthquakes both in all oE Pribaykal'ye and in individual sections of it isolated with respect to aeismic or other eigna. Por this purpose, a number of linear recurrence rate graphs were calculated by the earthquake catalog data for Pribaykal'ye 236 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~o~ ~~~tcr~t, us~ ortt.Y in recent ~?eare (the ldgari~hm d~ ~he number of ~arthqugk~g n~ ehp ~arregpc~nding ~nprgy ag d fun~tinn d~ th~ iagariehm ~f eh~ ~n~rg~+)+ 'Ch~ r~~uit~ o# tl~~ ~~~~u1~t~on~ p~rform~d by eh~ i~~~t ~qu~r~g mpeh~d er~ pr~~~nt~ed in ~~bip 13. ~3,~ ~2 ~hoa~ eh~ ~r~~g fnr whi~h th~ ~gl~ulation~ wer~ med~. '~h~ ~npr$y eia~~~~ of eh~ e~rehquak~~ K in ~11 G~~~~ a~re de~errninpd u~ing th~ known 'C~ G. ttgutian namogr~nr by thp ~b~~rvgtion~ nf th~ ~~igmiG ge~tion n~twor~C for ~ribayk~l'y~. `Che mn~c important paramee~r of th~ r~curr~ncp rate ~r~ph it~ ~ngular eo~f Eiei~nt Y-- fdt~ 1~rg~ ar~~s (A11 ef Priba~yk~i ~ye, ehp rift rp~ic~n) i~ d~te~mined quie~ etably, and it~ numeri~al value (-O.S) eurn~ ~ut td bp ~clo~~ ea eh~ ~ver~$p for th~ other regions. Mor~ov~r, fnr individu~l p~rtg di th~ regidng ehe va1u~ of eh~ angul~r coeffieipnt~ dtff~r nnti~e- ably, indi~~Cing the knds~m nonunifermity of rhe geiami~ pra~~gs. `Thig be~ing to bp ehown ~lready nn c~mparison of th~ two ~rbier~rily ~elected halveg nf ehe rift rpgion; northea~tprn ~nd gouthwe~tern, th~ b~und~ry betW~~n ~rhich p~s~es along the meridian b~tw~~tt ehe 5vy~edy No~ Peningul~ ~nd che ~arguzingkiy ridg~ and glong the pera11e1 north of the U~hkgn'i I~land~. Now~ver, h~re the differ~nc~ i~ aithin rhe limits of pngaible error: the an~ular coefficipnt is higher in the norrh~astern thgn in th~ gourhNeatern part of th~ rift znne. Making th~ trattaition to gm~ller regiong, entirely definpd difference~ are detect~d. Thug, in the vieinity of the 5elenga River delta and the adjacent parCs of B~yk~l, rh~ ~ngulgr cd~fficient ia reduce (�-0.4). _ bbviously, the angular coefficie~t of the recurrence rate graph in the vicinity of thp Tunkinakiy basins and the southeastern part of ~astern 5ayan is low. This lowneas, hoWever, is less defined, for When calculating the angular coefficientg for the last S years (1967-1971) ie is true that by ~ smaller number of obs~rvations it was not a loW value that was obtained but a high one (--0.62, ocrdinate for K=10 equal to 0.3). Hawever, this recurrence rate graph doe~ not agr~e aith the facts knoWn for this region inasmuch as then it would be necessary to expect repetitions of earthquakes of the 14th energy claes every 100 years, the 16th class every 1500 years, and so an. According to the actual data, earthquakes of �16th class occurred in the region in the 19th century and in che roiddle oE the 20th century. The recurrence rate graph with smaller angle of inclination (see Table 13) agrees better with these facts. The high values for the coefficients Were obtained for the local r~gion in the central part of the Ikatskiy ridge (the long-lasting Ikatskiy earthquake sWarm). It iR interesting that for the seriea of aftershocrs of the Mogodskr~ya 19fi1~ Tas~Yuryakh 1967 and Kodar 1970 earthquakes the angular coefficient of the recurrence rate graph has an entirely normal value close to the ' menn for the zone. The reaults �or the earthquake aWarm on the northern part of the BarRuzinskiy ridRe (the end of 1966 to the beginning of 1967) nr~ scattered~ In this c4se the very las~ value of the angular coefficient is determined~ but it is necessary to note that this conclusion is obtained by the least number of obaervations and its insufficiently high ob~ectivity is not excluded. 237 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~d~ h~~�ic~nL us~ ot~,~r ~ r~ �is ,~i ~ ~ ~ d 1~ ~ ~~/~~r1`~ ~y~~ ~ sJ 1 ~r~a~~a'�" . r ~ _ ~ o , ,~-~y . . ~ ' ?i " ~ L:J~ ~11111~11~11~ ~~~t~~~i~I JO ~ " ~ 1 f j ~ j , ~o~Q=' ~ ~ a` ~b) j~ ~ s,.d d ~ i s ~ ~ ~S~~JM ' ) / ~'~`~li~o~~~ ~3~ i ; 3, ~ j~ ~ :~4~ ;;1 9~ Y~ Qe~' o r'~'" :l~ S ~ ~ ~ ~ , f ~ � 3, ~ ~S ~ ~ , ' ~ r n? y ~ ~a C9~ ~.,~(10~ (11) ~ . ~ ) - ~ ~ e "��.ya~ ~1~.. r ~ ~ r , , . c,~'~~(1 14 r _ (16) ~1 . r J vf ti.'f` . ~ i ( Figure 82. 5chematic of the regions of calculation of the earthquake recurrence rate grapha. Th~ numbers correepond to the numberg of the regiona in Tabl,e 13. Key: 1. Irkut; 2. Irkutek; 3. Oka; 4. Ang~ra; S. Vitim; 6. Olekma; , 7.�Tungur; 8. K~?rengn; 9. Nercha; 10. Shilka; 11. Argun';12. Lena; 13. Chita; 14. tngoda; 15. Onon; 16. Xhilok; 17. U~an-Ude; 18. Selenga ~t is knoWn that the difference in angular coefficients of the recurrence _ rgte graphs can be connected aith a difference in properties of the destroyed medium. On destruction of leas unifora~, fractuxed material, higher values of this coefficient are detected~ Posaibly~ the med~um in the vicinity of the Selenga River delta, in the regio~n of the Upper Muya-~Muyakan basins:and ~ to some degree in Central Baykal and obviouely in the Tunkinskiy basins, i~ characterized by some+ihat d~fferent distinguiehing propertie8 by com- p~rieon, for example, aith the wici~ity of the Barguzinakaya baein and the Berguzinekiy ridge. Let us note that in all of the enumerated - regione with loa value of the angular coefficient of the recurrence rate 238 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 - ~ox n~~rcinL vs~ o~t,Y - ~raph ~1r~~dy durin~ th~ hi~tdr3,~ p~ridd, ~trong ~~rehqu~k~~ oeeurr~d, bue eogether with them the number o~ af~~r~hoek~ ~~e~r eh~ ~i~nific~trt ~ho~k aa~ o.ften v~ry great~ Thig probl~m, how~vQ~r, i~ noe ~impl~, for ehr~ deppnd~n~e o~ Y~1go on eh~ d~f~t~natidn ratp ie pd~~ibi~ (with an iner~~~e in rat~ th~ v~1ue o� Y d~~reae~~~, The r~~ult~ o~ ehp ~~leuigeinn~ by the r~curr~n~~ r~tp graphg obtained forth~ m~an ine~rv~1~ b~tw~en thp ~~rrhquake~ of rh~ highest c1~es~e (~Qe Tab1e 13) can of cour~~ hav~ only approxi,:natp significancp inaemuch chey ~~re ab~~ined with ~i$nificant ~xtrap~lation of th~ ~uppo~poly lin~ar fun~ti~n ~nd und~r eh~ ~~nditinn that ~he eei~mic pr~~~~~ i~ ~t~bl~, th~t i~, it i~ correcely d~g~rib~d by the nbgervations in rpc~nt y~~r~. t~oW~ver, compari~on of rh~m With the hi~toric informati~n (thp la~t d~c~d~s ~nd 100 tn 200 years~ on thp stron~ e~rthquak~g af p~ribaykgl'ye not used in the calculation~ indicaee~ thnt th~y da not contrec~icr th~ge data. Anoth~r reason in favor of eh~ pog~ibiliey of ~uch approxim~t~ ~s~eimgepe ~s th~ ~gct of ~~tiafactory agr~~o~nr with th~ recurrence rate graph con~tructed for the rifC zon~ by th~ in~trum~nt information (Fig 83), th~ data on th~ pgleo~elamodislocationg obtained Eor syet~metic aeiemogeological etudiee in this region. The summary of the pal~oeeigmodisldrationg giv~s the following distributian of their number: ~orce 12 11~12 11 lt?-11 lb 9-~10 9 8-9 No of Qarthquakes 2 1 3 1 41 8 17 1 The indicated data referred to a aignificantly longer time. It is of course impossible exactly to pstabliah the tnterv~l which these data repre$ent. Beginning with the eeiamogeological ~igns, it is poseible to estimate it approximately at a thousand year$. , Obviougly, the earthquakes of 16th class (force 9) for this time period turn out to~be already nonrepresetative: information about them is incomplet~. The initial data gre plotted on the graph (see Fig 83) also under the aseumption that the encompassed time p~riod is tWice as great (equ~l to 2000 yeara), which i9 not excluded. Here, someWhat better agreement With the continuation of the recurrence rate of the graph ia detected. On the whole, it is necessary to recognixe th~t the number of known paleoseismodislocations agrees entirely satisfactorily with the ~ cnlculated recurrence rate graph for the data of this type. A similar picture is aleo observed in the cese Where the investigation Was performed not fer the enti,re zonp but for the northe$stern and southaestern halvea of it geparately. i 239 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~UR O~~~CIAL US~ ONLY ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~~~~~~r~~ ~ g ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~w ~3.~;~~~',~~3~~3 ~ ~t~~ ~ g 8 ~ ~ y ~j � i N N1AJl~~e~�M w w N~S ~ ~ e0 V ~ M w w { ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .:M ~~~~~a~~d ~ a~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ b q g _ "p p~cs' ~a~dd~~do~ d' ~~d ~ 0 8 r, ~I ~ ~I ~I ~ ~I ~ ~I ~1~ ~I ~1 ~1 ~H v ~ ~r'' ~ � ~j, ~ ; ~ 4'-.- ~ e ;r~, ~ C~ C~ ~ d I I~ 1 cC I~odo'o' o o'od I I i I ~ inna~uUtatt ~tf ~p _ . j~NAt 06'~tlH ~ , e~ri N~ eC h ~ Cf ~ .yC ~ N N N N Q w ,!V ~ O ~ ~ ~ 7r ~R~CitN I fi 04 00 00 ti fi ~ fi Q ~ 1I v 00 . ~ w . ~S~fi~fi~fiL~ fi fififi ~ fi ~ ~ ~ w w w w w v. w w~+ w... w ~r w+~ w~ w 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ � w w w w w w~. .r w w w ` rr ~ � ~ ~ ~ ~ . ro ~ w A A N ~ NL ~p ~ p~ ~ tiO~N ~ ~ N ~ v N~~t~N~~i~I M ~ ~w0 h ~ d a t ~ w ~ �d ~c n�t ~�wt e~ � ~r' d ~ $ ~ ~N ~O w ww~~.r w N ~ ~ ~ w~ w~. w~ w w w w w w w ~ ~ i ~ ( ~ ~ ~'J a . ~ A�~ p~ V Y~ ~ ~-.,n~ w ~y ~ A ~ a~" a i5~ ~'i G! ~ w w ~ ~ w ~ w w w ^ w1 M !~I ^ ~ ~ ~ w ~ a ~ ~ " "~~N 5# ~5~~ a ; ~ ; . c3 i d~~ d ~ ~ ~ ~H ~ sv~ ~~~~~~~~~~r~~~ a ~ ~ o ~ e o ~ ~ ~ s' Y 0= ~ ^3 ~ !y~ '~~~I ~4s aqQ=X~ s ~ 0 ~ R d 4~ IL ~ Q i+~" p 17 4~ a~ N ~ ��i K p~~G~ ~ t~.~f~�~ ~m a~i~~'E'"~Y~ a ~ a p'~ ~+M e~ p ~ ~ aQ ~ 3 a C~ 7 ~ ~ R ~w ~ ~ ~ c~ ~ ~ ~ v ~ ~ U!~ ~ ~ ~t ~ ~ � 4 d a j Y n ~ ~ ~ ^ ~ ~ ~S ~ ~ r L' ~ ~ ~ O ti V a ~ ~ a~ ~f L 6w ~y ~w es3 c`t t~� c~S S c~ i-~+ ~ � N . . ~7 ~--1 00 � v ~--I CO ~-1 N N 7+ - . y ~ 263 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOIt 0~~2CIAL US~ ONLY ~ ~ r. r 1 ~ ~ V O V ~ ~w v g. 0~ Gl an�� ~ 3 y . ~ .c ~ ~ N N C l N ~ ~ M D, ~ ro N ~ N v rl O) F+ R1 ~ , ~ ~ eo ~ y " ~ ~ 0% ~ p~p . Hv ri rr e~' .p ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~~O `p 1~ n ~ ~ ; ~ a . ~ a~c . N 0 ~ ~ ? o .c N at e~ _ Vl ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ d r1 r~i ~ ~ ~ ~ +y N ~rl ~-1 ~J .C . 7 r-1 . ey�~y q rl ~ e ~ ~ .~L ~ . s tt. W Q:, ~ ka 0N! tA tC N N Y ~~v v ~ 1+ 00 ~ h < ~ ~ ~ ~ 0~! ~ O = f' N u~ ~.~Cro a � ~ M � N ,'a+ 1-1 � . ~ N ~ ~ Z ~ ^ M Vl Q~ f~ ~~i~ Cl 1-1 1~ . ~-1 N Vi N :J N ~ ~ ~ 1~+ ~ ctt c0 ~ ~sj ~ pp ~ l0 ~ 'rl q+ ~ ~ ~ 1~1 ~7 G~l ~ U rc. ~ ~-7 � w ~ � � E .1L � ~-1 ~O ~''~j � ~4 Q ~ r-1 ~ N W~ Q~ .'y lb ~ ~-I ' Gl 1+ v! R1 O ~ ~ e'~~ ~ ~ U O 00 M c'~1 . o ~ W O ~ u'1 !4 ~ r-I r-1 N aZ o. O ~7 tA ~ v~ v y~ ~d ~d ~0 =~M� ~ � N~ O c~0 r~-I Cl � U .C ~ ~ 7+ O~ V~ ~ N . ~ � �w ~ ~ ~ ^ N G r-1 ~7 N ^ ~ 41 .C O � ~ r~l r"~ 'U .~G .G lb N v ~ Gl ~ ~ 00 . ~ 1+ 'L7 41 ~ c0 N O rl ctf _ ] U o~1 O c0 - . u1 r1 O r-1 00 r-1 N c~1 ~ d .~i 264 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OR q~~ICTAL US~: ONLY . ~ ^ m o~o - . ~ N F+ ~ ^ ^ N 0~0 H ' ~ ~ v ~ ~ ' V ~ ~Q~ r~-1 1~ ~ ~ r~l .~L R1 N O ~ w 1a rl lry O C; ~tl 'rl ~ N ~ N ~Cl ~ ~j ~ ~t ~ _ y '~o ; ~ ~DN O ~ � p, � ~ ; J e^ h tT ~D p. O� ~ ~ p c~ c~ ~w b , H ~ ~ ~ r N v ~ M ~ 0~0 ~ `J ~ D, ~ �-1 ~ 1-~i ~ o ~ y . ~ ed ~ ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .G � N 'Q,y V p4 t~C O~ ~i+Y td 00 ~-1 � ~ ~'O ~i ~ M ?1L R) � w LJ � < ~ ~ 1~ t~ GI l11 ~rl - r. W ~ 7+ .C ~ ~ ~ N~Q H v O t/1M~'U ~'9 N v , ~ �wzOpN ~ iJ IJ � r'1 ~ ~a ~ p"~ ~ ~ � ~ y"~ w ~ 0 " � ~ ~ ~ (V ~ _ ~ + t r1 3~+ � C' .C ~ Ti ` v ~ ~ ~"'~U~ a p.~ . w . N q, ~ .L � 1~ 'R+ ~ i.~ r~l ~ td w ' r-1 TI r~i cd rl v ~ t~A H R1 .C ~r~, vW~ ~ ~HUy - ' M~ tA M O �.Y C � ~ ~-1 ~O N M v7 ~ ~ � w ~ � w ~ ~ jO~ ~ w w 7 O ~ O ~ O M ~ ~ � Q~ ~ ~~O ~ ~ i+ C~ 7+ O ~ ~ ~ 3 ~ ~ � � w W ~+1 . e ~ aC N N O c''1 o ~ v r-1 � ~ O ?rl N C'+ O~ CI .C ~-i � w rl ~ ~ ~ 'G .~E N ~1 w a~ y v ~ 3~~+ 8?+ ~ ~ ,-~i ~-~i ~ z ~ W ~ U . .~7N0~ ' rl 00 e-1 N N ~ ~ Cl D4 265 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OEt n~'~ICIAL U~~ ONLY ~w ~w ^ N O O ~ N Q ~ ~ v ~ 4~. ~ v ~c N ~ w ~ ~ ~ ~ W n , o ~ ~o N � ~w ~ ~ ^ ~ ~ N .w v epqy ~ ~ � w . ~E e~+ M o~0 M H , ~ N _ ~ ~ "'L7 ~ ~ w z ^ ~ L`'.. ~ � ~ . . M ~ ~ ~ 0~0~ ~ �w N v ~ V q ~ N ~ ~9 t'~If G! R ~ < ~ ~ Q~ 1~t~+~ ~ _ ~ ~3 v ~ : ~4 1 ~G N N : N g, v N ~ ~ �w ~ ~O O ~ w ~ i0 � w a~ x o v ? A ~ ~ N 3~+ M~1 ~ rl tti ~.1 S nv � 00 M ~ rl Q a ~7 C 7 rl O Q �w G~! � tf1 .p N ~ ~Uf .C ',00+ N J.~ N � ~ R~ J ~1 a1 ~ ~ � R N ~ ~ o - � at o0 ~ w o ~o 'r' - - ~-1 N a ~ ~ 9~ H t - l~ t ~p � w � � ~J N W ^ �w(S~(~ ~7 M ~ ~ ~ ~ H N �f yJ a �w �w N r-I , o ~0 � 1~-~ u v x ' � ~-1 O l9 M x~ ~+~U U ~ ~ e ~v W M i a F 7 N?~ t0 f~l _ O 1+ ~ ~e t v / ~ p'~ r-1 h ~ w o ~ v 1~1C ~...r/ QI w w w - 1+X O ~ C N .C ~~-1 N.~ U.C ~ O tn rn 7 . ~ _ � 41 C~ ' ' V1 N H V ~ r-1 N - 7 00 M ~ - w ~ D4 266 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY " APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Oit d~~ICIAL US~ ONLY , Le is pn~gibl~, hnw+~v~r~ eo ehink ehee rh~ ~.ndi~~eed inc~eage in '~c~lc ig ~m~ll. Strang ~e~rChqu~keg ~re qUite r~r~ (~nd only Ch~y e~n giv~ eh~ rorr~~ponding ~t the di.~rances)~ ~n any ca~e, when cglculeting TC~~~ f~r forc~ 5 and high~r in Irkut~k the ~trip betiw~en eh~ par~11~1~ df 44 and 4B� noreh laeitude and 51 to 96� ~agt longiCud~ 1ncaCed to eh~ _ gouth drnpppd nut of rh~ inv~st3gation. Analogou~ly, f~r K~b~n~k, - ~imilgr sCrip~ wer~ between 44 and 48� noreh 1~tiCud~ ~nd the meridigne nf 93.5 nnd 98� east lengirude~ In p~rticular, this can exp~ain the tecC thgt ~egLe for Irkuegk (7 y~~rg) turn~ out to be gr~at~r ehan To~g ~4 y~are), glthough oeher caue~~, ~bove ~11, ehe ~r.rorg in d~t~rm~nations, gre pdsgibl~ here~ The differenc~ far force 6 in T~b1e 17 fnr irkut~k (20 ~nd 40 y~arg) can easily occur a~ _ n result of the errors in psCimating th~ force of Ch~ individugl earCh- quakeg. On th~ other hand, Tob~ for rhe earthqual:es with force 5 in - Kabanak perhape turned ouC to b~ high~r by compar3son with Tcalc if cprtain shocke are not taken inCo accounC for thp inveatigated interval. According to Table 17, the quake~ of force 7 and higher in Irkutsk must be very rare, end force ~ and higher, in practice, are absent in general. However, ~udging by the historical information, it is pogsible to think ChnC over the last 250 years up to 3 force 8 earthquakes have been observed in Zrkutsk in 19742, 1829 and 1862. This somewhat reaembles the regultg obtained for Taehkent (Zakharova, Seyduzova, 19~1) and it ig possibly explained by the fact that the calculation for the high force - earttiquakea ia unreliable in the given case. On the maps of the higher force seismic vulnerability Irkutak is in the marginal zone. However, probably thia is caused by other reasons, above all, failure to conaider the peculiarities of Che damping of the quakes in this case. It should not be ~orgotten thaC the performed calculations of the seismic vulnerabil- ity in Pribaykal'ye are the firat effort; they do not pretend to Che final = solution of the problem and must be aiven in more detail and more precisely defined hereafter (in particular, it ia necessary to consider the peculiar- - ities of the damping of the quakes under various conditions, and more pre- cisely to specify the variations of the graphs of the recurrence rate with respect to area). Therefore the estimates obtained for the seismic vulner- ability are expediently used more for conclusions of a general nature but not for detailed conclusions as applied to the local areas. Discussin~ the accuracy o~ the calculated estimates of the seismic vulner- ability, it is necessary to note that an error of 1.5~2 times is entirely possible here (Riznf,chenko, Zakharova~ Seyduzova, 1969; Zakharova, Seydua~va, 1911; Fedotov; Shumilina, 1971~ Dzhibladze, Riznichenko, 1973). The seismic vulnerahility depends linearly on rhe seismic activity~ that is, on vari,at~.on of the sei.smic activity everywhere in the zone by two times. the vulnerability also varies by two times. 267 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott O~FICIAL U5~ ONLY l t 1 4 Th~ num~ri~al v~lu~~1'of th~ vuin~rab~.lity obtain~d �or Prtb~yk~i'y~ ~r~ comp~rabl~ to Ch~ r~~ultg knnwn for oeh~tr regidns~ Similar reaulta h~v~ be~n obtained ~arli,~r for Italy (~ti~nichenko~ pr n1~, 19~0), ~nd gom~wha?: l~w~r or th~ eame vuln~rability tg cha~acteri,etic of ~e~tern Uzb~kigean ~ (Zakhsrova and S~yduznvg, 1971) and Ceorgi~ (D~hibladze, ~tixnichenko, 1973)~ Th~ luw~r vuln~rability of the Crim~an r~gions (Riznichenko, Bun~, et a1., 196~) nnd thp Carp~thian xone (brumy~, Popov, St~panenko, 1971; Urumya, Popov, Resh~tnikov, St~panenko, 1971~ than in Prib~ykal'ye, end higher vulnerability in Kamchatka (~edotov, ShumiLina~ 1971) ig entirely natural, however, Ch~ ~xce88 is not ~o great as cou18 b~ ~xp~ceed at first gl~nce. The calculations of the aeiemi.c vulnerability ehus d~termine the place of Pribaykal~ye with r~gpecC ta th~ degree of geigmic d~nger among other regions of the Soviet Union. 268 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott 0~~ ~IAL US~ ONLY CHAPTER X. ~A1tTHQUAK~ FOR~CASTING Peculiarities of Che bevelopment of Che Seismic Process by the Observation~ of Weak Earthquakea (in ConnecCiott with the Search for Diagnostic Attributes of Stxong Earthquakes) In nature thQre are aets of earthquakes, about which there ia tio doubt that they belong to a single center zone; foreshocks and aftershocka. The intermediate poaiCion (if it is posaible to call it that) between the - "independent" and "related" earChquakea ia occupied by awarms and groupa of earthquakea combined by a defined commonneas of territory (space) and, obviously, somehow interconnected in time. The invegtiga2ion of the apace-ti~e laws in the distribution of seta of ~ earthquakea ia of unquestioned interest, for during the course of the investigationa it is possible to obtain data on the peculiarities of the development of the seismic procesa. Thus, the atudy of the nature of the manifestation of the aftershock activity provides information about the development of the process in the center, the dimenaions and configurations of the center zone. The analysis of the geographic distribution of the ahocks in the awarms and groups permita esCimates to be made of the effect of one earthquake on another; the tim~: apace analysis of the distribution of the weak earth- quakes ia of interest for studying the process of the preparation of a strong earthquake, and so on. The results are presented below from studies _ of the enumerated and certain other aspects of the seismic process in the Baykal seismically active zone performed to discover the possibility of - estimating the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The basis for the investigations is the data on the 2500 earthquakes with K38 recorded by the Pribaykal network of stations in 1965-1968. - In addition, it turned out to he possible to ~.nveatigate the seismic conditions of r~�~ regt,on of the center of 20 strong earthquakes (rt>5) and one signifi.cant fflrm occurring in the zone for the 1959~1968 period (Table 18). Aa a rule, the energy estimates for strong earthquakes were real�'L~ed by the known relations between K and M derived by T~ G. Rautian, the application of which is entirely adm3~sible for Pribaykal'ye (see Chapter VI). � 269 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~o~ o~xicini, us~ orn.Y Th~ ebe~rvation~ indi,cat~ th~C for Che earehquakes of inedium strength (~t to 5) the coord3nateg of the a�e~r~hock~ ~nd eh~ b~~iC ghdCk grp indi,etingu~eh~ble withi,n the 13mi,tg of accuracy o� th~ obgervations. ~ Wieh en incre~e~ in energy o.f th~ main e~rthquake, the area occupied by the afterehocke increngee~ Ueually in ~ribaykal'y~ areae of the aftpr- ehock zonee have elongated ahape; eom~timee the eric~ntera of the - repeared shocke are elongated 3,n chains. As a rule, in the areas of "normal" seiamic conditione the earthqunke dietribution in space and in time followa the Poiseon diatribution, that is, each earthquake ie a random independent evenC. '~he deviations, ~g wae demonstrated by varioue researchers~ are connect~d with th~ occurrenre of afCerehocks, ewarme and groupa of earthquakes. By the grouping phenomanon we mean Che slgnificant deviation of the distribuCion of the ahockg in time from Poisson in areas characterized by a constant mean recurrence rate of earthquakes and not connected with the afterehocks and awarma of earthquakes (Borovik, 1972). In order to �ind the shoclcs making up the group, it ia nece9sary to select the critical values~of the size of the region and the time interval, falling into which will indicate - grouping of the_shock. The radius o� this region would be logically given as equal to the radius of the center of the earChquake. However, for - earthquakee of energy class 8~13 in Pribaykal~ye the poasible errora in determining the coordinates of the centere are appreciably greater than _ their dimenaiona. There~ore the radius of the area of nossible grouping was taken equal to 30 km. The calculation of the time criterion of. the grouping reduced to finding the time interval such that the probability of appearance within Che limita of this interval of one or more shocks is equal to a defined given low probability, in the given case P=0.005, for the correaponding average number of shocks for the grouping area. For Pribaykal'ye, the graups include shocka occurring an area of 2800 km2 and aeparated by time interval of leas than 0.35 days. During a single test, the random realization o� the event with the probability of 0.005 is in practice imposaible. However, when isolating group e~rthquakes, we make not one test, but can accidentally havQ some number of eo-called false groups. In Pribaykal'ye, excluding the falae groupa, 18.2~ of the earthquakes belong to the groups. Groups were isolated with values of the probability from 0.001 to 0.07 (see Fig 93). The results are the most stable for the probabilities of 0.005 to 0.01 which is expedient to use in practice. Now let us return to the dependence of the grouping effect on the dimensions of the area. - The following aizes o~ the areas were selected 80, 314~ 1200, 7800 and 2X105 kmz. For each case $ study was made of the number of true Rroups and the group~ng eoefficient X~--, the ratio of the number of group earthquakes to the total number~ The grouping coefficient increases with a decrease in size of the grouping area until inaccuracy begins to be felt in determ~n3ng the position of the epicenters, that is, when isolating the g,roup earthquakes it is possible to use any value of the grouping area not exceeding 3Q00 km2. 270 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott O~~ICYAL U5~ ONtY `~~b1~ i~ D~t~ on the S~qupncee of ~tep~a~~d Shnck~ o~ prib~ykgl~ye Earthquai:~~ ~n 1959~1968 ' ~ 2 . ~ N~�~ ~ ~ ~a~+ 0~ wr~ N ttprrev~ru (3) ~ . ~91Vllt i9S9 52~8 lOT~~ 61/~ 80 l800 >4000 ~ a21 . fllXi f~62 bb~9 :fia,2 8 ~ AO f2pp ; 33pp !~9 ~ 80IVii1 f988 bf~7 f0i,b i W/~ 1 Zb f. "~~ppp ; b'~p �~~~4) , , ' ~ lW ~ ~ ' { gltt 1tu0 BflVtti i988 ~8~4 fib,8 (i~ (f3p) (2ppp) 87 f3/V11t l982 b3~7 f09,5 5~/~ ~,~80p~ ~pp ~ 221t l98Z~ b2~4 f00~3 . 511~~ ' - , 8 28?Xi f9E8 55~9 lff~5 5~8 !8 (gp) (app-41,p) 4 f111I f98~ 52,0 l08,~ b~/~ (~b) ~ _ ~ , 3 - 31?XI1 l988 55~8 fiO,B ~?b � ' gpp ~pp 383 Poi} ~e?ur (5) , ~ ' TQIItl~ l51I f98~ 55~8 ff0~8 ~ 5~/~ _ _ lOllt l983 52~8 'f08,8 5 f5 , 90 750 9 - 2f/VlI 198g SS,2 1f3~4 S f8 80 (85p) 89 . l1X11 f983 b5,9 1fZ,0 ~~/~-S . ~p ~pp~ ~ (f000) 6 251Vt l98i SZ,4 t08,5 4~/~-b 5 _ 2� 271Vt1 !98! 54,i ff0~0 4~/~ ~ _ _ 5 8/1 l983 5f~3 f0t~9 4~/~ f0 (Sp) ~ - 3 ff/X11 fo84 52,4 ~f08~3 .41J~ fS - 4 ~ 911 i98.3 5~~7 !!!,8 4 i0 (70) - 2 fIVII f942 5f~7 f0f~9 3~/~-~ f2 - - 3 lOIX f963 Sf,B fOS~f 5'- - g~ Key: 1. Date 2. Coordinates 3. Notes 4. I'or determination of S there are few data. 5. Earthquake swarm Note. 1. n ia the number of shocka in the series considered during procesaing; R is the extent of the a�terahock zone; S is the area of the a�terahock zone; Q are the dimensions of the region of preparation of the earthquake. ~2. The values of M were taken from the sei,amologic bulletin of the seismic station network of the USSR and the collect~,ons on "Earthquakes in the USSR." 271 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 Y ~Olt OF~ICIAL USE ONLY - Pravi,ou~ly it has alree~dy b~en pe~,nted out thgt rhe groupg, ~ust ae the ~e~~,es o� afterehocke belong to the lo~g1 aete of interconnected events. '~he aftexshocke are related by commonnese o� ~he area, in groupa thia rpl~Cion 3e expreeaed by the e�gect of the centere thar are cloae to each nther. IC ie poesible to define the limita of this e�fect approximaeely. - In~ide each set of group earthquakes 3solated for varioua values of the grduping area, a atudy ia made of tHe $roup diatribution with reapect to the maximum ~istance beCween ehocks in each individual group. In addition, the earChquakes of which energy, clasaea consCiCure a group was taken inCo accounC. I'or this purpose, the difference (K1~KmaX) was determined, where K1 is Che energy clase of the firet ahock in the group, ICmax is the maximum ~nergy clasa noted in the given group~ From ehe comparison it follows ChaC groupa are moet frequently encountered with a apacing between the most remote ehocks not exceeding 10 km, that is, the mutual effect of Che centers of the weak earthquakes appears at this distance. A more detailed analysis, un�ortunately, is impossible, �or the epicentral region of the earthquake center of the 8th to llth energy classes is smaller than the region of poaeible poaition of the epicenter. Therefore, for the Pribaykal seismic zone data wer.e obtained on the extent of the regiona, within the ?imits of ~vhich the centers of the group earthquakea are locaCed and the linear dimensions of the center zones of the atrong earthquakes have also been approximately determined. There- fore hereafter it turned out to be possible to perform the studies of the seismic conditiona in the regions occupied by the centers of the strong ~ earChquakea before the occurrence of the earthquake and after it. The study was made by the following diagram: 1) a study was made of the earthquake distribution over a si~nificant area, including the future center of the strong earthquake long before its occurrence; 2) the epi- central zone of the isolated region was investigated during the period of - maximum activity of aftershocka~; 3) the development of the seismic process in the isolated zone after the end of Che series of aftershocks was traced; 4) the discovered epicentral fields were compared. The titn~ intervals during which a study was made of the space-time distribution of the earthquakes before and after the occurrence of the series of aftershocks were selected usually the same, lasting several years, sometimes months, depending on the quality and quantity of the initial data, the density of the epicenters at the given point and the strength - of the earthquake. The series of. aftershocks of the Central Baykal earthquake of 29 August 1969 - (M=6-3/4) are presented ~,n ~i,g 94 as an ~,llustration of the processing. Tl~e distribution of the representative earthquakes in the vicinity of Central Baykal for the periods of 1 January 1952 to 29 August 1959 is presented in Fig 94~ a; the per~.od o� maximum activity of~the aftershocks (29 August 1959 to 30 June 1964~ is presented in Fig 94, b. From July 1964 (Fig 94, c), the activi,ty o~ the aftershock zone in practice compsred with the average activity of the region. The region of reduced seismic activity - 272 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICIAL USC ONLY ^m.,t ' /~ln~ n"'�* Jn ~ � ,i~~ ~n ~1~ . ~~~n ~1~ !00 ~ ~~~~uem !0 / n ~2~ i ~ ucm ~2? o . ~l~J~~ ~J~~~r � , nm, J ~~n.s i ^c , !0 ~ ~ ~n/ ~ ~ n~ ~ / ~ SO ~uem ~'''".r 'I.' nucm ~2~ nA ~J~J~J~ o `"^1 o 000 o P 0 00�, ~ o o~o o` o o' o 0 0 0~ o Figure 93. Grouping of weak earthquakes for various values ~ of the probability of random occurrence of an event. n~ is the total number of isolated groups; ntrue is the number of true groups; n is the number of f alse groups; m is the - number of groups ~.the numbers 2, 3, 4,~5 are the number of shocks in the group) - Key: 1. nR 2� ntrue - isolated when comparing the epicenter maps (see Fig 94, d) including the center of the earthquake, has an area on the order of 4000 km2. Let us note its "region of preparation." The sizes of this region exceed by approximately two times the area of the aftershock zone. ]:t is true that in the northeast the boundary is drawn uncertainly as a result of the absence of data. For comparison, a region is isolated (see Fig 95, a), the area of which was selected for convenience equal to the area of the preparation region. ~ The data on the variation o~ the activity in the region of preparation of the earthquake and the ad~acent compaxison region are presented in : Fig 95 (the number of observat~,ons ~,s plotted on the y-axist and the _ observation time on the x-ax3,s). As is o~iv~ous, the "period of quiet" o.f the prepa,ration region lasted at least 7 years; at the same time in the surround~ng areas the backgxaund of se~.smic activity in practice did not change. 273 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Oit 0l~I~ ICIAL U,~~; .O~yLY 1~� ~ f,~e ~ / 6 ~ % t ~ i ~ ~ / ~ � � ?~i V i 1 ~ / / � ~ X / \ 1./G ,~i . �1 i~ ~ � ~l ~ ~ / Ir~ :4 ~ , y B~'~J1~~' + _ % 6~ � ~ ~ r1/ ~ M??/~f ~~1~ ~ ~ . � � � ' r ' ~ / y � ~ ~ � o ' o ~ ~ _ C~~~~~ ~ � ~a~2, . . J~~ 101 � pg� s jpS� 709� � A 2 ; ~ ~:3,`j ~ ~ ~ I - i ~~K ' ~ / - ~a o ~~?h _ S1~ ~ J.!� ~i~7~� ~ / / \ / ~ � i ~ - / ~ � / ~ ~Q~f� / ~ / 4� ~ ~ / /o / / 6 ~ ~ ~ / / ~ /'/o / ~ /~rl> ~ 0 3 i . o tio i~ i~ C~� (2) ~~r JI ~ S! J09' JOS' ~py Figure 94. Analysis of the enicentral field in the vicinity of Central Baykal by the data on earthquakes with K;10 for 1952-1970 a-- epicentral fie:d of the region for Che period from 1 January 1952 to 29 August 1959; b-- epicentral f.ield of the region for the pQriod from 29 August 1959 to 31 becember 19Ci0; c-- epicentral field of the xegion ~or the ~eriod from 1 Januazy 1961 to 30 June 1964; d eoicentral field of the region for the period ~rom 1 July 1964 to 31 December 1970. 1~~ limit of the investigated regi,ont 2-- epicenters of the earthquakes with K~10~ 3.M- boundaxy of th, aftershock zone. [iey : 1. Lake Baykal; 2~ Selenga River. 274 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 I~'Ult (tt~ I~ iC t A~~ titit~. f1Ni~Y s~� a / - 6 ~ ' . _ . ~n�aI ^ ' ~ i 2 ~ ~f~o ~ 10 ~ 3 � r? ~t- ~4 ~ % / ~ ~ ~ i~ - ~ ~o . : ~ ~ , , t � CEr~ ~ ~ ; ~ ~ \ A f~1 1 ~ ~ ' ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~I ~i 11 ~ ~ � !J ~q� ~ p~s l960 ~965 l970 ' T,toda ~3~ Figure 95. Seismic conditions within the limits of the region - occupied by the center of the earthquake of - 29 August 1959 _ a-- afterahock zone, region of preparation of the earthquake and region of comp~rison: 1-- boundary of the aftershock zone, 2-- boundary of the preparation region, 3-- comparison . region; b-- development of the seismic proceas in time in the region of preparation of the earthquake (the solid line) and Che repion of comparison (dashed line) Key: 1. Lake Baykal 2. Selen~a 3. T, years The series of aftershocks o~ 12 etrong earthquakes in I959-1968 were r.rocessed by the sante scheme. The results were found to be analogous, - that is, it is possible to propose that a strong earthquake is preceded by ~ prolonged preparation process which develops within the limits of the significant area (Borovik, 1971). . The preparation regions have been isolated most reliably for earthquakes wi tti magnitude t4=5-1/2 and more. Thus, for Pribaykal~ye, the pzenazat~on region of an earth~uake of defined magnitude can be characteri.zed hy the parameters~ Q, TQ, nQ, where nQ ` is tlie number of shocks in the region Q for the period TQ. Under the con- dition that the process of the occurrence of a strong earthquake is _ 275 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott O~~ICZAL US~ ONLY 4 ~ t~' i \ � �r. ~ . r.~~~~~`I{ ~..1;''~;k'+~-~e~~ ~ t,~'~~'"~ ' w. w ~ r� t~ 'o K :~t ~ 'a ~ ' ,a ~ ~ - ~ 1�, ~ 'Qtie ~ ^ I\ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � K,~ ~ ~ N ~ ~ � . - ~ ; ~ ~o _ K ~ t, �w w h ~ ~ g ~ ~ ~ a ~ Z ~ ~ ~ G1 a 4 ~ h , ~ ~ ~ . N v . . . ; ~ v~ ~ ~r.~ ~ ~ h t/1 ~ . . ~ K ~ �~t� v w ~ ~ e ~7 CO . ~1 . ' a a .~o, a 1.~ ~ ~ ~ . . ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ^ - ~ ~ a _ . ;o a ~ ~ ~ : . r+ ~ y~` ~ ~ 4 't' ~ N � ~"T ~ ~v ~ ~ . , ~ k ~ ~ ~ atN~o, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 'f" $ � ~ � u'~ tA M ~ O ~ Gl W'.~ GJ v ayJ~ R1 f~+ O .C ~ 'G ~ ~ ~ 00 Gl ro U) f~l! M C'. G d ~ - ~ a~.i Gl Gl ~O I E3 ~ W �r~l ~0 ~ e-1 tl1 Ul ~ ,1~ ` ~ ~ O .~L H ; R. 1~+ ~ ~ ~ u o i o ~ ~c ~ .~i ~ u ~00 N ~v, a, ~ "w C . ' x - ~ Gl 6 rl I O O) . N . ~ 3.i r-I N C+ ' V7 ~ ~ U.C .C f3 Gl M~ 41 U G Fs fn 1d ~ tn .C ~ I~ R1 .C Cl rl W � R~~ tU ~O tA 1~+ L ~O ~N R1 tA ( y r-I I'C1 D rn ~ v ~ a~ v S~ NO ~O Ol ~~OI ~ ~ p ka 'b C~' ~ Rf .1 S N ~-1 rl ~ ~ ~G 276 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOIt OF~TCIAL US~ ONLY Huhc~rdi.nrttr ta .luwH cl, when ~.nve~tigatin~ the seixm~.r, conditione ot the re~;ion~ c~f the centera o~ stz'ong eAxCh~uAkes in the pnst and rhe se~,smi.c equivalence of the ind~,vidu~l sect3,ona of the Baykal seismic zone, the attri,huCes Q, TQ and np can be used to discover the xegion~ of increased aeismic danger it~ Che near future ~Borovik~ 1974)~ The region of low activity can be isolaeed by conserucrion of the m~ps of the distribution of the epicenCers of ~aeak earthquakes by the defitted Cime-space areas where the spattal parameter is the dimensions of the preparation region of an earChquake of corresponding magnitude, and the time parameter is the duration of the preparation peri~d of the earthquake of the same magniCude. Then rhe isolated regiona must be checked for the criterion nQ. � The approximate values of Q, T for the correspo~lding magniCudes are indicated above. Tt is necess~ry to find nQ for which the quiet can be nssumed connected with Che formation o� the preparation region. For t}iiA purpoae, selecCing the value of the low probabiliCy of Che random rculizntian of the event within the limiCs of the defined region, let us find the probabiLities of occurrence of 1,..., nQ shocks. If the number of shocks n inthe.region Q for the period Tp is less than that - selected by us (n,n~), then the quiet can be considered nonratYdom. For probability Pa0.005, the possibility of isolating Che regiun where - e~rthquakes of magnitude M~5-1/2 are probable was discussed under the - condition that the average number of shocks in any elementary space~time _ area is identical for the entire investigated zone. The annual distribution maps for the earth~uake epicenters with K>,8 are constructed with respect to areas of Q=4000 km2 for 1964-1968. Within the limits of this area, during the year earthquake~3 of energy class 8 - an~ higher r.*.ust be absent, that is, nQ=O. - When c~mparing the maps obtained, 1G years were isolated corresponding - ro the parameters Q, TQ, n0� I, III, VII, IX~ !{II, XIV, XVII, XXXI, XXXIX, XXXXII, XXXXIII, :{XXXVIII, XXXXIX, LI in Fig 96. All of the strong earthquakes of M35-1/2 noted for 1964-1968 occurred within the limits of the isolated areas (III 1966; III 1967; XXXII 1968), that is, for Pribaykal'ye the probabil~ty of the occurrence of a strong _ earthquake with M?5--1/2 w~thin the limi.ts of the section with anomalously - low activity is hi.gher (0.2~ than the probabi.l~.ty o~ a strong earthquake within the limi.ts of the area of noxmal or increased activity. - The simple divi,sion i.nto elementary areas and calculation of the numher _ of epicenters following into each area do not permit suf~iciently ` reliable determination of the d~,mensions of the regions of low concen- , tration of epicenters. Therefore, another density map was constructed: ~ an area 0.4� north latitude X 0.6'' east longitude was shifted by 0.1� latitudinally and longi,tudinally, and ~n each of these shifted areas the number of epicenters was calculated (Fig 97). Agair~st the background, 277 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 - ~OR OFFTCZAL U5~ ONLY of uniform norm~l density d~.stxibution (aee Figure 97, 2) areas of reduced density were isolated (see ~ig 97~ 4)~ The atrongest enrChquakes or significant swarma in the near ,future are more probable within tne 11m1CA er on Che boundariee oE the defined regione and in the regiona of nnrmal or increASed ehock deneity~ It is natural thae the 5-year observation interval which we could analyze is insufficient to obCain reliable forecasting attributea of a futur.e atrong earthquake. The moat reliable resulta can be obtained when analyzing the aeiamicity of the area for the longest time interval possible. Unfortunately, we do not have the poesibiliCy of performing auch an analysts. Only indirect estimaCea can be made,of the seismicity of the isolated regiona of reduced density; analyais of the earthquake epicenter - map with K^S for 1964-1968~ diatribution of strong earthquakes for 200 yeArs (1771-1971), centere of paleoseismodislocationa and achematics of the basic fault syatems. The comparison confirms Che correcrnesa of the possible appearance of st~ong earthquakes in the isolated regiona. Within the boundariea of the I region on 28 March 1970, a strong earthquake occurred (Mm5.5); in May 1970, a strong earthquake was noted (M=5.6) within the limits of region V. In 1973 an earthquake wiCh Pi~4.5 and a significant awarm within the limits of regions II and IV were observed. Thus, a detailed analysis of the seismic information for a quite short - observation period made it poasible to obtain results that deserve atten- tion: 1. On Che basis of the investigation of 20 series of aftershocks and one swarm, the relation was establiahed between the maximum linear dimen- sions of the aftershock zone and magnitude of the main earthquake. , 2. The investigation of the grouping of the earthquakes not belonging to - the series of aftershocks and swarms demonstr~ted that out of all of the earthquakes (K=$-11) recorded in 1964-1968, 18.2~ belong Co groups. The mutual effect of the grouped earthquakes on each other is exhibited at distances not exceeding 10 km. - 3. On the basis of the investigation of the regions of the centers of 12 earthquakes with M=5 and more it was established thtit before each of them there is some region of calm, the dimensions of whtch are proportional to the ma~nitude of the eaxthquake and ~~hich can be consaidered as the preparation region. 4. The i,nvestigation of the ~,nverse law the re:lation of the ~'empty" regions (correspond~ng to the parameters.Qt T, n 1 to tfie subseqiient - occurrence o~ strong earthquakes demonstxa~ed ~hat the regions of calm cnn be const,dered as reg~ona with ~,ncreased probability of the occurrence of strong earthquakes or s~,gn~,~~,cant swarms. 278 - FOR I)FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOtt bFFIC'~AL U5~ ONLY , ~ ~ ~ 0 o Q ~-1 M OJ 6 O C! rl ~e M Ol p. ' ^ ~ ~ Q n1 N v ~ v I Cl ~M-1 ~ ~ U .C cti M ~ ~I.i Cl O' ~ � . 1~ w ~ � o ~ ~'a^,.., a~'3., ~ ' ^ a ~ N 0~0 ~ _ ~~o ~ v ~ 'U 1 ~ ~~q ~ ~-NI O ~-1 ~ ~ ~1 y � ~ ~.1 ^ ~ ~ 71 ~ ~ ~ ^ ~ JJ ~ ~.1 W ~O ~n I ~ O r~-1 ~ N N \ a-1 ' p \ R! 0 0~0 AN W 17 f Rt z a ~ H H N txJ~U a ao a~ o .C .c vi i~.~ .C ~ y rl ~u uv 3 iv mw ~ucn~ ~ I a~i ~ b a~i cd ~ 1III II I l~ ~ ~ ~ N~ ~ e-~ ...ri � r~l ; ~ O ~r c0 N ~ ~09 ~ r~e-~I r~l .f. ~ ~-7 ~ - Q N r~l .~L � ~~-1 �~s N u ~ ~ I v~ H v N v~ A J~.I W � ~.~i c~0 n1 ~ - C~! Gl .7 rl ~ G~J N~ ~ ' W ,r~1 ~ Vl ~ ~ ~ pq 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a d e?S' ~ CL ~ Ci G+ ~.~'1 ~ R1 O h ~O : v NJ ~ c0 O x~1 rl r.7 ~ u ~ � ~ M N d G O ~a ~3~~.~~N~ . ~ ~ T; w .~t r id ~n a~i~o�o~c~a~ N b 'Lf O O N.G Q~ 00 � H 4+ � OJ U~ r-1 C~ ~ QO O~rl C, i~ � ~ ' ua ro ~ o s~~ � c~ ~v ~n w a~ ~ a~ ~ rn A q~ a~i ~n ar+ ~ U N O 1~+ ~A ~ D w ~f Gl ~rl r'~ .C CJ ~ - I ~ N~ 1 rl .C r-1 00 ~ fs. M~ r- I O 3~ Cl x � _ 279 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~ FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY Long-Rnnse Forecaeting o~ the Se~,am~,c Activ~.ty Accnrding to the Geophyaical Dara = The b~~aic materiuls for charactexization of the aeismiciCy of one region ox nnother are the resulCa of the procesei,ng of inatrument ohservationa of earthquakea. However, the uni�orm se~amoat~tistical m~teriAl for the southern part o� Eastern Siberia hae been accumulated only since 1962. In accordance with the fact that the obaervation rime is short, this material characterizes both the lon6-eerm and ehort~term (random) components of the aeiamic process, In a number of regions, the - random componenC can predominate. Therefore it ia difficult to forecast the future seiemic activity with reapect to seiamoatatistica~ To a known degree the indicated deficiency in atudying the seism3city is filled by the paleoaeiemogeological method~ Seismogeological studies in the southern p~rt of Eastern Siberia revealed a large number of paleoaeismodislacations, and an approximate estimate was made of the force of the earChquakea as a result of which the 3ndicated paleoseismodislocations were formed, The material obtained indicates that the increased .s~iamiciCy was c-bserved in individual aections of tha deacribed territ~ry hundreds and even thousands oE years ago. However, as a reault of intense effect of the denudation processes up to the present time, traces only of Che strongesC disastrous earthquakes have been preserved by which, of course, it is impossible to obtain a complete repreaentation of the manifeatation of the seiamic process in the entire inveatigated territory of Eastern Siberia. The information about strong earthquakes in the 17th to 19th centuries that has come down to us, the broad material on paleoseismodislocations in accordance with the seismastatistical data permit us to state that Che increased seismicity during the prolonged period is characteristic of a comparatively clearly located area in the Baykal rif~ zone. The continua- tion of the proceas of tectonic activation in the Baykal rift zone is indicated by numerous earthquakes 3000 or more per year. The phenomenon of seismicity of the Baykal rift zone cannot be considered isolated, separated from the various geological-geophysical characteristics of the re~ion. The deep geophysical studies in re~ent years have estab- tished that the zones of the latest tectonic activation both oceanic ~1nd continenta]. rift systems have a num ber of specific features: _ contrast of the forms of modern relief, the existence o~ large rift basins - f:[lled with thick Cenozoic deposits, increased heating of the earth's depths, tl~e Presence of a zan,e of reduced velocities in the upper mantle and many ot}ier characteristics. The Saykal rift zone, according to the data of numerous studies (Bulmasov, 1959~ Zor~.n~ 1971; Gornostayev, et al., 1970; Mishar~,na, 1967~ 1972; Novoselova, 1972 a, b; Puzyrev, et al., 1974) is also char.acterized by surface and deep structure of the earth~s crust significantly different from the border~ng territoxies and by the specific peculiarities of the geophyat,cal f~elds respectively (see Chapter IV). _ Thc variation oP the surface anci depth structure of the earth~s crust caused by the riftogen~c process takes place sluwly~ and the characteristics 280 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Oit nF~ICIAL U5C ONLY of t}~e r.elief, C}ie HCructure o~ the e~trth'~ cru~t and rhe ~eophyeic~l fi,~~IfIH riv~~llr~hl~~ r~t tl~r ~irr.~ant eimr. nrc+ tlic raAU]t nF dnveto~~mene ~ c~f tlie rekion~ Jn+~Hmuch uN ehc~ mocl~rn s~ipmiciCy of the Ddyknl rifr zone - and coiCh peculiarities of its surfACe and deep strucCure characCerize verinua aspecrs of the same CecConic process, the theoreCical poesibility of ahraining the representation of the long~rerm componene of rhe seismicity from a comparison of the seismoaC~ttiisCical data with the di�ferenC geologi- cn1-geophysicnl parameters characterizing the lates~ tectonic activiCy is noted. However, for extrnpnlation of the bae~.c per.uliarities of the lon~- _ rnnge component of the aeiamicity in the modern srage of development of the region, proofs are needed of the preservation of the main trends in the uppearance of the tectonic procesa~ We have certain proofs of this at our disposal. First of all, this ia the manifestation of increased aeismicity in almost the same frame of the region of Cenozoic activation where a special surface structure of the ear.Ch and iCa depths is observed~ Then, - comes the preaervation of the basic peculiarities in the development of upllEts and basins. The farmaeion of the generated basins in the Kodar, Udokan and Khamar-Daban ridges, the variation in rates of sediment accumula- tion are pt~enomena of a local order. Thus, huvin~ information ~lvailable about the long-range component of the , tectonic process in the form of geomorphological parameters and the charlcteristics of the geophysical field and data on the mode?-n seismicity (we are talking about seismic activir_y), it is possible to try to quantitative relations betcoeen them and, in the presenct: of the latter, to - determine the long-term comnonent of the seismicity~ Ttie study of the relations of seismicity to various geological-geophysical parameters has acquired broad scale at the Present time. Quite frequently the researchers have alerted themselves to the establishment of the qualitative relations of the investigated parameters (Gamburtsev, 1954, _ 1.955; Gamburtsev, Veytsman, 1956; Ibragimov, 1970; Drumya, 1973; _ Kuznetsov, et al., 1971; Karagityan, Manukyan, 1971). The works aimed at obtaining, quantitative characteristics of the relations of the seismicity to the geological-geophysical parameters are of significantly greater intereet (Riznichenko, et al., 1969; Tal'-Virskiy, et al., 1971; Butovskaya, Sokolova, 1970; Gorshkov, Shenkareva, 1970), However, only in the papers by V. I. Bune, M~ Ye. Artem~yev~ N. Sh. Kambarov (1971) and - N. Sh. Kambarov (1971)~tvas an effort undertaken to estimate the seismic dangcr of the territory on the basis of the quantitative relations of seismicity, isostatic anomalies o# the gr.~avitational force and their , ~;radients. , In I'ri.haykal'ye, the stud~es of the quant~tative relation o~ the seismic ~ sctivity to the relief and the grav~.tational �i.eld were begun by Yu. V. Rizn~,chenko~ Yu~ A~ Zor~.n and K~ V. Pshennikov (~iznichenko, et al., 19G9). The seismic activity map rompiled by K~ V. Pshennikov by the 281 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OEt OFFICIAL U5E ONLY method af summ~?tion of the eArthquakea us~,ng a conatane averaging area for the period from 1962 to 1966 wae compared wiCh the altitudes of the uver~ge xelief (.Che dimpneions ot' the averaging area were 30X30 lan), the moduli of the alri,tude Rradi,enC o~ Che ~verage relief (the dimensions of the area arE 45X45 lan) and averaged isostatic anomaliea calcul~Ced by Yu, A, 2orin by ~he eimplif ied meChod proposed by him. The pair correlation was fulf illed for the enCire rerritory of the Baykal rift on the whole and aeparately for iCs flanks and cenCral regions~ Iti turned out that over the enCire territory there is no clear quantitative - interrelation beCween the altiCudes of the average relief and the seismic ~ctivity. The pair correlaCion coefficient ia close to zero. It increases to -0~34�0.15 only on Che flanks o.f the rift sysCem. _ The modulus of :he altitudF gradient of the average relief is correlated - with Che seiamic activity somewhat beCter: rm0,36+0~09 and preaerves the order of magnitude both in the individual aecC3ons of the terriCory and - _ on the whole throughout the rift zone. 'The re.lation between the averaged isoatatic anomalies and the seismic activity turned out also to be reliable, but weak (r=0.23+0.09~. On making the transition from one section of the x�ift to the other, the nature of the relation did not remain constant. The results obtained led to the conclusion that the quantitative relations between the seismic activity and some of the ~eomorphological-gravimetric parameters in the _ linear and quadratic forma exist reliably, but they are weak and cannot be used for forecasCing the long range average aeismic activity. The further study of the interrelation of seismic activity and the geologi- cal-~eophysical parameters was continued by Ai. R. Novoselova and Yu. A. Zorin in the direction of finding an improved form of the relation and the set of parameters which would have a closer relation to the seismicity. For comparison, a map of the seismic activity is used which - was constructed at the Seiamology Laboratory of the Institute of the Earth's Crust of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences by the neChod of constant accuracy on seismostatistical data for 196~-1968. The dimensions of the averaging areas varied from 96 to 18,000 km , and accuracy of determining the seismic activity turned out to be equal to 35%. The seismic activity was calculated by the generally accepted formula in the shocks of the neCworlc with a step size of 0.2� wi;h resoect to latitude and lonsitude. All of the earthquakes were used beginning with the 8th energy ~:lass. The lOth class was taken as K~. The angular coefficient of the recurre~ce rate graph �or using the set of earthquakes is 0.485. - The clesr.ribed map of seismic acti,v~,ty is in genezal �eature similar to that in the paper by Yu. V. Rizn~chenko; et al, (1969), but it differs in detail~ This difference i,s caused by the use ef the seismostatistical - material for various years and the applicat~,on of various consCruction procedure, It is necessary to note Chat the correlat3on coefficient 282 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Olt OFFICIAL USE ONLY - berwc~en the valuas of Che aeiem~,c act~,vity o� the Cwo maps ia 0.6. How- _ ever, when repe~tinQ the correlation o~ Che aeisnic activity with respecC to rhe new mnp ro the ~radiente of the averaged altitudes and isoatatic ~nomnlies, estimntes were obtAi,ned for Che degr~ of linear And quadratic rcinttona linving tlie snme order as in the earlier paper (Riznichenko, et n1., 1969~. The modulua of the alrieude grad3ents of ehe upper Cretaceous to Paleogenic planation sur�ace deformed by the latest movements, the modulus of Che horizontal gradients of the gravieational anomalies in the Bouguer reductions ~nd the isostaCic and also the values of the graviCational anomaliea in the Bouguer reduction were used as the new parameters wiCh which a comparison of the seiamic activity was made. The maps of the moduli were constructed by the general principles described in Che paper by Yu. V. Riznichenko, ee al., (1969). The gradients were calculated by the averaging areas on the order of 9000 km2. The latter value was obtained as the arithmetic mean oE the dimensions of the earth used to calculate the seismic activity. '1'he pair correlation coefficients.characterizing the linear form of the relation turned out to be reliable, but low~ - Then the seC correlation of the seismic activity with the sets o� geological- _ geophysical parameters was carried out. Several versions of the combination oE the correlated parameters were tested, but the values characterizing _ the dismemb~rmenC of the relief, the variability of the 1oca1 component of the gravitational field and the values of this field themselves a1~-ays parCicipated here. In addiCion to the linear relation, the quadratic, cubic, logarithmic and semilogarithmic forms were also tested. The best form of ttie relation turned out to be the semilogarithmic (the logarithm of the seismic activity was conaidered to be a linear function of the geological-geophysical parameters). With this form of the relation, the maximum set correlation co~fficient (0.75+0.05) was obtained for the seismic activity, the altitude gradients of the average relief, the gradients of - the isostatic anomalies and the Bouguer anomalies respectively, The regression equation has the forml A1~ = 2.3 exp {75.58� Igrad h~p~ + 0~1� ~grad giz~ - 0.01� gb - 4.Q2} (1) A map of forecast~,ng the long~range component o~ the seismic act~.v~,ty was constructed hy th~s equat~,on~ The an$lysis of the map is presented in the paper hy Yu. A. Zorin and P1. R. Novoselova (1972~. `All oP the calculations connected w~th the correlation analysis and determination of the coef�~,c~,ents of regress~,on equations were performed on the a~Srl-4 computer of the Eastern Geophysical Trust (Yrkutsk). _ F 283 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In 1972 S. T. Calenetskiy and G~ L~ Myl~nikovd conetructed d new map nE thr. ecei.smic activ:Lty by the method o� ~ummetion of Che earthqualce wiCh r~ cc~nHtnnl� nvern~,ing nrrn (the proviei.onnl dimeneione of Che area remained constnnt). Its eimilqr ch~tracterisCic ia presented in Chapter VIII~ Here leC us note that the unqueationed advantage of the new map, in contraeC to the previously compi,led onea, is rhat it encompasaea a large $mount of seismostatiatical material (.1962~.1971). NaCurally it could be hoped that this map would give a more ob~ective . characteristic of the seiamic activit,y and would be more advahtageoua - for determination of ita long~term component. The map was consCructed in two versiona: considering all of the earthquakes and with exclusion of the siaarma of weak ahocka ~ In view of the fact Char the averaging area has appreciably amaller dimen- sions (988 to 1321 km2) by comparieon with the average area used previously, the necesaity arose for transformation of the maps of the geological and geophysical parametera reapectively (to present Che dimensione of the parameter averaging areas in accordance with those which were used for calculation af the seiamic activity). The carrelated valuea of the aeismic activity and the geological-geophyaical parameters were aelecte8 in the ahocke of the 45:{15 km n~etwork. The - set correlation coefficient turned out to be equal to 0.75+0.05, The regression equation has the form ~ A10 = 2.3~exp {80.03~ 18rad h~l~ + 0.07�~~rad giz~ - 0.013~gB - 4.90} (2) A comparison of equations (1) and (2) indicat:.,s that their coefficients are close to each other, Thus, in spite of tne different initial seismo- ~ statistical material, the operation of planation of Che series using stab ly defined geological~geophysical parameters leads to close results. _ This permits the conclusion to be drawn that as a~result we obtained the description of the actually stable (long-term) component of the seismic - process. _ I~ must be more precisely determined that the presented equatton (2) was obtained as a result of comparing the geological-geophysical parameters with the total values of the seismic activity (that is, with those which were obtained when considering all of the earthquakes beginn3ng with their given representative class). Using the maps of the seismic activity with the excluded earthquake forms, in practice the same equation is obtained (the differences in the coefficients are statistically reliable). This _ means that the proposed proced~~re automatically insures exclusion of the �orms o� weak earthquakes if these seism~,c events are random~ Let us try to explain the ex~sting rela[i,ons of the seismic activitv to each of the parameters into equations (1) and (2). The modulus of the altitude gradient of the averaged re~ief is dirQCtly proportional - 28~, - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOEt OF~ZCIAL US~ ONLY to rhe modulua nf the horizontal velocity gradienC of the laCegt vertical movements~ T}ie physical meAning of the relatiun o� Che lASt value eo rhe - = seiamic conditinns i~ generally known (Czovakiy, 1959, 1963). Under ~ natur~l conditions, for nonuniformity of the earth's crusr, this relaCion is entirely naturally of a statistical nature; therefore in individual secCions its vio].ation is entirely admissible~ T}ie physical essence of the relation of Che seismic activiCy to the gravi- taCional field is not so obvious~ The .Eollowing argumenta help to explain it. In Chapter TI it was pointed out Chat the Baykal rifC zone in the Bouguer anaomaly �ield corresponds to ehe extended regional minimum (more precisely, the system of minima) which, ~udging by the deep seismic sound- ings, is cau~ed by the presence of the region of dispersion of th~ upper mantle (see Chnpter IV). The riae of the dispersed material from great depChe obviously is Che baeic caus~ for riftogenesis (Artem'yev~ _ Artyushkov, 1968; Zorin, 1971), to one o� the manifeatatinns of which the incrcused seismicity of the region belongs~ The intensiCy of Che rifto- genesis obviously is directly related to the volume of material accumulated under the crusr. On this level the correlation of the seismic activity to the inCensity of the Bouguer anomaly becomes understandable. - The relation of the seismicity to the horizontal gradients of the local _ ~nomalies is assumed to be exolained by the fact that the maxima of the latter fix the fracCures. However, when using the gradients of the iso- static anomalies of the averaging area on the order of 40 lan in diameter for the calculation, the peaks of the gradients can only in individual cases correspond to specific large faults. The analysis of the map of the modulus of the gradients of the isostatic anomalies indicates that the increased values of this param~ter are characteristic of the entire rift zone as a whole, that is, in generali~ed form it reflects only the degree - of contrast of the local anomalies (the regional component of the field is completely excluded by isostatic reduction}~ The contrast of the local anomalies is caused primarily by the presence of a thick series of Cenozoic deposits in the large (but comparatively narrow) rift basins of the A~ykal, Barguzin and other types. Therefore the relation of the seismic activity to the moduli of the gradient of the isostatic anomalies indirectly reflects rhe inheritance of the modern tectonic movements expressed in the seismicity from the movements of the entire latest stage. This is valid also with rzspect to the remaining used parameters~ The contrast of the local gravitational anomalies is caused, in addition, by increased heterogeneity of the upper layer of the earth~s crust. As t4. R. Novoselova (1972) demonstrated, this is a speci~3c feature of the Baykal rif t zone by compar~son w~th the territories~ The direct consequence of thig is a reduction in the mech$nical strength of the crust material - which under the conditions of the tectonic activation promotes destruction oE the continuity of the mater~,al and~ consequentlyf an increase in - seismicity~ Ye, V. Karus and I~ Ye~ Rezanov (1971~ indicate that the - sections of articulation of the materials with different physical proper- - ties are most favorable tor the man~festation of seismicity~ 285 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ' FOR OFFICrAI. US~ ONLY ' O,l ! ~ ~ , ~ ~9) 0~'~ e 12) . C ~ 1,~~ w - _ i f = ~ (8) ~ 13) p ~ , 5 '~'e ~ 7 ) ' ~ a �p ~ * : � ~ Kr.M ~ 6) e~ ~~,~p'`' :,y ( et . ~ e oi ~ ' ~~f � . a� ( 0) t~~ , ~ ):'~f ~21 ~ ~ t ~aN \ ~ a ~0~ ,�,r~t r4 ~ 5) ,g'~�, o+ ( 24 ) c~e ~ ~oF 9�`~(23) 3' 25 , 04~ � ( 3 ~ (27) . \2~ Qp~~. . 4NTA ~i ; nPnrrc'~ ,.;~'a~32) (26~ . 4,,j. ~ ~ ~o .rM~ ~`L. : ,.yf' � OR 0/ _ N~r~ � ~J~ 31~ p~0~ . ! . ~ ( ) �'a~~~ a,os-~ (1) / 9) (28) ' ~ a~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ r . I'igure 98. Map of the long~term seismic activity of - Pribaykal'ye. Compiled by M. Novoselova. _ 1-- isolines of the long~term component of the seismic activity; 2-- boundary of the Baykal rift zone (accord3ng to Yu. A~ Zorin~ 1971) Key; 1. Selenga; 2~ Irkutsk; 3. Irkut~ 4. Kimoy; 5. Angard; 6. Kirenga; ~ 7. Chaya; 8. Gre~ter Chuya; 9, Lena; 10. Upper Angara; 11. Chara; - 12. Olekma; 13. Nyukzha; 14. Kuandat 15. Muyakan; 16, Muya; ~ t7. Tsipa; 18. Tsinikam~ 19. Kalar~ 20, 1Ca~akan; 21. Tungir~ - 22. Amalat; 23. Vi,tim; 24~ Nercha~ 25. Shilka; 26~ Argun'; _ 27. Chita~ 28. Onon~ 29. Ingoda~ 30~ Chikoy; 31. Rhilok~ 32, Uda; 33. Barguzin; 34. Lake Baykal. 286 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 i FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY Ueing equation (2) dnd 'che valuea of the above~menCioned parameCers~ we c~lculated Ch~ long-Cexm component of Che seismic activity (~ig 98) for the cntire terriCory of the Baykal rift zone~ It appears useful to us to compare the ~icture obtained w~,th the initial data CaeiAmostatistical.) on the Aeismi,c ncCivity~ In this compaxison three cases are theoretically possible: . ~ - 1. Complete coincidence of the init3al and forecasting maps. This indicates the absolute preservation of the�trend in the development of _ the tecConic process and the uncondiCional auitability of Che initial map oE the seismic activity for Che long-range fcrecasting of the place and - tt~e strength of the earthquakes. However, the sections for comparison of the initial and forecasting map are few. They have small area and are ~ arranged primar.ily around the periphery of the Bayl:al rift zone~ 2. The values of the long-term seismic acCivity are higher than on the iniCial step. Beginning with the statement of the problem itself, in this case we can show that the reduction in setsmic activity in such areas is - a temporary phenomenon. IC is impossible to guarantee that this reduction will last a long time in the future. On the contrary, the teceonically active sections in the recent geological past in which the last 5 to 10 years the activity is relatively dropped, can correspond to the preparation - zones of strong earthquat:es. This conclusion agrees well with the data of - N. S. Borovik, et al., (1971) regarding the formation of such zones in a' few years before the strong earthquakes. , The repion: with such relations of modern a; , ~ f3 'r'~ ,C _ " . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ y ~ ~ �V ~r.~ al N. �i~� i~ M O V ~ : ^ ^`j ~ + ' ^ W ~ ~ !1� ~ ~ \ ~ ~ ~1 ~+r� r n ? ~ 1 v~ ~ ~ ; u w A eN � ~ ~p p ~ - C ; aQi ait9 a ~ ~ '/S v ~ 'C: 1"~ ~ ~ f ' V fJ 01 � ^ tn A ~ ~ 11 ~ ~ ~ 'b - ; r^i t ~ ~ � v ~ ~ v � � "+y v O ~ ^ ~ e"y rl N ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ , 1~ ~ ~ C ~ ~ ' ~o d ~7 0~+ 324 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 I~'OR OItFYCIAL U5E ONLY ~L~g~nd ~nd key fnr ~i.g 106, p 3~4] ; ~ 1-- Sy~ehmg of f~u1C~ ~nd Cheir abbreviat~d n~m~s; 2~~ f~uleg ~nd Cheir ,~umbpr~ on th~ li~ts 3-- boundaxy of the Baykal rift zonp; name of ehe ~yetem nf F~ ult~ and the components of their individual dielocations with bt~eaks in eonrinuiCy; GS Ma3.n Sayan daep �gult: 1-- ttai.n Sayan, 2 Biryusinekiy [Biryunen~, 3-~ Okin~kay~ [Okn], 4-~ Kitoyekiy, 99 Dototgkiy, q-- Obruch~v; 5-~ Tunkingkiy- 6-- primor~kiy, 7-- NorChprn ~aykal, 8-- K(?)icherakiy, 9-~ Tyya-Abch~dskiy, 10 Gramnin~kiy, 11 Pogrnnichnyy, 12 Akiekanekiy, OV O1'lchnn~kgyg (n1'khon) br~nch of thp Obruch~v syet~m, 13 bl'khon, 14 Svygtnnng~kiy ~Svyaeoy NosJ, 15 Chivyrkuyskiy, 16 Kabeniy, 17 Bo1'~her~ehen(7)ekiy. Ch --Cherekiy; 18 Cherskiy, 15 R Ue1'tovyy, 20 Bezymyannyy (unngmed~, ~ 21 ttgCkov ekiy, 22 Nalimovskiy, 5T Selpnga-Turkinskaya br~nch of th~ Cherekiy syaCem: 23 3elenga, 24 Khamarekiy, 25 Turkinekiy, n-- Barguzin: 26 UlyuChikanskiy, 27 Sh~manekiy, 28 Turaki, VA V~rkhnean$argkaya (Upper Anggra]; 29 Verkhneangarskiy (Upper Angarn~, ~U pravomanekiy [l~ight Mama], UK Ukolkitakaya; 31 Uknikitskiy, 32 Knvnktinakaya, ITs Ikae-Tsipikan~kgya; 33 Maraktaknnakiy, _ 34 G~~r~inskiy, 35 Ulan-Burginskiy, 36 nzhargnlanCa N~rungdingkiy, 37 Tsipikgngkiy, 38 Gorbylokskiy, 97 IkaCgkiy, BV gar~uzino- Vitim; 39 Yambuyekiy, 40 Marekta-Mukdekenskiy, 41 Vitimkanskiy, bV Uzhida-Vitim; 42 w- bzhida, 43 Khambinskiy, 44 Uda, 45 Amnlat- - skiy, 46 zgxinskiy, 47 Verkhnevitim~kiy [Upper Vitim~, TT Tugnuyskaya: 48 Tugnuyakiy, 49 Zaganakiy, 50 Kichingakiy, KhK Khilok-Karengskaya; 51 Khiloksl;iy; 52 Yuzhnokhilokskiy [5outhern Khilokskiy~, 53 Beklemeshevskiy, 54 Karengskiy, MO Mon~olo-Okhotsk deep fault: 55 Kudarinakiy, 56 Chikoyskiy, 57 2achikoyskiy; 58 Pravo-Ingod inskiy [Right Ingod~], 59 L~vo-Ingodinskiy (Left Ingoda~, 60 Shilkinekiy (Shilka~, Nizhnenerzhuganskayn branch of the Mongolo-Okhotsk system: 61 Nerchuganskiy, 62 Verkhnetungirgkiy, OT Onon-Turinskaya: 63 Ononskiy, N-- Ptuyskaya [Muya]; 64 ttuyakanskiy; 65 Verkhnemuyakiy [Upper Muya~, 66 Ulan-Makitskiy, 67 Nizhnemuysl:iy (Lower Muyaj, 68 Peramskiy [ParamaJ, MT Muya-Tokko: 69 Mudirikanskiy. 70 Yuzhno-Muyskiy [Southern Muyaj, 71 Syul'banpkiy, 72 Kodarskiy (Kodar~, 73 Tokkinskiy (Tokko], ChKh- Chitkanda--Khaniyskaya branch of the Muya-Tokko syatem: 74 Chitkandinskiy, 75 Khaniyskiy. TsB Tsipa- t3~untovr~kaya: 76 Tsipinskiy [Tsipaj, 77 Bauntovskiy; 78 Kddurskiy, 79 Tilishminskiy, 80 Bnmbuyskiy, 81 Taksima-Dzhilindinskiy, U-- Udokanskaya (Udokan); 82 Namarakitskaya, 83 Konda-Eymnakhskiy, 84 Dovochanskiy, 85 Lurvinakiy, 86 Emetachi-Kemenskiy, 87 Chin.~-Vakatskiy, 88 Katuginskiy, 89 Chepinskiy, K-~ Kalarskaya (Kalar]: 90 Ust'-Tsipa, 91 Nizhnekalarskiy [LoWer Kalar], 92 bzh~lo, S--- Stanovoy deep fault; 93 ~ Tas-Yuryakhskiy, 94 Imangrskiy, 95 Stanovoy~ 96 Yuzhno~-Stanovoy [Southern StanovoyJ. Individaul faillts, 98 Gazimurskiy~ 100 T~ssinskiy [Tisea), 101 Fofanovskiy. (Key to Fig 106, p 326~ 325 POR OFPICIAL USB ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR O1~ICIAL US~ ONLY (K~y Co ~ig 106, p 324]; 1-- iliry?u~c~; z~- GS; 3 M~ Uda; 4-~ Nizhneudingk; 5~~ 'Cu1un; 6~- Iy~; 7-- Alygdzher; 8-- Oka; 9~~ Cheremkhovo; 10 M-~ Orlik; 11 Ziea; lz Upol'ye-Sihir~kn~?e; 13 G5; 14 Mendy; 15 Slyudy~tnkn; 1h t3nyk~t'~k; 17 UV; 1~ Z~kam~nek; 19 L~kp Khubsugul; 2b KyekhCt~; 21 Gu~ir~dt~~ersk; 22 U1an-Udeg 23 ST.; 24 Selenga; 25 Ye18nC~y; 26 Irlcuegk; 27 Use'-Ordynslciy; 2B Kachug; 29 Uge'-Kut;, 30 Kir~ngk; 31 Vieim; 32 Lena; ~3 VA;'34 UK; 35 Kumora; ~6 UK; ~7 B~rguzin; 3~ ~Iarguzin; 39 8V; 40 Sosnovd- Oz~rgk; 41 Yer~vninskiy Lake; 42 Romanovka; 43 gegd~rin; 44 U~kie; . _ 45 PPT; 46 Vitim; 47 N~lyaCy; 4E Kalars 49 C~ntrgl Kg1~r; 50 UV; 51 Lake Baykal; 52 KhK; 53 Karenga; 54 Bukach~ch~; 55 Nerehinak; 56 Khepcheranga; 57 ~M Borun-Torey Lake; 58 Borzya; - 59 Argun' ; 60 Shilk~; 61 ~orn;+y 7.~renCuy ; 62 Ar~ur; 63 Tun~ir; 64 Tupik; 65 r~ogocha; 66 Mo; 67 olekma; 6A Tokko; 69 C1�ra; 70 Ol~kminsk;; 71 Chita; 72 Nyulczha; 73 Chikoy; 74 Nizhne~ngarsk; 75 VA - - The mnin (trunk) ncCivated faultg are oft~n acaompani~d by shnrt (ro the fir~r ten~ of kilometers) feaCh~r~ng and accompgnying fractureg pl~ying an imnortnnt role in the development of the fine block etrucrur~a in the secttons near the fgults. ~he amplitud~g of the vertic~l di$placements ~long certain faults ~re different, ~nd they depend both on the age and the morphogenetic type of the strucrures than on the speed and direction nE the latest tectonic movements. Here the Ereatest amrlitudes of the vertical displacement (to 3000 to 7000 meters) are noted by the activared faults bounding Che mature morphoatructurea of the Baykal basins maintaining n stgbl~ trend toward subsidence during the enCire period of rift formation. The least diaplacpment amplitudes tena to a few hundreds of inetera) are � noted with respect to the activated faulta of the youngest basins of the evolutionary geries and a:.~u in the aections of inverted infantile rift and _ subrift basins. With re3pect to degree of inheritance of the pre-Cenozoic structural plan and alt~rntion nf it by the latest tectonic movements the mounCain bele of ~astprn Siberia is extremely nonuniform: along with the areas of prolonged inherited development here~ the zones of eharp and singl~ structural re- arrangement are widespread. Analyxing the strict apatial loca~.ization of tl~e basin~ oE the Baykal aite~ the syscems of activated faults controllin~ theae nxial ~tructures and Che ratio of the Cenozoic and ancient strucCural plnna, N. A~ ~'lorensov (1960a,1964, 19~8) showed that the rift zone extend- ing apatiAlly to the ancient marginai auture of the Siberian platform is distinguished by sharp Ruperposition of the substrate structures, to - Tertinry. Tl~r ~pinion of V~ P. Sulonenko regarding ~he genetically independent develop- m~nt of tl~e Baykol riEt system aith reapect to the ancient structures is atill morr deEinit~. "The Baykal rift zone is ad~acent to the marginal - 326 POR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 , I+OR OFFICYAI, USE ONLY puuthern rro~ecCion of Che S~,ber~,~n plati�orm only over a ehort segment, nnd th~n it defl~cta sh~rply aw~y from it~ in ~pite of ehe presence ar e;he plnt�orm boundary oE powerful mnrg~,na1 tecton~,c suCurea~��~ the Sayan fault zone~ Th~ ~econd~ry role of the Siberian platform and the pre~Baykal deep fra~Curee i~ Craced quiee clearly here~.. The basins, Kosogol'skay$ ~nd Barkh~rekaya, in general go from th~ �ield of Baykal folding ro the . C~ledonian.~. The Barguzino~8auntovekaya and Upper Angara brgnchea of t'he bneine are sti11 mor~ removed from ehe Siberian latform. _ ~QCtor the rifC zone inCerAecte the ~y~Cem of Baykal �old3ngn ehe tT~y~ov~oy cpntrol maseif~ the Chara b1o~k, and 3t cuta by one branch intn Che Aldau? ehield and by Che other, into the reg3on of Proterozoic folding of Stano~vik... mhe deep gnd large re~ional faulte of the pre~Baykal occurrence form a dense network in the region of Cenozoic orogenesis. It is eneirely natu~cal that 8ome of them~ ~u~t as the weakened zones of the earth's cruaC~ are ~ncompassed by rifC formaC4on, but ehey hAV~ only promoted and have not rredeeerminpd Che place of occurrence of the rifte.,~ Therefore in Che FieismoM ~eoi~gical e~timaCe of Che ,fault zone it is necessary to discover in deta,il tt~e degree of their ~articipation in the rift formaCion and "aceive" tecCOnics~ The powerful fault zone ie well expresaed geologically and even geomorphologically, can turn out to be aeiamically passive, and ehe unexpressed young or pre-Ba~+kal faults, recently involved in re~uvenation - (for example~ in the embryonic basin zones), highly'~acCive" (Solonenko, V., 1968a, PP 69-70). Th~ morphostructures located outaide the rift zone have inherited to a significant degree the structural-tectonic plan of Che preceding ategea of dev~elopment, and the principle of inheritance on the whole is maintAined both with reapect to the ancienC and young faults and with respect to the folded complexe~. All of this is felt to one degree or another in the variety of structural forms which are the result of the prolonged hiatory of geologic,al development of the mountain belt of Eastern Siberia, and in the final analysis it finds itg expreaeion in the peculiarities of the manifestation of seiamicity. The moat highZy aeismic regions are isolated in the axial - part of the Baykalo-Stanovoy zone where as a result of predominant extensi~~n, there is complex block differentiation of the earth's crust with the fot~na~- tion of an extended syetem of rift basina and the block and arch-block upiifts bordering them. The intensive seismotecr.onic development of this zone in which the primary role is ~layed by Che systems Of activaCed fault~; inEluences the bordering terri.toriea and cauaes increased aeismic potentia;l ef the Ad~ncent zones of act~vation of the southern part of the Siberian pl.~tform and the Mongolian-~Okhotak fold~d belt. The seismogeological relations are varied. As the basic relations it is possible to i,nd~cate the relgtion of the earthquakes to the zones of ~ctivated faults~ the blocks of shazoly di�fer~ntiated tectonic movements, the sect~ons o~ local re$xxAngement of the Cenozoic and more atncient struc-~ tures of the plans by the r3ttogenic procesaes, the marginal parts of the regiona of stnble subsidence or uplift, the interbaain and intrabasin � 327 FOR OFFICIAL USS ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY m~~unCnin commiesuxes, Ch~ ar~ae of the ~.ntersectioa and echelon cyne r,xeir.ulnrion o~ rhe lntesC morphosCructures, especially rhe large fracture zones to the embryonic basins, the aect~,ons of *~anifeatation oE Che lateaC volcnniem, and so on. _ Tn many papera on the varioue seismicdlly r.ctive regions when discovering the laws o� the relation o~ earthquakea and the geological atructure, not only the se~.amological but also ehe ger..log3cal~tectonic criteria of the oncurrence of earthq~akes are given. In recent times studiea have been made from th~ae anmplex seiemotectonic p~.~nts of view of Che seismically active regions nf rtongolia and Pribaykal~ye, Central Asia and the Caucasus, and gbrond Southern CaliFornia, Alaska, Japan, New Zealand and so on _ (Gubin, 1960; Solonenko, V,, et al~, 1960b; Petruahevskiy, 1960, 1964; Cobi-Altay..., 1963; ACTIVE TECTONICS,.., 1966; SEISt�tOTECTONICS..., L968, 1975n, b; Kuchay, L969; Medvedev, et al~, 1971; A1Len, et al., 1965; anc' eo on). H~re the main role was given Co the deep and crystal acCivated faults having important si~nificance in the seismotectonic development of ~he morphoatructural elements and i~n esCimating the level of their potential seismicity. In thc different atages of their development and depending on the morpho- ~enetic type of bounded structures, the seismotectonic role of the acCivaCed faults can be different. For example, they ~can be zones af release of the _ mose powerful seismic stresses, buC in the case of "transitional" tremors _ usually part of the energy of the seismic waves is absorbed, causing an irregulAr decrease in strength of the earthquake. In one way or another the zones of activated.faults, which are extremely mobile and connected with the deep parta of the earth's crust, react moat extraordinarily to all of the geodynamic changes occurring in iC. Although in parts they have different level of modern seismic activity, nevertheless the individual faults controlling the development of the penetically united mo��phostructures (for _ example, the individual rift basins) must be considered ~;-?otentially seismically _ active over their entire extent. Here the maximum intensity of the earth- qual:es (the potenCial seismicity) must be determined by the scales of maximum seismic dislocations detected at least in one section of the fracture zone, for the seismostatistics do not always or everywhere reflect the upper level = of seismicity. However, in th~ cases of complex internal structure of the large basins and uplifts, the zones of activated faults separating them into different sectiona can have different seismic potential (for exa.mple, ?.tain Sayan, Tur:kinakiy, and the Obruchev faults). The seismogeological mater3.als available at the present time are permitting ! us to isolate 22 systems of the latest ~aults in the ~aykal~Stanovoy zone, including more than 1Q0 �racture structures (see k'~g 106~ undergoing modern ~ seiamic rejuvenation or carry~ng traces of paleose~smodislocations. All of t~~ese zones correspond to the above--enumerated common morphostructural ai~d seismotectonic peculiari,ties o~ the activated ~aultst therefore below - We shal]. preaent the character~,stic of only two fracture systems typi~al of the Baykal~Stanovoy zone of intensive arch-block and ri�togenic movements; - 328 FOR OFFICTAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 xo~ otrnicin~, us~ nrn.Y the wpll-known primdrgkdye (~xuchpv) ~~u1t Which p~ct~nda a1nn~ the ndrth- weatern ~hore ef gnykal in the Uddk~n ~y~rem d~ gceivgtpd fnult~ in th~ northea~t di the Baykal rift zon~~ U~~gi1~d de~criptt~ng nf the m~~nrity of the fauitg ia eh~ mountain bplt of ~a~tern Sib~ri~ ~re p~r+~~ene~d in the publicatione nf r~c~nt y~~ra ~~i~r~n~ov~ 1460e~ b; AC'CtV~ '~EC`CON~GS~.~, 1966; SLISMOTEC'CONICS.~.~ 1960a~ i975~, b; ~oldn~nko, V., ~t gi., 19~1; Sherm.yn, er nl~~ 1~7~; ~nd gn ~n). b. i, ShChtrb~kov (1951) propng~d thgt th~ fauit b~unding the ~ygtem ef munkin~kiy ba~in~ and the Bayk~1 rift iC~~lf dn eh~ Sib~ri~n plgt~orm ~id+~ - be Cniled the Obruehev f~ult~ it i~ mad~ up nf e numb~2r of ind~p~ndpnt _ branche~ of the gyetemg df faulte ~ Tunkinskay~, primor~kaya, (~1'khon ~nd Northern Baykal (Flor~ngnv, 1960b; S~2SM0'T~C'PONIGS..~~ 1968; Zorin, 1971). The Tunkinakiy scrikp�~lip fQUit (~ig lOG~ e~e ~ig 102j i~ the $en~r~l ~tructure of the pntire ch~in of Tunkinekiy baein~. A~ eh~ C~noznic diglncg- tion, it inheritpd thp ancient ~uture fnrmpd in th~ Lrn+~r P~l~nzoir (~lorensov, 1960a) or in eCill. ~grlier agea. It ie not ~x~ludpd that thig rejuv~nntion occurred in the Centrel to Upper Plioeene durir?g eh~ period of the mosc energptic downWarping of th~ bottomg of the d~preegion~ (ltu~hieh, 1922). ~~ing diaeoncinuous, the Tunkinekiy fracture ig n?gd~ up of g~ver~l aections, in the damping of which the mountgin epur~ nccur (Nilovgkiy, Yelovskiy) tranev~ree gnd diagonal intrabasin commi~sures having a reduced gection nf Neogene-Quaternary geri~~ (Logachev, 1958). At the point~ where the main feult line benda~ bunch~g of tranaverg~ and radigl fractures appenr (Florensov, 1960a). By the observetians of A. p. Shmotov (1972), east of Arshan th~ bran~h ~f the Tunkinak:y fault inheriCg the ancient (Tubotekiy) overthrust. I[ is trgced from the Tsagen-Ugun' River from the Torskaya basin to the Tubata River valley through the Yel~vakiy spur to the Kymgarga River and then to the northWest (see Pig lOx). BetWeen the Tunkinskiy bald peaks and the Yelovskiy epur the zone of ancient overthruet is morpt~ologically expreased - in the form of a linear chute-like depression running a distance of up to 15 km (aee the vicinity of the Arahanskaya etructure in Pig 102). in the inveatigated region th~ ancient overthruets are mapped at many places (see ~ig 102), but the linear sinl:hole in the relief is expreased only by the Tubotskiy overthrust. Inasmuch as it ia locat~d in the zone of - contrast articulation of the i~ntensely developing rift basina With their mountain bord~r, there are grounds for considering that the morphological rxpresRior~ of the ancient fr~cture ~n the modern r~lief is obligated to its C.enozoic r~juvenation and conversion to the Tunkinskiy atrike-~slip fault. The tiiKhl~tnd scarp Which replacea this sinkhole in the west and obliquely i,ntersecting the anc:Qnt series on the slope o~ the Tunkinskiy Alps dirrctly indicatea the stepped sagR~nE of the blocks ~n the vicinity of the Tunkinakiy t'ault (Shmotov~ 1972s Solonenko~ V.~ et al., 1971). The compara- tive yo~ngness of the Tunkinakiy atrike�~elip fault is indicated by the ~ fractures of thr Pleietocene terraces in the vicinity of the health resort 329 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 i~OR b'p'PICIAL US~ dNLY ,i ` ii~ , ~ � . . f � . . /J - � ~ _ _ ~ Vi . , ,,t \ ii . ~ . ' v~ ~ - 1 , ~ ~ ~ ' ` : � ~�:r~~. � a ~ � ~ � ~3 ~ ~ ~ / 'o ~ \ ~ ~ . . . � � ~ ~ � � � ~ ~ � � . . . - Y � � . � : i � . ~M~-~--~~ V �~'.�~,.i Y~ I~ ~p ?Q I I I ~ Q �O ~ ~ ~ � O ~Z ~J l~.~......~ ~ ~ Cos 0' ~as 0' ~ ~6 ~7 ~e g ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . , ! ~ 0 ~/1 :0: ~p . ~ � I ~ � - , ~ ~ N ~~~r ' ~e Figure 107. Schematic of the seigmotectonics of the central part of the Ikatakiy ~IkatJ arched uplift. Compiled by M~ Dem~yanovich. (See legend and key on p 331) 330 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 F01t OI~~CIAL U$~ nNLY ~LE~~ttd end k~y tn ~ig 1~7, p 330~; Seigm~[city; 1�- ~picpnt~r~ c~f th~ ~~rthqu~ice~ with reep~~t ~d ~n~r~y maeae:3 -w Ks e~~, b-~ 7, 8, d�~ 9~ 10~ f r~ 10~5 eo i~, - g-- :11.5~ h~-~- 12; 7,4 group~ df ~~rthr~uak~~ by eh~ +center m~chaniam~, 2--f1r~e ~raup; 3--~~c~nd, 4--third; 5--dir~~Cian of gtr~~~ ~x~~,(e--compr~~~ive b-~-~ teneion~ c-� int~rm~diate~. Seiemotpctonicgt 6-~ mosC m~bil~ block of mod~rat~ upiift; ~ ' 8-- wegk uplift, 9-- pro~ect3nng di the bas~ment in th~ b~8pm~nt nf the _ tran~it~dn t;?p~; 10 outcropg ef G~nozoic baea~ts; 11 pgrt of the Karguzin basin of th~ Baykal typ~; 12 ~mbryonic bagin~ (1 M~rektinekgva; 2-- f~odik~t~k~ya, 3-- Marektakan~kaya, 4-- Verkhn~i~C~t~kaya ~Upp~r IkatJ, S-- 11~hilindin~kaya); 13 bagin~ of th~ Cran~itionai (from Tran~b~yk~1 to gaykal) type; 6-- Vitimkan, 7-,- Nizhn~ikie~k~y~. The disloceeiong of chp brenk in eontinuity: 14 ~~ismiceily activ~: a-- e~tabl3~h~d, b-- nrorn~ea (I-t Ul~n-Burginekiy); 15 active in ehe C~noznic (a establish~d~ b-- propo~ed); II-II Marektanakiy, III-III Garginekiy, IV-tV bzhorgolant~-N~rungdinskiy, V~V Vitimlcanekiy, VI-VI ikatskiy; 16 rteeoc~nozoic (a e~Cabliahed, b-- propng~d): VII-VII Podiknt~kiy; 17 pre-Cenozoic (g establ~shed, b-~ propo~~d),18 a) normal faulte, b) overthruets. Key: 1 t 1c~ t ? Vitimkan ~ Carg~ . of Arshan and Yelovskiy spur, the triangular facies along the front of the Tunkinskiy bald peaka and the line of mineral springs at their foot (~lorensov, 1960). Recent and modern eei,smic Activity of the Tunkinskiy strike-slip fault is confirmed by the association of an entire seriea of epicenters of weak and atrong earthquakea and ~lso seismogenic structures with ics zone. The Tunkinskiy fault has feathering and accompanying fractures of gignifi- cant extent. The southern branches of them are buried under the loose series oE the bt~9in (SEISMOTECTONICS...~ 1968; Zorin, 1971). The morpho- logical expression of some of them in the cryatal bottom of the depression � ran indicate their Cenozoic activati.on. This pertains primarily to the lar~esc transversc~ Kyngargskiy ~ratcture Which obliquely cuts the Tunkinskaya br~sin with respect to the Arshan meridian (Sherman, pt al., 1973). The Irkut branch oE the Tunkinsk~,y faults separatinq the mountain massif of *iunku-S.zrdy Cape (abs~lute elevation 3493 meters) from the lowland Western side of the Tunkinskiy bald peaN.s has cleur traces of Cenozoic re~uvenation. One of the feath~ring ~ractures has a crushing zone of up to 200 meters. 1t is br.~nched from the Irkut fault in the section near the fork of the Chernyy Irkut and Belyy Irkut Rivers. Extending along the northeastern 331 POR OPPICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 I~OIt OI~tCIAI, t15t ~DNLY apurg o~ t~tunku-5~~rdyk mdunt~in, the f~actu~re ig clearly ~xpre~g~d in th~ relief ~nd h~g n gtrtke td the narth~a~t 7bd. At gn ~l~v~~ei,dn ~f 2000 td 7SOtl mee~rs ehe fr~rture i~ rnot~d glnng the ch~ing of num~rau~ 1~nd~lipg and ~lg~ pxe~ndpd ~e~r~s and er~n~h~~ (Shmotdv, 1972~ Shconenko, V� et ai., 1971; S~iSMnT~C'CONiC5.~., i975a)~ On ~ne~rin~ eh+~ Mondy ba~in, ehe Irl%ut f~ult bran~hea. One of i~~ brenehe~ i~ tr~c~d ~long th~ north ~ide ~f thp b~gin, th~ ~ther, judging by th~ C~cConi.c gr~rrg, ig w~11 vi~ibl~ on eh~ ~~prini photo~r~phg. ~t ~xt~adg to the gdu~h~~se ~o fhe faot nf th~ Kh~m~r- U~ban ridg~. `Che trgcp~ ~f th~ 1~t~~t mdvementg h~ve b~en ~gegbiighed pr~domin~ntly in ehe northe~rn fodehill s~~ti~n of th~ bg~in. g~gittnin$ with Kh~rn-Uab~n ~nd tn the w~st~rn pxCremity r~f the Mondy ba~in, ~ldng the fout t~f the mountain~ th~r~ i~ ~ chute~lik~ d~pr~~~ion (gtrike ~ximuth 300�) frnm 1d0 ta ~OU m~terg wtde whi~h follaws the Mondy-Khare-Daban ~nciene fauit. Itg re~~ne r~~uvenation is pruv~d by ~~Wath of mod~rn ser~~m~ end ~h~in~ nf gmn11 lgk~g (Shmotov, 1971; Solon~nko, V., et ~1., 1971; S~~SMOT~C'~dN~C~..., 1~75n). The spries nf recciline~r gc~rpe and trenchps up ~0 80 m~C~rg depp ~nd up Co 5 km long ig obg~rved in th~ mountgin cnmmi~gure between th~ Mnttdy ~nd the Khoytngol'~k~yg bnsins. Int~rsecting, the riftog~nic f~ultg which brpak up thig mountain commiesure converge her~, gpproaching from oppositp directiong. There is no doube of the increased eeismic dang~r of such aectic~ng (ACTIV~ 'f~CTONICS..., 1966; S~I5MOT~CTONICS..., 1968, 1975a). On the left side of the Irkur Riv~r valley near Khara-Dgbgn, Che superposition - and ir~tersection of the ancient overthrUSt by the riftogenic jointg is clegrly observed, Which demonstratea the n~ot~ctoni~ r~arrangement of the gtructural plan exigring here (Solonenko, V., et ~1., 1971; Shmotov, 1972; S~I5MOT~CTONIC5..., 1975a). It wag noted above that in the eastern pgrt of the Tunkinskiy basin the fault With the same name follows the zone of the ancient overthrust. In the vicinity of the eg~Cern closure of the Torskaya baein, the Tunkinskiy fault has not been morphologically established. Betaeen the Vystrinskaya (Vystra) and the Soythern Baykal basina, the zone of the Obruchev fault alsa is not expressed in th~ relief, and in the Southern Baykal basin, the main i rou~e of this fracture has an underwater continugtion. The study of the underwater rclief of the bottom of Baykal Was undertaken by B. F. Lut (1961~~ b~ 1964) by the method of deep water echo sounding, which macle it possible to discover an entire of gernoorphological ~eculiar~ ~ icies of the bottom of the lake caused by the neotectonics. In particular, ~he large, a Lnost cantinuous extent o.f the sh$rply expreased sinueus under- w.~[er scarp around the West bank of the Southern Baykal Lasi,n was confirm~d. The steepness o� the deep xatex slope of the lake fonaed by the displacer surface of the Gbruchev fault reaches maxir~um nagnitude (60-~70�) in the vir.inity of Kolokol'nyy Cape, The gravimetri,c data interpreted by Y~~. A. 7.orin (1971) indicate the same thing, in accordance With Which the Obruc.hev fnult has an amplitude to 4000.ti5~00 meters, and its displacer is 332 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ w APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 1~OR OFI+ICIAL USB ONLY . inclin~d in th~ dirpctidn nf th~ b~~in ~t ~n ~ng1~ fr~m SO tn 9U�. In the dpinidn of Lut (19b4), g gh~iloW v~t~r ~~cEion ~d~~~~nt tu the t~i~tvpnichnyy Cap~ ~xp~riencQd block ~ub~idpnc~ ~ioag th~ faul~. Th~ dieplacemente of th~ bi~ck~ in Che vicinity of ~h~ Obruch~v faulr wer~ estnbliah~d in the und~rwae~c p~rt~ of eh~ Primdrekaye gnd the t:rasnoy~rov~k~y~ ~~i~ma~~nir ~truc~ure~. Th~ re3uv~n~einn (pdg~ibly, hi~eoric~lly, quitp r~~~ntly) nf th~ Obruch~evskiy fault h~g b~~n prov~d by th~ fr~~ture oE th~ enei~2nt Haykal Cerrac~~ in th~ Slyudyan~kaya Gu1f and in ~h~ Tyy~ itfv~r d~1t~ (th~ noreh~rn p~rt ef Baylcgl). In ehp moueh di the 1ete~r, in eh~ dpinion df B. Lut, a ee~tion of th~ coagt wirh sharply int~rg~cted grnund r~lief aa~ thrown und~r th~ 1eve1 of the 1ake. Th~ bagic plan~ of the Obruchev fault cute off a~~rieg of rocky capes ~uch es Sag~n-M~rygn~ Kovrizhke and Luvar' on the weer bank of Baykal and Kam~n' Bekl~niy in th~ vicinity of ~eschanoy Bay and shifte eome i~ the direction of the l~k~. Th~ volume of ehifted rock maeeif~ reache~ 1 km (Lamakin, 1955; Lut, 1964; p~l'~hin, 1968). According ro th~ ob~ervations of N. V. Tyumentgev, in th~ vicinity nf the village of Koty and the GoloueCnaya River, th~ lake of parts of the gmg11 river v~lieys cut off and thrown into the depthe of Baykal hav~ been well nr~~erved~ V. V. Lamakin (1955) extended these abe~rvgtions to ather eections of the west shore of Baykal. The seiemogeological inveatigationa in recent yeare have de~onstrated that in che recent hietorical paet, the zone of the Obruchev fault wae an arena of powerful earthquakes. It is coordinated With the Primorskaya and the Y.ragnoyarovskaya aeismogenic etructurea formed during earthquakes with an intensity of no leea than force 10 and having an underwater continuation (Lut, 1964; Khromovakikh, 1965). The Shartlay, Rita, Solontsovaya, 5rednekadrovaya [Central Kadrovaya] and Khibelenskaya seismic strucCures of grand scale occurring during re~uvenation of the Northern Baykal branch of the Obruchev fault by underground shocke up to force 12 are located northeast of them. The echo $ounding of the coastal zone in the vicinities of these aeiamic structurea demonstrated the exceptional:.; complex structure of the lake bottom. Under the aurface of the water in a strip up to 8 km wide giganCic blocks are hidden (up to 900 meters wide) erratic masses up to 150 meters high aeparated by graben~like depressions to 200 meters deep (Zhilkin, Pinegin, 1973), Theae are the frontal parts of the seismic - atructures with their characteristic swell-sinkhole relief. The mo:e ancient aeiamostructurea of Anga, Tonta~ S~rma, Aral'skaya genetically connected with force 9~10 earthquakes are coordinated with the Prirrorskaya branch of the Obruchev fault which runs along the line of the mouth of the Bugul~deyka River to the Maloye Sea. This branch~ although it enters ~ into the Obruchev fault zone, in the Bugul~deysko~Malomorski,y section plays - a Recondary role in the rl.ft formation~ J,nasmuch as the amplitude of the vertic.~l d~aplacement along it does not exceed 20~ meters (Zorin, 1971). With reapect to the set of geological~geophys~cal and seismogeological attributes in the vicinity of the Obruchey fault the following sections can be isolated with different aeiamic potential; 1. M~6.5-1; 333 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Oit O1~ptCIN. U~~ ONLY Ip~fnrc~ 9. 'The g~~eidn dE rh~ Prim~rskiy f~u1e betw~~n eh~ gduthwegtern ~lo~ure nf the H~ykal b~ein ~nd th~ Rit~ ~~i~m~,~ ~tru~eur~, ~he e~a~inn af the NerCh~rn d~yk~1 f~uit north o~ the Khib~lpngkay~ ~~i~mie ~~ruetur~ and th~ Kich~r~kiy fault~ ehp Oi~khonekay~ br~neh of ehe Obruchev faulti. 2~ M~7; I~~for~~ 10 ~rp mdre, The Tunkin~kiy favle~ a~~~tidn c~f eh~ Ndrth~rn Bc~ykal faule bptw~~n thp ~Qi~m~~ ~eructur~e ~f itit~ and Khib~l~ngk~y~. In th~ vieinity nf ehe gnuthwe~tern Gloaurp df ehe g~ykgl d~pr~ggion, ~rtic~l~tion and x-inCerg~~einn df Che ubru~hev f~ult ~nd th~ Ch~r~kiy fault boedertn~ the depregsion on the gouthea~t take~ pl~ce. '~he clo~ur~ of eh~m - wes est~bliehed by echo sounding in the vicinity df Kultuk 10 km fr~m the ~here. N~r~ th~ Obruch~vekiy fault ie ~plit ineo g numbpr of gt~p f~ulC~ wieh emplitudp~ nf 700, 900 and 1200 meCers. YC i~ ~hig ch~r~cteristie "d~c~y" that expl~ins eh~ damping of this pow~rful~ ~xt~nd~d f~ult diglac~- tion in a very ghort dietance (Lut~ 1964)~ 5outh~a~t of 5lyudygnka, in the profile of the dpep water ~lop~ nf the lake the effect of a new ~tructure b~ging to be felt ehe Cherakiy fault (see ~ig 100). Thp amplitude of the fault acarps with respect to the direction Erom the coasta~ ahallow atrip in the direction of Ch~ lake water is 90, 180 and 300 meters (Lut~ 1964~. Then to the southeast th~ Cherakiy fau1C is traced in the form of an underwater ~carp of 900 metere high gradually incrensing to 300 meters (Ladokhin, 1957). The ehifts glong this fracture pxpl~7in the inverae asynnnetry of the lnke pool in~the section between Tankhoy and Mishikhoy. In general for Baykal coordination of the maximum depths With the western shore is regular. However, along th~ Cherskiy frac- ture the subsidence of the bottom of the basin takes place so intensely that it cannat be compensated for by the gediment accumulation (Lut, 1964). In addition, the uplifted wall of the fault here is incomparably more aharply dismembered by the underwater canyons which have occurred along the trans- verse and diagonal fractures (Voropinov, 1961; I:adokhin, 1957; Lut, 1964). They bound the horat and graben atructures marked by high seismic activity. On approaching the Selenga River delta, the Cherskiy fault is aplit into twa independent branches. One of them runs into the internal part of the dclta, and the other passes along the delta front. The morphological peculinrities of these fractures have been discussed in quite some detail in recent papers (Lut, 1964; Solonenko, V., 1964a; Khromovskikh, 1965; SEiSMOTECTONICS..., 1968). On the periphery of the Selenga River delta there is articulation of the Cherskiy fault zone with the GolousCinsko- Kukuyskaya underwater structure (Lut, 1964~, which is the intrabasin heaving - of the crystal basement. In the bottom rel~ef the Goloustinsko~ Kukuyskoye uplift ~.s in the form of two promontories up to 1000 r~eters high having northeastern orientaition~ One o� them extends from the Kukuy Cape on the periphery of the Selenga River delta in the direction - of the west bank along the traverae of the Goloustnaya River. An analogous promontory runs from the northeastern patrt of the Selenga River delta and wedges out into the central basin of Baykal, 334 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Olt nF~tCIAL US~ ONLY T'hi~ r.h~raeeeriet~,e und~tw~e~r r~dg~ ~,n ~eru~eur~1 r~~r~~tg i~ ~ nne^w~y hnrat, an th~ ~~~t (frane~l) ~i,de b~und~d by th~ �~ule, ~nd on rh~ we~t ~id~~ by the b~nd~di~lncneiene (tue~ i961h, 1964~~ In nur opininn, ie ig mnre ~n~iCal t~ cnn~id~r ie eh~ Wee~ern bound~xy o~ eh~ Obru~h~v f~u~l~ zo~ie~ ~'h~ northe~~ee~tn ~nntfnuation o~ ehe ~rontai f~uit di th~ Gn~ouetin~kd- Kukuy~kay~ mdrphn~tructur~ is the S~lenga fault ahich ~nt~r~ ineo the Cher~kiy ~ractur~ zon~ C3Ei5ftOT~CTONIC3 unique fr~cenr~ i~ ~rov~d by nwnerous outcropg6of~th~rm~lC~pring~~gnd~eh~ ednC@ntr~tion ~f ~~rehquak~ epic~nter~ in the limbg of th~ G~lougtin~ka- - Kukuyskay~ gtr~ccur~. 'Thp northpast~rn br~nch C~gt~bligh~d ~mplirude 15 m) nf th~ fr~cture w~~ r~~uv~nat~d during ehe fnrce 9 Cent~~l Bayk~l parthqu~ke tlf 29 Aupuet 19S9 (Solon~nko, V., '~r~gkov, 1960 . ~oint wee ~ccdmp~nied by roiling o� th~ water in thehform oftaolineerhbelt _ ~f noreh~agtern orientation. The ~ther pare of the inveerigat~d und~r- wet~r marpho~truceur~ is formed by th~ tectoni~ gepp eh~ uplifred w~~tern wg11 of the fault running from th~ Kre~tovekiy Cape in th~ direction nf the Seleng~ River delea. The gmoothed eurface of the bdttom of th~ lake trnc~d from thp mouth of the 8ugu1'deyka River ia bro~;en her~ by a al~arp gcarp mdre t~,en 150 m high (Lut, 1961a, 1963, 1964). Acco~cding to che or,ql rpma~rks of Yu. A. zorin, these low-amplitude fracturps in th~ crystalline basement onnthe propoeeddetru~turalmdiagramsf(zerinmp197j therefore they are abeent whole to the entire GolouaClneko-Kukuyelceya morphostructurerinaemuch gee possibly a eignificant part of its uplift amplitude ($00~1000 m~tere) ie not connected with movementa along the fault but is the result of the eroeion-accumulative activity of the Selenga River i~ the frontal part of the formed delta againat a background of general do~,mwarping of the Baykal basin. The uplift along the Cherskiy fault of the north limb of the Khamar-Daban arch in the latitudinal segment of the Southern Baykal basin during the Qu.~ternary period hardly exceeda 250 to 300 meters (the maximum heighc of the Quaternary lacustrine terracea). The overall acale of vertical move- ments along this fault could reach maxi~aum for the vicinity of the Southern Baykal baein with a magnitude that ia on the order of 8000 meters. Un to 5000 metera of this in individual aections could be the "pure" amplitude of the Cherakiy fault.l In this case; the same law ~s retained as for the Bayk~l branch of the Obruchev fault; the ma~c~pum diaplacement along the fault decreaees not in the $ecending moyements but i,n the descending move- ment~a of the blocka of crystall~ne aubstrate, and therefore these deep: suturea more promote the formation of the basin than the positive morpho- atructures bordering ~t, 1Thc amplitude of che bACkground downaarp~ng of the bottom o� the Ba k basin undoubtedly reaches a signifl.cant value~ but at the present timegi it i8 1mpoASible to conaider it quantitati.vely. 335 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~dit t~~~tCtAt, U5~ ONLY - 7'ha Udc~knn Eault ~ygtCm ig prednmin~ntly ~ gubl~Cieudin~l ~y~tem nf npo~ teetnnic frdCeure~ dc~uxrl,ng ag ~ r~~u1t ~f eh~ invdlv~m~nt of the we~t f1~nk nf th~ znc~e ~t th~ Stnnovoy d~~~ ~uture in eh~ pro~p~~ of rift ~~tivetion (AC'CIVC T~CTON~CS~.~~ 1966), ~e run~ morp fh~n 200 1an prim~riiy dldng ehe nbrth~rn fddthill~ di the Udek~n rid~~~ N~w~v~r, ~ numb~r of l~rg~ fr~~tur~~ making iC up (N~mgrgkit~kiy, Chin~-Z~kaegkiy) ~re in th~ bddy of thig ~r~h-b1~~k up13f~, conerolling the dev~lopm~ne of th~ mnrphn- geru~Cur~~ ~f differ~nt ord~r~~ In ~pite of the Compl~x, brgnched pl~n cdnfi~urstidn, th~ Udok~n ~ygtpm nf di~l~cationg aieh a bre~k in conrinui~y ig ch~racterix~d on th~ whnl~ by echplon ~tructure predomin~ntly wieh sublatitudingl and northea~terly gerike df Chp individu~l ~~helon fraceur~g 15 to 60 km long. Compl~xly differ~n- Ciating the axial part di th~ ri�t zon~, ~e the sam~ tim~ th~y defin~ Ch~ develnpmenC of th~ geru~turp~ diff ering with re~pe~C to th~ir mnrphr,g~n~tiC p~ruli~ritip~. N~rp tihe type, rate and dir~ction of th~ geiamoteCCnnic movement~, a~~d aecordingly~ Chp level of Che poC~ntigl g~igmiciCy are diff~rent for th~ individual fractureg and even geCCic~ns of them. The high~at geismic patential chnracteri~~~ the fr~cCures contro111ng the embryonic bgeins Namargkitekaya, Eymn~lchgkaya, Lurbunskaya, and so on. The main fracturea of the Udokan ~yatem are th~ Namarakitgkiy, Kondg- ~ ~ymnekhskiy, Dovachanskiy, Lurbunskiy, ~megachi-Kem~nskiy nnd China- Zakatskiy ~see Nos 82-87 in ~ig 106). Th~ Namarakitskiy fraetures located on the south limb of the Muya-Ch~ra int~rbagin mountnin commisaure, running in the sublatitudinal direction (75�) from the Taksima River basin to the Uurelag River. Along the entire extent (35 lan) it is clearly expressed in the relief, controlling the south side of the Namarakitskaya embryonic basin. The west flank of the fracture breaks down into parallel echelons. The northern echelon running about 12 km bounds the complexly differentiated bnttom of the western part of the Namarakitskaya basin on the south. On the souti~ limb of the fracture there is a block of the first stage of the uplift of the Udokan ridge with an absolute altitude of 1200 to 1300 m. The apparent amplitude of Ct~e vertical displacement along the fracture is ~pproximately 500 r~etera. ~ 'fhe southern echelon 25 km long separates the first stage of the ridge and che bottom of the central and eastern parts of the basin from the high meuntain, so-called Tundakskiy block uplifted to a height of up to 2500 m. The fracture extends here predomi,nantly along the rear suture of the pedest4l of the ridge and disappears ~.nto the right bank of the Purelag River~ The amplit;:~le of the vertical displacemenc reaches 800 to 900 meters~ The displacer ~lane dipa steeply to the north~ 'Che west flank of the echelon which runs more than 10 km underwent Holocene rejuvenation. The deposits of the side moraines of the lake glaciation 336 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ott d~~~C~AL US~ dNLY and divide c~pe~ nf ehe l~fc eribue~rl,es ~f eh~ Ngmgraki~ Riv~r w~re brdkcn ~nd di~pl~ced. 1'he height of th~ f~ult ~carp r~~ch~~ 10 m~ter~ ~eh~ bn~in w~ll ie down~hrown). In th~ w~~e, in the headwaterg of th~ N~rund~kan Itiver (th~ T~k~im~ River hn~in) th~ gouth ~~hplon ie cut by the exCended (mdr~ ehgn 80 km) 'Cgk~im~- Uzhilindin~k~ya fault xon~ (eQe No 8~ in ~ig 106) bounding the Kokar~v~k~ya and Tak~im~ b~~ina on the ~outh~aet No 56~ S8 in ~ig 106)~ The z~ne i~ ori~nCpd in rh~ norCh~g~t~rly d~rQ~tion ~nd on the eagt boundg both th~ _ b1oCk of the first ~t~ge of th~ uplift of the Udokan ridge ~nd, gppgrently, the northern erh~lon of the Namarakitekiy fracture. Th~ ~pic~nter of th~ forc~ 10 to 11 Muya ~arthquak~ of 27 Jun~ 1957 (rt$7~9~ center d~pth 22 km) for wh3ch the re~uvenation wa~ exp~ri~nc~d by two echelong of the Namarakitskiy fr~ctur~ was coordinaC~d ~airh th~ vi~inity - of the ~rticulation of thege fauit~ (north ~imogt completely and soueh extending 14 km). The ~eiemogenic movament along the fault bnr~ on the whnlg the nature of e l~~t etrike elip~ and the rt?tio of the hori,zantal and _ vertical ~isplacemente was approximately 1:3 (ACTIV~ T~CTONICS...~ 1966)~ Thus, th~ Ngmarakitsl~iy fault ie a clegr ~xample of the fracCure structures cdusing the development of the embryonic baging for which, as wae demon- ~trated above, the higheet level of seiemicity ie ~h~racteristic. The cnmbina- tion of paleoeeismodislocations~ modern dislocations cau~ed by the Muya earthquake and th~ extraordinarily active epieentral field in this fault zon~ makeg it possible to define its maximum seismic potentis~ ga force 10 or more. The Konda-~ymnakhakiy fault extending about 100 lan has general sublatitudinal strike. It is located in the vicinity of the Muya-Chara interbasin commissure, participating in the formation of the Kuanda and the Eymnakhskaya embryonic hasin. By its weet flank rnade up of two parallel echelons of northeasterly atrike, the fault penetrates deeply into the body of the 5outhern Muya arch-block uplift, complexly differentiating it into the positive and negative morphostructurea of higher orders. On the we~t the lgtitudinal branch of the Muya-Tokko fault eystem departs from it, in this way realizing the connection of two regional lineaments. The narrow low- land commigaure located betWeen them is involved in slow aubsidence, pre- paring the merging of the Muya and the Kuanda basins. Farther to the east, the Konda~Eymnakhskiy fault in the form of the clear contrast fault scarp bounds the Kuanda basin on the south~ The total ~mplitude t~f the vertical diaplacement reaches 10U0 meters (without consider- ing the plunge of the basement of the basin2. A large thermal spring (T~F42�C) is aeaociated with the fracture. The one�~sided horst of the Nnmarukitskiy massi� located on the south wall participated in the movements during the Huya earthquake of 1957~ Which is ~ndicated by numerous surface deformationa within fts limits and the nature of the rupture of the tayga structurea. 337 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OIt d~FICIAL U5~ di~LY `~h~ en~t ~i.~nk of the f~uit i~ brdkett ine~ ~~v~r~l p~r~li~l ~ubl~titudingl brnnc~hr~ ~xpr~~~rd in th~ r~li~~ by aCe~p gesrp~ ~nd e~nernlling Che mnrpha- HCructure nf ~hc Lymnakh~kayd ~mbryoni~ b~~~n~ 'Chp Nnidcpn~ v~le~no~ ~nd n n~mber of miner~l epringa stretch to these faultg~ Accordin~ td the g~dlogi~nl end ~~dmnrphdl~gi~gl.attribue~~, eh~ amplitud~ of eh~ v~reic~l di~pl~~em~nts durin~ th~ Quat~rngry eim~ reacheg 900 m~t~r~ h~r~e. In the central ~nd w~gC~rn p~res nf the f~ult, gecti~ng df itg fr~~m~ne~ry r~- ~uven~tion ~re direce~d(th~ t~ctonic deform~tinng nf th~ g~nd geripg nf :tiddle Quat~rnary ag~ and Upp~r Quat~rnary en modern prnluvial depnsitg). Uuring th~ entire period df in~erum~nt ab~ervationg in th~ vicinity of th~ f~ult and e8p~cinlly on its we~eern fl~nk, high concpntratian of ~~rehqu~k~ ~pie~ne~rg is eonsCgntly obe~rved~ Consi~~ring th~ ~neirp get ~f ~ttribue~~ chgract~ri~ing th~ s~i~mote~tonir A~CiV~.Cy ~f th~ �guit, it i~ po~~iblp ed c~nsidpr thaC earthquake~ with ~n intengiey eo fnrce 10 ~r~ poegible in thp vicinity of it~ The bnvn~hangkiy fault branch~s fr~m th~ Konda-~ymngkhskiy f~ult guppog~dly in th~ mouth sectinn of the Purelat Riv~r, gnd it follows in ehe nnreh- easterly (6d-70�) directton ~long the Konda River, acrogs Che Dov~~h~n L~k~e eo th~ Lurbun Itiver a distance of up to h0 km~ In the gection fram the gnuthwest flank to th~ Uovnch~n tak~, the frgetur~ zon~ h~g the mo~t complex gtructure. Here ir ie made up of several ~ubparallel branches in which the crc~sion-Cectonic Konda River valley is located. In the gouCheasC~rn limb there is a block morphostructure, the part of which near the fault is ' d~formed by numerous accompanying and f~ath~ring fractur~s forming the pologenic Dovachan seismic gtructure taken together (Solonenkn, V., 1965; ACTIVF. TECTONICS..., 1966). One of the sublatitudinal faults feathering the Uovachan fracture intersects the axial part of the block at a distance of more than 20 km (the southern fault~graben). The overwhelming ma~ority of the disturbances of the atructure of ancient occurrence has the nature of faults, gometimes with left shift. ~ach of the frnctures is characterized by a mnre or lesa steep, high scarp in Che reli~� and is confirmed by the geological observations. The seismogenic movements of the Upper Quaternary and Nolocene time occurred more than once along it. One euch earthquake with an intensity of no less than force 10 occurred in the eastern part of the southern graben fault several decades ago, and the last earthquake (M~5.2) on 6 February 1975. The long~preserved activi.ty of the Dovachan fault zone~ the traces.of recent seismogenic rejuvenatioa and the high concentration o� earthquake epicenters (especially in the southwestern part) permit estimation of its seismic potential at force 10 or more, The Lurbunakiy and the Nizhneinga.m~kitsk3y faults are made up of series of subintitudina~l echelons connected by means of northeasterly shears into a united zone controlling the Lurbunskiy graben and the Ingamakitskaya rml~ryonic bnsin from the south and southeast. Its total extent is 50 to 60 km. 338 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~a~ o~~ic~at, us~ oxi.Y 'Phe fnult ig e1~drly ~xpr~,~~~d in th~ reli~~ by eh~ as~~p ~~5~40�) f~uir ~C~rp~ ~On~900 metere high. Con~idering ehe thickn~~~ n~' Ch~ in~~~ d~pdgice in th~ ba~in~, ehp tot~i ~tmpll~ud~ of th~ v~reieal digpi~c~m~ne along ir reaeh~~ 1000 met~r~. Her~ thp m~xi,mum di~pl~e~m~nt~ (600~700 tn) b~iong to the Upp~r Plei~tae~ne to Noiocene C50~,U00 ta 600~000 y~~r~), whieh i~ ~~tabli~h~d by th~ differen~e in ~1~v~eiona of ehe fooe of ~he tow~r pl~iatoc~n~ bg~alt fiow 3n the Ing~rn~ki~~kay~ 6a~in ~nd on th~ Se~l~vny mountain~ Th~ 1a~t mov~m~nts in th~ turbun~kiy f~uiti zon~ oc~urred no mor~ Chan hundr~d~ of ye~rg ~go Cth~ Nizhn~ing~m~kit~kiy ~e~ueture). Coneidering the degr~e o! inteneity di th~ m+~vem~nts ~lnng th~ ~~ule in thp Late Cenozoic, the ~~iemog~niC mobility of the zone in the Nnl~e~ne ~nd th~ reiativeiy high mod~rn eei~mic ~ctivity, it ie correct to conaidpr tha~ e~rthquakee can occur her~ wi,th an intensity eo f~rce 10~ Th~ Ching-Zak~t~kiy faule in ehe form of ~ singl~ laCitud~nel line~r ~nn~ i~ tracpd frnm the upper Ingama~:it River to Che Kalar ftiv~r (~bout ~0 km). In eh~ weet ie is suppoaedly roupled with the ~ystem of rifrogenic f~ultg bordering the Lurbunskaya embryonic ba~in~ niagonaily int~rgecting the U~ok~n arch-bl~ck up~ift, it rontrol~ the neotectonic strucrur~ of the Up~,~r Ka1ar eubrift basin on th~ ~outh her~~ In the Qast his fault mergeB with th~ aativated zon~ of the Stanovoy deep euture. 'The p~rtial fracturee making up the China-~akatekiy fracture gy~tem ha~ predominantly sublatitudinal and northegse~rly ori~ntation. In th~ vicinity of ch~ sh~rp bend in the lower Ingamakit River and on the eagtern flenk, lar~e f~athering of fractures brench off it to th~ northeast (the northern br~nch and the Chepinakiy fracture). All of theg~ t~ctonic digt~rbanc~g are clearly expressed in the relief; the Late Quaterngry movements along them frequently cauae significant rearrangement of the geomorphological appearance and the hydrography of the territory. On the West flank, the fault in the form of a sr~rp 10 to 15 metere high cuts the cover of the Uiu~;~,.~ plateau basalts. Th~ alag cones of the tao Vakgtskiy extinet volcanoes~are dir~ctly coordinated with it. On the 2eft slvpe of the lower Ingamakit River vall~y in th~ Chineyskiy gabbro- anortho~ite pluton fiQld, the fault is morphologically expregs~d by ~carps 20 to 25 meters high~ replacing each other in echelon form. In the vicinity of the lower Ingamakit River ahere the northern branch separacea ~rom the China-Vakatskiy ~ault, the vertical nwvements along the Eault have led to sharp rearrangement o~ the river network, as a result of which the headaaters of the China River h~ve enter~d the los~er Ingamakit bASin. The subsequent erosi,on has obviously occurred using the gaping tectoni~ ~aulte, and at the pxesent time the loaer Ingamakit River and some of ita trl.butaries have deep xectilinear canyon-like valleys up to 1.5 km long and up to 100 meterst 339 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~a~ n~~~Gint, us~ d~t.Y ~a~t o~ the i~W~r inggm~kit Riv~r, thp bagiC route ~f the Chin~-V~k~t~kiy f~utt i~ ~hift~d ~am~wh~f th~ ~du~h ~nd ~~cryuirp~ ~ diff~r~nf r~~ructur~~ In thi~ i~eetian eh~ E~ult baund~ th~ Ghin~ ~mbryanic b~gi~ ~nd i~ ~ixpd dn ie~ ~auEh ~ida by ~~h~in aE e~eeanie ~~ddl~~ ~r~d rr~nChes, mdr~ rar~ly th~ gg~~r ~~~rpp ~p te 4~o S m~e@r~ high. in pian th~y r~pr~~ene ~~y~eem of ~cMei~n eyp~ fr~eeur~~ fr+~m ~.S eo 5 km 1ong. On ~h~ p~gt fl~nk, in th~ vi~ini~~+ ~f thp upp~r K~1~r ~ubrift b~~in, th~ Chin~-V~k~~ Eault i~ digCOneinuo~~. H~r~, in individu~i ~~e~ion~ of ft thp - gi~ng df f~u1t and fault-~~hift di~pl~cements gre not~d. '~he ~mplieud~~ df th~ v~rri~~1 mov~m~ntg r~g~h 10U-150 mpt~r~, and th~ hdriznnt~l mov~mpntg, th~ fir~t e~n~ of mpt~r~. Th~ g~~tions af m~ximum plunging of th+~ b~g~m~nt bf ~he b~~i~ ~nd ~~~iv~ ~~dim~n~ ~c~umul~tion ~re ~oordin~f~d ~tieh eh~ f~u1t ~dne (th~ ine+~rfiuve ~f th~ Solot~y ~nd th~ Uert~~, the Amudig L~k~ d~pre~~i~n). 'Ch~ m~teri~l compo~irion of th~ rnCk in ~h~ vicinity nf the Chin~-V~kgtgkiy f~u1t indicat~g itg en~i~nt pr~-C~mbri~n ne~urr~n~e. The ~1~ar ~xpr~ggion in eh~ rpltef indicqtp~ th~ re~uv~ngtion of th~ te~tonic mov~mene in the ~u~ternary tim~ ~1on~ ft. 'Ch~ r~juv~enacion of thp tectoni~ zon~ in th~ post~~lacial ~eriod occurred in the flank s~ctians. In the w~st the camplex df r~~idut~l a~i~mogpnic d~~ormationg With a total extpnt of 43 kn (China- Vnkae~keya pal~ugeigmegenic structur~) ig suppo~edly COfl11ECt~d H~[tl rh~ pl~i~eoseism region of the force 1p to force 11 ~arthquakes of 2~ebruary 1725 (AC'fIVE T~CTONICS..., 1966). 2n Ch~ ~agtern clogure of the upper Ka1gr bngin the traces of the Hnlocene (first thoue~ndg of yegrs) movement~ have b~~n ~~tabligh~d in th~ vicinity of the Chepa fault (the pal~oseiemog~nic Medved' gtructur~). Thue, the geismic pdtential uf the China-V~k~tgkiy fault ~ zone is egtinsat~d ~ccording to p~leosei~mngpological data at force 10 or more. 'The epicenCeral field.of the last decade encompag~eg only the western part of the fault, and the resc of its path ia almoat seismically passive. Tran~itional Morphostructureg BetWpen the Baykal Rift ~nd Transbaylcgl - glock-Wave Zones Along the southeestern edge of ~he Baykal rift z~ne there is a characteristi~ set of morphostrucCural elements developing on inter~rtion of ehe movpments of the riftog~nic and Tranebayk~l type. The farther from the axia of the Baykel rift, the l~ss the rift atrpss field ig f~lt, and the bending defora~a- ti~ns have predominant significance in the d~velopment of positive and nega- tive morphostructures. The outlines o� the basins on the uplifts are hturred. Their articulation zones are smoothed; in the ma~ority of cases the concrast is poor, and the �racture strurtures play a secondary role. Amanp, the positive morphostructures~ the arched upli~ts predominate. Here the lnrge arches (for example~ Khamar-D~ban, Ikatskiy, Udokano-Kalar) have a cnmplex structure. The fxontal parte o� the uplifts turned toward the rift structures experience sharp rearrangement, pxedomi~antly as a result o� the degcending (riftogenic) movemencs~ As a rule, they are sharply differentiated. and on the seismotectonic level they anproach the morpho- genetic type o� the arch-block upli�ts of the Baykal-Stanovoy zone. At the 340 FOR Ok'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR O~~i~IAL U~~ ONLY - g~m~ eim~, nragraphi~ally the~~ ~ecti,~ng gr~e conne~red wieh large mg~giv~, wenkly di~�@r~neiaCeci ax~~~~ the Cectonic m~vem~nt~ in which d~r3ng ~h~ herind of MB~ocen~zoi,c activat~,on w~re manif~erpd in rh~ �orm o� a siow, g~n~r~l ri~e cau~ir?g prpdominance ~f hending deform~tion~. Th~ n~g~~tv~ mor~ho~tructur~~ a1~o havp eh~ract~ri.eri~ Cr~n~itinngl develnp- m~r~t~1 f~~eure~, and on the aho1~ th~y b~lnng to eh~ eubri�e b~~in type. Tt1EHE trough~ wieh gharply dimini~h~d rete of downwarping ~nd thickn~~~ di' Che C~nozoic depneit~ obvinu~ly exhibited activgtion simulCgneously - - th~ large riftog~nic baeina, but th~ proceP~ of their development proceedfi much mor~ ~low~y. Let us con~ider ehe most characteriatic exampleg of theee tran~itional morphoetructures. pdgifiv~ M~rpho~eructur~g ~'h~ gtand~rd ~tructurea of this morphogenetic aeriea are ehe arched uplifts di tlie Khamar-Dgban and the Ikat ridges. The Kh~m~r-Uaban ridge frames the Tunkinakaya and the Southern Baykal rift - bnsins ~bout 350 km to the south and aoutheast. WiCh reapect to its mnrphn- ~tructural peculiarities, it is nonuniform~ The weatern and northeastern Khamar-Daban are characterized predomi~antly by the features of arched upltfts, and the Central Khamar-Daban~ by the arch-block uplifts. On the whol~, the ridge is aeymmetric; the height of its top surface in~r~~ses sharply from the direction of the rift zone, reaching 2200 to 2300 meters (maximum height 2758 meters). In the highest part of the uplif t, sections of the volcanic platesu gnd Tertiary peneplain with gently sloping wavy relief were retained. Theae fragmentally retained relicts of the ancient denudation eurface outline the arched uplift somewhat flattened in itg axial section. Its maximum is coordinated with the central Khamar-Daban. ilowever, the bending deformation f irst noted by V. V. and N. V. Lamakin has been best noCe6 in the western Khamar-Daban along the slope of the - lava platpau. In general morphological appearance o� the uplift of the Khamar-Daban r;dge, the stepped nature of the relie~ has been poorly noted. This indicates insignificant participation of the lateat �aults in the Pormation of the nrch and in ita internal dif�erentiat~on. The Baykal zone of the central Khamar-Daban where the Cherski.y fault has a noticeable effect constitutes an exception~ Here. ~,n the axial part of the upli�t close to the $aykal 1With respect to its morphostructuze and seismotectont,cs, this part of Khamar-Daban esaentially helong,a to the arch-block structures of the Baykal- Stanovoy zone. r ~ 341 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR O~FYCZAL U5~ ONLY bn~in num~rnu~ ~eiemogeni.c fractures nre concenCraeed which are connected - with Ch~ ~axGhquakea oE the recenC paet o� force 10-11 (Solonenko, V., 1963a; - _ Khrnmovskikh, 1965; S~ISPtOTECTONICS.~., 1968). Thia zone of high-act3viCy contains direct proofa of Che growth of ehe Southern Baykal rift basin as ~ r~ault of rupture of the highly upli�Ced parr of the arched morphostruc- eure by ehe descending (riftogenic) diaplacements of the individual blocks of ehe earth's cruar. Here an importanr role is played not so much by the _ Cherskiy fau1C zone as by the faults feathering it having ground continua- e3on in the form of fault scnrpa, obliquely intersecting ehe norChern frontal pnrC of the cenCral Khamar~Daban. Thus, in th~ investigdted parC of Che arched uplift of Khamar~-Daban the clevelopmenC process proceedg in the direction of sharp complication of its inCernal field. The high seismic poCenCial, in addition to the numerous seismosCaCiatical data, is confirmed by traces of the greaC seismic disasters of the recent past the Solz~n, Badkha, Khara-Murin, Snezhnaya structures, and so on (Khromovskikh, 196.�'~). Accordingly, Che potential aelamiciCy c~f the frontal part of the Khamar-Daban urch turned toward the rift zone appea~~:s to be high, and it reaches a maximum (forcea 9-10 or more) in the central Khamar-Daban. In the remaining - part of the arched uplift, moderate se~.smic activity is noted, and the possible maximum earthc~uake atrength is estit~ated at force 8(KmaX~14)~. The Ikat ridge downs the Barguzin rifC basin from the southeast, and 3ust - as the Khamar-Daban uplift, it has inherited feaCures of the ancient plateau (smooth forms of masaive divides, broad development of the planatic;n surfaceg, and so on). - The outlines of the transitional boundaxy between the Ikat arched unlift and the Barguzin rift basin are sinuous and blurred. This nature of the pedestal zone of articular, the absence of the latest tectonic strikes in ~ it, the so�t and smoothed forms of the relief indicate that the bending deformations play the basic role here.l On the whole, during the formation of the morphostructure of the Ikat arch the inheritance was manifested in predominance of the retarded general ~ uplift which predominantly caused a flexible nature of deformations. Never- theless, the ~rontal and axial parts of the uplift turned toward the rift zone experience complex block differentiation (see Fig 107) connected with the active development o~ the largest, latest fractures Garga, Argoda, _ - Ulan-Burga, Marektakansk~.y, and so on (SEISlfOTECTONICS~t.~ 1968)~ The lines of these .faults clgarly expressed in the relief are located at an ~ acute angle to the strilce of the Ikat axch and complicate the morpho- lIn recent times thP linexa epicentral zone was discovered. S. I~ Golenetskiy considers that it can be c'onnected with the fault sti.ll not emerging at the surface of the earth (see Chapter VIZI~. - 342 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR O~~tCIAL US~ ONLY ~tructure of it~ ~~ntr~1 gnd ri~t p~zt~ by the ~uperpo~~d bldck di~pl~e~- m~ntg. 'Che nneed ~nule~ g~n~ral nnrthpg~ti~rly ~erike ere expresged in the rplief by ~rAeion of' tectoniC ~carpa �rom 25~50 to 150~~00 meeer~ high exrc~nding ~ev~rnl t~ng of 1(ilom~t~re~ Som~ of them control the develnpment of the embryonic bgeina MarekCakangknya~ Podikee~k~ya~ V~rkhneiknt~knyd~ Ulan-Burga. Thus~ these igreet f~ults~ whi~h hgve n 1oca1 natur~ on th~ _ ~cnl~ flf th~ ~nCire uplift c~uae th~ arch-~block nature of ite centrgl pgre. 'Che s~igmotectonic peculiaritiee nf thte pgrt nf rhe Ik~t arch erp glgo connerted with the compl~x block differentiation. Thus, in ~piCe of th~ high mndern aeigmic activiCy (Ald about 1.0), this territory is in prncti~e free of traceg of reCenC dieaetrous earthquake~; there are no macrogei~mic , dnt~ ~bout Chem since the begicttting of Che 19th cetttury. rC is Cru~ thgC snm~ nf the fracture~ clearly ~xpreeeed in the r~li~f (Ulgn-Burga~ _ Mar~ktskanskiy, Argodo) eomeCimes carry eigne of aeismogenic mdvementa occurring in them, but the sources of these mov~menCs obviously run d~~p into the Attthropog~ne. Of th~m thz Ul~n-Burga faule hag the greatest sig- nific~nce for e~tim~ting Che potentigl seismiciCy. in iCg viCinity earth- quakes with an inCensiCy to �orce 9(M~7) ~re poesible. The same potetttinl cc~n be propoaed also on the whole for the 8arguzn complexly differ~tttiat~d part of the Ikat arched uplift. Along Lts periphery, along the fault zoneg contrnlling the developmenC nf the subrift basins (Verkhne-TurkinskayA (Upper Turkinekaya]~ Vitimknnskaya (VitimkanJ), etructures have been tsolnted with which the connection of earthquakea oE an intenaity to _ force $(M=5-1/2 to 6-1/2) is possible. For the remaining territory of the Ikat arch (about SOr of the area), the occurrence of force 7 earthquakes is possible (!il4-3/4 to 5-1/2). 'Che sections with clearly expressed arch-block mor~hostructure of the Ikat uplift are distinguiehed by the constantly high modern seismic activity. - Here the analysis of the numerous weak shocks and earthquake trenches have madc it possible to discover Che characteriatic of the center zones separated - in the section of the earth's crust with respect to the nature of the mechanisms (Misharina~ Solonenko, N., 1972), which possibly reflecCs the "layered" nonuniformity of distribution of the atresses in the given section of the earth's crust. Thus, the examples of the Khamar-Daban and the Ilcat ridges indicate the nonuniform seismic potential of the ar~hed morphostructure$ of the transitional type. The secti.ons of riftogenic rearran~ement of such inherited, long developinR structures (modern basin formation, the "active" tectonic~ zone, activated f~ults, and so on} are moat favorable for the rccurrence of earthquakes with maxiroum intenaity. In Ghe evolution of the ~~lifta themaelves theae sect~,ons can 1.ndicate di,fferent stages of transition from "pure" (Transbaykal) arches co complexly differentiated arch-block :atructurea of the rift zone. On the whAle the level of the potential seiamicity of the ~rch uplif[s o� the transitional type is moderate. The expected mAximum strength of the earthquakea in the ma~ority of cases will - not exceed force 8. , 343 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OIt U~~~CtAt, U5C 4NLY Nrgntivr Mnrpha~tructuxe~ 'Che gubri,ft sCrucCureg (S~1eng~Mltantainsk~y~+ Verkhneeutkingkgye, ViCimknn, Gorbytov~kgy~~ T~ipgkan~kayg~ U~unrov~kaya and upp~r Kgldr) ncr.upy ~n inrerm~dinee poeiCion betw~pn eh~ b~~ing of ~h~ Bnyknl and thp 'i'ransbgykal eypeg (~p~ ~'ig '100) ~ On .rh~ nthpr h~nd th~y h~ve l~i~torical- - ~~netir COt1llt~t~Ot1 �W~.tI1 ehe Tf~anebaykal ~nd dn the evolutionary l~ve1 (~t l~a~t tn eh~ Plei~tocen~) they develop~d in a t~ceonic eitu~tion ~imil~r ~ to them~ On th~ oth~r hand, bpginning with thp pl~igtoc~n~~ th~ d~velopment ~f th~ge tr~neitidnal m~rphngrru~tur~g r~e~ived significanC .influ~nce fr~m the riftmgpnie rnovementg, whicM ig pxpregg~d in the inten~ificetinn of th~ir blocl: differentigtinn, th~ involvement of th~ individugl eeceiong of the bgging in nctive ~ubeid~nce, eeigmogenic re~uvengCion gnd the occurrence di the 1nCegt faults in eheir borders~ The bn~ement of eh~ gubrift b~eins, by comp~rison with th~ rife ba~ing, h~hvr. bern upllfCed (~b~oluCe el~vation 300 tn 7bb m~t~re, eomerimeg eo l(~00 metere), nnd wieli respect to th~ Tranebayknl~ it hag been downthrown by 2n~-40b mecers. Congidering thp amount of plunging of Che ba~ement and che m.~ximum ~bgolute elev~Cione of Che Cretaceoue-Paleogen~ planation 9urf.7ce (2fi00 to 2700 meters)~ it is posaible approximaeely to d~Cermine the totnl amplitude of rhe vertical C~cConic movemenC~ during the Neogene- Quaternary period of activation, It fluctuat~s fram 1700 to 2100 meters for the region of diffprent subrift structures. This is approximately 3 to 4 eimeg ].es~ than in the rift structurea themselves~ and it exceeds by two Cimes the scale of the displacements in the Trnnsbaykal zone. This contrast of the tectonic movemente as a whole agrees alsn with the velocity gradients (~grad V~ris0.6~10'a to 1.0�10-8), the values of which ar~ much hi~her than the Tran~baykal end low~er than the rift. Thus~ even thia approximate analysiq nf the morphomeCric data makes it possible to describe the subrift structures ae occupying an intermediate position between the Transbaykal and rift structures themselves. The accumulation of 300-700 meter series of Neogenic-Quaternary de~osits in the subrift basins indicates activation of the tectonic movements in the - lr~te Cenozoic. In n number of basins ('Tsipa-Bauntovskaya syaeem) the lower, thin ~art of the aection is characterized by the Eopleistocene, predominantly IacusCrine facies (t~e depreased molasses of orogenic fotmation). The :~ccumulntion of,these finely clastic fc~cies occurred under the conditions of the weak contrnst relief. The intensification of the block movements, beginning with the Upper Pleistocene~ the increase in the sediment accumula- tion rate caused sharp facies changea, at the same time, thicker polyEenic ~eries (orogenir. m~lasses) are formed. T1~e uPper Kalar basin is isol~tted from the overall system of investigated tr.lnsitional structures (ACTIVE TECTONICS~.~, 1966; Vel'yanovich, et al.~ 1969). in contrast to the remaining subrift basins, it was involved from tf~c P~leogene in intense And during the Late Cenozoic remained in practice inhert. This is indicated by the thin (to 100 to 150 meters) 344 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 Fo~ ox~ictnt. t~s~ orn.Y " digcnnti.nuou~ ~eri~a df QugCernary d~pnsitg cdv~ring abnuC 40~ di the ~ b~~in ar~~~ ~rom th~ P1ei,gtoc~ne in th~ developmene of Che upper Kg1gr ' bggin ~nme reactiv~tion ia noCed connecCed w3eh rh~ block differ~nti~tion n� t}~e Udoknn-Kalar uplift under thp effece of ehe riftogenic mnvement~~ rhi~ we~ nl~o f~lt in an incr~aee in Ch~ Beiatnoe~ctonic activiry~ which ie confirmed by the "reactivation" of the "F~dorovgkiy" feult on the left b~nk of che Doroe Riv~r and the p~leo~eismogenic Medv~d' etrucCur~ formed during the earthquakps of no lesa th~n force 10. mhe seiamoetaCieCicgl matpriel (during a decade of obaervaCione) wiCh r~appct to the upper Kalar basih indicgCee ite relativ~ ~~iemic pgeeivenes~r only individual earthquakes with K~10 were recorded. Hocoever~ it ie not excluded ehat Che sei~miC ~ pa~siveness ie apparenC, occurring gfter the d3sasrroug earthquak~ of 1725 obviously connected with the China-Vakatekiy fault (Solonenko, V., 1968b). Th~ upper Kalar baein enter~ into the "zone of quiet" in the highly ~ seismic region, and there are grounds for eseuming thaC thie zone ia a "region of prepar~tion" of etrong earthquakes (Borovik, er al., 1971). The subr4ft basin~ expanding the Baykal rift zone with respect to its aouth- easterly periphery ia an additional element in the evolutiongry geries of _ negae~ve morphosCructurea (Solonenko, V.~ 1968b; S~ISrtOT~CTbNICS..., 1968). With respect to nge of Cenozoic activation and degree of morphological _ perfeceinn, in the given etage of development they approach Che mature basins - of the Baykal type, but with respect to intensiCy of the riftogenic movement$, - they ing behind the ma~ority of the rift basins. The potential eeiemicity of the 8ubrift basins~ both with respect to seismo- statistical and with respect Co seiamogeological data on the whole ia sig- nificantly below the rift structurea (Me4-3/4 to 5--1/2, I~~force 7 to 8). Etowever, in the vicinities of the Eaults bounding Che individual basina (for example, the Bauntovakoy-Tiliahminakaya and the China-Vakatskaya), the paleoseismogeological data indicate the posaibility of the occurrence of earthquakes with an intensity to force 10 (the Tiliahminskaya and the ' Medved' seismic atructures, see Chapter VII). Just as in the majority of rift strucCures, the intrabasin commissures have increased activity in the subrift basins. Por example, in the Bauntovskaya bnsin on the Busano-Filinskaya commissure, a significant number of weak and moderate earthquakea are constantly recorded. A strong earthquake occurred here on 21 July 1968 (M=5.1; I~~force 7), It was preceded by numerous fore- ehocks. The activity of the cencer was nated after the main shock: thus, in September-December 1969 an earthquake awarm was recorded here (206 shocks). - On the whole, the analysis of the structural~geological and seismotectonic peculiarities of the morphoatructures of the transitional type indicates that their formation and development occurred under the effect of the [ectonic stresses acting both from the direction of the Baykal rift and the Transbaykal black-wave zone. Here the effect of the rift stress field, beginning with the Pleiatocene, hecame predominant, and in the Holocene, individual parts of the investigated morphostructures are completely involved 345 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ott t~~~ICIAL US~ ONLY in th~ riftdg~nic typ~ of. d~velopmene. Accdrdingly, the inarea~ing influ~nce ~f th~ ri~COg~nic proc~s~es a1s~ c~u~pd ~,nc~~aged (by compgrieon w3th th~ Tran~baykal gerucCur~~) aeismic poeential nf the trengiCi,onal type morpho- aCructures. Tranebaykal Blo~k-W~ve Zon~ Th~ T'rangbeykel block~wave zone mor~ thgn 60,000 km2 in area occupies the e~uthpaetern pare of Ch~ ~pipl~tform orogenic belt~ It ig characterized by ~iCernation of the low and medium mounCain uplifts~with basins of the Tran~baykal type ~xtend~d in Che norrheasterly direction, which on the whole ~ c~uges nn arch-block (block~wave) srructure of this terriCory~ With reapect to nature of the latest tectonic movemenrs and the morpho- structural peculiarities all of Transbaykal ia broken down inCo three sub- zones: Selenga-Vitim (B1), Khentey-Daurskaya (B2) and ~astern Transbaykal (B~ (see Fig 100. The Khentey-Daurskaya subzone is represenCed by a high, weakly differentiated arch uplift. IC was isolated as a first-order structure by N. A. F].orensov, 1948) and Ye. V. Pavlovskiy (1948a). The two other aubzones are large regions of relative subsidence ~lagging in the uplift behind the Khentey- Daursskiy and Saykal archea), the internal parta of which are made up of posiCive and negaCive morphostructures of aecond and higher orders. A characteri~tic feature of the neotectonic development of the Transbaykal as a whole is the predominance of the ascending type of movements (Khain, 1973). In addition to the qualitative analysis of the geological c~~uation, this is confirmed by the quantitative calculation of the rate of the vertical tectonic movementa. The rate of the ascending movemente is approximately 5 Cimes higher than the deacending. For example, the average rate of rise of the Malkhanskiy arch-block upli.ft, ~udging by the deformation of the Miocene-Pliocene planation surface in 10 million to 20 million years reaches 0.1 mm/year. The mean subsidence rate of the Chikoy basin ad~acent to this arch does not exceed 0.02 mm/year. Another remarkable feature of the latest and madern development of Transbaykal is basically the inherited structural plan and type of development of it Erom the Upper Mesozoic tectonic regimen (Florensov, 1960b; Zorin, 1971; Ufimtsev, 1971). However~ the inheritance �eatures are not identical every- where. They appear most clearly with~n the lj.mits of the Selenga~V~tim sub- zone and the least i.n the D~urskaya and the eastern Transbaykal subzone. ~ Under the cond~,tions of Transbayl;al~ the calculation of the gradi.ents of = the rate of vertical tecton~c movements and satisfactory convergence of these data with the seismos~atistics have made it possible to approach the determincttion of the leyel of the seismic potential both of the entire zone as a whole and its component elements~ As a result of the calculations~ the followin~ series was obtained with values of the gradients; 1) from 1�10'9 years 1 to 2�10-9 years'1; 2) from 2�10"9 years'1 to 4�10~9 years"1; 346 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOit OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY 3) frnm 4~10'"9 enr~'1 to 6~10"9 -1 Y ypare (eee ~ig 101). Th3s serieg npproximtttely Correqponds to Che zones wiCh possible errengrh nf the earth- qu~ke: L) lees than �orce 7; 2) force 7~8 and 3) force 8~9. Thie corrpepondence wae initielly esCabl~.ehed by us in the example of the centrel~ and ~,n part westiern Transbeykal (the vicinity of the Chikoy' Ingoda nnd Gusinoozerskaya 'besine~, wher~ seiemoetatiseical and paleoseigm~- $eological daCa are ~vailable. Then it was exCended to th~ remaining gecCions of the territory of Transhaykal wi~ere the rialeoeeiemogeologic~l mgterial ig miseing, nnd the aeiemoetetistice are quie~ meager~ We ahg1L discues the specific estimate nf the potenCial seiemici~ty when deecribing the eeiemotectonic role of and negative morphostructurea in Transbaykal. Positive Morphostructurea The predominanC position in Tranabaykal both with respect to area and with reapect to seismotectonic activity is occupied by the arched and the binck- arched uplifta. With reapect to mechanism of formation, these structures are quite aimilar, but for the second type' along with Che bending deforma- - tions, the brittle deformations also acquire a noticeable role, playing a gignificantly leaser role than in the BaykalrStanovoy zone. The characCeris- tic of the development of the poaitive structures is presented in the papers by V, N. Danilovich (1960~ 1963), N. A~~Florensov (1960b; 1965), C. F. Ufimtaev (1971). - Let us present examples of the most characteristic Tranabaykal uplifts. The Malkhanekoye uplift ia the standard arch~block morphostructure. The maximum 'height of the Malkhanskiy ridge ia 1400 to 170~ meters; it is 270 km long with a width to 30-40 km, The arch-block nature of the latest structure is emphasized by the nature of the deformation of the ancient planation surface, the relicts of which have remained at maximum altitudes in the axial part of the uplift and frequently in the limba. The slope of the planation surface in the limbs of the Malkhanskiy uplift is 2 to 5�, and at the articulation points of the limbs of the structure with the intermontane basins, it exceeds 5�, creating the flexure~forming transitional zones (Ufimtsev~ 1971). In the transition zone itself between the upli~t and the subsidence structures are noted which are comparable to the forebergs (Gobi--Altay..., 1963). The extent of the structures is on the average up to 10 km, up to 3~.m wide, the absolute elevations rarely exceed 1000 meters, Some asymmetry of the slopes of these promontori,es is noted. The spoke usually is greater in the direction of the r~dge. In vnrious areas ~t is possible to see d~~ferent stages of development of the forebergs. For example. the structures of the given type are observed~ These are the individual low ridges made up of proluvial material of the Upper Pleistocene and younger age. The amplitude of the 347 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ott O~~ICZAI, U5~ ONLY r~ldCiv~ uplife r~~ehea 40 en 60 mee~rs~ mh~ more mgture form ~f th~~~ atructures ig Che w~11 exprega~d line~r ridges exC~nding up Cd 15 km wieh a heighC Co 100 m~ters~ They are m~de up of ehe diglocated ~~rly QunCerngry depoeits~ F3nally~ it ie nenes~~ry Co con~ider the mountnin chain made up oE rocks of the Paleozoic baeemenC ehgr are isolaC~d from Che basic mount~in massifg and are collected by uni,ty of atrike with eh~ "for~b~r$e" of ehe preceding typ~. They extend up to 1S to 20 km, ~nd ehe relaCive riees ~re 200 to 300 merers. TI1E5~ three typee of structurea nre difLerent stagea of eheir dpvelopmene - and indicate auccessive involvemenC in the uplife of th~ laCergl pgrCs of the basins, which cauaes expansion of the posiCive struceures aC the expense of the ad~acenC negative onea. The Transbaykal type of structures are similar to the Gobi�~in thig respect, and it distinguiahed them theoretically from the Baykgl (5olonenko, V,, 1968b). _ The level of potential seiemicity of the arch~block uplifCs of the tlalkhanskiy type, ~udging by the gradienes of the neoCecConic movements and the residual deformationa ~see Chapter VTI, Yadrikhinskaya structure) ia high nmong Che positive morphoatructures of Transbaykal and can reach force 8-9 at the limit (rt to 5-1/2 to 6-1/2). This is ir.dicated by the epicenter of the force 8 earChquake of 193~i (M~6). In the ~eneral case the difference in nature of grocoth of such positive structures, their intensity, differentiation and stage nature causes fluctuation of the seismic potenCial of the Selenga-Vitim and the Eastern Transbaylcal subzones from 1 or leas to force 8~9. Among the arches of the Transbaykal zone the best studied is the Khentey-Daurskoye uplift. In the investigated territory it is bounded by deep faults: Chikoy--Ingoda on the northweat, Onon-Turinskiy, on the southeast; Vostochno-Khangayskiy on the west, and Kukinskiy (supposedly according to the geological data) on the east. The width of the arch exceeds - 150 km, and it ia more than 400 km long. The maximum amplitude of the uplift fixed by the planation surface reachea 1700 to 1800 meters (the headwaters of the Chikoy and Chikokon Rivers). The bending deformationa with large (to 2400 km) radius of curvature (Ufimtsev, 1971) participate in the formation of the arch. The absence of large linear arch blocks wi,ll permit the assumption that in the initial stage of development of this structure no aigni�icant differentiated movements - occurred. However, traces o~ weak latest tectonic movements F~ith respec to ~ the zones of indiv~dual fractures are quite numerous here. The ascending - movements of the block are hasically untform along them~ Some of them lag by 200~300 meters in the upli.ft, Bei,ng developed in the latest t~,me with inher~,tance from the Upper Mesozoic structural level~ the arch nevertheless experiences constant growth with the excepCion of the northwestern part bounded hy the Chikoy~zngoda marginal ~ 348 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Oit OF~ICtAL U~~ ONLY puture. Her~, Edr pxgmpl~, thp Altan-Kyr~ngk~y~ Upper M~~dxnic basin _ eurn~a nut tn bp involved in Che upli,ft~ This b~ein whtch previnusly (in ehe Upper Juraseic t~ Ldwer Cretac~oue~ wag at the �oot of the arch, making up ir~ ~ourh~~geern boundary. The boundary of Che arch ~feer the Ne~~en~- Qu~ternnry pEriod ehift~d about 35 km to th~ soutl~,a~ee, ~nd gt the present tim~ ie run~ along the Onon~Turinskiy ~gult~ The involvement o� ehe ~djacene eectiona along the north~~~t~rn rer3c13nal grch, for exampl~, Arshanskay~ ~nd Ur~yekaya Upner Mesozolc baeina proceeda annlogously (Ufimteev, 1571). 'Che n~epd pecul3ariCy is aleo characeer3atic for th~ develnpmene of oeh~r nrches of the Tranebaykal block-wave zone. Seigmically the moeC dangerous within th~ lim3ts of euch atructures ere the mgrginal p~rtg of the grches (the limba and pericl3nals). Negative Morphoetructurea The Tranebaykal type basine occupy another geiamotectonic position in th~ Tranabaykal lump-wave zone (Flor.enaov, 1960a). Theee are the geomorphnlog- ically expreased intermontane troughs (graben-synclinalg) linear sectiona of plunging above the fault or next to the faule between the arch-block uplifts. The maximum length of them reachea a few hundred kilometers, nnd the width reaches 30~-40 km (see Figures 100-104). The greatest thickn~ss of the ttesocenozoic aedimentary series in the basina is 1600 to 1800 meters; _ of them About 200 meters are for the PYiocene-Quaternary sediments. As the geological boundaries of the basins let u~ take the flex~re forming transition zonea along the marginal arcogenic overthruat (or upthruat faults) _ bounding the region of propagation of the lithofied sedimentary series. ~ With respect tn morphological and ~enetic attributes N. A. Florensov (1960a) includes only those slopes in the trougha which are converted to the sedi- mentary accumulation bed with completed layer formation. He includes the higher ablation region in the mountain border. - The outlines of the basins diacovered in chis way in general have smooth features, sometimes disturbed by sharp distortiona connected, as a rule, with the folded disturbances and the dielocations with a break in continuity. The basic structural elements of the basina are the trough-like depressions - aeparated by the projectiona of the cryatal basement reaching the day aur- fnce or covered with a thin veneer of Mesocenozoic depoaits. In the large hasina (Chi.ta~Ingoda, Ch~.koy, Khilokakaya~ Gusinoozerakaya) up to 3-5 troughs are obaerved aeparated by project~.ons of the basement~ These include the maximum th~cknesaes of the Mesocenozo~c deposits. In the modern rel~ef the troughs are the lawest sections o� the depressions occupied by the accumulat~ve nlai,ns. In both cases their surface smoothly becomea the $djacent arched uplifts, and in other cases, it i,s emphas~zed by the erosion~tectonic scarpe up to 300-4Q0 meters high or more. In the 8ec- tion the troughs are asyametri,c. The aeymmetry of the basina finds reflection 349 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY in thp znn~li.ey df diff~rene fg~i,~~ eype~ of loo~~ Qu~rern~ry d~pn~it~, Aac~rding to th~ dri111ng d~eg, ~nti,r~ly d~f~,ned correspond~nce of it ed tl~e zonality of th~ Upper Jurasai,c to Lower CreC~ceoue depoe3re ie eAtablished. `Che g~ner~l ~h8r~cteristic of the lAteat t~ctonieg of th~ Tr~nsb~yk~l b~sin~ ie the inh~riepd plgn and type o~ their developm~nt from tih~ Upppr lt~~nznic tectonic cycle (~lorensov, 160a). It i~ ~ieo poeaible to e~lk ~bouC main- Cenanee in the 1~Ce~C Cime of Che Upper tie~ozoic devplopmenC rgte~ ~his i~ indicated by the comp~rativ~ an~lygig of the ~~diment accumulaCinn rgr~e in the s~mp basins as, for ~acample, in th~ Chilcoy bagin ehe maximum thickness di the Upper rtesozoic apriee in Che individual Croughs doee noC ~xceed 1200 to 1400 merers (Vnukov, 1967). Consider3ng that ~,Cs accumulation hna occurred during the period from the Upper Juraseic to the Lower Cretaceoue ~nbout 60 Co 70 m1113on year~)~ the average sediment accumulation r~Ce is npproximately 0.02 mm/year. The thickneas of the looae Pliocene~Quaternary (10 Co 12 million years) seriea 1n the same trou~hs does not exceed 150 to 200 meters (Khotina, 1966), that is, the nverage sediment accumulation rate is also about 0.02 mm/year, which by comparieon with the sediment accumulaCion rare in Che _ rift basins ie almoat 10 times less~ Accordingly, many researct~ers are inclined to conaider that the basina auba3de only relatively, lagging in the uplift behind the actively developing positive aCructures. The fact that in the lateat and modern period they atill experience weak plunge is indicat2d by the presented aediment accumulatton rates. Among the other general features characteristic of the Transbaykal basins, it is necessary to mention Che reducCion of their area ae a result of involvement of the marginal�parta in the uplifts. Evaluating the seismotectonic peculiarities of the basin development on the whole, it is necessary to indicate their insignificant role in the determination of the level of aeismic potential of Transbaykal. Their basic formation is due to the smooth submersion with insignificant intrabasin differentiation. There�ore the tectonic movements connected with the formation of the basins cannot be a source of strong earthqual:es. Activated Faulta In Transbaykal, the latest faults of northeastern strikes which.axe longi- tudinal with reapect to the amooth morphostructures predominate. With respect to genetic type they helong to the upthrow faults or the arcogenic overthruat sometimes complicated by gravitational faults (banilovich~ 1966; Fl.oreneov, 1960a; Ufimtaev, 19~1~, ~ The lrttest and modern movements along these faults are basically connected with growth of the poeitive atzuctures~ In some cases they are the interfaces between the poeit~ve and negative firstc~order structures 350 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR O~~~C~AL U5~ ONLY (Mangnl.i~n-Okhde~k qnd bzhid~~Vttim faule~), ~nd in aeh~r~, of g~rond ~nd hi$h~r arder~ (Khilok~Kgr~ng~, ~ugnuy~k3,y, ~nd ~d on). The individual'faultg from 20 km or more locat~d parg11~1 Cd ~he ~ontinuati,on , of pach orh~r or eubstituted in ~ch~l~n form, form ~QpQrne~ sy~eem~ with diff~rent level of aceivity~ Th~ wideh o� euch ~ones r~ach~~ 20 tn 40 km, ~nd gometime~ more. The total m~ximum ~tnplitude of the vertical di~pl~~~- m~nt with r~ep~ct to the i.ndividu~l fault~ durin$ th~ plioc~n~-(~u~t~rn~ry i~ 300 co 400 metpre, and po~sibly mor~ (Khotina, 1966; Ufimrgev, 1~~~). As an ~xgmpie l~t ug digcu~g thQ eharacteri~e3e of two f~ult zon~~ Mongolian-Okhotek and KhilokPKaren~a e~parating Ch~ firsC and g~cond ord~r stru~ture~ reepectively. ThQ Mongoli~n-Okhotek fracture extend~ to Tran~baykal from the terrieory of Mongolia and in the northeasterly direction, acros~~ehe headwgters of the Nyukzh~ River, it rune glmoet to Che Sea of Okhot~k. Ita total length i~ up tn 3500 km (in the re$ionalix~d territory~ 1200 km, and the width of it~ ~ zone is from 20 to 40 km. ~ The Eault is the boundary b,etween the eubzones the Seleng~-Vitim (B1) in the northwest and Che Khentey-baurgkaya (B2) in~the eastern ~ransbaykal ~~g) in the southeagt (see Fig 100). The fault deforma the ancient Cretaceous-Paleogen~ and younger Miocene- Pliocene planation surface. The total amplitude of the verticaL displace- ment of these aurfacea with respect to individual faults in the zone during the Pliocene-Quaternary time reachea 300,400 meters. The modern activity oE th~ rtongolian-Okhotak fault is confirmed by the association of the epicenters of the~atrnng earthquakea of force 11 and 12 with it (*t=$.4 and 8.7) on 9 and 23 July 1905,,and force 8 in 1934, force 7 in 1935, and so on. The fault zones in the inveatigated territory include six individual elements. Their potential seiemicity, ~udging by the pa:eoseismogeological data, seismoatatiatics and the magnitude of t velocity gradients of the vertical tectonic movements reaching (4-6)~l0~ears'1, decreases from force 8-9 in the west (the Chikoy element) to force 7 and less in the east (the Shilka element). On the whole, a general decxease in the potential seismicity of the individual element~ of the Mongolian-,Okhotsk fault is noCed from southwest ta northeast~l 1 Beyond the eastern edge of our map (in the vicin~ty o~ the Tukuringro- Dzhazda anticl~norium~ it again ~ncreases at least to force 8(!i to 6 and, possibly, more). 351 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 - ~Oit b~~tC~AL US~ ONLY `~h~e Khi1~k�Kgreng~kay~ gyge~m df f~u1t~ in eh~ igtege ~tru~tur~l pi~n i~ ~h~ b~und~ry b~ew~~n th~ pogi,ci,v~ ~nd negaeiv~ ~~cdnd-nrd~r ~rrucCure~ ~ntpring 3nea th~ 5~1~ng~-Vie3,m xon~. 'Che ~x~~nt ~f tih~ ~y~Cpm from eh~ souChWe~t to thp north~~et ie up to 700 lrm wi,th a~one width to z0 km~ Thp - mean 1~ngth o� th~ individual~f~ule~ makin~ it up is 120 km~ tJi~h respect ed ~snetic t ype, thes~ are b~~ically ~pChrow fgult.s nr ~reo~~nfr nv~rthru~te. Thp ~mpiitud~ of th~ v~rC3.~~1 t~Gtoni~ m~v~m~ntg glong th~m during th~ ~lioc~np~Quat~rnary p~ri~d is mnre eh~n 200 m~eerg (Khoein~, 1966, Ufimte~v, 1971)~ - The low ~ei~mic $ctivity (A1~+~0.02 ~nd low~r), ~b~~n~~ nf p~l~ogpi~mog~nic structure~, th~ low m~gnitud~ of the velocity grndients of rh~ v~rCi~s1 t~ctonic movem~nt~ noe pxceedin~ 3�10'9 yeors"j ind3caCes Chae the maximum 1~ve1 of the geiemic porential of the individugl faults in ehi~ zon~ i~ no more rhan forc~ 7-S (appreciebly iow~r th~n for the f~ui~g of the Mong~li~n-Okhot~k zon~). Th~ other f~ult zon~s baundin~ fhp ~~cond-order structur~~ dd nat ~x~eed thfg 1eve1~ - A~ompdri~dn of tt~p eeismogeological dnCe wieh resp~ct to the characterix~d faults zon~~ of different order confirms the exi~ting opinion that ehe r~~ion~l digturbance zon~s which bound the lgrge structureg having differ~nt spceds of mov~m~nt ~r~ the moat seigmir. ~n addition, the opinion of the - unit~d geismic potential of the fau1C zone ent~rs into contradiction with the aceual material her~. gnsic Lawa of Seiamotectonic Development The abdve-described neotectonic and seismotecronic elempntg of the Siberian Cenozoic pl~tform in the epiplatform orog~nic belt provide important material for determining the nature of the movementa of the earth's crust for the genetic varieties of morphostructurea and the conditions of manifestation - of the earthquakea. The seismotectonic process in many aspects follows the laws of tectonic development which Were laid down in the Cenozoic for the Baykal-Stanovoy zone and in the Mesozoic for Transbaykal. There is a contradictory opinion about the evolution of the rift procees. In particular, it is considered that compre~gion take$ place from the 5iberian platform side to the eaet (GrosWald, 1965) or to the aoutheagt (Dumitrashko, 1952; Azhgrrey, 1960; Voronov~ 1964), tension to the southeas[ (Florenaov, 1960a; Zorin, 1971) and to the northweet as a result of ahoving of the platform back (Van Bertunelen, 19601 or combinat~on of tension aith horizontal displacement along the faults (I,amakin~ 1968). Without discussing the advantageR and disadvantagea of each hypothesis, let us note that now the predominance of the tenaile stresses across the atrike of the neotectonic struccures of the Baykal rift zone i,s generally recognize~. Accordingly. the most proba6le and well~�ounded is the system proposed by N~ A. FJlorensov, ~ (1970) aupplemented With respect to aeiamological and geophysical studiea (Misharina, 1965, 1972; 2orin, 1971). 352 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Olt nF~~CIAL U5~ ONLY Th~ ~ngly~i~ and ch~ ~egei,atic~i prae~~eing of Chp r;~C~ ~n the ~g~ df ~~~.z ~urf~e~ pianation �nr ~ur~ei~ a~ ~ whol~ (Timofpypv, i96S~ 196g, 196~) indie~t~~ rhaC ~ rr~nd 3s obsarv~ad toward the r~~uvpn~tion o� ehp d~nuddtion pi~inA from we~t to Qa~t, Thue, for ehe orogen3c Centr~l A~ian belt eh~ age of the iniEi~l plain vnriee from rriaeeic in the aeee to Che Crptac~oug- pal~og~n@ in the past. Thi,~ ~onfirma thQ eequenep of th~ t~~toni~ ~~tiv~~- ei~n in ~he lat~et timp which 6egan much l~t~r i!~ Pribgykgl'y~ than in W~~t~rn Aeia (Petruehgvski.y~ 196~i~ ~~he conclueion rhat ehe rift proc~~~ ie cnntinuing Co dev~iop tnward th~ eaet ~gree~ ~ieh th~e~ principl~~ ~nd ~h~ B~ykai r3ft znne i~ at the pr~aeent tim~ ~xpandfng ft~ dietal and lgteral boundarie~ (Solon~nko, V.~ 1968b, c; ~loreneov, 197~)~ One ~f th~ clear indexeg of groWth of the rift zone i~ the continuing d~velop- ment of th~ ~mbryonic and the gener.gted bagins (including the eatellit~ baeine) on rh~ elop~e and in th~ axial parte of the bord~r3ng uplift~. On th~ ~outhwest~rn flank of the II~yk~1-3tanovoy xone the emall baein~ h~ve dlr~~dy logt the capacity for further devQlopment (~loren~~v, 1960a), and thp activity of the peripher~l eeiemogenic etructures in Ch~ Upper Pleietocene- NoloC~ne hae been decre~sed eignificanCly. The development in timp of the beginning of the neotectonic movements between the aouChwestern erid north- pastern ends of the rift etructuree is also noted. If for the Baykal and the '~unkinskaya basine thp maximuia intenaiCy of the Neogene-Qu~ternary accivation belonge to the Miocene-Pliocene, Chen in the 5tanovny Highland it belonge to the Plincene-Pl~ietocene (ACTIV~ TECTONIC5..., 1966; S~ISMO- T~CT~NICS~.., 1968). D. V. Lopatin (1972) arriveg at the eame conclusion on the baeie of analyzing the geomorphologicgl data With reepect to the eastern part of the Baykal mou~tain region. The trend toward re~uvenation of the proceeaea of rewurking of the earth's cruac on moving from we~t to east finda confirmation also in the manifesta- tion of the effusive activity. Whereas in the southWestern flank the maximum manifestation of volcaniam belongs to the Oligocene-Pliocene (Obruchev, 1950; Florensov, 1960a, Floreneov, et al., 1960a) and the eastern flank the beginning of the eruptione belongs Co the Pliocene~Pleiatocene or Lower Pleistocene (ACTIVE TECTONICS..., 1966; Logachev, 1968; Lopatin, 1972). In connection with the problem that hae been touched on regarding the posaible relation of the Neogene-Quaternary volcaniam to the evoluC3,on of the rift etructures it ia neceesary agai,n to emphaeize (Florenanv~ 1960a; Solonenko~ V., 1964b, 1967; ACTIVE TECTONICS.~ � 1966; Florensov, et al., 1960a), thet the direct relation of the volcanic processea to the zones of activated faulta has not been eatabliehed any~,rhere in the investigated region. On the ~ontrary,~ even the Holocene~ Well~preserved volcanic apparatuses and che b~salt,~c d~,kea (Udokanekiy, Kharaar~Dabani Oka volcanic regions~, to _ say noth~ng of the more anCi,ent ones, do not have de~ined structural control on the p~rt of the riftogeni,c faults~ They are associated w~th the struc~ turnl li,nea, ae a rule~ Wh~ch obli.quely the discontinuous elementa of the - rift structurea or they sre far to the aide of them (Vitim and Oka - plateaus). This noncoincidence of the stril;e of the volcanic zones (SV-30-50�) and the riftogenic faulte (aubl~titudinal orientation) is 353 FOR OFFICIAL USB ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~dtt n~~~CIAL U~~ ONLY _ ~~p~ei~lly cl~~?rly nd~~d in ehe Udoka~n v~1C~nic reginn (Shc~n~nk~, V., 1g64b; ACTIV~ T~C'CONICS.~~, 1966). _ On th~ n~oeectoni~ lev~1, th~ neture of the volcan3gm r~fl~ct~ eh~ pror~~g nf the latest aceivati,an an moding Cn the noreheagtern f1~nk of eh~ Baytc~l r~ft znn~ (~nlonpnk~, V., 1968b, Haw~?~r~ ehe actual relationa of th~ volaanic and the ri,fCo~pnic, fr~qu~ntly gpgtially combin~ and gyn~hrondugly oCCUrring prne~~e~~, remain unclear ~nd, mo~e frpqus�.',y of gll~ if rh~y occur, Chen only in th~ mo~t g~n~~al form. Accord~ngly, in the s~i~mo- tpctonic ~~p~et Ch~r~ i~ no defined or dir~ce rpi~eion betwe~n th~ volc~nic r~~inng and ehe ppic~ne~rg of etrong ~~rChqu~kea. N~v~reh~lese, in a number of cas~e (for pxample~ the Holocene volcanoes of ehe Udokan region) lncc~l epi~csntral fieids and swgrma of weak earChqugkee are noted which extend epatially to the individ~al grou~s of volcanos~ IC is pos~ibl~ thae in ehe~e caees w~ ar~ d~aling not with CQCtonic, but volcanic parthquakp~ CSolonenko, V., 1968c), th~ more go in th~t the "suppr~asion of th~ volc~nic erurCiane in th~ Ho~ocene is poasibly dnly a C~mporary phenomenon" (~lorensov, 1960a). The abov~-enum~rated examples cl~arly indicgte the re~uvenation of the tectonic proc~~~e~ from west to easC. Accordingly~ Che propoaition of V. P. Solnnenko (1968b) reggrding the migration of eh~ rift stress field to the Stanovik region remains valid. However, thie finds confirmation also in the geophyeical field in which the regular decrease in ~bsolute values of the gravitational anomaliea above Che basins from southweat to northeast of the Baykal rift zone ie noted which, together with an increase in the over~ll 1eve1 of the gravitational field is in accordance with the conclu- sion regnrding migration o� the rift formation to the easC. The studiea of the m~chanism of the earthquake centera performed by A. V. Vvedenskaya (1961) and especially in detail by L. A. Misharina (1965, 1967, 1972) demonstrated that the earth~a crust within the limits of the ttongolian-Baykal aeismic belt experiences the effect of the horizontal tensile forces oriented acroas the atrike of the basic neotectonic structures, and the compressive streases are steeply inclined (more than 45�) or they nre close to vertical. The orientation usually corresponds to the strike of the morphostructures, _ Previously it was cona~dered that on the southwestern ~lank (Tunkino~ Kosogol'skiy sector) the or~entation o� the atress axes is directly opposite. - The inversion of the 9ayk$1 tectonic f~eld Was explained by the growing effect oE Central AsiAn stresa f~eld. However, the detai.led studies of recent years demon~trated that the stressea are summed up here wh3,ch are connected w~th the riftogen~c and the mountain-.forming processes of the Mon~olian (lntitudinal) and Sayan (northwestern) d~.rections Which are still complicated hy the di,rectiona of the tensi,on (decay) in the highly uplifted blocks of thc eartl~'s crust ~ - 354 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE OM.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ ~Ott nF~~CIAL USE O1V'LY AcCOrdin~ly~ Che dif�er~ne e~rrhqu~k~a, even clnee center~, catt have n diffpr~nC mech~n~,~m whi~h is confit7ned by the an~lysie oE the mechanism nf Ch~ w~~k ~arthquake centera, Previously ~'~t appeared Chat in the Tunkin~kaya b~~i,n nnd r.o Che west, the near-horiznntal eensile ~treases ~cring ncra~g th~ rif t_structures were b~ing replaced by compressive ones. Thi~ idpa hae noe b~en confi,rmed, and all of the conclusions regarding the madern d3rection of the eeeConin movemente of the earth~a cruse based on 3e h~v~ no baAie" (SE25t40TECTbNICS~.., 1965a, p 128). - On th~ eaet~rn ~1ank of the rif~c zone, gome spec3fiC peculiarieies have gl~n b~~n diacov~red in the me~chanigm of the earthquake,center~ ~'or the center df Che 7,verevgkiy eart'nquake of 15 June 1971 (56~28� north latitude, 123~66� east longitud~, P4e5,9~ H~15 km~~ Che subhorizontal orientation of - the ~xes of the tensile ~nc: compressive stresses has been eatabliahed, dlthaugh their ~patial poaition wiCh respecC to the structures 3s analogous to thnt in the Baykal rict zone. mhe migrgtional process o~' related aceivaeion in connection with ehe rift formation reached Che viciniCy of Central Olekma, in the individual rifto- ~enic structures (Imgngro-Chebarkasekiy graben and Kudulikanskaya generating _ basins) are coordinated with the west end of the Stanovoy arch. The plan differentiation of the intensity of the riftogenic process is confirmed not only by the magnitud~ and the aize of the~grabens, but also by the thickness cf the molaeaoid formations filling the basin. Whereas in the Chara and nth~r loaded roofed basina it is 1000 to 2000 meters or more, in Tokko basin, nbout 500 metera, and in the emall baeins of the Baykal type (embryonic and generating), appreciably less tena and a few hundreds of ineters. At the same time the modern activity of the dislocations wiCh a break in continuity controlling these atructures is comparable or even higher for the amall basiris by comparison with the Baykal rift zone. The morphological damping of the rift atructurea on the east flank of.the Baykal rift zone is combined with intensification of the general etresaed atate of the earth's crust. In particular, the basic number of paleoaeismodislocations and strong earth- quakes in the rift zone of the Stanovoy Highland stretches to the morpho- atructural complexes in which the amall basins are developing. In establishing the seiamogeological relations and the seismotectonic peculiarities~ the principle 4f inheritance has important aignificance. It was developed by N. S. Shatskiy (1938) as applied to the defined tectonic structures. By this term we meant three interconnected aspects inheritance of the tectonic plan~ tecCon~c forma and tectonic movements. Thr. f~nyk.~l r~�c zonc hae cli~ri,ng ~,te development to the east cut acroas tha etrike nf ~,n pr~ct.~ce all of the pre-Cenozo~c structural complexes. These problems have been investigated in considexable detail previously (Florenaov, 1960bs Solonenko~ V.~ 1968b; and so on)~ and the conclusions ~ drawn convincingly indicate the auperposed nature of its development. _ 355 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR GFFICIAL US~ ONLY ~ The rift atructures are newly .Eormed~ and Cheir origin obviously ia connected primarily wiCh the dynamics o~ the mantle procesaes. At rhe rresenC time Chexe is a possi.billty far tracing the etructural - Gvol.ution of the c~rth~a crueC from Che Mesozoic in close cnnnection with . the tectonic stresx Eield~ The di.slocations with a break in continuity bounding Che rtesozoic nnd Cenozoic negative structures axe indicators by means of which ir is possible to determine the direcCion of the compressive and rensile forces and their change i.n time~ Beg3nning only with Chese condiCione, we: can state to whaC degree the Yateat sCructures inherit the development of the preceding ones, for the replacement of the stress field leads to inversion o� Che sign of the movement of the individual CecConic elements of the crust. The formation of the Mesozoic basins and troughs bounded by Che upChrow faults and overthrusts is closely connected with the predominance of the compress~,ve stresses across the morPh~logically expreased ~ aCructures. _ The ma~ority of discontinuous dislocations of this time connected directly with the tectonic field have sublat~.tudinal s~rike, orthogonal to the comPressive stresses~ As~examples confirming this phenomenon we have the upthrow-overthrust faulta~ spat~,ally and genetically connected with the - origin of the Kalar, Khaniyslcaya, and Kudula tectonic depressions and the Chul'man trough. If we consider the series of overthrusts, including the - Angara associated wiCh the back of the Siberian platform of the same name, then it is obvious that the compressive stresses do not have a local, but they had a regional nature. It is true that in the vicinity of the Angara . outcrop the compresaion structures are significantly smaller with respect to scale than those within the limiCs of the Aldan shield, and the age of - the former ia somewhaC more ancient: at least the sed3mentation cycle here ended in the Middle Jurassic, at the same time as in the Chul'man trough it - continues even in the Lower Cretaceous. Obviously this is a consequence of the gradual weakening of the tectonic mobility from west to east in the Mongolian-Okhotsk be1C (1Vagibina, 1963; Komarov, 1967). Beginning with the h~sto:~y of the geological development of the southern part of the Siberian platform in the 14esozoic, we can say that the tectonic field was characterized by the meridionally oriented subhorizontal compres- sive stresses and the sublatitudinal tensile forces steeply inclinecl toward the horizon, and thus, in turn, determined the nature of the dislocations with a break in continuity and the structures connected with them. The aaykal rift zone, sometimes following the ancient dislocations with a breal: in continuity as weakened zones of the earth~s crust, ~.s developing in general features independently of them and has its own specific features = of tecton~,c development d~.ffering from the pxeceding stage~ This ~.s primarily expxessed in the fact that i,t was formed dur~ng the predominant _ stress role across the str~ke of the morphologi.cally expressed grabens (Florensov, 1960a~ 197,0~. ~,n combi,nat~.on with the hor~.zontal moyements (Solonenko~ V~, 196Aa~ 1968b~ w3,th respect to the riftogenic faults. 356 FOR OFFYCIAL LTSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ _ ~dK 0~'~ICLAL US~ ONLY Campnrin~ the preceding (Upp~r tleeozoic) field di tect~nic gtr.e~~e9 nnd the mod~rn nn~, we see CMbC rhe oripntnti,on of the stre~s c~xes in Chem i~ dinmetricnlly opro~ire; th~ gen~Cic type of th~ disloe~Cinn~ of the brpak in r.nntinuity nnd the nature o� Che movements nldng them ere diff~r~nt~ r~nci rnrrespondinqly, we dd ndt have any groundg fdr tnikinR nbout thr tnl~rrit~d dcv~lopm~nt nf the B~ykal rift xone with r~At~ecC to th~ pr~c~ding nl~nse of tectogeneeie~ The proceaees of modern activ~Cion of the western part nf Ch~ Stanovoy ridge hnve fdund thpir expresgion ln the deep eroeion, the rearrgng~ment of rhe hydrnulic n~twork and ~lsn in tl~e formation of n number of discontinuities - in the divides and on the elapea of the Zverev ridge expresaed in th~ rrlief. AlonE Che exial line of the lntter~ almost over ite entire extent there i~ a fault expreseed in the form of a aCeep scnrp~ The forruation nf ttiis extended (60 km) frectuxe in the apical pgrt of. the arch-block uplift possibly represente the process of inversion of the Cectonic movements in connection with the plac~ment of the seress field. A similar procese ohvinusly has occurred at the location of the Chul'man 1lesozoic trough which nl c}~e preaenr r_ime perticipetea in the re~ional uplift of the southern part of 5iberian platfnrm end is a standard inverted morphostructure. The change _ in str~qs Eielcl, just as the eide of the tectonic movemente was caused by the effect nf the neotectonic proceases in connection with the development of tt~e aaykal rift system. It ie entirely posaibl.e that at the present time in tiie vicinity of the Sranovoy ridge the atresaes of the Baykal type pre- dominate, nnd the process of complete inversion of the rtesozoic field of tectonic stresses has occurred correspondingly, and the stress field of the gr~ykal type is developing farther to the east. - The deep faults have aince the time of their forma$ion usually represented _ active atructural elementa of the earth's cruat, in connection with which they usually are considered structurea of inherited development. However, it is impossible not to take into account the fact that from period to period, the type, the rate and the nature of the movements along them have changed, ,juat as their magmocontrolling role has not been constant in tim~ nuring tlie periods of predominant compresaion the penetration of the magmatic melts in large volumes has low probability, and during the period ~f tension, the situation is more favorable for penetration of the deep, _ basic and ultrabasic differentiates of the magma (Peyve, 1965; Sherman, 1966; Florensov, et al~. 1960a), The formation of the tectonic structures is directly connected with the tectonic stress field depicting, in ~urn, the mantle precessea. Thus, considerinR the development of the Baykal rift zone~ we must again emphasize that ~t has developed supprposed with respect to the more ancient structur~l plan~ Transblykal, on the other hand~ is charact~rized by relatively low level of sei~smic activity and moderate rate of neotectonic movement, The tectonic regime here is caused by the predaminant ~evelopment of the modern structural forms from the more ancient ones, This point of vieW was 357 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ott d~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY hy N, A~ rloreneov (1960n)~ and it w~a Cnnf irm~d during further r~ae,hrr.l~~ '~hc predomin~nt type of l~tesr ~nd mddern Cectoni~ moveme�te for Trangbaykal mugC be congider~d to be Che ~ecending one~ Nere the mopt ~cCive growth i~a experienced by the nrcheg nnd the aYCh~block positive atruaCurea involv- ing the laeeral pnres of the negntive seructurea in the uplift. As ~ regult of the studies of the cent~rs of geron~ nnd w~gl: egrthquak~s (Mieharina, 1965, 1g67~ 1912; *tishnrin~~, N~ 5olonenko, 1972), in addition _ to ehe }iorizontal orientation of the ten~ile stresses~ Che orthogonalness of Chem with respect ro strike of the main neoCectnniC ~truceures was ~lso discovered~ This conclusion is in accordance not only wiCh the general _ geotectonic ideas of Che rifeogenic atructures, but alau with Che seismo- teceonic observ~tions in Che epicentral zonea of Che ma~oriry of aerong e~rthquakep in rhe paet (paleoseismodielocationa) and modern times, T}~us, the mechnnism of themovement of. the earth's crust during the Muya e~rthqunke of 1957 established with respect to the seismic dislocations a~r~eg quite w~ll wiCh the orientation of th~ sCresses in the vicinity of _ the center (ACTIVE TECTON2CS..., 1966). In the centers of the Nyukzha and the Olekmtt earthquakes of 195F3, the atress orienCation also correaponds to - the situation and nature of the discontinuous deformAtions in the epicer~tr$1 wtiicti are tension ~o{nts of sublatitudinal orientation with insignifi- cant component. This nature of the deformations corresponds to the : - meridionc~l tenaile stresaes noted for the centers of these earthquakes. - - The determinations of the mechanisms of the centers of the latest strong - earthquakes Tas-Yuryakhskiy 1967 and Kadar 1970 confirm the presence - of the tensile stresses oriented orthogonally to the main structural elements of tl~e Kodar-Udokan and Stanovoy zones. The studies of the stresses at the centers of the weak earthquakes " (K~10-11) performed by L. A. Misharina and N. V. Solonenko (see Chapter V) indicated that even for them, in the majority of cases the rift orienCat~on - of the streas axes discovered by observations of stronger shocks is characteristic. This indicates that the predominant type of surface deformations here must be the tension ~ointa combined with the faults which can be accompapied by ~hifts. The surface deformations naCurally are not a direct reflection of the processes, but at the same time the types of latest structures and also their orientation a~e in accordance with the nature of the stresses in the center zones. Thus, the roodern stress �ield di,scovered by the seismic ohservations in tt~e aaykr~l~Stanovoy seismically act~ve zone agrees with the peculiarities af the atressed state of the cruat in this region established by the geological characteristics. The stressed state of the earth's crust 358 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Oit O~FICIAL U5E ONLY rem~ins in general typicelly "rift" even in the bordering parC of the _ 5tanovoy r~.dge~ wh~,ch indiceCee migration of the riftogenesie procees to the Stanovik zone~ causing higher poeential seiemicity on it (~CTIV~ T~CTONICS...~ 1966; 5olonenko~ V~, 1968b~ c~, 359 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY c APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR t7FFICYAL US~ ONLY CNAPTER XII. SEISMIC REGIONALIZATION 5eiamic regionalization by the earthquake force esCimatea has been criCi- cized for many yeara. It has been propoaed thaC it be replaced by region- alization with reapect Co quanti~ative characteristica (seismic accelera- tiona and their epectra, the duration of the oacillationa and Cheir ampli- tudes, and so on). Nowever, these proposals, which are ouCwardly CempCin~, especially for cal- culating structural earthquake proofness are isolated from the actual na- tural situation, the poasibilities of the equipment, the level of develop- ment and "density" of the aeiemological obaervations. They are frequently based on representations of earthquakes at the earth's surface "by analogy" or on purely theoretical and not true manifestationa which can be discovered only by inveatigating strong earthquakes. Our experience in investigating earthquakes af all force levels (from 5-6 to 12) in the Mongolian-Baykal Seismic Belt and ob~ective data from investi- gating earthquakes'in oCher seismic zones of the earth indicate t11at . sharp (to force 2-3 frequently, force 6-7 sometimes) variations of the seis- mic effect on the ground and atructures are observed at short distances of up to 3 to 5 metera (Solonenko, V., 1960c, 1962a; Solatenko,V., Treskav, - 1960; GOBI-ALTAY..., 1963; Solonenko, V., 1974). The investi~atore of the San Fernnndo earthquake of 9 February 1971, emphasized that the "tremors and destruction frequently were distributed over the area in a highly unexpected way, in connection with which the problem of seismic regionalization appears to be much more complicated than was assumed" (Gillete, Walsh, 1971). These phenoa~ena have been encountered by Che investigators of the Peruvian earth- quake of 31 May 1970, who established that often there is no obvious rela- tion between the intensity of the destruction, the basement material and the engineering-geological conditions. "We cannot explain all these phenomena," they conclude (Plafker, 1971a). In addition, it i~ necessary to consider the following: 360 _ FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY 1. The effect of earthquakes on the ground surface and the atrucCures varies sharply and theoretically on going from 5 to 6 and eapecially from force 9 to 10 when the reversible and reaidual deformationa of the surface, the ground and the earth's cruat with amplieudea to several metera estab- lished the limiting posaibility of building earthquake-proof structuree (Solonenko, V., 1960a, 1962a, 1974). 2. The quantiCative parameCere, for example, of a force 9 1oca1 earChquake cannot have aln?oaC anything in common with auch force 9 tremora as the "tranait" ones (from the zone of a eCrong ear~hquake of force 10 or higher). _ 3. The inetrument characterizatiion of deatructive earChquakes (more rhan force 8) ia fgced with equipment and many other barriera (Che poaeibility of obtaining recordinge of epicentral and "trane~C" earthquakes of equal inCenaity i.n close areas with different engineering-geological con- diCiona, and ao on). Thus, in order Co obtain a true quantitative characteriaCic of earthquakes, _ it is necessary in esaence to have a mass of aeismometric equipment. If we consider what has been said ob~ectively, it becomes clear that the - problem of "quantitative" general seiamic regionalization will be solved only in the distant future if it is solved at all. During microaeismic characterization of earthquakea, the level of the aeismic effect is averaged both as a result of Che number of obaervation pointa and as a result of conaideration of varioua factors. Thus, the "force" estimate is found to be significantly more meaningful than it appears to the propon- ents of the "quantitative" seismic regionalization, and iC offers the possi- bility of designing actually earthquake-proof structurea. For example, in Irkutsk on 29 (30) August 1959, during an earthquake the intensity of which ~ was approximately the same as over the greater part of Tashkent in 26 April 1966, the buildings k~ith force 8 antiaeismic construction sustained only light damage in individual cases at the same time as almost all the old-style buildings, smaller and with thicker walls and foundations made of high-quality building materials, were deformed and often significantly (Solonenko, V., Treskov, 1960). Thus, there are still nothing to replace the "force" concepC (in the fore- seeable future). The investigation of many strong earthquakes, wherever it l~as been done by ob~ective investigators, indicates that the MSK-64 scale (Merkalli-Kankani-Ziberga-Medvedeva-GEOFIAN-GOST) givea a hi~hly reliable determination of the intenaity of the tremors and agrees quite well with the values of M and K(aee Table 2). On this acale the dimensions of the resi- dual deformations of the ground are esaentially low, that is, by these signs it gives a high force estimate. 361 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFF'ICIAL U5~ ONLY Tlie relnCion between the force and the magniCude esCabli~hed empiricglly by thp r~aulCs of inveaCigaCing sCrong earChquakea in Che Mongolian-Baykal - Seismic Belt (SEISMOTECTONICS... 1968, pgg~ 147) was checked ouC in aub- sequenC years and has demonatrated good convergence. It agreea well also with the data of varioua authora for the various seismic zones of the earth. The divergence is within the limita of accuracy of the observations (+0.5); therefore it was aleo uaed when compiling the new map~ The corresponding calculationa with respecC to the relation of M, K and JD facilitating the use of modern earthquake catalogs are presented in ChapCers VI and VIII (see Cables 7 and 12). The preceding seismic regionalizaCion map (5olonenko, V., eC al � 1960b; Solonenko, ii., 1963a, 1968a), which is the basis for the staCe map (SNiP II-A. 12-69, Irkut Ob1asC~ Buryat ASSR, Chita Oblast) was compiled on the seiamostatistical (Southern part of Eastern Siberia) and predominantly tectonic and paleozeismogeological material. The insCrumenCed data were very meager, for before 1952 there was only seismic station (Irkutsk), and then three, but all located in Southern Pribaykal'ye. Since 1961 the ata- Cion network has been expanded aignificantly, and it provides for recording earthquakes with K n 7 for the entire rift zone, with the exception of a _ small section of the central part of Baykal from Lake O1'khon to the Svyatoy Nos Peninsula (representative class K a 8). For the ad3acent parts of the Siberian Platform and Transbaykal, earthquakes with K= 8 are representativa; for Southeastern Tranabaykal, earthquakes with K@ 9. In addition, signifi- cant factual data have been obtained by the network of temporary seiamic . stations in the Udokan region (1962-1965), in Pribaykal'ye (1963-1965) and the Barguzin Basin (1972-1973). At the same time broad seismogeological and special geophysical atudies and a great vari~~y of analytical seiemological and geomorphological-geophysical - operations were performed. It is natural that for such a broad territory as Eastern Siberia where an area of about 1.5 million km2 has been sub~ected to regionalization, it is impossible to collect the entire set of seismogeological, seismologic and geophysical data with the same degree of detail; therefore when estimating the seismicity of nne territory or another, preference has been given to the method most "repreaentative" for the given section. Ina~much as an earthquake is a physical-geolo~ical phenomenon, the regionali- zation naturally has been carried out f irst of all on a seismotectonic basis. However, in all phases of seismic regionalization seismologic and geophysical data were used: 1) Wt~en compiling the aeismotectonic map, the seismological data were taken ~ into account in order to discover the specific seismogeological relations in structural fields with noneharply expressed boundaries between the morpho- structures, for classification of the dislocations with a break in continuity and for solving a number of other problems; 362 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 _ ~OR OFFICIAL US~ ONLX 2) When Compiling the protenCial sei~miciCy map (poeeible epicentral xone~ of m~ximum earChquakes): along with the eei~nw~ratidtical and - ~~al~ne~igmngeoingicul d~tn m~p~ of Che sei~mic acCivity~ maximal eur[h- yuakee uttd long-renge forecaeCing of ~eiemic acCivity were uaed. The probable regions of ehore-term "seiemia calin" (see ChapCer X) were also Caken lneo eccount. When ieolating the zonea of increa~ed ceneer acCivity, the grapha of the recurrence rate of ehe egrthquakee were considered; 3) When calculating ehe averaged isoeeiema~ in addition to asiemoeCatis- tics and the data on aeiemic dislocaCione~ calculationa of the damping of rhe oscillaCions were aleo.used; 4) In the concluding phase of the regionalization~ a11 of the isolated regiona were checked and corrected with re~pect to all of the seiemologi- cal and geophyeical mapg. The basic difficultiea of regionalization were encountered when estimaCing the seiamic denger of a Cerritory where there are no paleoaeismodisloca- - Cions. Wherever there are epicenCera of atrong hiatorical and modern earth- quakes, in Cheae seismogenic morphoatructural zonea, there are no paleo- seiamodislocations. Wherever there are no paleosQiamodislocations or there are fewer of them and they are unreliable, there are no seismologic data aufficient for aeiamic regionalization (Transbaykal). The difficultiea also ariae from the facC that tha geological data in the absence of paleo- seismodislocations do not up to the preeent time have a reliable quanti- tative e:;treasion. Neverthelese~ for territories with aeiamological and = paleoseismogeolagical material insufficient for regionalization it is neces- sary to use the radiants of the vertical tectonic movements. From what has been stated it ia clear that our seiamic regionalization map cannot be put in any definite caCegory ("seismostatistical," "seismotectonic," "tectono- physical," "quantitaCive," "paleoseismogeological," and ao on), and it is in the complete senae a map of complex seismic regionalization. - By the level of seismic activity in the regionalized territory three regions . are clearly isolated (Figure 108): 1) the Siberian Platform--in practice - an almost aseismic region with "transit" earthquakes from the Baykal seismic belts; 2) Tranabaykal with moderate seismic activity and with "transit" _ earthquakea from the Baykal rift zone and Northern Mongolia; 3) the Baykal - rift zone with maximum seiamic activity. Whereas for the last zone the paleoseiamogeological data can serve as re- liable indexes of the higher level of seismic potential, for the platform they are completely invalid, and for Tranabaykal they have suxiliary value (the paleoseismodislocations are few and unreliable). The seismostatistical data for Transbaykal are also unreliable, for before the middle of the 20th ~ century there are only spotty data on the earthquakes, and the seismic sta- tions (two in all of this enormaus territory) have been in operation for 3 to S years. It is natural that for moderate seismic activity there are inaufficient data for compiling the activity and K maps. Accordingly, an effort has been made to determi~e the seiamic �~x potential of such regions by the quantitative method of M. V. Gzovskiy. 363 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY _ ~ f hr, ~"r ~ N I ~ Lw`~ I ~ ~ , , ~ ( i)1.J ~ .~,~.r. , ~ 1 ; , i (SO ~ ~ ~ . ~ i c~~ Q:]~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v ~.ti r 1 ~ ~1 ~ � n,+ A L" ~ ~ 'w_ h_M~~ ~ r ~ ~ ~N4 ~ , ~ ~ i , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ � ! " 1: ` ~ _ ' 1 ~ M ~ ~ 1 .L~'~, ~ ~ ~ ~ � ~ ! ~ ~~~~Ni ~ i ` ~:1 ~2~) ~2:~ ~ , ~ ~ � ~~~~i'Q~i''~`~ i:. L ~ , , ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~y~'~ ~ f:Al . ~ ~ . ~ -L ..u~ v 1'~ - ~ ~ f13) . (SA) . : ~ ~ ~...a 'i}'~ . � ' � I _ . . ~hrrtt ( w ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ , M A r ~ ' ( i 1 ~t~ � ~8j,i~ N ~ _ i - ~ ~ ~ � . ~ t ~ ~i ? ~ i 9 ~ i � ; � / ~N c3r~ c4s~ I � . J" _ Figure 108. ~See following page~ 364 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY I'igure 108. Tiap of eh~ eeiemic regionalization of ~~~Cern 5ib~ria. Compiled by V~ Solonenko~ R~ A. Kuru~hin, M. G~ Dem'ygndvf~h, S~ V~ La~tochkin~ V~ V~ N~,kolayev~ S~ D. Khil~tco~ V. S~ Khromovskikh, V~ M. Ko~hetkov,, V~ M. Zhilkin~ A~ D~ Abglakov~ ~dited by V~ P~ 5olonenko. (5ee preceding ~age fo~ Figure 108~ T1~~ zon~s of possibl~ occurrence of the egrthquake center~ or their - magnitude (11~ and the 3ndication of the example inteneity ~ZO); 1-- t4>7 (force 10 or more); 2-~~ M-- 6-1/2 to 7(force 9), 3-- M=5-1/2 - to 6-1/2 (force 8~9), 4-.� M�4-3/4 to 5~1/2 (force 7~8), S~- M 6.5, the seiemog~nic fracCur~r~~ ag a rule~ reach the ~urface of the earth (see Chapeer I) and ~ignificgntly in~xea~e the macro- s~igmic effect. The eeigmngenic ~oinCs and sharp oecillaCiong of eh~ wallg of ehe faulrs with g residual ampllCude Co 0.$ m~tere and eomeeime~ mor~ (trup amplitude approximaCely twice th~t; gee Solonettko, V., 1968c; GOBI- ALTAY...~ 1563, pp 326-328) unconditionally deatroy any sCrucCure~ even with force 9 antisei~mic reinforcemene. The i~ol~eiott c~f euch gectiong ia entirely ingical: no one ob~eces to in- cr~gging the force eeCimate by one as a result of unfavnrable engineering- hydrog~oingical condiCions, and what can be more unfavorabl~ than a moving seismngenic fault zone? During gener~l regionalizgtion, the former cannot be reflected on the map (becauae of ecaling conditions), at Che same time ns the seiamogenic faulta are a mandatory element of the cenCer seismiciCy, seismotectonic, and seiamic regionalization maps, and so on. When investigating atrong earthquakes in the Mongolian-Baykal aeiamic belt and according to the published data the following laws were esCablished already 15 years ago (Solonenko~ V~~ 1962b; SEISMOTECTONICS..., 1968, pp 146-149) confirmed by aubsequent events both in the Soviet Union and in other aeismic zones of the earth. 1. For linear seismogenerating structures the force 10-11 earthquake zone extends in a narrow strip along the seismogenic dislocationa. The width of the zone is about 4 km on the active size (or sides) of the structure and 2-9 km, on the passive side. In the presence of feathering and accom~any- ing fractures, it can increase to 10-12 km or more. For the block seismo- genic structures the intensity of the tremor on the surface of the displaced structure is distribuCed nonuniformly--the difference for adjacent sectiona reachea several force points, but the variations with respect to area are _ not sub~ect to advance calculation. In the pleistoscism zones of force 10-11 earthquakes (Tsaganakoye, Muya, Iiayan-Tsaganskoye, Mogodskoye, and so on) the established amplitude of the verticnl and horizontal displacements reaches 7-8 meters, the ampliCude of Che surface waves in loose ground is up to 4-5 meters with a length on the order of 15-20 meters. In the loose ground the width of the gaping trench- ~ointe is ~asual up to 4-6 meters, frequently to 10 meters, and in individual cases to 19 meters (ACTIVE TECTONICS..., 1966, pp 151-152). In the rocky ground ~oints are formed with gaping to 4-5 meters and obviously sometimes more. Tl~e apparent opening of the faults on the aurface of the earth along the strike is observed over an extent of up to 30 km (the Muya earthquake), and with predominance of the shift component, to 45 km (the Mogodskoye earthquake on 5 January 1967, M= 7 3/4). During the Muya earthquake the movementa in the fault zone were obse:ved to 90 km from the epicenter to the east (in the direction of the shift of the ridge) and to 50-55 km in - the opposite direction. 368 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OEt O~FICIAL US~ ONLY The creaCinn of economicelly ~nd tachnically ~xpediene antieeismic atruc- tures for force 10 zones i~ impoesible; Cherefore they must be categorically cloeed for conetruction, with the exception of unavoid~ble communications which mueC croes such zones by the ehortest path. - 2. ~he force 9 regiong with re~p~ct to eeiemic danger are nonuniform. In the saiemogenic fau1C zone actually the forca of the earthquakea exceedg tha reei~Cance c~f the eCructurea wiCh any earthquake-proofing conetruce3on. These movements are ob~erved along the aCrike of the fault up to 50 km~ - and sometimee more. Therefore in the force 9 regions along the seismogenic faulte aC a diatance of up to 2 km from them the erecCion of capital'struc- tures (with the exception of unavoidable communicationa) is inadmisaible. On the seiemic regionalization map, such secCione are ehown as poseible center zonea with M ~ 61~ to 7. 3~ ~or the force 8 earthquakes in Che epicentral segment of the se,iemo- genic atructure there are eharp~ but as a rule, revereible oscillations of the walls of the faulta and the macroseismic effecta reach force 9(on the average to lk km~along the fault and 1-2 km acrosa it). There�ore it is neceseary to avoid capital con~truction in auch ~onea. 4. In the areae with thick (300-400 metera or more) seriea of nonmetamor- phic sedimentary rock, the earthquake intensity decreases sharply and ir- regularly. Therefore in the internal parta of the baein in the abaence of highly active seismogenic structures in their basement, the initial norma- tive force of the earthquake can be low by one force point. In order to outline the areas of the "transit" tremore in the direction of the seismogenic structures, it doea not appear possible to use the standard- ized procedure. For example, by the calculated data for the circular iso- seisma and by the average aizea of the f,soaeiamal areas with respect to - n~acroseiamic effecta (see Table 19) on the Siberian Platform the area of the force 6 region by comparieon with the 1962 map (Solonenko, V., 1963a) should be expanded 200-250 km to the northwest, which contradicta the avail- able macroseismic data. Therefora primarily aeiamoatatistical data were - used, and in case of a deficiency or in the absence of this data, the average data (see Table 19) considaring the seiamic wlnerability mape and also th` specifics of the apread of the tremore over the summary isoaeismal map. When determining the boundaries of apecific aeismic regions, definite dif- _ ficulties are encountered. The regiona with possible force 10 earthquakes or higher and the sections of the force 9 regions with increased seismic danger require especially careful analysie of the seismogeological, seismo- logic and geophyeical data. They~ as has alread~r been stated~ must be first of all forbidden for capiCal conetruction (with the exception of coimnunica- tions) and, aecondly, they must be the starting points for deterniining the boundariee of the "transit" tremor regions, including the platform sections where no local etrong earthquakes occur. The problem ia somewhat facilitated by the fact that these regione are within the boundaries of the Baykal rift system (with the exception of the near-rift zones of the Oka and Kitoy faults in Eastern Sayan). 369 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 , FOR OFFTCIAL U5E ONLY During general regionalization, the concept of constantcy of the maximum earthquake engrgy over the entire extent of the aeismotecronic fracCures i is used. For the Baykal rift~ we have long refrained from using this rule (Solonenko, V.~ 1963a). In the overwhelming ma~ority, the faults have more an.cient occurrence, and the riftogenic processes causing high seismicity are Cenozoic. If a fault goes beyond Che boundaries of the rift zone, the ~ seismic activity decreases aharply (for the Obruchev fault system, from force 10-12 Co force 5-6). Under these conditions, the question naturally arises of the limits of Che force 10 region in the flank zones wiCh poCen- tial seismic activity of force 10 or higher (see Figure 108). If we con- sider, as usual, thaC at any point o� the section with potential seiamic - activity of force 10 there can be an epicenter c~f the corre:sponding force eatimate, then the boundary of the force 10 region musC be considered along Che strike of the structure aC least 25 lan or more, and the force 10 region, 45 km (see Tab1e 19). This lengthening of the high-force regions from our ~ point of view is valid only in the case where the seismologic data indicate tiigh acCivity of the fault zone beyond the proposed boundary of the rift system. In the opposite case the provisional epicenCer of the future earth- quake is taken in the center of the section of the seismically active zone which can insure a force 10 earthquake, that is, 25 km rrom the end of the structure. In this case the distal boundaries of the regions of potential seismicity and sei~mic regions (see Figure 108) of different intensity coin- cide. . isolation of high-force,regions, the probable recurrence rate of the _ ~:Crongest earthquakes is taken into .lccount also. The earthquakes of force 11-12 were not considered, for their probability is very small. The traces - of such earthquakes have been established only in three areas of Che rift zone (Southern Pribaykal'ye, the western shore of Central Baykal and the Udokan Ridge), with intervals between their epicenters of 350 and 750 km where such earthquakes have never occurred at least during the last thousands of years. The possible force 10 earthquakes in isolaCed seismogenic struc- _ tures, the potential seismicity of which according to geological and paleo- seismogeological data will reach force 10 were also not taken into acc~unt, but the recurrence rate of such earthquakes is low (no more frequently than ~ _ once in a thousand years according to the paleoseismogeological data and less ttian once in ten thousand years by the seismic vulnerability map), and by the seismological data, the activity and K~X are low. These regions belong to force 9. ~ Description of Seismic Regions The basis for isolation of the regions, especially of high seismicity (force 9, 10 and higher) is the paleoseismogeological, seismotectonic and seismo- statistical data. They determine the initial ("background") seismicity for 370 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ok O~~ICIAL U5~ ONLY thp average ground conditionel~ Along wiCh thie~ ~eismologicgl atid geo- - phyeical maCeriaLa are u~ed (the Cime-~pace dietribuCion of Che earChquakee, the seismic nctivity of Che region of ~pecific eeismogenic structure and the probable maximum earthquake cenCer with reepecC to K ~ the long-range fore- casting of the seiemic acCivity~ the "preparation" zonee~ and so on). The increase or reduction in the force estimate ae a reeult of the engineer- ing-geological~ geocryological~ geomorphological and other purely aurface - fnctor~ which are taken inro account only during detailed seiemic regionali- zarion and microregionalization are not reflected on the seiemic regionali- zation mep. The boundaries of the eeiemic regione of higher forces on the whole do not correapond to the boundaries of Che center zones of higheaC activity taking into account the entire set of geological-geophysical data. However~ there are no exact boundaries of such zones in nature~ in connection with which t3~e boundaries of the seiemic regione can be drawn only within the limits of Chp defined fiducial intervala of valuea of different intensity and ac- tivity of the obaerved procesaes. 'The boundaries of the high-seiemic (force 9 and 10) regions have been drawn the moat definitely. Their isolation ie clearly controlled by the nenCec- tonic structures with higheat seiemic potential, the paleoseismogenic atruc- tures and a?odern seiamic dislocationa and also the entire set of seiemologic ciata. The regiona of moderate and low aeismicity (force 8, 7 and 6) which are isolated predominantly by the seiemostatistical, aeismologic and averaged macroseismic data (see Table 10) and also by the type of latest atructurea, degree of iatensity and conCrast of the neotectonic movementa are lesa re- liably outlined. ~ 1. The regions with earthquake intensity of force 10 or more extend spa- tially to the Baykal rift zone. Cenetically they are closely connected with the marginal parts of the large rift structures, being located along the zones of activated ("seiamogenerating") faults. Among them the clearest examples are Tunkinekaya, Obruchev, Kodar. Udokan, the Stanovoy fault system, the Cherakiy fault and other aeismically ar,tive lineaments. These include the short dislocations with a break in continuity activated in the anthropo- gene, developed in the regions of highly se~smic regional interbasin commis- aures where, as a rule, they control the development of the small rift struc- tures of the type of type of the generating and embryonic basins. In the ma~ority cases the isolation of the epicentral regione of maximum seismicity is substantiated by the paleoseismotectonic structures, the forma- tion of which occurred during earthquakes with M on the '-der of 7 or more. 1 B the avera e y g ground we mean the natural sand-loam ser~es with deep occurrence of ground water of more than 8 meters (from the level to surface). 371 FOR O~FICIAL USE OKLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR Ot~FICIAL USL ONLY _ In ndditinn Co the strucCural-CecConic and the eeiemogeological criterig~ - Che leolgCion of euch zonee ie aubsCantiaCed by an increased concentraCion of the epicenters of moderate and weak earthquakea, which is reflected on the seiemic activiCy map (the values of A10 for them uaually do not drop be- low 0.2), - ~l~e highly seiRmic epicentral regions extent in narrow (from 1-2 to 8-10 km) = strips along Che riftogenic faulCs. Here Che fau1C zones wiCh simple struc- ture~ with Che aleareat contraet of the neotectonic movemenCe (�or example~ Tunkinskaya, Obruchev, Barguzin~ Kodar~ and so on) give rise ta etill clearer and etraighter boundaries of the force i0 seismic regions. In the case of complex structure of auch zones (echelon structure~ broad development of ac- companying and feaChering dislocations~ variaCions of the active faulta, sharp block diffrenCiaCion in the marginal and axial parCs of Che uplifts bordering the rif.te~ the syatem of generating basine~ and so on) the force 10 seiemic regions are expanding and have complex configuraCion. This is _ eapecially characterietic for the rift sections of ehe arch-block uplifta (Khamar-Daban~ Udokan) and the large inCerbaein mountain commiasures (Upper Angara-Muya~ Muya-Chara). For regio~nalization of the highly seismic zones - it is asaumed thaC the aingl~ seiamotecConic lineament ia seismically dan- gerous to an equal degree a].ong its entire extenC. However, as hae.already been noted at the beginning of the chapCer, the large~ exCended zones of "seismogenerating" faults are divided into secCions with differenC level of seismicity. Firet of all, this pextains to the faulCs which go beyond the iimitg of the tectonic stress field of the Baykal rift zone both on its flanks and on the periphery. Accordingly, aignificant sections of Che Tunkinskaya~ Eastern Saya, Obruchev, Barguzino-Muya~ and Stanovoy systems of activated faults are included in the force 9 seismic regions, and against this back- ground they are conaidered as zones of increased seiamic danger. For auch sections, the absence of explicit signa of seismo~enic re~uvenation and a lowered level of modern seismic activity are usually characteristic (see Chapter XI). In addition to the neoCectonic and seismogeological factors, the isolation of the force 10 regione is confirn?ed by the seismostatistical data--the epicenters of etrong (force 9-10) earthquakes and alao inereased concentra- tion of the epicenters of ~oderate and weak shocks within their boundaries (see Figure 73-75), which is reflected on the aeismic activity maps (see Figures 16-78) and maximum earthquakea (see Figure 89). The values of A for such regions usually do not drop below 0.2. However, in the Baykal-1~ Stanovoy seismically active zone there are a number of force 10 regions which - on the seiamic activity maps and the maps of maximum possible earthquakes correspond to low values of A 0.05~ and K < 14). Examples: the Muya Basin~ the Northern BaykaQ part of the Obiuchev faults, the Upper Angara, Parama and China-Vakatskiy (eastern part) fault zones in the Stanovoy High- land. The inclusion of such sections in the force 10 regions~ in spite of the noncorreapondence to the seismological data, is substantiated primarily by their seismotectonic position (all of them control the development of rift - structures and erabryonic basins) and coordination of the paleoseismogenic structures occuring during earthquakes with an intensity of no less than force 10 with them. = 372 _ FOR OFFICIAL (!5E Oti'LY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR O~FICIAL US~ ONLY ' F'or the Obruchev f~ult zone theee are ehe following eeructurea: 5ouehexn Rita~ Shartley, Srednekedrovaya [Central KedrovaygJ~ Khibelenelcgya, Solon- teovaya; for Che easCern parC of Che Upper Angara faulC--Che Ogney struc- ture and the generating Churo grgben; for rhe vicinity of ehe Muye Baein-- Takein and Parama etructures, and for the eaeeern eection of the China- Vakatgkiy fault--Che Medved' atructure (eee Chapter VII). Many of the enumerated sectione with respece to macroeeiemic information and instrument data are confirmed by Che epicentere o� atrong (on the order of force 8) earthquakes. Thus~ for example, on 6 Auguse 1931~ an earChquake occurred in the viciniCy of Che northweat shore of Lske Baykal with a propoaed in- _ tenaity of more Chan force 8; in Che vicinity of the northeaetern border of the Upper Angara Baein inetrumente recorded two earthquakea wiCh an in- - tensity of up to force ~(11 March 1936 and 17 September 1957); in the same region on 18 AuguaC 1902 an earthquake was fe1C~ Che force of which at the observation point reached force 8(aee Chapter VII). It is also proposed that aC least part of euch zones (for example, easC of - the end of the China-Vakatakiy and the Upper Angara faulCs) corresponds to the regions of "preparation" of atrong earthquakes (aee Chapter X). When i8olating the force 10 regions on the map~ the poasibility of the oc- currence of earthquakes also with greater intensity is suapected, which is indicated, for example, by certain paleoseiamogenic phenomena within t;he boundaries of the Baykal rift (the Shartlay, Southern Rita structures) and the Stanovoy Highland (China-Vakatakiy structure). However~ the recurrence - rate of such seismic dieasCers on tlie ~rhole for the territory of the Baykal- Stanovoy seismic zone ia low (according to the paleoaeismogeological data, no more frequently than once in 500-600 years). In practice they are ex- cluded from the regionalization and muat be conaidered only when constructing especially importanC long-range projects. The regions with earthquake intensity of force 10 or more occupy an area of 33,800 km2, which ia almoet twice the area of the force 10 regions isolated on the seismic regionalization map of Eaetern Siberia of 1962 (Solonenko, V., 1963a). The area was increased as a reault of inclusion of the water part of Lake Baykal in the regionalization (about 8,000 1~2) and partially as a result of isolation of new force 10 regiona in the rift .one nf the Stanovoy Highland (about 7,000 km2) diacovered during complex sf~iemogeological studies in the last decade (ACTIVE TECTONICS..., 1966; SEISMOTE~;,TONICS..., 1968, _ 1975a,b). The unavoieability of this increase was proposed also earlier (Solonenko, V., 1963a). The regions with maximwn intensity of the possible - earthquakes have also been isolated here along the 'riftogenic fault zones controlling the northeastern part of the Upper Angara Basin, the northern - and western sides of the Muya Basin and the system of small (embryonic) basins of the Baykal type within the boundaries of t~e Upper Angara-Muya, the Barguzino-Muya and the Muya-Chara interbasin mountain commissures. The force 10 regions along the Tunkinskiy and the Barguzin fault zones and northQast of the Svyatoy Noa Peninsula have been increased somewhat. In the , latter case the highly aeismic reRion encompasses the Bol'sherechenskaya 373 FOR OFFICI~?L USE Oh'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~Ott OF~ICIAL U5~ ONLY nnd Chc Snenovekaya s~CelliCe basin~ nnd the zones of ehe lateaC �aulta bounding them (S~ISMOT~CTONICS..., 1968; Abalgkov~ 1973) locnCed on Che conCinuaCion of the seismically acCive Cetttral Bgykal interbasin commissure. Two new gmall force 10 regions have been isolaCed on Che northeaeCern flank af the Bnykal rift zone, on the left bank of the mi.ddle courae of the Olekma - ~tiver (Olekma-Charn interfluve). They outlined the seiemogenic atructurea of the epicentral regiona of three aCrong earthquakes--Olelnng and Nyukzha _ 1958 and Tas-Yuryakhskoye 196~ (ACTIVE TECTONICS...~ 1966, SEISMOTECTONICS..., 1975a). The force 10 seismic regions muat be Forbidden for capiCal coc~aCruction. IC is necessary ta coneider the facC thaC in Che ma~oriCy of cases these regiona~ as a rule, are characterized by extremely unfavorable or unsuit- able engineering-geological and geomorphological conditiona for construc- Cion. Only apecial atate intereats or apecial economic requirementa can ~us- tify Che erection of certain engineering structurea in theae areas. It is - Crue Chat in individual c$sea, especially where aignificant expansione of the force-10 regions are indicgCed on the described map (Southern Baykal, the ' Muya-Chara zone), on deCailed inveatigation and microregionalization, it ia poasible to isolare areas wiCh reduced aeiamic danger. The acale does noC pem~it indication of auch small sections on the map, buC it ia necessary to coneider that the poeaibility exiata. 2. The regiona with earthquake intensity of force 9 occupy the largest areas in the Baykal-Stanovoy aeiemic zone, primarily along the system of Ba~',lcal rifts and on its flanka. EssenCially all of the morphoetructural elements of the Baykal rift zone (primarily the rift baein) are characterized by force 10 potential seismicity. In the regiona of the uplifts directly bound- ing the rift basins, these areas include the complexly differentiaCed central parts of the side and the arch-block morphoatruct+ires removed from the zones - of maximum (force 10) seigm~city. The ourlines of the force 9 seismic regions are connected bo~th with local center zones and with the extent and configuration of the forc~ 10 regions from which the force 9 surface effects extent (the "transit" tremors). Ac- - cording to Table 10, during an earthquake with an intensity at the center of _ ri > 7 this effect can extend to a distance of up to 30 lan across the strike and 140 km along the seismically active structures. Thus, in the force 9 seismic regions bordering the broad belt of the activated fault zone with established maximum (force 10 and higher) seismic danger, obviously the "tran- sit" oscillations play a aignificant role. Moreover, centers of force 9 earthquakes are possible here according to seismotectonic conditions. In the regions of mature rift basins, the force 9 zones include longitudinal rift forming faults or the set of echelons of such faults (without apparent traces of seismogenic re~uvenation) contro'ling the maximum plunged sections of tt~e basement. In the formation of the articulaCion zones of these basins w~ith the mountain bordera a eignificant role is played by the bending de- formations, and the mean velocities, in spite of the maximum scale of the 374 FOR OFFICIAL iISE OhLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 F'OR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY neotecConic movemenCs probably is somewhaC lesa Chan in the amall rifto- - genic morphoatrucCurea. In the maCure bagine~ in gdd~.Cion, the zones of force 9 seismic danger include Che intrabaein commissures and lateral pro- 3ectiona Ch~t are manifee~ed on Che aurface characterizing the t~harp dif- ferentiation and increased contraet of the movemente of the individual block~ of the basement of higher orders. The large regional interbasin commieaurea are in practice completely asso- ciatad with the zonea with poesible occurrence of force 9 earthquakea. Such zones here include ehe ama11 rife basina, tha bottoma of which, as a rule, are differentiated with de�ormation of local intrabASin and inter- _ basin commiasures, and the aides are frequently complicated by young longi- tudinal and transverae faults. Uaually the embryonic baeins of this type are separated by connniasurea into a aeriea of depresaions as a xesult of which, inside them the blocks with different signa and rates of latest move- ments are in contact. WiChin Che limita of these negative morphoatruaCurea it is posaible to expect Che occurrence of reaidual seiamotectonic deforma- tions connected with the local force 9 shocks and onea excited by maximal earthquakea, the hypocentera of which are within the zones of Che main rift _ forming faulta. The examples of the Muya (1957) and the Mondy (1950) earth- - quakes indicate thia quite obviously. 'The regions of probably force 9 earthquakea M~ 6 1/2-7, within the limits of regional commissures also include the sharply differentiated parts of - _ the block morphostructures usually located between the zones of increased seismic danger. Here we also have the parts of the faults having maximum degree of aeismic danger with respect to geological and seiamic data (M but going beyond the limiCs of the morphoatructures which cauae this danger. (For example, the Muyakan fault, the northeastern parta of Che vicinities of the Upper Muya, the Uchargaeskiy, tihe western parts of the Southern Muya, the Konda-Eymnakhskiy a:?d many other faults in the regional commissure areas). . Thus, in the force 9 regions the seiamic danger depends csn the manifestation of both local earthquake centera with M= 6 1/2-7 and the surface effects of the "transit" tremor from the direction of the seismogenic structures of high potential (M 7). Here the force 9 regions are constricted in the - case of the simply outlined force 10 zonea (for example, Tunkinskaya, EasCern Sayan, BarRguzin, Obruchev, Upper Angara) and they expand significantly ln ~ the case of complex configuration of them (Southern Baykal, Muya-Chara re- . It is necessary to note that in the investigated territory of Eastern Siberia, significant sections of force 9 regions with respect to area are not always confirmed by strong earthquakes and high level of modern seismic activity. However, with respect to the neotectonic situation, the degrees of differen- = tiation, contrast and amplitude of the latest movements, intensive rearrange- ment and developmE~nt of the neotectonic structures they are analogs of the areas with the established force 9 seismic potential. For exa~.~ple, the 375 ~ FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOIt OF'F'ICIAL US~ ONLY � flnnk parts of the Baykal rift xone (Eaetiern Sayan and the SCanovoy uplift) - and certain morphostructures of Che transitional Cype from the direction of the Tranebaykal b]nck-wave zone (Khamar-Daban, Ikat~ Udokan-Kalar, the fault- block uplifte)are under euch aeiemogeological conditions. Nearer to the _ marginal part of the 5lberian PlatfoY..~ Che force 9 regions are consCricted, - which is connecCed wieh a sharp reducCion in Che seismic potential of Che uplifCs bordering the ri�t zone to force $ and even 7(Primorakiy, Upper Angara, NorChern Muya, Delyun-Uranakiy ridgea) and the appearance of pre- dominantly (transit) Cremors with an inCensity to force 9 from the cenCer zones of rhe force 10 earthquakea. In seismotectonic reapecta the force 9 regions~ in contrast to Che regions of maximum selsmicity, encompasa not only the rifr zone itself, but they - also go beyond its limiCa. This is caused by the peculiarities of the seismo- = geological relations and nonuniformity of the seiemic manifestations within the limits of the transition morphosCructures. Thie nonuniformity is felt primarily in the fact that Che force 9 regions are outlined in the cases of: a) combination of local force 9 centers and "transit" force 9 tremors from the maximum seismicity zones; b) auperposition of force 9"transit" tre:mor - on the stru~tures within the limita of which the earthquakes wiCh M to 6 1/2 are poesible; c) local earthquake centers with intensity of force 9 (M > 6 1/2). ~ In connection with *_he facC Chat the paleoseismogeological data are explicitly inadequate (on the basis ~f the fast denudation destruction of the traces of the residual deformations in the force 9 pleistoseis!n zones), the analysis of the seismological and geophysical materials has great significance when isola- in~ the force9regions. Above all~ these regions are located within the limits of the regions characterized by increased values of the seismic activity ~ (A p > 0.1). The same values characterize the epicentral regiuns of his- torically known force 9 earthquakes (see Chapter VII). The same thing can also be said about the K map on which the force 9 seismic regions as a whole correspond to the areas where the occurrence of maximum earthquakes - with K> 15 is assumed. The map of the long range furecast of the seismic activity in general features also confirms the boundaries of the force 9 regions. However, a direct comparison of the high force regions isolated with xespect - to the seismogeological and morphostructural criteria with the maps of the seiamic activity and maximum earthquakes indicaCes that in a number of cases (Ol~k.~na-Chara ineerfluve, the northern border of the rift zone of the Stanovoy ~ liighland, the southern part of the Northern Baykal Highland, Eastern Sayan, Khamar-Daban) there are noncorrespondences: force 9 seismic regions, for example, are characterized by low values of A and K . The explanation for this (in addition to the existence of thel~"zones~of calm" see Chapter X) can be found in that the adopted functional relation K = K (A1 ; does not take into account all aspects of the interrelationXOf t~ieXStrong and weak earthquakes. Thus, for the viciniCy of the Ikat ridge with its high valuea of A10 the abaence of si.:rong shocks (seismostatistics since the - 376 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ beginning of rhe 19th century) and paleoaeismodielocationa ia chgrac- teristic, and within the limite of Southern Baykal and the Tunkinakaya zone for comparatively 1ow valuea of the seiamic act3~ity, epicenters ~ of atrong earthquakea and paleoseiemodislocaCiona are known. The seismogeological and sei~smological etudiea per�ormed in the lasC decade - on the territory of Eaetern Siberia permitted significant more preciae defi- nition and more reliable aubseantiation of the boundariea of the �orce 9 aeismic regions. Here their areaa wer~ aignificanCly reduced on Che north- . - eastern flank of the Baykal rift zone and from the direction of the marginal part of the Siberian Platform. The total area of the force 9 regions in the investigated terriCory by comparison with the seiemic regionalization map of 1962 was reduced by 62,500 km2. The small increase in area of the force 9 regions took place in WeaCern ~ Transbaykal within the limita of Che morphoeCructures of the transitional type (I:~at and Tsipa-BaunCovekiy aecGiona)~ primarily as a result of the force 10 zones (SEISMOTECTONICS..., 1968). For example, the vicinity of the Ikat ridge has, according to the inatrumenC data, a very high level of seiamic activity (A10 ~ 0.5-1), and the calculations of Che aeiamic vulnera- bility permit us to expect earthquakea in it with an intensity of more than ' force 9 with a recurrence rate of 2,000 to 5,000 yeara. However, the absence of clearly expreased paleoaeiamogenic structures does not provide grounds for - isolation of a force 10 region here. In addit;tonP this area is located on the periphery of the highly seismic rift zone and partially goes beyond its limits. The nonuniformity'of the atructure of the earth's crust establishec~ in the Ikat region, and the "layer by layer" stress distribution in cross section and different earthquakes with respect Ca center mechanism estab- lished in the Ikat region (see Chapter IV) ~bviously create favorable pre- requisites for constant relief of the sCressea by numerous~ but weak (K = = 12) earthquakes. However, con connection with the seismotectonfc pe-~X culiarities of the transition morphoatructures with i~road development of the faults active in the Cenozoic (Ulan-Burka, Garga, IkaC, and so on) and the formation of the embryonic basins in the axial part of the uplift, the iso- lation of the force 9 region here appears to be substantiated. _ On the continuation of the Ikat zone to the norrheast there are transitional morphostructures of the Bauntovskiy Region also considered in force 9. This includes the Tsipa-Bauntovskiy system of subrift depressions, Kadalinskaya, Bambubukoyskaya, the Tilishminskaya ~embryonic bas~Lns and the uplifts directly bordering them. The seismic potential of these morphostructural elements is - hi~h and can reach force 9-10 which is indicated primarily by the paleoseismo- genic Khapton and Tilishminekaya structures detected here with an age on the - order of the firat thousand years (see Chapter VII). The seismic activity of the Bauntovakiy territory is high (0.1 < A < 0.35), and earthquakes are possible with K~X to 16. However, the re~urrence rate of the force 10 _ earChquakes is sparse here (according to the seismologic datat, every 20,000 to 50,000 years). Thus, with reapect to the set of seismogeological data the system of Tsipa-Bauntovskiy and Tilishminskiy transitional structures is dietinguished by reduced (by comparison with the rift zone) seismic po- tential and bel~ngs as a whole to the regions with force 9 seismic danger. - 377 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 TOR OFFICIAL U5~ ONLY Nere the Tiliahminakiy fault zone controlling Che development of the embryon- , ic baein gttd beartng Cracea of �orce 10 earChquakes remaine a region of in- _ creased selamiciCy. The force 9 regiona both with respect to atruceur~l-teceonic and engineering- aeiamogeocryological characteriaCics, and with respecC eo aeiamic danger~ are nonuniform. Wirh detailed investigaCiona ehis permits isolation (eape- cially in the large rift basins with a Chicknesa of the loose depoaita of more Chan 300 to 400 meters) of the areas~ the iniCial normative seiamiciCy of wt~ich can be low by 1 force pnint. Neverthelesa, iC ie necessary again to emphasize that under Che conditiona of Eastern Siberia in the force 9 - seismic regiona, especially on the island permafrost, the choice of sections - for large-acale construction requirea preliminary detailed engineering- - geological, aeismogeocryological and seismic atudies, ~nd the zon~s of increased aeiamic danger (aeiamically active faults) in general must be ex- cluded for capital conatruction (naturally, wiCh the exception of coum?uni- caCiona). . 3. The areas with earthquake intenaity of force 8 occupy the smallest areas in the mountain belt of Eastern Siberia, encompassing the marginal parts of the Sayan-Baykal-~tanovoy arch. In Transbaykal they includa the vicinity of the Chikoy Basin which previously was clasaified as force 7 increased aeiamic danger (Solonenko, V., 1963a)2. The isolation of the force 8 seiamic regions is caused both by the spread of Che "transit" tremora from the highly seiamic regions and by local centers with intensity to force The greater part of them are locaCed at signifi- cant distance from the highly active rift zone. - The boundaries of the force 8 regions are substantiated first of all by re- duced seismic potential of the neoCectonic atructures on the limbs of the - Sayan'-Baykal-Stanovoy arch and, aecondly, the width of the zones encompassed by the "transit" tremors from the direction of the highly seismic (force 9 and 10) regions (see Table 20) [sic-=perhaps they mean Table 19--TranslatorJ. In addition, the amall force S re~ions with respect to area are isolated within the li~nits of the rift zone itself. This is primarily the internal, deeply (more than 300-400 meters) plunged parta of the large rift basins with weak differentiation of the basement removed from the seismic active borders (for example, the No;cthern Baykal Basin). The scale of the map _ does not permit depiction of such sections in o':her rift structures with thick series of loose depoaita. However, it is necessary to consider that in the Tunkinskaya, the Barguzin, the Upper Angara, the Muya and the Chara Basins it appears possible to is~late small force 8 area:~. Thi;~ pertatns also tu the central, weakly differentiated parts of certain rift uplifts (for example, Barguzin, Southern Muya, Udolc~n, Kalar and Kodar Ridges). ' 2 I:1 the SNiP-IIA, 12-69, by recommenda~�ion of the editorial commission o� the Earth Phyaics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences it was inciuded in Che force 6 regiona although this contradicted the factual data (Solonenko, V., 1966a, page i67). 378 FOR OFFICIAt. L'SE OIv'LY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICYAL USE ONLY On ehe whole, tM$ forc~ 8 regione, with reapect to their structural-geo- logical peculiaritiea and nature of eeiamic manifeatationa, are still more nonuniform Chan force 9. Among them the following are isolated: 1. Tt~e moderately act:ive areae (A ~ 0.02-0.1~ K < 14)~ whera both local force 8 earthquttkes and the l~"transit" Cremoe from the center zonea of highly seiamic (fo~ce 9 and 10) regiona occur. In the rif~ belt, as has already been noted~ Cttese are the central parts of the large basins and the axial sections of the arch-block and block uplifCe removed from the seie- mically acCive faulta. These include also the f],a~nk morphoatructurea of the Baykal rift zone within the boundariea of Che arch-block uplift of Fastern Sayan and Stanovik. - ' 2. The weakly active (A1 ~ 0.01-0.05; K ~ 12-13) regions of predominant- - ly "transit" tremors witFi~low recurrence ra~e of local shocks wiCh intenaity to force 8. These are the marginal, weakly differentiated parte of primarily the arch uplifCs and depression lowlanda in the *_ranaiCional region to the Transbaykal block-wave zona. 3. The in practice "centerleas" areas with extremely low values of the _ modern seiamic activity (A10 < 0.01)~ where only the "transit" tremors are exhibited. Theae are predominantly the n~arginal (ahield) uplifts and to a leaser degree, the foothills troughe of th~~ activated part of the Siberian Platform. 4. The moderately active region of the Ch3koy Basin in Southwestern Trans- baykal (see below). The macroseismic atudy of atrong earthquakes (force 9, 10 and higher) in the - territory of the Mongolian-Baykal aeismic belt and the seismogeological analysis of the residual deformations indicate (see Table 20 [sic]) that the force F aurface effects extend from the epicenter of the force 9 earth- quake (with a depth of center of 15-20 km) to a diatance of up to 130 km, and force 10, to 160 lan. Accordingly, an extraordinarily nonuniform intensity distribution on the earth's crust.ia noted (especially in the preaence of complex engineering-geological, geomorphological and geocryological condi- - tions). Therefore the "mechanical" outlining of the force 8 regions by the magnitude of the establiahed maximum radii of the corresponding isoseisms can lead to aignificant un~ustif ied expansion of the area of the regions. The "tranait" tremors of the force 9 and 10 center zones of highly seismic regions are in the final analysis defining when drawing the boundaries of the force 8 regions. Here, in all of the known cases the force 8 macroseis- mic effects (average) of the strongest earthquakes of the Baykal-Stanovoy seismic zone have not spread more than 160 km from their epicenters, and this boundary was taken as initial for the initial external boundary of the force 8 r~gion. Then it wae corrected depending on the seismotECtonic situa- tion, the nature of the epicentral fields, the isolines of seismic activity, K~X, and so on. Here a check was made wi~h respect to macroseismic effects (a so average) from the force 9 center zones. However, for definite quanti- = tative estimates of these regione (especially in the marginal zones of the - Sayan-Baykal-Stanovoy arch) there are still insufficient instrument and FOR OFFICIEtC. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~OR OF~ICIAL US~ ONLY seiemogeological data, and it ia neceasary to uae the materials with re- spect to oCher eeiemicnlly active regione (Mongolia, CenCral Aaia, Cali- fornia, and so on). On withdrawing from the axial Baykal-Stanovoy seiemic zone, two force 8 regions are isolated in which the centera of the local earthquakea wieh - an intenaity to force 8(K < 15) are posaible. In the inveatigaCed - territory of Eastern Siber~aX boCh of theae regiona are repreaented only by their marginal parrs. One of them--the northwestern flank of the extended Tukuringra-Dzhagdinakaya seismically active zone--encompasses part of Che Chernyaheva and Tukuringra _ ridges extending to the Upper Zeyak Basin. This reg{on on the exiating seiemic regionalization map (SNiP-IIA 12-69) belongs to force 5-6. How- ever, the aeiamogeological and the inatrument aCudies performed here in 1970-1971 and in 1974-1975 in connection with planning the BAM [Bayka~- Amur Railroadj route and building the Zeyalc Hydroelectric Power Plant [SEISMOTECTONICS..., 1975b) have made iC poasible to reexamine Che eatimaCe - of the seiamic conditions of thia territory. The force 8 potential seiamicity here ia determined by the modern tectonic _ - activity of the Tukuringra arch-block uplift and the systems of latest faults bounding it (Gilyuyakiy, Tukuringra, Southern Tukuringra, and so on), partially entering into the Mongolian-Okhotsk deep fault zone. These struc- tures are connectE~d with quite numerous epicentera of earthquakes with K= 9-14. In recent years force 6-7 shocks were recorded here, and on _ 2 November 1973, the Zeysk earthquake occurred with M= 5.6; K n 14~ I~ = force 8(Semenov, Avdeyev, 1975). It confirmed the correctness of the isolation of the force 8 region along the Tukuringra zone. According to the preliminary seiemogeological materials, in 1967 V. N. Solonenko already _ forecasted high seismic activity of this territory. In connection with what has been discussed, the force 5-6 estimate of poten- tial seismicity of the Zeyak Region finding reflection in the SNiP II-A. 12-69 appears to be extremely unaubstantiated, which, beginning in 1967, was - made known by the design organizationa (Lengidroproyekt, Gidroproyekt). In Southwestern Transbaykal, the Chikoy Basin is considered to be force 8. According to the aeismic data in it moderate seismic activity is noted - (A10 = 0.01-0.02; K~ < 13), th~t is, the expected maximum earthquake in- - tensity here can reac~i force 7. However, the Chikoy Basin is part of the broad Khentey-Daurskaya seismically active zone which reaches into Northern Mongolia. The western segment of this ~�-~ended zone in the territory of Mongolia exhibited itself in 1905 with the strongest earthquakes (M = 8.4 and 8.7; JD = force 11 and 12). - 380 FOR OFFICIAI. L'SE Ob'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY . , For the viciniey of the Chikoy Basin~ gccording Co ~elamoeCatistics~ a force 8(M ~ 6) earthquake wae knnwn in 1934 (Solonenko, V., 1968a~ page 367); in addition~ during the eeiemogeological aCudies (Laetochkin, 1972) - the residual deformationa of Che force 9 earthquakes were establ3ehed here (the Yadrikhinekaya and the Kuyuktuyekaya etructures). The posaibility of the occurrence of the centere of force 8 earthquakae in this area ie also . indicated by the higheet magnitude of the velocity gradienta of the verCical neot8ctonic~movements for the territory o� Tranebayk~l-- ~grad V~~ x(0.4~-0.6)� �10' year` ~ All of thia forces us to clasaify the Chikoy Basin as force 8. Its bound- ariea are drawn conaidering Che nature of the damping of the macroseismic effecta in the example of the earthquake of 1934 (Popov, 1939) and uaing data on the averaged isoseiame (aee Table 29 (sicJ). The regions with earthquake intenaity of force 7 encompass large areas with comparatively weak differentiation, contraet and inteneity of the latest tectonic movementa. On the one hand theae regione include the weakly active (A p < 0,01; K < 12) marginal uplifta of the Aldan Shield, the Northern Baykal and the�~xPatomakiy Highlanda and the poCentially aseismic marginal troughs and uplifts of the Irkut amphitheater, and on the other hand~ the ~ greater part of the Transbaykal block-wave zone (A - 0.01-0.05; K ~ 12- 13) and the aection of the Nyukzha-Gilyuyekiy depression between theagtanovoy Uplift and the Tukuringra Ridge. In the direction of the Siberian Platform, the centera of local earthquakes ' (with K w~.thin the limits to 10) are extremely rare with the exception of the activated part of the Aldan Shield were in the vicinity of the Chul'man depression and the uplifts framing it on the north, increased seismic activity - is noted (A10 to 0.05), and it is poseible to expect an earthquake with Km8 = 13). The aeiamic dangers of these territories is determined basically by ~he "transit" tremors from the center zones of the force 8-10 regions. In the Irkut amphitheaCer, the local force 7-6 centers are in practice ex- cluded. At the same time the macroaeismic data with respect to strong earth- quakes from the highly seismic zones give riae to the isolation of the force - 7 region over a significant territory of this atable and rigid block of the eaith's crust, including primarily the Priatanovoy and Predbaykal'skiy troughs. On the whole the boundary of the force 7 region on the Siberian Platform side, by comparison with Che preceding map, was left unchanged with the exception of the small aections in the aouthern part of the Aldan Shield and in the Baykal-Patomakiy Highland where it is augmented as a result of the force 8 region. The new force 7 seismic region is isolated in the southern p~rt of Yakutia _ _ within the limits of the marginal structures of the Siberian Platform, the seismicity and the latest tectonics uf which have not been investigated, and therefore they were coneidered aseismic (with respe~ct to their platform situation). However, on 8 October 1974, a force 7 earthquake occurred here (M ~ 5.2; K= 13), the epicenter of which was located in the Berezovakiy 381 FOR OFFICIAi. L'SE ONLY =-7 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 ~ ~ox o~~zcrni. usr orrLY trough (see ChapCer VII). According Co Che exieCing macroseiemic materials, - here a quite eignif icant force 7 area with respect Co aize was isolated, Che basic parr of which mueC be to the norCh, in Che Y~kut aeiemic zone, where the system of extended faulte running from ttortiheaeti to the Berezov- skiy trough was ieolated. The boundaries of tihe region before performing tihe sp~~cial seiamogeological atudiea must be conaidered quiCe approximaCe. The broadest force 7 region encompaesea part of Weatern Tranabaykal, Central Transbaykal and a small area of Easeern Transbaykal. For atrong earthquakes in the Baykal-Stanovoy zone, the tremor intensiCy reaches force 7 for epi- central distances to 320 km, and in individual cases to 500 and even 675 km. Thu~, for example, for the earthquake of 1 February 1725 [sic] the center of which is moat probably located in the Ukokan seiemically active zone~ in Chita (the epicentral distance is abouC 600 km)~ even Che force 8 macro- - aeismic effecta were noted. Here, during the Muya earChquake (about 500 km) on 27 June 1957~ numeroua cases of deformations of the atructurea correspond- ing at least to force 7 macroaeiamic effecCa were noted, and for Che Tas- Yuryakhakiy (675 km) on 18 January 1957, individual cases of auch deformations. The seismogeological data, the increased velocity gradients and also the rela- tively high degree of differentiation and contrasC of the vertical neoCec- tonic movements indicates the posaibility of the occurrence in the investi- gated areas of Transbaykal of 1oca1 force 7 earthquake centers. These in- - clude the Uletovskoye earthquake of 1912, the group of Western Transbaykal shocka of 1835) 1856 and i,915, the earthquakes of 1963, in Priargun'ye and 1965 (M = 5 1/2, in the v:lcinity of the Daurskiy Arch. In a number of places, - ' seismogravitational structures are noted (for example, Tanginskaya in Che border of the Ingoda Basin). With respect to Che seismological data, over a significant area of Transbaykal earthquakes are possible with K = 13. Here the relatively high ~~alues of the velocity gradients of the �vertical neotectonic movements (2�~'.0-O~grad V~m < 4�1'0'9 years'1) serve as confirma- tion of the force 7"background" seismicity, which, according to M. V. Gzovskiy, can correspond t~ force 7~~and more rarely force 8 earthquakes. - Some expansion of the area of the force 7 regions in Transbaykal is caused, on the one hand, by the appearance of new seismostatistical materials indi- cating the local force 7 ea~.rthquakea (22 June 1963, M= 5.3, K= 13; 21 November 1965, ~ 5 1/4,, K@ 14; 3 September 1970, M= 4.5,�K m 13), and on the other hand, more careful analysis of the seismotectonic situa- - tion, including the velocity gradients of the lateat movements. ; Ttie total area of the force 7 regiona in Eastern Siberia have increased by comparison with the 1962 map and SNiP-IIA. 12-69, from 516,000 to 558,000 km2 both as a result of a reduction in area of the force 8 regions (the Aldan Shield, the Baykal-Patomskoye Highland) and as a result of e~cpansion of the force 6 regions (EPStern Transbaykal). The regions with earthquake intensity of force 6 are isolated on the Siberian Platform and in the southeastern part of Che Transbaykal block-wave zone (Eastern Transbaykal subzone). - 382 . - FOR OFFICIAi. L'SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY On the pl~Cform the area and confi~uration of Che force 6 aeiamic region are caused by the naCure of propagation of Che "traneit" seiamic oecilla- tions from force 7 og Che Baykal-Sta~n~ovoy zone of the arch-block and rifCo- genic movements~ In SoutheasCern Tranebaykal~ on the contrary, the 1oca1 center zones (K < 13) have defining significance, and the "CransiC" tremora play the subord~nate role. As a reault of the remoteneae of th~ aeiemic stationa from these areae~ the preciaion of determining the epicenters of the eartihquakes ie inaufficient to establiah the relation of the earthquake centers to the epecific geological atructures and the morphoatructurea. _ On the Siberian Platform aide, the boundary of the force 6 zone is quite reliably aubatantiated by the seiamostatistical material~ and therefore in ~ general is left without change by comparison with the previously exiating m~p (Solonenko~ V., 1963a, 1968a). At the eame time, within the limits of the Eastern Transbaykal aubzone the area of the farce 6 region is increased - as a result of the force 5 region isolated here. Thia ie cauaed primarily . by the new seiemostatiatical data and increased values of the v locity gradienta of Che verCical lateat movements to (1-2)~10'9 years-~. The most active in the terriCory of Eastern Transbaykal appesrs to be the Nerchinako-Zavodskoy region where weak ahocks have been quite frequently recorded (K < 12), and in individual years (for example, 1700, 1800, and so on), stronger earthquakes were noted according to he macroseismic data. The latter, poasibly, are connected with the "transit" tremors from the - Sranovoy and the Mongolian-Okhotak deep fracture zone. It has not been ex- ~ cluded that part of the weak local earthquakes here are not of tectonic origin, but landslip orig~~ (collapses of old mines, karstic caves, and so on). Peculiarities of the Seismic Manifestations Under Permafrost Conditions The problem of special engineering-seismological conditions of the perma- - _ frost region has been recently stated (Solonenko, V., 1960b, 1962a), but purposeful special studies were started only in 1966 on the east bank of - the Baykal rift zone wher~~ high seiamic activity and complex permafrost, the thicknesa of which varies in short distances from 0 to 1100-1300 meters are combined (Nekrasov, et al, 1967; NQkrasov, 1970). These and subsequent studies performed under the direction of 0. V. Pavlov in the Barguzin rift valley and in Transbaykal, and laboratory experiments confirmed thz proposi- ~ tion of eharp contrast of the variation of the seismic vulnerability as a function of the permafrost c~nditions (Solonenko, V., et al., 1970, 1972; - Pavlov, et al., 1972; Zarubin, Pavlov, 1973; Dzhurik, Leshchikov, 1973; the necessity for isolating a special engineering-seism~geocryological = region in the seiamic region has come. In the Northern Hemisphere3 it occupies an area on the ordez of 10 million lan2, that is, about 3.5 million km2 in the territory of the USSR, and the rest in North America (Canada, Alaska), Northeastern Greenland and on the islands in the Arctic Ocean. 3 The Antarctic ie in practice aseiamic. v 383 FOR OFFICI~V. LSE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/48: CIA-RDP82-44850R000100034411-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - The effect of the seiamic proceases on permafroat is especially cle~rly - and directly obvious in the aeismogenic etructurea which during atrong earChquakea experience multimeter vertical and horizontal displacements. Here old fracture zones are uncovered~ and new ones occur which insure Che conditiona for the formation of anomalous endogenic (ascending) and _ exogenic (deacending) Chermal fluxes. The most high~y seiamic permafrost region in Eurasia is the Baykal rift zone. The cryolithozone is extraordinary here. In the rifC valleys there is permafrost of the "Baykal type" (Solonenko, V., 1960b): even near the southerY? boundary of ehe cryolithozone the permafroat is encountered to a depth of hundreds of ineters. In tihe section the permafrost has two layereu atructure. The upper horizon ia modern, predominantly insular permafrost ~ to Cena of ineCera thick and rarely more than 100 meCers (in the northern basins according to the geological data, to 200-250 meters). The lower _ horizon of the permafrost ia relict, syngenetic. It was formed obviously on the boundary of Che Holocene where the climatic conditions promoted the formation of permafrost, and the high mobility of ~he earth's crust noted - by seismic acti~�ation, its aubmersion and burial. These horizons rarely _ merge; as a rule, they are aeparated by a horizon of thawed ground from tens to hundreds of ineters thick. The Baykal type ~erma�rost can b~ encountered noC only in the rift zone but also in other geological structures experiencing aignificant plunging at the end of the Pleiatocene to Che beginning of the Holocene. The dependence of the cryolithozone on the type and nature of movement of the tectonic structures has been confirmed by the geothermal observations = , (Demidyuk, 1968). The least value of the thermal fluxes (on the order eri 300 kcal/m2-year) and greatest thickness of thE: permafrost were established in the negative structures. A significantly higher thermal flux to 4,000 _ to 26,000 kcal/m2-year in the positive atructures and maximal, to 160,000 kcal/m2-year and more was established with respect to the tectonic dis- turbance zones. There�ore in the seismically active regions, even in the - frozen layer of low temperature (to -10� and lower) thick (to 1100 meters and more) permafrost, narrow, but extensive taliks [thawed ground] are encountered coordlnated with the zonee ~f tectonic disturbances and, above all, ttie seismogan:ic lineaments. They _:re often well deciphered with re- spect to vegetat-ion, more "luxurious" and heat-loving by ~omparison with the vegetation of the sections alongside. However, there can be exceptions to this general rule. The inactive faults, during the course of the seismo- , genic movements of the earth's crust, often passively open up, and cold - air can pour into them, which will promote the development o' permafros~ and the formation of lode ice to significant depths (on the east flank of the Baykal rift zone on the Udokan Ridge we were able to observe veins of - ice to tens of centimeters thick at a depth of about 700 meters). 384 FOR OFFICIAI:. LSE OIvLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVE~ FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-R~P82-00850R000'1000300'1'1-5 ~ I ' , I y 6!lARCH i979 FOUO _ S OF 3 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ1 QOQ3Q011-5 , ~OF~ O~~ICIAI. U5E dNLY The p~rm~froet esaentielly coroplicetes the geismic regionalization~ The proper ~~lection of the combingtion of pernafroet and aeigmic ch~racterie- tir.g he.e important algnificance here. Kowever~ it ie imposeible to con- eider a11 of the v~riety of permafrogt condiel.ona; Cherefore unavoidgbly it is necessery to ~ise a rough classification geocryological echeme. Ag , the fir~ti pxperiment~ the following vereione was proposed (Solonenko~ V., ~ 1973): I--individual iglande; II--insular; III--with talik ielands: a) block, b) cellular or mosaic; IV--continuous; V--Baykal type. The aeismic propertiea of permafrost depend not only on the granulometric ' composition~ the icinese and temperarure, but also the thicknesa of the permafrogt, Che con~iCions of ite oc~urrence, ar~d so on. These relations ~ are varied; many of tr?~m have eCill not been atudied. In the first ap- proximation the perma,froet is di~~ided up with reapect to aeismic ~roper- ties into hard frozen, platy and paeudothawed and loos~ly frozen. The solidly frozen includes the ground, with .reapect to the velocities of the longitudinal se,9mi.: wavea (3.5-4 km/s~c and higher) and the oscillation emplitudeb~ simila~ to rocic. Its temperature is below -2 to -3�. Ti~e loosely frozen and pseudothawed ground has temperaturea above -1�~ and tre seismic propertiea of this ground are appr�oximately the same as for the truly thawed ground. The platy frozen ground takes an intermediate . position with reapect :o its seismogeocryological characteristics. Witi~ the accumulation of factual material, it appears possible to classify _ the aeismic permafrost-lithologic complexea. Their boundaries far from a:ways coincide with the boundaries of the engineering-geological micro- districts. For example~ in one seismic lithological-permafrost cAmplex there can be platy frozen coarsely clastic depc.eits and solidly frozen fine grained soil (the velocities of the longitudinal wavesy frequency- ampl'.tude characteristica of them can be in practice identical). On mr~king the rransition to the pseudothawed or thawed etate the force of the former is higher by one and the latter, by two or three; the bearing capacity and other geotechni~al properti~es will be different. F.ach of the isolated types of permafrost tias its osm specific engineering- ` seismageocryological peculiarities. Type I. The thickneas of the permafrost in indiviciur~l islands usually is - less than 15 to 20 metera. The thin (firat tens of ineters) lenses of perma- - frost either have no significant effect on the amplitude level of the oscil- lations or during passage of the seismic waves they cause aharply expressed resonance phenomena. In the pre8ence of water saturated soil above them . capable of mud eruptions, the permafrost lenses can receive additional low frequency oscillations. The breaking up of the beds ar.d lenses of perma- frost, the settiing of the individual blocks and fast degredation of it are not excluded. Therefore the construction of the capital structures on the - permafrost islands without preliminary thawing of it in the seismic regions is undeairable. - 385 FOR OFFICI~. L'SF ~ti2Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Oit O~FICIAL U5~ dNLY Typ~ II. Insular permafrost usually is high temperature. The aoil is pl~ty frozen dr pseudnChawed. By comparison with the rock and solidly froxen ground the intensity of the earthquakee rige~ by one to three force pointg~ Th~ fine-grained highly icy ground wiCh layered and reticu- lar gtructure ie especiglly dangeroue. . With a permafroeC thickn~as on the order of 20 to 40 metere in Che presence of interlayers of thawed or pgeudothawed ground in it, resonance phenomena and an increase geismic danger by tWO to three force points are probable. In the presence of talik and p~eudothawed sinks~ cumulative prc~cesaes are probable which can involve mulCiple increase in amplitudes of +.he oac~lla- ` tions and spouting of the ground in the central parte tne ealike. Construct~on in this type of permafrost i~ also ut'~deF~irable~ but it can tiurn out Co be unavoideble, for it irequently de~rp3ops in the moet conven- ient areas for deve?opment in river valleys and intermontane basins. Type III. Permafrost with talik ialands can turn out to be the moeC complex (especially Che cellular aubtype) for engineering-seiemogeocryological ex- ploration and regionalization ae a reault of the whimsical combination of solidly frozen~ platy frozen~ paeudothawed and thawed ground with aharply different seismic properties~ and the morphology of t,: cryolithozone itself promotes broad and varied manifeatation of reaonance and cumulative processes4. ~or the blocks subtype permafrosC the talik lineaments next to the faults are the most aeiemically dangerous as a result of the total increase in force points as a result of thawed ground and movements along the disloca- tions with a break in continuity. _ The variations in the force poiats by comparison with the initial ones in the areas with type IZI permafrost can fluctuate from minue oae or taro to plus one to three points. Type IV. The solid permafrost predominantly With solidly frozen ground in - the foundation of the structurea. When constructing while retaining the permafrost, the normative force pointg can be lowered by one. Uaually the structures are erected on pilinge with ventilated basements. However, the nature of the operation of the pilings in two (Winter) or three layer medivm~ seismically sharply nonuniform~ remains unclear. The oscillations of the foundation are realized as a result of the upper part of the ground, and with depth the amplitude of the oscillations decreases rapidly. All of this can lead to powerful shearing atresses of the pilings. Ho~+ever, the latter can play the role of a clexible foundation which under defined structural - characteristice has a F~~sitive effect on the earthquake proofness. 4 This proposition hae found confirmation in the instrument engineering- seismological atudies petformed under the direction of 0. V. Pavlov. It was eatablished that in the talika of limited size the increase in intensity of the tremors reachea force 2. 386 - FOR OFFICIAi. L'SE 012Y , . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY Und~r ~Cructures with hot Cechnological processea~ as a rule~ Cglik ainks occur Which have a~hgrply negative effect on their eeiemic conditions. Type V. In Che areae with Baykal type permafroaC~ a number of apecific engineeri~g-seismogeocryological problems ariee. The multilayered struc- ture of the loose series fi}lling Che basine of the Baykal type can change - the is~~eismal field sharply. Yt is poseible that thie ie one of the causea of eignificant divergence sf the intensity of the tremors not only in the - closely Iocated ground, but evea individual p~rts of the same atructure which we have often encountered when inveatigating the consequences of etrong earChquakes (Solonenko, V.~ 1960c). Before the apecial stu~diea of the aeismic propertiea of the areas with perma- frost of Che Baykal type iC is neceaeary to orient ouraelves on the proper- ties of the upper (modern) horizon of the permefrost considering that the - lower thick (taundreds of ineters) aeries of loose and frozen sedimenta ex- tinguiah the force of the aeismic shocks aC leasC by one point (Solonenko, V.~ 1962a; ACTIVE TECTONICS..., 1966). In the case of seismic re~lonalization of the permafrost region it is neces- sary to compile either a complex permafrost-seismic map or auperpose a geocryological map of the same scale on the basic map. The detailed seismic regionalization ia most efficiently carried out on the basie of the morpho- structural complex engineering-geological and geocryological regionaliza- tion. In the case of seiemic microregionzlization, in accordance with the basic - construction principlee (While maintaiuing or destroying the permafrost) , it is proposed that two maps be compiled: for natural conditions and for thawed ground (Solonenko, V., et al., 1970, 1972). , For xegionalization of the territoriea of the specific Rtructural complexes, a specialized map can be compil~d considering the new postconstruction perma- frost conditions or temporary mapa with respect to the periods of mastery of the areas, considering that the temperature, the iciness, the ratio of the solid and liquid phases of the Water~ porosity aad denaity of the soil during the courae of developmeat and during the year vary continuously re- ~ versibly and irrevereibly. The seismic properties of the rock vary corres- pondingly: acouetic rigidity, amplitudes and periods of the oscillations - of the ground, resonance and cumulative properties and also the nature of _ the interaction of the ground-structure system. An earthquake has an active effect on the courae, especially the rate of the geocryological processes _ and phenomena: solifluction is accelerated, the movemeat of places is facilitated as a reault of the masa alipping of the active layer, the - established thermal regimen of the upper horizons of the permafrost is dis- turbed, which causes degredation of it With all of the consequences follow- ing therefrom~ and it promotes the formation of ayalanches. At the same time the permafrost to a significant degree determines the nature of the seismo- gravitational phenomena, conaolidatiag the rock masses on the slopes and at ~ the same time reducing the number of landslipa, laadslides, earth and rock avalanches~ especially during earthquakea o~curring during complete freezing of the active layer. FOR OFFIC I~. L'SE Oti'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 , ~OR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The Oymygkonskoye earthquake of 18 :tay 1971 (force 9~ M~ 7) wae indica- tive in thia respect. Its epicenter was near the pole nf cold of the Northern Hemiephere. In Che pleisCoceism zone over an area of 3 x 6 km along the fau1C zone maseive separations of the Chawing parC (abouC 0.3 - mecere) of the nctive layer occurred. Tne soil-vegetative mgs~ in the velleys of the r;vers formed mud flowa up to 5 to 6 meCern thick. On the general alopes (to 15�) and in the horizontal aections mass spouting of fine gravely type soil occurred (Kurushin~ et al., 1972), but it was not accompanied by significant aubsidence aa is observed in Che permafrost areas. On the whole, as a result of the permafzost~ the seiamogravita- tional phenomena during this earthquake encompaesed a smaller area and had amaller dimensions Chan for idenCical earChquakes in the nonperma- froat areas. The distribution of tne tremors ov~r the aurface of Che earth was also re- markable: in the area with solid permafrost Che inCensiCy of the Cremor wae regularly attenuated. At a distance of 250 to 350 km, it dropped to ~ force 4 and then conCinued to aCtenuate. but at the epicentral disCance of 450-500 km on reaching the inoular permafrost region near the Sea of Okhotsk, the intensity of the tremor rose by 1 to 2 pointe. The force 4 tremor ~ras felt on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk at a distance of about 700 km. The relation of the tremor intensity to the type of permafrosC in the given case is obvioua and indisputable (Solonenko, V., 1972a). Tt~e extended iced zones frequently are connecCed with fissure-stratal water of the seiamogenic lineamenta. In the seismogenic ~ointed zones in places very thick ice fields are formed--to 10 t~ 15 meters or r~ore in the Syul'- banskaya~ China-Vakatekaya seismogenic structures of the rift system of the ` Stanovoy Highland (ACTIVE TECTONICS..., 1966). During the earthquake some- - times a powerful "volley" eruption of water takes place which under winter conditions leada to disastrous formations of giant ice fields. Thus, during - the Gobi-Altay earthquak~ of 4 December 1957 (force 12, M= 8.6) an ice - field more tfian 10 km long was formed (Solonenko, V., et al., 1960a). - ' Ir. the sections with highly icy soil the earthquakes cause or activate thermo{:arstic processes. This is insured either as a result of the forma- _ tion of fissures through which the ground ~rater and surface water pours into the permafrost or as a result of throwing off of the active layer and uncovering the permafroat. Strong seismic shocks are not necessary for this; weak earthquake awat7ns can cause the same effect. For example, in 1967 in the vicinity of Leprindo Lake in the Stanovoy H~.ghland in the epi- central area an earthquake swarm (85 ahocics) of moderate intensity (K to 10-11) suddenly formed a thermokarstic mud valley 650 meters long, 10 to 15 metera wide with a depth to 6 metere and a thermokarstic sink more than 2,500 m2 in area and 20 meters deep (in moraine). 388 FOR OFFICIAI. L'SE 01~'LY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 I FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY Engineering seismogeology has been faced wiCh complex problems in general~ and especially under the conditions of permafroat (Slonoenko, V., 1971~ 19~3). The existing meChode of ~eismic regionalization have been developed ueing the materials from the seiemic regions of osr southern republics and foreign countries with poeitive geochermal regimen of rhe aoil. The engi- neering-geological and instrumen~ aeismological obaervaCiona give the soil - parameters, characterietic of them during the investigation. During further engineeric~g-seiemogeological interpretation, the etability of theae parame- ters ia underetood. Under permafrost conditiona the geotechnical and seiamic _ properti~s of the soil in the vicinity of Che ef~;ective engineering aCruc- tures change conatantly. Therefore the existing development wiCh respect to the aeiemic regionalization procedure, eepecially microregionalization are unacceptable to a eignificane degree in a permafrost region. All of che growing .~�atea of developmenC of seismic regions in permafrost areas are bringing about a new acientific area--engineering seismogeocry- ology. We have alread had the o . y pportunity to state (Solonenko, V., et al., 1~71) that in the seismic areas of permafrost regions, during construction the antiseismic measures must be combined with antipermafrost measures. There- fore in order to aelect optimal construction sites the seismological and engineering-~eocryological exploration ie ineufficien~. A careful economic analyais is also needed. For example, conatruction in a force 8 region with inaular permafrost (types I~ II and partially V) can be more expensive than in a force 9 region but with favorable engineering-~eiamogeocryological conditiona. 389 ' FOR OFFICIAi. L'SE ONLY _ I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 : FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY, ~ CONCLUSION The analysis of the seismological. seiemogeological, geophyaica]. and paleo- seismological data wiCh respect to the Eastern~ Siberian seismic region has demonetrated that on the modern level of scien~,ce, the seismic regionaliza- tion can be carried ouC only with complex uae of the enumerated materials. Depending on the local conditiona, the "weigYi~t" of certain data can be . varied significantly. In spite of the obvioua achievementa in aeiamc~logy, aeiamogeology and geo- physics, the aeiemostatiatical (macroaeiemic ~,ad inetrument) and paleo- aeiamogeological data rem$in as before the on].y reliable data for eati- mating the true level of aeismicity. At the preaent time far �rom all of the territ~ory of Eastern Siberia has been encom~asaed by the comple~ studfes. The basic efforts have been aimed at studying the most seismically active parts-~-the Baykal rift zone--which has been investigated in quite eome detail ove~.r its entire extent (about 2,000 km). As a reeult of the complex studies it was disc,overed that the Baylcal seismic _ belt is with respect to external signs alone ~~art of a united Asian aeist�ic . zone entering into Eaetern Siberia from Mongol,ia. At the southeasteru pro- ~ection of the Aldan Shield the seismic belt i,s branched: one branch is the Dzhugdzhurskaya, which runs to the Sea of Okhc~tak, and the other, the Verkhoyanskaya, turna sharply to the northwest; and runs to the rift system of the Aretic Ocean. This purely external fac,tor (seismicity) has provided the basis for certain authors to see the relat:ion of the Baykal rift zone to the world rift 8yatem. However, the indivi,.dual parts of the seismic ` zone are connected With various types of neote~.ctonic structures, different geophysical fielda and tectonic stresa fields. They ~ave different depths and earthquake centex mechaniame, that is, thEuy are different with respect to the main tectonic-phyaical signR. As is known, the effect of the tensile atressEi.s acroes the structures is one of the most characteristic (if not the dnl,y) aigns of typical rifts. 390 FOR OFFICIat. L'SE Oh'L'Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~ FOR OFrICIAL USE ONLY In this respect the B~ykal rift zone is reliably ieolated from the world rifC syetem by broad fields of near horizontal compresaion. Moreover, it is exCremely complexly conetructed, both with reapecC to morphoatructural aCtributee and the deep structure, and it has a mobile tectonic regimen~ Over Che greater part ~f ita extenC, Che various morphoetriicCures of th~~ Baykal syatem are undergoing energetic modern growth in the lateral and dis- tal directione and rearra~gpment. The growth of the baeina along the atrike is moet clearly expreea~d to Ch~ east of the Upper Angara Baein. Here the interrifC mountain commiasures are broken by the newly formed basina which finda refleckion in the in- - creased (by 3 to 5 timea by comparison with Che mean) ~eismic activity of _ the interbasin mountain commissurea and also the easCern disCal zone of the rift system. In the latter~ the riftogenic processes still have almost not received morphosCructural expreesion. With reapect to the velocity gradienta of the vertical tectonic nwv~menta, Che geophyeical and seiemological cal- ~ culations, K here is no more Chan 12 to 14 with rare recurrence rate. ActuaYly, th~eXis one of the moet eeismically dangerous sectia~~s of the rift zone with probable er.rong and frequent earthquakes with K to 16-17. On the other hand, on ~he southwest (Eastern Sayan) flank of the rift system fading of the riftogenic procesaea is taking place. Whereae in the Baykal rift zone the seismic activity ie determined pri,marily by the development of rift ba~ina, in the Transbaykal block-wave zone, the arched uplifts have increased aeiamic potential. They are weakly recompen- sated (see Chapter IV), and the energy of the compensation uplifts is small, insurinA manifeatation of rsre atrong (to force 8, M to 6) earthquakea. However, theee earthquakea are occurring, and it is imposaible not to con- � sider them during s~ismic regiona~ization. Between the Baykal rift and the Transbaykal block-wave zones a system of . - aubrift structures has been isolated, the aeismotectonic development of which is taking place on interaction of the movements of the riftogenic and Trans- baykal typea. Thie hae also predetermined the potential aeismicity of the subrift etructurea: the total amplitude of the vertical movements is: the Neogene-Quaternary time in them is twice ae high as the Tranebaykal Basins, but three to four times lower by comparison with the nearest rift vall~ys. The poaeibilitiea of the occurrence of earthquakea of maximum t~tensity _ _ (more than force 9) here obviously are lower, which was taken into account when isolating the seiamic regiun. _ The Siberi~n Platform, appearing to be previously aeismically passive turned - out to be not so lifeless. In any case, in its marginal part earthquakes are possible and sometimea occur ~for example, 8 October 1974, K= 13�, I~ a force 7) which are not inferior with respect to energy to the Tashkent earthquake of 1966. Thia significantly expanda the area of the required - seismogeological-geophysical atudies in Eastern Siberia (in any case When - building structures of increased danger: the high-head hydroelectric power plant dams, and so on). 391 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The quick improvemenC of Che aeiamic regionalization map of ~astern Siberia � hae become poseible as a reault of Che appltcaCion of Che paleoseismogeo- lo~ical method (combined with oCher methods of inveaCigarion). When u~ing ttie populgr procedures (without paleoseismoge~lagical procedures) a long - term accumulaCion of aeiamoaCaCistical material is required. The ob~ective analyais of tt~e various data has demonserated rhaC wherever ehe upper 1eve1 of the seismicity of specific aeismogeni~ structurea (the rift zone) has been deCermined by Che paleaseiamodislocationa with certainCy, Che seismo- logical and geophyaical materials confirm the high values of K~X, A1U and Che recurrence rates of the earthquakes. Where there are no signs af paleoseismodislocations (the ed~es of Che Siberian - Platform), Chere Coo, according Co instrument data the seismic activity is equal Co or cloae to zero, although sometimes earthquakea occur here which in the presence of populated places would be destructive. In the areas where the paleoseismodislocationa are not expresaed or are absent (Transbaykal), the seiamological data are unreliable. However, in auch areas with Cime _ the reliability of the seismological data will be increased, at the same time As the proapecCa for improving the reliability of Che paleoseismogeo- logical material are problematic. This again confirma the necessity for com- 41 plex studiea and not confining the atudies to any one method. The paleoseismogeological data still remain rhe only dats when discovering the evolution of seiamic procesaes which has great significance for esti- mating the degree of reliability of the long-term seismic forecast accord- ing to seismological-geophysical data. In the uninveatigated or poorly investigated regions paleoseismogeology is the only meana of fast determination of the epicentral zones of sCrong earCh- quakes, their maximum intensity, the discovery of seismi~ally active atruc- tures, and so on. In the broad investigated regions the paleoseismogeologi- cal studies can essentially supplement the seismological data. While in prac- tice the required time of instrument observations for ob~ective estimation of the activity, K and the seismic vulnerability is actually unknown, we can only say with certainty Chat the 10 year period of observations is too small for theae purposes. For example, the only arch-block Udakon structure coupled with a single system of deep faults noted over the entire extent of the paleoseismodislocations of force 9-12 has A from 0.01 to l, K from - 12 to 17, seismic vulnerability of more than for~e 9 of 1,000 and, more rarely 50,000 (see Chapter VIII and IX). It is natu~al that such calculations can not be the basis for auch a serious document as the State Seismic Regionali- zation Map. The concluaion atill remains valid that we arrived at when studying the seis- micity of the rift zone of the Stanovoy Highland (ACTIVE TECTONICS..., 1966) ~ that for quantitative eatimation of th~ recurrence rate of. the earthquakes the rec;irrence rate graphs can be used if they are compiled for large se~smo- genic structures or systems of them responsible for the preparation of strong _ earthc;~akes (an area of no lesa than severxl tens of thousands of square 392 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICIAI. U5E ONLY - kilometers)~ Under our conditions tihp recurrence rata graphe increase the number of earthquakes of force 11-12 and in this part must be corrected by th~ paleoaeiemodislocations, but they give more reliable recurrence of Che force 10 ahocks, the traces of which are quickly destroyed by denudation and are in part skipped over during paleoaeismogeological studies. During the course of thia work, coinciding itt time with the "boom" in Che area of earthquake forecasCing (not only location and intensity but also - - exact time), we have constantly followed the course.of these invesCigaCions~ ~rimarily in Japan, Che USA and Che USSR~ anc~ we have tried to give an ob- ~ective evaluation of their reeulCs inaofar ae poesit~le. We have arrived at the following concluaional: 1. No reliable relatione have been eatabliahed between the deep structure and the level of modern aeiamic activity of the local areas. 2. Modern movemenCa of the earth's crust are not such a reliable index of posaible seiamic activiCy; their ratea in the platform as~:iemic regions sometimea are 2.5-6 times higher Chan in the highly active seiamic zones. - 3. The establiehed anamoloua movemente of the earth's cruat which frequently , are considered as predictora of earthquakea Cake place several hours to 40 years before atrong earthquakes (the Alaskan earthquake of 27 March 1964), and probable ones, to hundreds of yeara. 4. The hydrogeological (including hydrochemical) changes during the course - of preparation for an earthquake or the earthquake itself are observed at a distance of up to ht~ndreds, sometimes thousande of kilometers from the epicenter and cannot be the basis for predicting the location, intensity and time of the earthquake. ~ 5. The predictiQri of strong earthquakes by seismic cycles (Fedotov, 1968) begins with constancy of the aeiamic regimen. ~he facts indicate that con- stancy of the seiamic regimen for local regions cannot be discsssed, and it is only in thie case thgt it is in practice expedient to predict earth- quakea. An unfounded amount of attention has been given to the prediction of the time - of earthquakes. The index of this is the fact that in mountainous regions - up to 80 to 90 percent and more of the victims and material losses are not connected with the earthquakes ~hemselves but with the accompanying seismo- gravitational phenomena (landslips, landslides~ earth streams and avalanches, mud flows). If in auch cases the time of the earthquakes were prediced, the citiea and settlements would still be lost, 3nd the people would be killed. 1 From the report by V. P. Solonenko at the International Sympoaium on Earthquake Forecaster Research (1974). ~ - 393 ~ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY Therefore the engineering-eeiemogeological forecast in mountaine, especially loese regions ie in pracCice more imporCnnt Chan the short-term �orecaeting of the time of Che earthquake. Under perma�rosC conditiona (more than 50 peraent of Che area of ehe seismic regiona of Che USSR), the significance of rhe engineering-seiamogeocryoloEical forecast is aCi~.l hi~her. Mode.rn knowledge of the processea leading Co earthquakea do not leave room Co doubt Chat the exacC prediction of the Cime of an earthquake ia still unaCtainable. At the present time seismogeologists, seismolopista and geo- - physicists can hy their collective efforCa with quiCe high reliabiliCy fore- caet the location, poasible intettsity and approximate recurrence raCe of earthquakes. "It ia vitally important not to predict the exact Cime when a city will be destroyed but to construct it in a place and in such a way that it will not be desCroyed" (Solonenko, V., 1974). 394 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOit OFF~ICIAL U5~ ONLY BI$LIOGRAPHY 1. Abalakov~ A. D. "Pleietoeeiema.l Region of Disastrous Earthquake on - the Svyatoy Noa Penniaula (Pribaykal'ye [Baykal Region])," in the book: SEISMO(~NNYYE STRUKTURY I SEISMODISLOKATSII (Seismogenic Struc- turea and Seiemic Dielocations)~ Moacow, Izd. VNIIGeofiziki, 1973, pp 56-58. - 2. Abalakov~ A. D. "Cenozoic Baeins on the East Shore of Lake Baykal," GEOL. I GEOFI2. (Geology and Geophysica~, No 9, 1974, pp 141-146. r 3. Agafonev~ B. P. "Engineering-Geodynamic Characteristic of the Baykal - Basin," GEOL. I GEOFIZ., No 9, 1974, pp 107-112. 4. Azhgirey, G. D. "Some Important Laws of the Tectonic Structure and Movemente of the Earth's Cruet," I2V. AN SSSR. SER. GEOL. (Newa of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Geology Series~, No 8, 1960, pp 3-20. 5. Amantov, V. A. "Stratigraphy and the History of Development of the Aginekaya Structural Zone of Transbaykal," TRUDY VSEGEI (Worka of the � All-Union Sctentific Reaearch InatiCute of Geology), Vol 81, 1963, pp 3-14. 6. Andreyev, B. A.~ and Kluehin, I. G. GEOLOGICHESKOYE ISTOLKOVAPiIYA GRAVITATSIONNYKH ANOMALIY (Geological Interpretation of Gravitational Anomaliee), Leningrad, Gosgoptekhizdat, 1~62, 495 pages. 7. Anisimova, L. V., and Myl'nikova~ G. L. "Construction of the Maps of the Seismic Activity in Pribaykal'ye [Baykal Region]," in the book; V KONFERENTSIYA MOLODYKH NAUCHNYKH SOTRUDNIKOV. ~ TEZISY DOKLADOV (Fifth Conference o~ Young Scientific Coworkers. Topics of Reports), Zrkutak, 1971, pp 104-106. - 8. Araent'yev, V. P. "Main Structural Elementa of the Territory of the Buryat ASSR (Brief Outline)," MATERIALY PO GEOL. I POLEZNYM ISKOP BURYATSKOY' ASSR (Materials on the Geology and Venerology of the Buryat ASSR), Ulan-Ude, No 9~ 1965, pp 3-20. - 395 - FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ1 QOQ3Q011-5 F~R OFFICTAI, U5~ ONLY 9. Argent'yev, V. P. "Problema of the Tectonica of the Sayan-Baykal - Folded Selt~" in the book: MATERIALY K GEOLOGICHESKOY KONF~itENTSII~ POSVYASHCH~NNOY 50-LETZYU SOVETSKOCO GO5UDARSTVA I 10-LETIYU BURYAT5I:OG0 GBOLOGICH~SKOGO UPRAVLENIYA (Materials on the Geologir,al Conference _ in Honor of Che 50th Anniversary of the 5oviet Union and the lOth Anniversary Af Che BuryaC Geological Administration), Ulan-Ude, 1967, pp 120-123~ 10. Araent'yev~ V. P., and Volkolakov, F. K. "Premeaozoic Tectonica of Eastern Sayan," in the book: GEOLOGIYA SSSR (Geology of the USSR), Vol XXXV, Part 1, Moscow, Nedra, 1964, pp 474-484. 11. Artem'yev, M. Ye., and Artyuahkov, Ye. V. "Isostasy and Tectonics," - GEOTEKTONIKA (Geotectonics), No 5, 1967, pp 41-57~ 12. Artem'yev, M. Ye., and Artyuet?kov, Ye. V. "On th.e Origin of the Rift Basina," IZV. AN 3SSR. SER. GEQL. (Newa of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Geology S~eries), No 4, 1968, pp 58-73. _ 13. Artyuahkov~ Ye. V. "Gravitational Convection in Che Depths of the Earth," IZV. AN SSSR. FIZIKA ZEMLI,(Newe of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Physics of the Earth), No 9~ 1968, pp 3-17. _ 14, ATLAS ZEMLETRYAS, IY V SSSR (Atlas of Earthquakes in the USSR), Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1962, 337 pages. 15. Afanas'yev, V. M. "Tectonics of the Dzhida Zone of Early Caledonides (Southweatern Transbaykal)," in the book: '"EKTONIKA ZABAYKAL'YA (MATERIALY K X SESSII NAUCHNOGO 50VETA PO TEKTONIKE SIBIRI I _ DAL'NEGO VOSTOKA) (Tectonics of Transbaykal (Materials for the Tenth Meeting of the Scientific Council of Tectonics of Siberia and the Far East))~ Ulan-Ude, 1973, pp 68-69. 16. BAYKAL'SKIY RIFT. (Baykal Rift), Moscow, Nauka, 1968, 175 pages. 17. Basharina, N. P. "Jurasaic Grabena and Troughs of the Altay-Saysn Folded Region," in the book: TEKTONIKA MEZOZOYSKOGO OROGENNOGO IOYASA TSENTRAL'NOY AZII.(;Tectonics of the Mesozoic Orogenic Belt of Central Asia), Novosibirsk,, Nauka, 1973, pp 18-65. 18. Belousov, V. V. "F'roblem of the Methods of Seismic Regionalization," _ IZV. AN SSSR. SER. GEOFIZ (News of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Geophysice Series)� No 3, 1954, pp 209-222. 19. Belousov, V. V. "Phenomenon of Tectonic Activation in the Develop- ment of the Earth' Crust," in the book: AKTIVIZIROVANNYYE ZONY ZEI~TOY KORY (Activated Zoties of the Earth's Crustl, Moscow, Nauka, 1964, pp 7-13. 396 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 20. Belousov, V. V. ZEMNAYA KORA I VERKHNYAYA MANTIYA MATERTKOV (Earth~a Cruat and Upper Mantle of the Continenta), Moacow, Nauka, 1966, 121 pages. 21. Berzin, N. A. ZONA GLAVNOGO RAZLOMA VOSTOCHNOGO SAYANA (Pr3nciple Fault Zone of EasCer Sayan), Moecow, Nauka, 1967, 148 pages. 22. Bogolepov~ K. V. MEZOZOYSKAYA TEKTONIKA SIBIRI (Mesozoic Tectonics of Siberia), Moscow, Nauka, 1967, 326 pages. 23. Borovik, N. S. "Charactexistice of the Regions of Pribaykal'ye Earthquake Centere," IZV. AN SSSR. FIZIKA ZEMLI, No 12, 1970, pp 3-9. 24. Borovik, N. S. "Grouping of the Pribaykal'ye Earthquakes~" in the book:VOPROSY S~YSMICIiNpSTI SIBIRI (Problems of the Seiamicity of - Siberia), Part II, Novosibirak, 1972, pp 59-65. 25. Borovik, N. S. "Some Peculiarities of the Development of the Seiamic - Proceas in the Vicinity of the Baykal Rift," suthor's review of candidate's disaertation, Moscow, 1974, 20 pages. 26. Borovik, N. S.; Misharina, L. A.; and Treskov, A. A. "Poasibility of _ Future Strong Esrthquakes in Pribaykal'ye [the Baykal Region]," UZB. AN SSSR. FIZIKA ZEMLI, No 1, 1971, pp 21-26. 27. Bulin,N. K.; Af.anas'yeva, N. A.; Pronyayeva, Ye. A.; and Erglis, Ye. I. ' "Deep Section of the Southeastern Part of the Siberian Platform and its Folded Border According to the Seismologic Data," SOV. GEOL. - (Soviet Geologya~ No 10, ~972, pp 134-139. _ 28. Bulmaeov, A. P~ "~tructure of the Earth's Crust in the Vicinity of Che Baykal Basin According to Geophysics Data," TRUDY IRKUTSKnGO - IN-TA~ 1959, 'r. XIV. SER. GEOL. (Works of the Irkut University, ~ 1959, Vo1 XIV, Geology Series), No 4, pp 173-185. 29. Bulmasov, A. P. "Some Peculiarities of the Geophysical Fields and the Structure of the Earth's Cruat of Pribaykal'ye," in the book: BAYKAL'SKIY RIFT, Moscow, Nauka, 1968, pp 113-124. 30. Bune, V. I.; Artem'yev, M. Ye; and Kambarov, N. M. "Relationship of . Seismicity to the Characteristica of the Gravitational Field in the _ Eastern Caucasus," DOKL. AN SSSR (Reports of the USSR Academy of Sciencea), Vol 197, No 6, 1971, pp 1305-1307. 31. Surtman, V. S.; Luk'yanov, A. V.; Peyve, A. V.;.and Ruzhentsev, S. V. "Horizontal Dieplacementa along the Faults and Some Methods of Studying Them," TRUDY GINA (Works of the Geology Institute), No 80, 1963, pp 5-33. - - 397 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850ROOQ1 QOQ3Q011-5 FOR OFFICZAL USE ONLY ~ ~ - 32. Vutovekaya, Ye. M., and Sokolova, I. A. "CorrelaCion of Some Para- me~exs of the Seismic Regime wiCh Che NonuniformiCiea of the Cruat," ~ ~ UZB. GEOL. ZHURN. (Uz6ek Geological Journal), No 3, 1970, pp 3-7. I 33. Van-Bemmelen, R. U. "Development of Megaundationa. Mechanicg.l Model of L~rge-Scale Geodynamic Phenomena," in the book: SISTEMA RIFTOV _ = ZEMLI (Rift SyaCem of the Er~rth), Mosoow, Mir, 1970, pp 230-249. 34. VardanyanCe, L. A. "Seiamotectontce.of the C~ucasus," TRUDY SEYSMOLOG. : _ ' IN-TA AN SSSR (Works of the Seiamology InsCitute of Che USSR Acad~my - of Sciencea)~ No 64, 1935, 88 pagea. 35. Vvedenskaya, A. V. "Characteristics of the Stressed State in Che Centers of Che Baykal Earthquakea," IZV. AN SSSR. SER. GEOFIZ. (News of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Geophyaics Series), No 5, 1961, = pp 666-669. 36. Vvedenakaya, A. V. ISSLEDOVANIYE NAPRYAZHENIY I RAZRYVOV V OCHAGAKH ZEMLETRYASENIY PRI POMOSHCHI TEORII DISLOKATSIY (Study of the Stresses _ and Fractures in the Centera of Earthquakes Using Dislocation Theory), Moecow, Nauka, 1969, 136 pages. 37. Vetrov, S. V. "Nature of the Gravitational Field Observed above Baykal," in the book: BAYKAL'SKIY RIFT (Baykal Rift), Moscow, Nauka, ~ 1968, pp 126-131. _ 38. Vnukov, A. V. "Geological Structure and Conditions of Formation of the Coal-Bearing Dep9aita of the Chikoyskaya Basin (Western Trans- _ - baykal)," author's review of candidate's dissertation, Irkutsk, - 1967, 27 pages. - _ 39. Voytovich, V. S. PRIRODA DZHUNGARSKOGO GLUBINNOGO RAZ~;OMA (Nature of the Dzhungar Deep Fault), Moscow, Nauka, 1969, 191 pages. - 40. Volkolakov, F. K. "Stratigraphy of the Lower Paleozoic Iieposits of , the Southeastern Part of Eastern Sayan," TRUDY BURKNII SO AN SSSR (Work of the BurKNII Inatitute of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciencea, Geology and Geography Serie~), Ulan-Ude, No 2, 1960, pp 19-38. - 41. VOPROSY SEISMICHNOSTI SIBIRI (Problems of the Seismicity of Siberia), Novoeibirak, Izd-vo SO AN SSSR, 1964, 214 pages (TRUDY IN-TA ZEMNOY , KORY, (Worka of t~e Institute of the Earth's Crust), No 18). - 42. "Probleme of 'the Seismotectonics of Pribaykal'ye and Ad~acent Terri- - toriea," BYUL. SOVETA PO SEISMOLOGII (Bulletin of the Council on - Seismology), Moscow, Izd-vo AN SSSR, No 10, 1960, 176 pages. ' 398 FOR ~JFFICIAL USE ONLY _ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~n~ n~~tcYat, us~ dNt.Y 43~ Vdrdndv~ N. 5. "Problem of thF Structure of the ArcCic B~~in and tha Glob~l She~r zonee of the Larth~" in the book: PRO$LEMY ARKTYKY- ANTA1tttTIKI (Probl~mr of Che Arctic and Antarctic), No 18, Leningrad~ Cidrometizdat~ 1964~ pp 11-2~. . 44. Voropinov~ V~ S. "Cravitational and Dis~unctive bislocations in - 'I'ertiery D~epoeite ot the Boetom of Baykgl Along the Sou~heneCern~ ~ Shore~" IrlATERIALY PO C~OLUG:[I :yEZOKAYNOZ0Y5KIKH QTt.AZHE~IIY VO5TOCHNOY SIBIRI (Materiala en the Geology of the Meeocenozoic Depoeite of Eget~rn - Siberia)~ Irkutek~ 1961~ pp 26-35. (TRUDY VOST.-5YB~ GEOL. IN-TA SO API SSSR (Worke of the Eaetern Sibe::lan Geological Institute of - the 5iberian Department of the USSR Acadeary of Sciences), No 3). - 4~. Cayekiy, V. N.~ and Zhalkovekiy~ N. D. "Microparthquakes of WesCern - Tuva: ~eergy Claesification and Sizee of the Centers~" IZV. AN SS5R. SERIYA PIZIKA ZE1rQ.2 (Newe of the USSR Acgdemy of Sciences. ~arth - phy~ics Seriee)~ No 4~ 1971~ pp 29-40. 46. Camburtsev, C. A. "Deep Sa~igmic Sounding of the Earth's CrueC~" in the book: PROHLEMY PROCNOZ/? 2Et~Q.ETRYASENIY (Problems of Forecaeting Earthquakee), Moecow, Izd-vo AN SSSR~ 1954, pp 124-137. 41. Gamburtaev~ G. A. "Stete af the Art end Prospecta for Operationa in :he Field of Earthquake P:~ediction." BYUL. SOVETA PO 5EISMOLOGII AN SSSR (Bulletin of the Council on Seismology of the U5SR Academy of Sciencee)~ No l, 1955~ pp 7-14. 48. Camburtaev, C. A.~ and Veyteman, P. S. "Comparison of the Data from Ueep Seiemic Saunding of the Structure of the Earth's Crust in the Vicinity of Northern Tyan'-Shan' ~+ith the Seismalogy and Gravimetry Data," IZV. AN SS5R. SER. GEOFI2. (Neae of the USSR Academy o.f Sciencea, Geophyaica Seriea), No 9, 1956, gp 1036-1043. 49. GERASIMOV~ I. P. "Structural and Sculptural Peculiarities of the Relief of Kazakhatan~" ia the book: VOPROSY CEOGRAFII (Problems of Ceography), No l, Noacoa~ Ceografizdat, 1946~ pp 63-75. S0. Gerasimov~ I. P., and Neshcheryakov, Yu. A. "Concepte of the 'Horphostructure' aad 'Morphoeculpture' and their Use for Purposee of Ceomorphological Analyeie,'' in book: REL'YEP ZEHLI (Relief of the Earth)~ Moecow, Nauka~ 1967~ pp 7-12. 51. Gzovskiy, M. V. "Tectonic Substantiation of the Ceological Criteria of Seismicity (Items I and II)~" IZV. PS1 SSSR. SER. GEOFIZ, No 2, 1951. pp 141-160; No 3~ pp 273-283. 52. Czovakiy, M. V. "Use of Lhe Latest and Modern Tectonic Hovements for Detailed Seismic Regtonalizatton of a Ne~r Type~" in the book: SOV1tF.~~NNYf~ DVI2HENIYA ZEI~IOY KORY (Nodern Havements of the Earth's Crust~, Nc 1~ " lioa~cow. Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1963, pp 149-178. 399 FOR OPFICIAL USE OM,Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 I ~OEt O~FtCIAL U5~ ONLY 53. Cxnvgkiy~ M. V.; Krp~tnikov~ V. P.; N~rgegov~ I. L~; and - Rgyeiyer~ C. I. "Comparieon of T~ctonics with 5ei~micity nf th~ - Cgrmekiy Rayon of Che Tadzhik SSR~" IZV. AN SSSit. SBR. GEOFIx.. No 8, 1958, pp 959-976; No 12, pp 14~5-1442. 54. Czovskiy~ M. V.; KtiesCniknv, V. N.~ Ner~~ov~ I. L.; and ttpysiy~r~ - - G. I. "New Principles of Seismic R~gionglization itt the Example af _ the Central ParC of the Tyan'-Shan'~" IZV. AN S55R. 5LR. GBOFIZ., ~ No 2~ 1960~ pp 177-194; No 3, pp 353-3~0. S5. Czovakiy~ M. V.; Kr~~tnikov~ V. gnd R~y~iyer, G. I. "Geological Methode of Quantitative Characterization of the Mean Velocity Gradient of Vertical T~ctonic Movements (Changes in Slope) of the Earth Crust and Some IteaulCe of the Application," IZV. AN SSSR. S~K. G~OFI~., No 8, 1959~ pp 1147-1156. 56. Gzovskiy~ M. V., and Nikonov, A. A. "Phyaical TecConic Interpreta- tion of Modern Movemente of the Earth's Crust~" GLOT~KTONIKA (Geo- Cectonice)~ No 3~ 1973~ pp 45-58. 51. Clukhov, I. G. "Ear[.hquakes as One of the Factors of Activation of the Cornyy Krym (Mountainoue Crimean] Landslides~" VESTN. MOSK. IN-TA (Vestnik of Moscow University)~ No 4, 1959, pp 3-12. 58. GOBI-ALTAYSKOYE ZEMLETRYASENIYB (Cabi-Altay Earthquake), Moaco~r~ Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1963. 392 pages. 59. Golenetakiy, S. I. "DeCermination of the Thickne8s of thQ Earth's - Cruat by Observations of Waves Reflected from its Base and Depth of - Occurrence of the Centere of the Aftershocks of the Central Baykal _ 1?arthquake on 29 August 1959," CEOL. I CEOFIZ, No 2, 1961, pp 111-116. - 60. Golenetekiy~ S. I. "Thickneas of the Earth's Cruet in Central Baykal According to the Observatione of the ~xchange Reflected Wavea," GEOL.I CEOFIZ., 1965, No S~ pp 84-87. - 61. Golenetskiy, S. I. "Structure of the Epicentral Field of the Earth- quakea of the Bayksl Region ~Pribaykal'ye] and Tranebaykal," FIZIKA ZEi~.I (Earth Phyeice), No 1~ 1976, pp 85-94. - 62. Colenetakiy~ S. I.; Bukina~ K. I.; Dem'anovich~ M. C.; and Novomeyekaya, F. V. "Some Characterietics of the Selsmicity of Pribaykal'ye in 1968-1969," FI2IKA ZEMLI, 1973~ No 7, pp 20-34. - 63. Golenetekiy~ S. I.; Hiehariva, L. A.; Novomeyakaya, F. V.; Bukina~ Kh. I.; Perevalova, C. I.; Tret'yak, E. A.; Fomina~ Ye. V.; Leont'yeva. L. R.; Kol'tsova~ N. S.; and Mashkintaeva. 2h. G. "Ceneral Sunrey of the Seismicity of Pribaykal'ye in 19E7." in the book: ZEt4.ETRYASENIYA V SSSR V 1967 G(Earthquakee in the USSR in 1g67)~ Hoscov~ Nauka. 1970, 109-121. 400 POR OFFICIAL USE ONLY r APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Olt n~~ICIAL US~ aNLY - ' 64. Gol~nerskiy~ S. I.; Novwneyelcgyg, V.; gnd Buking, K. i. "Kdd~r ~grthquakp in 1570 end Thickne~~ of the Larth's CrueC in th~ North- egetern P~rt of the Baykal Rift," in Cbe book: VOPRO5Y S~YSMICHNOSTt SYgIRI (P~:obleme of the Spismicity of Siberia)~ Novoeibirek~ Nguka~ 1972~ pp 16-30. 65. Colen~tekiy~ S. Novom~yekAyg, F. V.; Buking~ K. I.; P~revalova, G. i.; Tr~t'yak, A.; ~oming, Y~. V.; Aniaimovg~ L. ~t.; Lednt'y~va, L. R.; 5olonenk~~ N. and Mg~al'skty~ 0. K. "5urvpy of thp 5~i~micity nf Pribayk~l'y~! in 19~~$~" in the book: ZEMLETRYAS~NIYA V SS5R V 1968 GUDU (Barthquakee in thQ USSR in 1968), Moecow~ Nauka~ 19~2, pp 107- _ 139. 66~ GoleneCskiy, S. I.~ and 5lzmotov~ A~ P. "Ust'-Muya Earthquake nn 31 - August 1968," FTZT[Ct~ ZF~Q.I, No 11~ 1970, pp 68-75. 67. Golitgyn~ B. B. IZBItAtVt~IYYL TitUDY (5elected Work~), Val 2~ Moecow, Iz~-vo ~1N 555R~ 1960~ pp 365-370. 68. Goi�bunove~ N. V.~ and Riznichenko, Yu. V~ "Experience itt M~pping thE: Seiemic Activity by the Summatioc~ Method~" FIZIKA ZENLI, No 7, , 19E~5, pp 22-30. 69. Go~~zhevskiy, D. I., and I.gz'ko. Ye. H. "Mongolian-Okhotek Deep Frec- ture~" DOKL. AN SSSR (Reporte of the US3R Acedemy nf Sciencea), Vol _ 137, No 5~ 1961~ pp 1177-1180. . ~0. Gorzhevskiy~ D. I.; Fogel'man~ I. A.; Alektorova, Ye. A.~ Bindeman~ N. N.; Varlamov, V. A.; Zorina~ V. S.; KoneCantinov~ R. H.; Mironov. Yu. P.; Mironove, 5. P.; Solodov, A. A.; and Shilina, G. P. CEdLOGIYA I ZAKONt~I~RNO5TI RAZMESHC~iENIYA BNDOGENNYItEi ME5TOROZHDENIY 2ABAYKAL'YA (Ceology and La~rs of the Diatribution of Endogenic Deposits of Trana- baykal), Moscos~. Nedra~ 1970~ 220 pagea. 71. Goraoeteyev~ V. P.; Mikhalevakiy~ V. I.; end Pospeyev~ V. I. "i~eep Magnetotelluric Sounding in the Southern Part of the Siberiaa Platfozm and in the Vicinity of the Baykal Rift." GEOL. I CEOPIZ., No 4, 1970~ pp 111-118. ~2. Corshkov, G. P. ZEM,ETRYAS~IIYA NA TERRITORII SSSR (Rarthquakes in the Territory of the USSR), Mascov, Ceografizdat, 1949, 120 pages. 73. Corehkov~ C. P.~ and Shenkareva, C. a. "Specific Seismic Energy a~d Seiamic Regionalization~" in tfie book: TRUDY CENERAI.'NOY ASSAt~LEI EV1tOPEYSKOY SEYSMC~iESROY ICOHISSII (Worlc$ of ihe General Aasembly of the European Seismic Co~ission). Vol II. Noscov, 1970, pp 119-130. 74. Gofehteyn~ N. D. "Seismotectonics of Transcarpathia." UOKL. Mt SSSR. CEOL. (Reporte of the USSR Acade~y of Scieacea. Ceology)~ Vol 148. No 3, 1963~ pp 661-664. 401 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OEt O~FICIAL US~ dNLY 86. Dem'yendvich~ M~ G.; Lopatin~ D. V.; gnd pavlov, 0. V. "Struceure and Development of 5mg11 8gein~ of the MounCain 5yeCem of Udek~n ~nd the Muya-Chara Commiesure," in Che books VOPROSY GEOLOGII PRIBAYKAL'YA I ZABAYKAL'YA (Problems of tha Geology df Pribaykgl'y~ (The Baykal Region~ and Tranebaykal), Vol 4~ Chie~, 1969~ pp 19-23~ ('~RUDY ZABAYKAL'SKOGO FYLYALA CLOGRA~. OB-VA SSSR (Worke nf Che Tranebaykal Branch o~ the Ceographic Society o� the USStt), No 6). 87. Dzhanuzgknv~ K.~ and I1'y~~ov. g. "Th~ ~ffect of the M~gnitude of th~ ~grthquake ~n~rgy un the Damping of ehe Seismic Wave~ Under the - Condttiong of Southeastern F~rg~n~, IZV. AN KIRGS5R. SER. YGST~STV. I TEKH. NAUK (Nevs of the Academy of Sciencea of the K3rgiz SSR, Naturel and Technical Sciences Seriea)~ Frunze, No 5~ 1912, pp 15-21, 88. Dzhiblgdze~ E. A.; Darakvelidze, L. K.; and Tgbunadze, Te. A. "Dgmping of Seismic Wav~~ with Distance for Caucasian Larthquakee~" IZY. AN SSSR. FIZIKA Z~M'I.I ~ No 1, 1971, pp 93~-95. ~ 89. Dzhibladze, E. A., and Riznichenko, Yu. V. "Seiamic Vulnerability of Che Caucaeus~" FIZIKA 2EMt.I~ No 1~ 1973~ pp 9-20. 90. Dzhurik, V. I., and Leehchikov, F. N. "~:xperimental Studiea of th~ Seismic Propertiea of Permafroat," in the book: II MEZEiDUNARODNAYA KONFERENT5IYA PO MERZLOTOVEDENIYU VYP. 6. OSNOVY GEOKRIOLOGICHE5KOY S"YEt~4CI I PRO(~iJZA (Sec~nd International Conference on Permafroet. - - No 6. Funaamentale of Geochronc+logical Surveying and Forecasting), Yakutak, 1973~ pp 213-214. 91. Dzevanovskiy, Yu. K.~ and Mironyuk, Ye. P. "Lvolution of Ancient Mobile Regions of the Eaatern Part of the USSR," in the book: OROGENICHESKI'.'E POYASA (Orogenic Beltp),Moacar, Nauka, 1968~ pp 9k-99. 92. Dzevanovskiy. Yu. K.; Mironyuk, Ye. P.; and I.ngdzina, G. Yu. "History of the Ceologicel Developmeet of the Aldan Shield," in the book: TLKTONIKA SIBIRI (Tectonice of Siberia)~ Vol III, Moacc~, Nauka~ 1970, pp 132-141. 93~ Dmitriyev, C. A., and Kolokol'tseva, E. M. "Rates and Types of Sedi- ment Accumulation in Lake B~ykal," in the book DONNYYE OTLOZHENIYA BAYKAI.A (Bottom Depoaits of Haykal)~ MoscoW, Hauka, 1970, pp 69-80 94. Drumya. A. V. "Seiemic Activity and Neotectonica of Moldavia," in the book: TEZISY DOKLADOV IV VSESOYUZNOGO SII~OZIUMA PO SEYSMICNESKOMU REZH~?tU (Topics of the Reporta of the Fourth All- Union Symposium on the Seiemic Conditions). Kishinev, Shtiintsa, 1973, 70 pages. 95. Drumya, A. V.; Popov, V. M.; Reahetnikov, A. P~; and Stepanenka, N. Ya. "Earthquake Vulnerability of the Carpathian Zone from Subcrustal - 402 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Oit U~~ICIAL US~ ONLY ' 15. Croeval' d~ M. G. ItAZVITIYE It~L" ~i~A SAYANO-TWIN5KOG0 NAGOR' YA ' (DevelopmenC of the Relief of the Syano-Tuva Highlgnd), Moscow, Neuka~ 1965, 165 peges. 16. Gubin~ I. Ye. SEYSMOTEKTONICHESKIY t~TOD SEYSMICHESKOGO RAYONIROVANIYA (Seiamotectonic Method of 8eismic ~pgionalization), Moscoa-Leningrad, Izd-vo AN SSR. 1950~ 63 pages. 77. Gubin, I. B. "Baeic Principle~ of the SeismoCectnnic MeChod," IzV. Tt~ AN SSSR. SER. ~STESTV. (Newe o� the Physics Ynatitute of the USSR Academy of Sciencea. Natural Sciences Seriea), No 5, 1953~ pp 24- - 27. 78. Gubin~ Y. Ye. ZAKONOI~RNOSTI SEY5MICHESKIKH PROYAVLENIY NA TERRITORII TADZHIKxSTANA (Lawe of 5eismic Manifeetationa in the Territory of Tadzhikietan), Moscow, Izd~vo AN SSSIt~ 1960~ 464 pagee. 79. Gubin~ I. Ye. "Multielement Seiemic Regionalization (in the Example of the Indiaa Peninsula)~" IzV. AN SSSR. FI2IKA 2EMLI (Newa of the USSR Academy of Sciencea. Earth Phyaics)~ No 12, 1971~ pp 10-23. 80. Danilovich. V. N. "NaCure of the Principal TecConic I~ractures in the ' Southaeetern Tranabaykal," BYUL. SOVETA PO SEYSMOLOGII, NO 10. VOPROSY SBY5MOTEKTONIKI PRIBAYKAL'YA I SI~2HNYKH TERRITORIY (Bulletin of the Council on Seismology, Pio 10~ Problems of Seismotectonics - of Pribaykal'ye and Adjacent Terr~toriea), Moecow, Izd-yo AN SSSR, 1960, pp 21-29. 81. Danilovich. d. N. "Arcogenic Type of Overthruata~" GEOL. I GEOFIZ., No 2, 1963, pp 3-11. 82. Dankevich, I. V.; Pavlov, Yu. A.; and Parfenov~ L. M. "Deep Structure of the Southern Boundary of the Aldan Shield in the Vicinity of the Chul'man Bagin~" GEOTEKTONIKA (Geotectonica) No 4~ 1969, pp 85-95. 83. Dankevich, I. V.; Pavlov, Yu. A.; Parfenov, L. M. "Basement Relief of the Chul'man Fault," in the book: TEKTONIKA SIBIRI (Tectonics of Siberia), Vol III, Moscos~~ Nauka, 1970, pp 174-179. 84. Demidyuk, L. M. "Role of Tectonic Structurea in the Formation of the Thermal Regime of the Rock of the Intermontane Basin of the Trans- baykal Type~" in the book: I~RZLOTNYYE ISSLEDOVANIYA (Permefroet Reaeerch)~ No VIIY~ Moscow, Izd-vo Moak. in -ta, 1968, pp 215-220. 85. Dem'yanovicb, M. G. "Structural Bouadary 6etween the Baykal Rift Syatem and the Transbaykal Block-Wave Uplift in the Vicinity of the Bauntovskaya Basin," ix~ the book: MATERIALY KONF. MOLODYIQi NAUCHNYKH SOTRUDNIKOV. (Mater~ala of the Conference of Young Scieatific Cd- workere), Irkutak, 1968, pp 128-135. - 403 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Oit O~~ICIAL US~ ONLY' Cent~re~" in Che book: IzUCHENYYL~ S~YSMYC4i~SK0Y OPACNOSTI (Study of Seiemic Dangexy, Taehkent~ izd-vo FAN U~,b3S5R~ 1971, pp 55-62. 96. Dumitraehko~ N. V. "Geomorphological ad~d Paleography of the Baykal MounCain Region," TRUDY IN-TA GEOGRAFII AN S55R (Works of Che Geogrephy Inetitute of the USSR Academy of Science~s)~ Izd-vo AN SSSR~ Vo1 S5~ No 9~ 1952, 191 pages. 97. D unitrgehko, N. V.; Milanovakiy! Ye. Ye.; Aneonov, B. A.; Astakhov~ N. Ye.; Bal'yan~ S. P.; Liliyekbcrg, D. A.; Muaeytov, M. I.; Safronov, I. N.; Shirknov~ N. Shch. "NCorphostruc~ural Lawa of tl~~ Caucasus," I2V. AN S5SR. SLR. G~OGRAF.~ No 6~ 1968, ~p 45-54. 98. Yegorov~ N. I. "Block Structure of the Northern Baykal Volcanic - Belt according to the Geophysical DaCa~" in the book: TEKTONIKA SIBIRSKOY PLATFORMY I S1~Z1i~iYKH OBLASTEY' (Tectonics of tlie Siberian _ Platform and Adjacent Regiona), No 9, Irkutsk, 1971, pp 233-243. 99. ZtIIVAYA T~KTONIKA, VULKANY I SEYSMICHNO~T' STANOVOGO NAGOR'YA (Active Tectonics, Volcanoes and Seiemicity of t:he Stanovoye Highlaad), Moacow~ Nauka~ 1966~ 231 pagea. 100. Zhilkin~ V. M., and Pinegin, A. V. "Act:ive Tectonics of the West _ Slope of the Lake Baykal Basin (in the :6ection from Ongureny Settlement to Yelokhin Cape) in the book: GEOSIN~~.INAL'NYYE POYASA TSL~+1- TRAL~NOY AZII (TEKTO.NIKA~ ZABAYICAL~Y~1 (G~.^.osynclinal Belts of Central Aaia (Tectonica of Trans6aykal))~ Ulan-iYde, 1973, pp 110-112. _ 101. Zamarayev, S. M. "Basic Structural Elen~enta of the Southeastern Part of the Siberian Platform in the Pri:cambrian and Lower Paleo- zoic," GEOL. I GEOFIZ., No 11, 1961, p~ 30-39. 102. Zamarayev, S. M. KRAYEVYYE STRUKTURY Y1JZHId0Y CHASTI SIBIRSKOY PLATFORMY (Marginal Structurea of the S~~uthern Part of the Siberian Platform), Moscow~ Nauka, 1967~ 248 pag~es. 103. Zamarayev, S. M., and Samsonov, V. V. "Geological Structure and Oil and Gas Bearing Nature of the Selenga Depreasion," in the book: GEOIAGIYA I NEFTECAZONOSNOST' VOSTOCHNOY SIBIRI (Ceology and Oil and Gas Bearing Nature of Eastern Siberia), Moscow, Gostoptekhizdat, 1959, pp 435-413. ~ 104. Zarubin, N. Ye.. and Pavlov, 0. V. "Farecasting the Variation of the Seismic Properties of Permafrost," in the book: II MEZHDUNARODNAYA - KONFERENTSIYA PO I~RZLOTOVEDENIYU. VYP. b. OSNOVY GEOKRIOLOGICHESKOY S"E1~IItI I PROGNOZA (Second Tnternationel Conference on Permafroat. No 6. Pundamentals of Geocryological Surveying and Forecasting), Yalcutsk, 1973, pp 219-220. 404 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 . F'0!t OF~ICYAL U5~ ONLY _ 105. Zekharova, A. I.~ and Seyduzove~ S. S. "Earthquake Vulnerability Mape for the InCen~ity Given in Poxce Points~" in the book: I~UCHENIYE SLYSMICHSKOY OPASN03TI (3eismic Danger)~ Taehkent, Izd-vo FAN UzbS3R~ 1971~ pp 28-31. - 106. Zelenekiy, Ye. Ye. "Cenozoic Depoeite of the Lower Course of the - Muya River~" in the book: VOP~.OSY GEOLOGII BURYATII (Problems nf Che Geology of Buryatia), Ulan-Ude, 1971, pp 53-61 (TRUDY OTD. GEOLOGII BURYATSKOGO FILIALA SO AN SSSR (Worka of the Geology Department of the Buryat Branch of the Siverian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences), No 3 (11)). 107. 2EIrII.ETRYASENIYA V SSSR. ('Y~lHE~ODNIK) (Earthquakes in the USSR. (An- nual)),Mogcow, Nauka~ 1962-1973. 108. ZEtrIIdAYA KORA I VERiCHN7fAYA MANTIYA (Earth Crust and Upper Mantle) , _ Moacaw, Mir, 1972~ 640 pagea. 109. Zolotarev~ G. S. "Land Slipa and Landelidea on Mountain Slopea and their Stabil3.ty," in the book: VOPROSY INZHENERNOY GEOLOGII I GRUNTOVEDENIYA (Problema of Engineering Geology and Soil Science), - � No 2, Moecow Izd-vo Moak. un-ta, 1968, pp 183-203. 110. 2olotarev, G. S.; Matveyev, Yu. D.; and Sheshenya, N. L. "Types of Rock Slides and Landalides in the Vicinity of the Toktogulskaya Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Naryn River and Problems of Forecasting Them~" in the book: VOPROSY IN2HENERNOY GEOLOGII I GRUNTOVEDENIYA (Problema of Engineering Geology and Soil Science), No 2, Moscow~ Izd-vo Mosk. in-ta, 1968. pp 259-280. 111. Zoneishayn, L. P. "Tectonics of the Folded Regiona of Central Asia," GEOTEKTONIKA, No 6, 1967, pp 49-69. 112. 2orin~ Yu. A. "Deep Structure of the Lake Baykal Basin According to Geophysical Data," IZV. AN SSSR. SER. GEOL., No 7, 1966~ pp 75-85. 113. Zoxin, Yu. A. NOVEYSHAYA 5TRUKTURA I IZOSTAZIYA BAYKAL'SKOY RIFTOVQY ZONY I SOPREDEL'NYKH TERRITORIX (Latest Structure and Isostasy of the Baykal Rift Zone aud Bordering Territoriea), Moacow, Nauka~ 1971, 168 pagea. _ 114. Zorin, Yu. A. "Geophyeical Aapects of the Prohlem of the Agea of Planation of the Relief (in the Exam~le of Eastern Siberia~~" GEO- MORFOLOGIYA (Geomorphology), No 2~ 1972, pp 13-18. 115. Zorin~ Yu. A., and Novoselova~ M. R. "Possibility of Isolating the Component of Long Tenn Seismic Activity in the Baykal Rift Zone," in the book: GEOFIZIKA (NAUCHIdAYA INFORMATSIYA IZK SO AN SSR) (Geophyeica (Scientific Iaformation of the I2K Institute of the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciences)), Irkutsk, 1912, pp 48-52. 405 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Oit O~~IC]:AI, U5~ ONLY 116. zorin~ Yu. A., and 3i~ikov, A. I. 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INSTRUKTSIYA 0 PORYADKE PROIZVODSTVA i OBRABOTKI NABLYUDENIY NA ~ SEYSMICHESKIKH STANTSIYAKH YEDIN Ot SISTEMY SEYSMICHESKIKH ~IABLYUDENIY . S5SR (Inetructions on the Procedure for the Performance and Proceasing _ Observations at the Seiemic Stations ~f the InCegrated System of Seiamic Observations of the USSR), Moscow, 1966, pp 45-69. 121. Iehna~ T. A. "Stratigraphy, Lithology and Faaies of the Jurassic Coal-Bearing Deposits of Southern Yakutiya," in the book: YUZHNO- YAKUTSKAYA UGLENOSNAYA PLOSHCHAD' (Southern Yakut Coal-Bearing Area), Moscow-Leningrad, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1961, pp 43-121. 122. Kazmin, Yu. V. "Stanovoy Deep Fracture, Its Development and Influence on Magnetism and MeCallogeny," in the book: MATERIALY PO REGION. GEOLOGII (Materials on Regional Geology), Moscaw, 1962, pp 98-101 (TRUDY BAGT (Worka of the All-Union Aerogological Trust), No 8). 123. Kambarov, N. Sh. "'Seismicity, Isostasy and Deep Structure of the _ Caucaeus and Bordering Territories of the Southern Part of the USSR," author's review of candidate's disaertation, Moacow, 1971, 40 pagea. 124. Karagityan, N. K., and Manukyan, Zh. 0. "Comparison of the Parametera of the Seismic Regime of the Territories of the Armenian SSR with _ Other Geophysical Fields," in the book: TE2I3Y DOKLADOV IV VSESOYUZNOGO SII~OZIUMA PO SEYSMICHESKOMU REZHIMU (Topics of Reports of the Fourth All-Union Sympoaium on Seismic Conditions), Kishinyev, Shtiintsa, 1971, 53 pages. 125. Karus, Ye. V., and Rezanov~ I. A. "Relation of Seiamic Phenomena to the Structural Peculiarities of the Earth's Cruat," SOV GEOL. (Soviet Geology), No 11, 1971, pp 32-42. 406 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott OFFICYAL US~ ONLY - 126. Klimenko, A. I.~ gnd Tsarev~ P~ V, "Seismogenic in DagesCan~" in tihe books PROBLEMY IN2HENERNOY GEOLOGII SEVERNOGO tCAVKAZA (Problema of Engineering Geology of the Northern Cgucagus)~ Sochi, 1971, pp 4~-54. 127. KOMAROV~ Yu. V. "Wave Migration of Mesozoic Tectonic Proceades in W~sCern Transbaykal~" in the book: MATERIALY K GEOLOGICHESKOY KONFERENTSYI, POSVYASHCHENNOY 50-LETIYU SOVETSKOGO GOSUDARSTVA I 10-LETIYU BURYATSKOGO GEOLOGICHESKOGO UP1tAVLENIYA, Ulan-Ude~ 1967, pp 132-135. ~ 128. Kopp, M. L,,; Raetsvetayev, L. M.; and Trifonov, V. G. "Tectonic Jointa Formad during Holocene Earthquakes in Central KopeC-Dag and Ite Foot- hill Areae~" IZV. AN SSSR. SER. GEOL, No 1964, pp 59-69. 129. Koreshkov, I. V. OfiLASTI SVODOVOGO PODNYATIYA I OSOBENNOSTI IKH . ~ RAZVITIYA (Regions of Arched Uplift and Peculiarities of Their Development)~ Moscow~ Goageoltekhizdat, 1960, 185 pagea. 130. Kosygin~ Yu. A. GEOLOGICHESKOYE STROYENIYE ZEMNOY KORY SIBIRI I DAL'NEGO VOSTOKA (Geological Structure of th~ Earth's Crust of Siberia ' ~ and the Far East), Novosibirsk, Nauka, 1965, 140 pages. 131. KOCHETKOV, V. M. "Earthquakes of Yakuti}ra," in the book: ZEMLETRYA- SENIYA V SSSR V 1962 G. ~(Earthquakes in ~he USSR in 1962), Moacow, - Nauka, 1964~ pp 143-151. 132. Kochetkov, V. M. SEYSMICFIIdOST' YAKUTII (Seismicity of Yakutiya), Moscow, Nauka, 1966, 91 pages. 133. Krylov, S. V.; Miahen'kin, B. P.; Krupskaya, G. V.; Petrik, G. V.; and Yanuehevicb, T. A. "Structure of the Earth's Cxust with Respect to the Deep Seismic Sounding Profile through the Baykal Rift Zone," - CEOL. I GEOFIZ., No l. 1970, pp 84-91. - 134. Krylov, 5. V.; Miehen'kin, B. P.; and Petrik, G. V. "Study of the - Tops of the Mantle by the Method of Deep Seismic Sounding in the Baykal Rift 2one," in the book: VOPROSY SEISMICHNOSTI SIBIRI. CH. 1. STROYENIYE ZEP4d0Y KORY I VERKHNEY MANTII, DINAMIKA SEISMICHESKIKH VOLN (Probleme of the Seiemicity of Siberia. Part 1. Structure of the Earth's Cruet and Upper Mantle~ Dynamica of the Seismic Waves), " Novosibirak, Nauka, 1972~ pp 5-15. 135. Kuznetsov, V. P.; Agamirzoyev, R. A.; and Gyul'~ E. K. "Seismic _ Activity of Azerbaydzhan in CompArison with Large Geological Stru~tures," in the book: TE2ISY DOKLADOV IV VSESOYU2NOG0 SII~bZIUMA PO SEYSMICHESKOMU REZHIMU (~opice of Reports of the Fourth All-Union Symposium on the Seismic Regime), Kiehnev, Shtiintsa, 1971, 41 pagea. 407 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott OF~ICZAY, US~ ONLY 136. Kurdyukov, K. 4. "LaCest Tectonic Movementa and Trace~ of Che Larges~t Seiemic Shocks on tihe NorCh Slope cf the zailiyskiy Ridge~" in Che book: AKTIVIZIROVANNYE ZONY ZErINOY KORY~ NOVEYSHIYE TEK- TONICHESKIYE DVI2HENIYA I SEYSMOCHNOST' (Aativated xones of the Earth's Cruet~ LaCest TecConic'Movemente and Seiemicity), Moacow, Nauka, 1964~ pp 153-159. 137. Kurochkina, R. I., and Nersesov, I, L. "Earthquakes of NorChern Tyan'-Shan," in the book: ZEhII.ETRYASENIYA V SSSR V 1967 GODU'(Earth- quakes in the USSR in 1967), Moscow, Nauka, 1970, pp 90-99. 138. Kuruehin, R. A.; Kochetkov, V. M.; Nikolayev, V. V.; Dem'yanovich, M. G.; and Koz'min, B. M. "Strong Earthquakes of Yakutiya. 1971," in the book: SEYSMOLOGIYA I SEYSMOGEOLOGIYA. (NAUCHNAYA IN~~~RMATSIYA ~ IZK SO AN SSSR) (Seiemology and Seismogeology. (Scientific tnforma- tion of the IZK InstituCe of the Siberian DepartmenC of the USSR Academy of Sciences)), IrkuCsk, 1972, pp 43-45. 139. Kbchay, V. K. "Results of the Repeated Examination of the Reciprocal Deformatione in the Pleietociem Region of the Keba Earthquake," _ - GEOL. I GEOFIZ~ No 8, 1969~ pp 101-108. _ .140. Kuchay~ V. K. "Use of Paleoaeismodi~locations when Studying the Seismic Regime (in the Example of the P1eisCociam Region of the Chatkal'skiy Earthquake of 1946)~" GEOL. I GEOFIZ., No 4, 1971, pp 12G- 129. - 141. Kuchay, V. K. "Peculiarities of the Maximum Seismic Effect with . Reapect to the Paleoseismogeological DaCa," GEOL. I GEOFIZ., No 12, 1972, PP 85-95. 142. Ladokhin, N. P. ~"Underwater Valleys (Canyons) in the Southeastern Part of Baykal," in the book: 1?1ATERIALY PO IZUCHENIYU PROIZVODITEL'N~CH SIL BM ASSR (Materials on the Study of the Productive Forces of the BM ASSR),No 3, Ulan-Ude, 1957, pp 125-141. 143. Lamakin, V. V. USHKAN'I OSTROVA I PROBLEMA PRO LSKHOZHDENIYA BAYKALA (Ushkan'i Islanda and the Problem of the Origin of Baykal), Moscow, ~ GeografizdaC, 1952, 198 pages. 144. Lamakin, V. V. "Obruchevekiy Fault in the Baykal ~asin," in the book: VOPROSY GEOLOGII AZII (Probleme of the Geology of Aaia), Vol II, Moscaw- Leningrad, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1955, pp ~48-479. 145. Lamakin V. V. NEOTEKTON~KA BAYKAL'SKOY VPADINY (Neotectonics of , Baykal Basin), Moecow, Nauka, 1968, 245 pages. 146. Lastochkin, S. V. "Latest Tectonics and Seismicity of the Central Tranebaykal," in the book: VOPROSY SEYSMICHNOSTI SIBIRI.; Ch. II. (Probleme.of the Seiamicity of Siberia.' Part II., Novoaibirsk, Nauka, 1972, pp 121-129. 408 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott n~~'LCiAL US~ ~NLY " _ 14~. Logachev~ N. A. "Cenozoic Continental Deposita or' the Baykal Type , Baeins," IZY. AN SSSR. SER~ GEOL., No 4, 1958~ pp 18-29. 148. Lag~chev, N. A. "Sedimentary and Volcanic ~ormationa of the Baykal RifC Zone," in the tiook: BAYKAL'SKIY RTFT~ Moecow~ Nauka, 1968, p 30. 149. Logachev~ N. A.; Lomonoaova, T. K.; and K1~nanova, V. M. KAYNOZOYSKIYE OTLOZHENIYA IItKUTSKOGO A1~'ITEATRA (Cenozoic DQpoeita of the Yzkut AmphitheaCer)~ Moacow, Nauks~ 1964, 194 pages. 150. Logachev, N. A.; Antoshchenko-Olenev, I. V.; Bazarov, D. B.; Galkin, V. P.; Goldyrev, G. S.;Yendrikhinekiy~ A. S.; ZoloCarev, A. G.; . - Sizikov, A. P.; UfimCsev, G. F. "The Hietory of DevelopmenC of the - Relief of Siberia and the Far Eaet," in the book: NAGOR'YA PRIBAYKAI,'YA I ZABAYKAL'YA (Highlands of Pribaykal'ye and Tranabaykal), Moacow, Nauka~ 1974, 359 pages. ' 151. Lopatin, D. V. GEOMORFOLOGIYA VOSTOCHNOY CHASTI BAYKAL'SKOY RIFTOVOY - ZONY (Geomorphology of the Eastern Part of the Baykal Rift Zone), Moecow~ Nauka, 1972, 115 pgges. ~ 152. Lut~ B. F.. "New nata on the Bottom Relief of the SouChern and Central _ Baykal," I2V. AN SSSR. SER. GEOGRAF, No 4, 1961a, pp 90-99. 153. Lut, B. F. "Structure of the Central Depreseion of Lake Baykal," DOKL. AN SSSR (Iteports of the USSR Academy of Sciences), 1961b, Vol 140, No 1~ pp 201-204. 154. Lut, B. F. "Geomorphology of the Bottom of Baykal," in the book: GEOMORFOLOGIYA DNA BAYKALA I YEGO BEREGOV. (Geomorphology of the Bottom of Baykal and Ita Shorea), Moscow, Nauka, 1964, pp 5-123. 155. Lysak, S. V. GEOTERMICHESKIYE USLOVIYA I TERMAL'NYYE VODY YUZHNOY CHASTI VOSTJCHNOY SIBIRI (Geothermal Conditiona and Thermal Water of the Southern Fart of Eastern Siberia), Moscow, Nauka, 1968, 119 pages. a 156. Lyubimova,Ye. A. "Thermal Anomaly in the Vicinity of the Baykal Rift," _ in the book: BAYKAL'SKIY RIFT~ Moscow, Nauka, 1968, pp 159-166. 157. Lyubimova, Ye. A. "Thermal Fluxes and the Dynamics of the Earth's Depths," IZV. AN SSSR. FIZIKA ZEMLI, No 5, 1970, pp 3-17. _ 158. Maxilov, V. N.; Lomonosova, T. K.; Klimanova, V. M.; Kashayeva, G. M.; Yershov, R. I.; and Semenova, G. 0. LITOLOGZYA TRETICHNYKH OTLf1ZHENIY ~ VPADIN YU(30-ZAPADNOY CHASTI BAY'KAL'SKOY F.IFTOVOY ZONY (Lithology of the Tertiary Deposits with the Basins of the Southwestern Part of the ~ Baykal Rift Zone), Moscow, Nauka, 1972, lly pages. ~ 409 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~bEt U~~iCTAL USN: ONLY ~ - 159. Marinov~ N. A. "Mod~~rn Tectonic Movemente i:~ SouCheasCern Trans- - baykal and in the Far Northeaet of Mongolia," GEOMORFOLOGIYA~ No 3, 1973, Pp 74-79. 160. Medvedev, S. V.; Nateag-Yum, L~; Monkho, D.; Balzhiniyam, N.; ~ Lkhanaeuren, G.; Ad'yaa, M.; Tsecnbel, B.; Anak'in, I. V.; Shteynberg, V. V.; Popova~ Ye. V~; and Tokmakov, V. A. SEYSMICHESKOYE RAYONIROVANIYE ULAN-BAxORA (5e3emi.c Regionalization of U1an-Bator), Moscow, Nauka, 1971, 203 pages. 161. Medvedev~ S. V.; Shponkoyyer, V., and Karnik, V. 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"Basic Problems of the Stratigraphy of the Pre- cambrian in the Kodaro-Udokanekaya 2one a~d Ad~acent Regions," GEOL. I GEOFIZ., No 11, 1969, pp 156-158. 167. Mironyuk, Ye. P.; Lyubimov, B. K.; and ttagnushevskiy, E. L. GEOLOGIYA ZAPADNOY CHASTI ALDANSKOGO SHCHITA (Geology of the Weatern Part of the - Aldan Shield), Moacow, Nedra, 1971, 238 pages. 168. Misnik, Yu. F., and Ogorodnikov, V. D. "Details of the Internal . Structure of the Mongolian-Okhotak Deep Fault (in the Example of the _ Shilka Member)," IZV. ZABAYKAL'SKOGO FILIALA GEOGRAF. OB-VA SSSR (News of the Tranebaykal Branch of the Geography Society of the USSR), Vol V, No 6, 1969, pp 23-44. 169. Misharina, L. A. 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"Mongolian Earthquakes," in the book: SEYSMIC~IESKOYE RAYONIRCVANIYE ULAN-BATORA (Seismic Region- alization of Ulan-Bator), Moscow, Nauka, 1971, pp 54-82. 412 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott dFFiGt1~t. i)~~ Ot~t.Y 1g0. Nik~l~y~v~ V. V. "Spigmot~ceonic~ and S~i~miaity dF th~ ~~~t~rn ~'1~nk ~f the Seykgl Rife ~~ne," author'~ Y~viea of ~undid~t~'~ dig~~rtgtinn, irkut~k~ 1~74, 20 p~g~~. 191. Nekrnsov~ I. A. C~OKRIOLOCICHEBitOY~ RAYOKI1tOVAN~YL ~~Stt (KARTA) (Ceo~rynlogicai R~gionali~gtton of th~ U33R CMtap)), Yakutak, t:d. Yt1~rA 1DE~rZ10COVede~tyA Sa AN 5$~R~ 197~� 192. N~krasov~ I. A.; x~bolutaik, 3. I.; Kiimovekiy, i. i?.; ~nd 3h~rrkevirh~ Yu. G. MNOCOLETN~RZLYYB GORNYYg pOitODY STAN~VOC~O NAGI~R'YA I VITIMSKOCO Pt,03KOGOR'YA ~perm~frd~e of th~ 3tanovoy~ Nighi~ndr ~nd the Vitim pl~teau), No~cnw, Nauka~ 1967~ 167 p~g~~. 193. Nikonov~ A. A. 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"Structure of th~ ~arth'e Cruet in the Northpastern Part af the Baykal Rift Zon~ Accordiag to C~ophygie~ Dat~," author'~ reviev of candidate's dissertation Irkut~k, 1972b, 23 pggeg. 197. Nurmagambetov, A. "Procedure and Resulta of Studying the Spectral Time Characterietica of Seianic Vibratione of Local and Near Larth- quakea," author'e reviea of candidate's diesprt~tion, Hoeca+, 1973, 29 pages. 198. Obruchev, S. V. "Young Movementa and Eruptiono of Basnlte in the Sayan-Tuva Highland~" ZLMLEVEDENIYE. NOVAYA SER. ~8arth 5ciences. New Seriea)~ Vol 3(43)~ 1950, pp 26-31. 199. Ostrovekiy~ A. B. "Paleoseismotectoaic Dialocations and Poaeibilitiea of Ceological Porecasting of the Seiamicity of the Blgck Sea Coaat of - Northwestern Caucaaus~" in the book: VOPROSY CEOLOCII I TEKTOi~tIKI CNERNOMORSICOY VPADINY (Probleso8 of C.eology and Tectonics of the Black Sea Basin)~ Part II, Hoaca+, Nauica, 1970a, pp 29-42. 413 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~ ~dtt O~ptCtAt U5~ dNLY - ~ ~On. ~~~rdv~,kiy, A. g. '~pg~.edgpi~mc~t~~tdni~ bi~loe~~i~na dn th~ ~i~~k j 3~~ Gog~e af th~ Northvestern Geu~a~us in G~nne~~i~n vith ~~timxting th~ t~od~rn 5~aismicity of ~hie ~~rritory~" ia et~ books KOI~l1'1.LKSNYY~ ~~SL~nOVANtYA Ct~it~i0M0it~K0Y VpADiNY ~C~p~~c geudi~~ of ehp ~1gck 5e~ Ba~in), Mor~~ov, Nauka, 1970b, pp 46-5~. ~ '~01. p~vidv~kty, Ye~ V. "apoio~i~~i Nf~~dr~? ~nd ~did~i~~i Serucevr~ ~f I th~ ggykgi ~tdwn~gin R~gion," Ttt11DY IGN AN 3~3R SBtt. GgOL. CWc~rlcg df eh~ IGN Ineeitnt~ of th~ Acad~my of Sciet~c~s. ~~iogy S~ri~~), I No 3a,, Vyp. 99, 1948a, 176 p~g~~. ~ 202. Pgvlovgki~r~ Y~. ii. "Com~argtiv~ `~pct~nic~ di th~ M~~dcendxdie . StructureR of ~ast~rn ~ib~ria gnd tt?+~ GrQat ~ift of Africg and Ar~bia. t tZV. AN 539R. 3LR. C+~Ot.~ Nn S~ 194gbi Pp 25-3~, . ' Z03. P~v1ov, 0. V.; P~vienov, V. 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NOVEYSHtYE 414 FOR OPFICIAL U56 ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 i~~tt h~t~tGtAi, U5~ ONLY - 'I`BK'~~1NtC~5KIY~ bY~xH~tIYA i~gYS?tICNNdS'~' ~Aeeiv~t~d Z~n~a of th~ ~~rth'~ Cru~t. ~h~ Late~t T~~eantc Mdv~ntg ~nd 3~i~mici~y~~ ~t~gCbV~ Naulc~, 1964~ pp 45-4~. 212. pet~u~hQV~Akiy, A. "N~a Ar~ar in 3~i~mog~c~io~yr in Cdnn~~tion vith ~~ismic R~gion~li~ation,'~ BYUt,. HOIP. CnD. GEO~,. (t+ld~f' fnettitute ~uii~ei~t. Gpol~gy Dir~i~ian), N~ 5, 19G7, pp ~0-7~. - Z13. I~~trt~~heV~kly~ 8. A. ~~~A1'thqUgke9 and Tpctdnic~,~~ ~YUL. M()Ip~ CYl'D. a~OL., No i, 1969, p 6-7. 214. plgfk~r~ D~. "t~oiorpnp V~rci~gi bi~l~e~m~nt~ in th~ S~uthern ~~rt df Cpntr~l l1~i~," in th~ 6ook: ~~1~SKAxANIY~ Z~.~TRYA5~IIY (g~rthquak~ t~or~ca~~ing) , t~~coa, Mir, 196~, Pp 207-20: , Z15. Pogr~b~n~kiy~ M. i., and Chercprsh~v, N. "P~~ch~r Joineg of th~ ~~i~mic Shift~," nOKL. 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V.; and Petrik, C. V. "Deep Structure of the Baykal Rift According to the Data of Explog~oA Seismology," GEOL. I GEOFIZ., No S, 1974~ pp 1S5-~67. 220. Pehe~nikov~ K. V. "Approximate Lgtimate o~ the Energy nf Rep~~ted Shocks in the Central Baykal ~arthquake of 29 August 1959," GSOL. I C~OPIZ.~ No 2, 1961. pp 117-120. 221. Riznichenko, Yu. V. "Study of the Seigmic Conditions," IZV. AN S5SR. SBit. CBOPIZ, No 9, 19S8, pp 1057-1074. 222. Risaicheako. Yu. V. "Possibilities of Calculating Haximum Earthquakes," TRUDY IN-TA FIZIICI ZEt4.I AN SSSR (Works of the Inetitute of Earth Phqeico of the USSB Atademy of Science~), No 2S (192), 1962~ pp 41-45. 415 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 _ ; Fa~ ~~t~tetnt~ us~ ~rtt~v ` ~ Z23. ttizni~h~nko, Yu. Y. ~"2~t~thdd ~f 3umming ~arehqugk~g ed Study S~ir~tni.~ Aetivity," ~~Y. AN S531t. 3~~t. GLOI~iz, Nn 7~ 1964g? pP 969-977. . 224. Ri~nich~nk~, Yu. V. "Rel~eiun of th~ ~n~rgy of M~ximum ~~rthqu~keg t~ th~ 3~iemie Activity~" DOKL~ AN S331t~ Vo1. 157, Nn 6~ 1964b~ pp i352-1354. 225. Rixnich~nkn, Yu. V. "C~lculaeir~g the Spigmic Vuln~r~bil3.ty of ~oint~ on th~ ~greh'~ Cru~t fr~n ~~rthquak~e tn the ~nvirot~nt~" iZV. AN 3S3R. ~i~iic~ S~ti.i, No 5 ~ 1966, pp 16-32. 22G. Ri~nichenko, Yu. V.; Bun~, V. Zakhgrov~, A. i.; gnd S~yduzov~, 5. 3. "Seismic Vuln~rability of the Crim~an R~gion,~' t~IZIKA Z~ILI, No 8, 1969, pp 3-15. 227. Rizn~~t?eek~~ Yu. Y. gnd Dzhibl~d~tp~ E. A. "'~~igmic ActivtCy ~ttd L~rg~ ggrthqu~ke~ of the Cguc~~ue," IZV. AN SSSit. FIZ~itA Z~Mt.I, N~ 11, 1972, pp 35-49. 229. Riznich~nko~ Yu. V.; z~kharova, A. I.; gnd Seyduznva~ S. S. "Study of the Accuracy of Calculating 5eismic V~inerability~" PI~IKA ~~MLi, Nc 6, ~969~ pp 11-20. Z29. Riznich+enko. Yu. V.; zakharova, A. I.; end Sey.duzav~, 5. 5. "Setsmicity aed Vul~nernbility of italy," PIxIKA ZBMLI, No 7, 1970, pp 3-10. 230. Riznichenko, Yu. V.; p~hennikov. K. V.; and 2erin~ Yu. A. "5eismic Activity of Pribaykal'ye Compared with the Relief and Gravitational Anomalies~" I2V. AN SSSit. FI2IKA ZEMLI~ No 20, ~969, pp 10-28. 231. Rikh~er, C. p. "inetrument Scale for Earthquake Nagnitud~," in the book: SI.ABY'YE ZEMI.~T1tYASSNIYA (Weak Earthquakea) . Moaco~?, IL, 1961, pp 13-44. 232. Rik hter~ C. P. ELEI~NTARNAYA SEYSMOLOGIYA (Elementary Seismology), _ Nosccn~, IL, 1963, 670 pagpe. 233. Rogozin, A. A. "Dynamics of Certain Barri~re ~nd Bare in Baykal," in the baok: PRtnUKTIVNOST' BAYKAI.A ~ ANTROPOGENNYY~ IZt~t1ENIYA LCO P1tIRODY (Productivitq of Baykal aad the Aathropogeaic Alteratioas of Its Nature)~ Irkutek, Izd. BGNII, 1974, pp 26-39. 234. Ruzhich~ V. V. "Dynamica of the Tectanic Development of Pribaykal'ye in the Cenozoic," C80L. I CEOFIZ., No 4, 1972~ pp 122-126. 235. Salop, L. I. GEOLOGIYA BAYKAL'SICOY CORNOY OBLASTI (Geologq of the Baykal Mouatain Region), Vol 1~ Mosrov~ Nauka, 1964, 515 pages; Vol 2~ Moscow, Nedra, 1967, 700 pages. - 416 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~OR n~~IGIAL U5~ ONLY 236. S~mg~nov, V. V.~ ~nd P~numarevn~ G. p. "Boeeom n~po~icg nf g~ykgi-- thp L~C~~t Link in th~ Cenozoic C~l~x of eht Cdntin~ntgl 5edim~ne~ of the g~ykal Bggin~" in thp bookt UONNYY~ OTLOZH~NIYA BAYKALA (EoCtum Depo~itg df $gykai), Ma~coa~ Neuka, 1970~ pp 17-24. 23y. Svyatlov~kiy~ A. Yp. "Seiemot~ceonie~ of th~ K~mch~Ck~-Kurii Ob1~et," t~KL. AN 555R, Voi 103, No 1, 1955~ pp 125-12g. ~ 238. 3~Y5MICHLSKOYE MIK1tORAY0NI1tOVANIYL V U3LOVIYAKN tI~CHNOY M~itZLO~'Y (Seismic Microregiongli~aeion under rhe Permafroet Condttion~) Novo~ibirAk~ Ngukn, 1975, 87 pagee. 239. 5~Y5M0'I'EK'~~NIttA, GLUB.~NNOYL 5TROYLNIYE I SLYSMICHNOST' 5~V~R0-VO5TUKA BAYKAL'SKOY RIFTOVOY 20NY (SeiemoCecConice~ Deep StrucCur~ and Sei~micity nf the Northeastern Part of the Baylcgl Rift Zone), Novoeibirek, N~uka, 1975a, 100 pag~s. 74d. 5LYSM01'~KTONIKA I SEISMICHNOST' YUGO-VOSTOCHNOY CHASTI V~STOCHNOGO SAYAN'(Seigmotectoaicg and S~iemicity of the 5outh~~stern Part nf ~aetern Sayan)~ Novoeibirek, N~ulcg~ 1975 b, 133 pages. - 241. SEYSMOTBICrONIKA I SEYSMICHNOST' RIFTOVOY SIST~MY plt.gAYKAL'YA - (Seiemotectonica and Seiemicity of the Rift 5yatem of Pribaykal'ye), Moscov~ Naukb~ 1968~ 220 pagee. 242. 5emenov~ R. M., and Avdeyev~ V. A. "Zeyskoye Earthquake of 2 November � 1913~" GBOL. I CEOPIZ., No 4, 1975~ pp 106-116. 243. Sigimura~ A. "Inclined Tprracea. 8specially in the Southern Part of Kanto Dietrict," in the book: P1t~DSKAZANIYL ZEML1~TitYASSNIY (Sarthquak~ ~'orecasting)~ Moecow, Mir~ 1968, pp 146-149. _ 244. Sizykh~ V. I. "Tectonic Dislocations ~+ith a Break in Continuity in the Neatern Transbaykal," IZV. ZABAYKAL'SKOGO FILIALA GEOGRAF. OB-VA SSSR (Neae of the Tranabaykal Branch of the Ceographic Society of the USSR), Vol II~ vyp. 2, 1966, pp 31-40. 245. "Stroag Earthquakes of Pribaykal'ye in 1967," in the book: Z~.ETRYA- S~NIYA V SSSR V 1961 G. (Earthquakeg in the U5SR in 1967), Mogcow, Nauka, 1970, pp 133-149. 246. "Strong Earthquakea in Pribaykal'ye in 1968~" in the book: 2EFQ.ETRYA- SENIYA V SSSR V 1968 G. (~arthquakes in the USSR in 1968), Moscos~, Nauka, 1972, pp 123-139. 247. Smirnov~ A. D.; Dedumov. I. B.; and Buldakov, V. V. RIFEYSKIYE - STRUKTURY VOSTOCHNOCO SAYANA I POLOZHENIYE V NIKH NE Q~tATITOVYK~~ POLEY (Riphean Structure of Eastern Sayan and the Poaitioning of Pegmacitic pields in Them). Nosca+, Neuka~ 1969, 154 pages. 417 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 xnx o~~ict~u, us~ oxLY - 24g. Suiov'y~v, Y. A. "Cen~ei~ ltpl~ei~n oE tt~ C~n~xni~ ~nd M~gnzdie H~~in~ af W~~e~rn Tr~neb~ylc~1 wteh ~g1ae Syet~m~ ~f Iiiff~r~ne Ag~,~~ GEOL.x G~O~IZ., No 4~ 1963, pp 79-$6. 249. Solov'y~v~ V. A. Q3NOVNYY~ CHERTY M~zOZbY5K0Y TLKTONIK~ PItIgAYKAI.'YA I ZABAYKAL`YA (B~eic F~gture~ of th~ M~eczoic Tecton~ce of Pribaykal'ye ~nd Transbaykal)~ Moscow, Neuka, 196g, iZ6 pages. 25n. 5~lonenko~ A. V. "~nergy C1~ssification of Pribaykal'y~ Larehquakeg," in the bookt MAGNITUnA I~N~RGBTICKL~3KAYA KLA55I~IKATSIYA z~1.~TRYAS~NIY (MsgniCude and Energy Claeeification of ~grthquak~g), Vol II, Moecow, Nguku, 1974~ pp 1~4-179. 251. Solonenko~ A. V., and Tatarenko~ M. A. "Damping of 5eismic Wavee in Pribaykel'ye end the Lnergy Claseification of ~arthquakes," in tih~ ' book: VOPR09Y 3EYSMiL'tiNOSTi 3I~IRI (Pro6lpme of Seiemicity of Siberi~)~ part L~ Novoeibirsk, Nauka, 1972a, pp 113-129. 252. Solonenko, A. V., and Tatarenko, M. A. "New bata on Che Damping of 5eigmic Wav~s in Prib~ykal'y~," in Che book: SLYSMOLOGIYA I 5EYSMOGEOLOGIYA (5eiamology and Seiemogeology)~ Irkutsk, 1972b, pp 18-21. 253. Solonenkn, V. P. "Dynamic Phenamena Connected with the Neotectonice of Eastern Siberie~" DOKL. AN SSSR. NOYAYA S~R. (Reporte of the U5SR Academy of gciencea. NeW Series), Vol 72. No 1, 1950, pp 109-112. 254. Solc+nenko, V. P. "Sarthquakee in the Gobi Altay on 4 December 1957," _ I2V. AN SSSR. SER..CEOL.~ No 7, 19S9~ pp 32-39. 2S5. Solonenko~V. 1'. "Gobi-Altay Earthquake," GEOL. I GEOFIZ.~ No 2, 1960a~ PP 3-27. _ 256. Solonenko~ V. P. OCHERKI PO IN2HENERNOY GEOLOGII VOSTOCHNOY SIBIRI (Outlinea of the Engineering Geology of Ea~etern Sib~ria), irkutak~ 1960b~ 88 pagee. 257. Solonenko, V. P. "Nonuniformity of the Distribut:on of the Quake Inteneity over the Sur~ace of the Larth during Earthquakes," GEOL. I CEOPI2.~ No 3~ 1960c, pp 122-126. 258. Solonenko, V. P. "Some Problema of Modern Seismic Microregionalization," GEOL. I GEOFIZ.~ No 9, 1962a~ pp 69-~2. 259. Solonenko, V. P. "Determination of the Epicentral Zones of ~arthquake8 by the Geological Signs~" IZV. AN SSSR. SER. CEOL., No 11, 1962b, PP 58-?w. 260. Solonenko. V. P. SEYSMICFiESKOYE RAYONIROVANIYE VOSTOCHNOY SIBIRI (Seismic Regionalization of Eaetern Siber~a), Irkutsk, 1963a. 30 pagea. 418 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Ott OFF~CIAL U5~ ONLY 261. Sol~nenko, Y. P. "Seiemic Di~locatinne and Accompgnying Phenomena," in Cha ~nok: GO~I-ALTAYBKOY~ Z~tL~T1tYA3~NiY~ (.Gnbi-Alt~y EgrChquake)~ Moacow, Izd-vo AN 55SR~ 19636, pp 258-357. 262. Solonenko, V. P. "Mud Siide Activity and Plaigtoe~iem Oblaste of ~ Dieaatroue EgrChqugkes," BYUL. MOiP. OTb. GLOL., No 2, 1963c, pp 133-140. 263. Solonenko~ V. P. "Seiemicity of Scutharn Pribaykal'ye and ~xperience in Ch~ seiamic Microregional3xatio~: of ~he Uebrie Cone on Lake Baykal," in th8 book: VOPR03Y SLiSMICHN03TI SIBI1tI., Ndvoeib3rek~ Izd-vo Sb AN SSSR~ 1964a, pp 169-203 (T1tUDY IN-TA ~~IIdOY KORY SO AN SSSR~ (Worke of the Inetitute of the ~arth'e CruBt of the Siberign Depgrtm~nt of the USSR ~cademy af Sciences)~ No 18). 264. Solonenko, V. P. "Earthquakea and Volcanoes of the Stgnovoy Highland," PRIRODA (Ngture)~ No 9, 1964b~ pp 102-110. 265. Solonenko, V. P. "Active T~ctonice in Che Pleisticism Region of the Muya Egrthqugke," IZV. AN S3~R. 5ER. GEOL., No 4~ 196S, pp 58-70. 266. Solonenko~ V. P. "Paleoeeiemogeological Meth~d," in Che book: ZHIVAYA J . T~CTONIKA, WLKANY I SBISMYCHNOST' STANOYOGO NAGOR'YA (Active TecConics~ Volcanoes and Seismicity of the Stanovoy Highland~, Mascow, Nguka, 1966~ pp 15-36. 267. Solonenko, V. P. "Eaetern Siberia," in ~he book: SEYSMICHESKOYE RAYOttIROVANIYE SSSR (Seismic Regionalization of the USSR)~ Moacow, Nauk~, 1968b~ pp 358-371. 268. Solonenko, V. p. "Seismotectonics and the Modern Structural Development of the Baykal Rift 2one," in the book: BAYKAI.'SKIY RIFT, Moacow, Nauka, 1968b, pp 57-71. 269. Solonenko, V. P. "Active Tectonica, Volcanoee and Seismogeology of the Traneition Zone of ~he Baykal and Yakut Seiamic Regiona,"~ in the book: TBKTONIKA SOVETSKOGO DAL'NEGO VOSTOKA I PRILEGAYUSHC~iI1Q~ AKVATORIY (Tectonice of the Soviet Far Eaet and Ad~acent Bodies of Water), Moacoa, Nauka, 1968c. pp 149-158. 270. Solonenko, V. P. "Strong Earthquakes with Respect to Seismoatatiatica~" in the book: SEYSMOTEItTONIKA I SEYSMIr.HIQOST' RIFTOVOY SISTEMY PRIBAYKAL'YA (Seismotectonics and Seismicity of the Rift Sqete~ua of - Pribaykal'ye), Moecos~ Nauka~ 1968d, pp 60-68. 211. Solonenko, V. P. "Paleoaeismogeological Method," in the book: SIL'N2YE ZEMI.ETRYASENIYA SREDNEY AZII I KAZAKHSTANA YEZH~ODNIIt NO 1(Strong Earthquakes of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. Mnual No 1), Dushac?be, Doniah, 1970a, pp 83-93. 419 FOR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~0[t 0~'~'ICtAL U5~ ONLY 272. Solnnenko~ V. P. "SC~r~ on eh~ F~C~ of Che ~ereh," ~ItIItODA, Nn 9~ 1~70b~ pp 17-25. 273. Solonenko, V. P. "Probleme of Engineering Seiamogeology," in the bookt - PUTI DAL'NEYSN~GO RAZVITIYA INZHENEItNOY GEOLOGYI (MAT~1tIAi.Y UYSCUSSII K PERVOMU M~ZHDUNARODNOMII KONGR~SSU PO I~ZHENERNOY GEOLOGII) (Paths r~f FuCure D~velopmenti of ~ngineering Geology (~tateriale of the Dis- cue~ion at th~ Firge Ineernational Congrese on ~ngineering Geology)), Moecow~ 197~ pp 124-130. 274. 5olonenko, V. P. "Deetructian oL- Mountiain 51op~g durin~ ~grthqu~keg," in the book: SEYSMOLOGIYA I SEYSMOG~OLOGIYA (NAUCHNAYA INFO1tMATSIYA IN-'~A 2~10Y KORY SO AN SSSR (Seismology and Seiamogenlogy (Scientific Information of the In~titute of Che Eartfl'~ Crugt nf the Siberian Department of the USSR Academy of Sciencee), Irkutek, 1972a~ pp 28-32. 275. Solonenko~ V. p. "Seiemngenic De~CrucCion af Mountgin Slopea," in the book: GIDROGEOLOGIYA I INZHENERNAYA G~OLOGIYA. DOKL. SOV. G~OLOGOV NA XXIV SESSII MGK (Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology. ReporCa of the Council of Geologiets from the 24th Meeting of Che Moscow Geological Commiaeion), Moecow, Naukg, 1972b, pp 142-151. _ 276. Solonenko~ V. P. "Earthquakes and Relief~" GEOMORFOLOGIYA (Geomor- - phology)~ No 4~ 1973a, pp 5-15. 277. Solonenko~ V. P. "Paleoseismogeological Method and Engineering Seismogeology~" in the book: SEYSMOGENNYYE STRUKTURY I SEYSMODISLOKATSII. (MATER. KONF. MIN. GEOL. SSSR, VNIIGEOFYZ.) (Seismogeaic Structurea and Seismic Dielocatione. (Materiale of the Conference of the Ministry of Geology of the USSR, VNIIGeofiz Inatitute)), Moecw, 1973b, pp 62-64. 278. Solonenko, V. P. "Paleoseismogeology~" IZV. AN SSSR. FIZIKA ZEt~II.I~ No 9, 1973c~ pp 3-16. _ 279. .Solonenko, V. P. "Seiemicicy of the Cryolithozone and Problema of Engineering Seismogeocryology," II t~2HDUNAR. KONF. PO I~RZLOTOVED. DOKLADY I SOOBSHCH. (Second International Conference on Cryology. Reports), No 6, Yakutek, 1973, pp 25-32. 280. Solonenko, V. P. "Seiamogeology and Problema of Earthquake Forecasting," GEOL. I GEOFIZ. No S, 1914~ pp 16$-178. . 281. Solonenko, V. P.; Kuruahin, R. A.; Pavlov, 0. Y.; Khil'ko, S. D.; _ Khromovakikh~ V. S.; and Shmotov, A. P. "Modern Disastrous Movements of the Earth'e Cruat in the Mongolian-Saykal Seismic Region," MEZHDUNAR. SOYUZ GEODEZII I GEOFIZIKI, III MEZHDUNAR. S~OZ. (International Union of Geodetics and Geophyaics, Third International Symposi~), Moacow~ Nauka~ 1969, pp 377-385. 420 FDR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~Oit O~~~C~AL U5~ ONLY 282. 5olonenko~ V. Kuruahin, lt. A.; ~nd Ktiil'ko, 5. D. "SCrong ~grth- quakee~" in the hookt zHTVAXA TEKTONIKA, VuLKANY I S~Y5MYCHNO5T' STANOVOGO NAGOR'YA (qctive Tectonics~ Vdlcanoee and SeismiCity of the - SCanovoye Highl~nd), Moecow, Nauka, 1966, ppggeg 145-171. 283~ 3olonenkn, V. P.; Pavlov, 0~ V.; V. 5.; and Pavlenov, V. ~ - A. "Lngineertng Se3emogeology under PermafYOeC Conditiong~" in the bookt VS~SOYUZNOYE SOVESNCHANIYE PO t~RZLOTOVEDENZYU (A11-Union Con- - ference on Permafroet~, Noecaw, Izd-vo Maek. un-ta~ 1970~ pp 302-303. 284. Solonenko~ V. p.; Pgvlov, 0~ V.; Khromovskikh~ V. 5.; and pavlenov, V. A. "Method of Seiemi,c Microregiongl:Ization under Permafrogt Condieione~" BYUL. PO IN2HENERNOY SEYSMOLOGII (~ulletin on Engineering Seiamology), Yerevan~ Izd-vo AN ArmS3SR, No 7. 1972~ pp 25-30. - 285. 5olonenko~ V. P., and Treakov; A. A. SREDNEBAYKAL'SKOY~ 2EMLETRYASENIYL 29 AVGUSTA 1959 G. (Central Baykal ~grthquake of 29 AugugC 1959), Irkutek~ 1960~ 36 pagee. 286. Solonenko, V. P., and Treskov~ A. A. "AcCive Tectonica and Earthquakea - in the Mongolian-Baykal Seiemic Zone," in Che book: IRKUTSKIY NAUCHNYY , TSENTR SO AN SSSR. PROSLEMY RAZVT.TIYA NAUKI (,Irkutsk Scientific Center - of the Siberian DepartmQnt of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Problems of the Development of 5cience), Irkutak~ 1967~ pp 22-44. 287. Solonenko, V. P.; Treskov, A. A.; and Florensov~ N. A. "The Disastrous Gobi-Altay Earthquake of 4 December 1957 (Seismogeological Outline), _ Moacow~ Gosgeolizdat. 1960a~ 48 pages. 288. Solonenko, V. P.; Treakov~ A. A.; and Florenaov, N. A. "Seiamic Re- gionalization of Eastern Siberia," GEOL. I GEOFIZ., No 10, 1960b, pp 104-114. 289. Solonenko, V. P., and Khraaovskikh, V. S. "Powerful Earthquakea of the Greater CaucaBUS," PRIRODA, No 6, 1974, pp 34-41. 290. Solonenko, V. P.; Khromovekikh~ V. S.; Zhilkin, V. M.; Golenetskiy, S. I.; and Kuruahin, R. A. "Some SeismotecConic and Engineering- - Seiamogeological Aspects of the Problem of Vulnerability during Earthquakes," in the book: IZUCHENIYE SEYSMICHESKOY OPASNOSTI (Study of Seismic Danger), Tashkent, Izd-vo FAN UzhSSR, 1971, pp 84-118. 291 Spizharekiy, T. N.; Bulina, L. V.; and Moahkin, V. N. "Siherian - Platform, " in the book: GEOLOGZCHESKOYE STROYENIXE SSSR (Geological Structure of t6e USSR), Vol II, Moacow, Nedra, 1968, pp 469-509. 292. Tal'-Vir~kiy, B. B.; Zakharova~ A. N.; and Yakovleva, I. B. "Relation of Seiemic Activity of the Territory of Uzbekistan to Certain Elements of the Geological Structure and Geophysical Field," UZB. GEOL. ZHURN (Uzbek Geological Journal), No 2, 1971, pp 3-8. 421 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOIt f1~~''iCIAt, US~ QNLY - - 293. T~KTONIKA ~V12AZII (.'Tectonice of ~urgsia~~ Mogco~, Nguka, 1966~ 488 pg$es. 294. TEKTONICH~5KAYA KARTA EVRAZII,(.Tectonic Mnp of ~uraeia). Chief ~diCor A. L. Yanshin~ Moacow, Yzd. GUGK~ 1966. - 295. TLKTONICH~3KAYA KARTA 333R (T~ctonin M~p of Ch~ US3R), edited by N. S. Shgtekiy~ Moscow, Izd. GUGK, ~953. 296. Timofeyev, A. D. SREDNYAYp I NIZHNYAYA OLEKMA (CenCral and Lower 0lekmg~~ Moscoar-Leniragrad, Nauka, 1965, 138 pages. 297. Timofeyev, A. D. "Some G~neral Probleme nf NeotecConina and Morpho- CecConics in the Example of the Geomorphological History of Southern YakuCig," in Che book: PROBL~MY GEOMORFOLOGII Z NEOT~KTONIKI OROGENNYKH OBLASTEY SIBIRI I DAL'NEGO VOSTOKA (Problems of Geomorphology and Neotectonice of the Orogenic Regione of Siberia and Che Far EasC), - Vol II~ Novosibirek~ Nauka, 1968~ pp 235~244. 298. TIMOFEYEV~ D. A. "Planation Surfaces of Sib~ria and the Far ~ast; State of the Art and Study of the Problem~" in Che book: GEOGRAFIYA I GEOMORFOLOGIYA AZII (Geography and Geomoi~phology of Aeia), Moscow, - Nauka, 1969, pp 81-105. 299. Treskov~ A. A. "Mechaniem of the Earthquake Center and the Tectonic Stresa Field," in the book: SEYSMOTEKTONIKA I SLYSMICHNOST' RIFTOVOY SISTEMY PRIBAYKAL'YA (Seismotectonice and Seiemicity of Che Rift SyeCem of Pribaykal'ye)~ Moscow, Nauka, 1968, pp 78-89. 300. Treakov, A. A., and Pahennikov, K. V. "Seismicity of the Baqkal Zone," in the book: 2EMLETRYASENIYA V SSSR (Earthquakea in the USSR), Mos~ow. Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1961, 412 pages. 301. Treakov, A. A.. and Florenaov, N. A. "Mondinskoye (Mondy] Earthquake," - BYUL. SOVETA PO SEYSMOLOGII AN SSSR (Bulletin of the Council on Seiemclogy of the USSR Academy of Sciencea), No 2, 1952, pp 12-36. 302. Trifonov, V. G. "Impulse Nature of Tectonic Movements in the Region - of Latest Mountain Pormation (Kopet-Dag and Eastern Caucasus)," GFOTEKTONIKA, No 4~ 1971, pp 65-68. 303. Ufimtsev~ V. S. "Latest Tectoaics of the Central Tranebaykal," ZAP. ZABAYKAL'SKOGO FILIALA GEOGRAF. OB-VA SSSR (Notes of the Transbaykal Branch of the Geographic Society of the USSR), Chita, No 55, 1971, pp 116-188. 304. Fedorenko~ V. S. "Tectonic and Seiemic Phenomena and Their Significance in the Formation of Disastroua Landslips and Landslides (in the Vi- cinities of the Chatkal'skiy and Alayskiy Mountain Folded Structures)," .VOPROSY INZHENERNOY GEOLOGII I GRUNTOVEDENIYA (Problems of Engineering - 422 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 FOIt O~FICIAt, U5~ ONLY Geology ~nd Soil 5cience), Mogcow~ I~cd-vo Moek~ un-rg, No 2, 1968~ pp 229-244. 305. Fedoeov, 3. A. "S~iemic Cycle~ Che Poe~ibiltties of QuanCiCgCive Seiamic ttegionalization and Long-Term Seiemic ~orecas~ing~" tn the bookt SEY3MICH~SKOY~ RAYONIROVANIY~ S5Slt (Seiemic ltegionalizgtion of the USSIt)~ Moecow, Nauka~ 1968, pp 121-150. 306. Fedotov, S. A., and Shumil3ea~ L. S. "Seiemic Vulnerab311Cy of Kamehatka," FIZIKA z~MI.I~ No 9, 1971, pp 3-15. 307. Floreneov~ N. A. "Geomorphology and the Latieet Tectonice of Trans- baykal~" IZV. AN SSSR. SER. G~OL., No 2, 1948, pp 3-16. 308. ~loreneov~ N. A. "Ro1e of the ~ractures gnd Troughs in the SCrucCure of the Baykal Tppe Basins," 3n the '6ook: VOPROSY GEOLOGII AZII~ Vol l, Moecow, Ixd-vo AN SSSR, 19S4, pp 670-685. 309. F'lorensov, N. A. MEZOZOYSKIYE I KAYNOZOYSKIYE VpADINY PRIBAYKAL'YA (Meeozoic and Cenozoic Basins of Prebaykal'ye)~ Moacow-Leningrad, Izd-vo AN SSSR, 1960a~ 258 pgges. _ 310. Florensov, N. A. "Neotectonice end Seismicity of the Mongolian-Baykal Mountain Region~" GEOL. I GEOFIZ-~ No 1, 1960b~ pp 74-90. - 311. ~lorenaov, N. A. "Young Tectonic Movemente and Relief of Egatern - Siberian Highlands." TRUDY VOST.-SIB. GEOL. IN-TA (t~orks of the Eastern Siberian Geological InsCitute), No 1961, pp 6-16. 312. F]pr~nsov, N. A. "Structure and Geological History of the Baykal Type Baeina," in the book: DOKL. SOV. GEOI.. NA XXII SESSII MEZHDUNAR. G~OL. KONGRESSA (Reports of Soviet Geologiata at the 22nd meeting of the International Geological Congresa)~ Moscow, Nauka, 1964~ pp 252-262. 313. Floreneov, N. A. "Problem of the Mechaniem of Mountain Formation ia Internal Asia~" GEOTEKTONIKA, No 4~ 1965, pp 3-14. 314. Floreneov, N. A. "Baykal Rift 2one and Some Problema of Its Investiga- tion," in the book: BAYKAL'SKIY RIFT, Moacow, Nauka, 1968, pp 40-57. 315. Floreneov~ N. A. "Rifte of thQ Baykal Mountain Region~" in the book: PROBLEMY STROYENIYA ZEI~QdOY KORY I VERI(~1EY MANTII (Problems of the Structure of the Earth'e Crust and Upper Mantle), No 7, Mo~coa, Nauka, 1970, pp 146-150. 316. Floreneov, N. A.; Solonenko, V. P.; and Logachev, N. A. 01Cenozoic Volcanism of the Rift Zonea." ViJLKANIZM I TEKTOGENEZ. DOKL. SOV. GEOLOGOV NA XXIII SESSII MGK (PROBLEMA 2) (Volcanism and Tectogeneais. 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"Basic Features of the Neotectonica of Western Trans- baykal~" IZV. ZABAYKAL'SKOGO PILIALA GEOGRAF. OB-VA S~SR, Chita~ Vol II~ No 4, 1966, pp 45-65. 325. Khromovgkikh, V. S. SEYSMOGEOLOGIYA YUZHNOGO PRIBAYKAI.'YA (Seiemo- geology of 5outhern Pribaykal'ye), Moacow, Nauka~ 1965, 121 pagea. 326. Khromovskikh, V. S.; Solonenko~ V. P.,; Zilkin, V. M.; Khil'ko~ S. D.; Zelenkov, P. Ya.; and Semenov, R. M. "Seismic Dislocations of Western Ca~casus and Their Significance for Seiemic Regionalization," in the book: SEYSMOGENNYYE STRUKTURY I SEYSMODISLOKATSII (MATERIALY � KONFERENTSII) (Seiemogenic Structures and Seismic Dielocationa (Con- ference Materials)), MoscoW~ Yzd. VNIIGeofiziki, 1973, pp 12-15. 321. Churinov, M. V. "Landelide Generating a Lake~" PRIRODA. No 8~ 1964~ pp 88-91. 42k FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 F'Olt nF~tCl'Ai, US~ ONLY 328. Shatakiy, N~ S. 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"The DetecCion of Prehistoric Earthquakes from Fractured Cave Structures," CAVES AND KARST, Vol 12, No 2, 1970. 350. Miller, Don J. "The Alaska Earthquake of July 10, 1958; Giant Wave in Lituya Bay~" BUL. SEISM. SOC. AI~RER., Vol 50, No 2, 1960. 351. MQlnar~ P., and Agarwae, Y. P. "A Microearthquake Survey in Kenya," - BUL. SEISM. SOC. AMER., Vol 51~ No 1, 1971, pp 195-200. , 352. Murphy L. M., and Brazee, H. J. "Seismological Investigations of the ' Hebger Lake Earthquake," GEOLOG. SURV. PROF. PAPER, No 435, 1964, pp 13-17. 353. Oakeahot, Gordon B., and Tocher, Don. "Surface Faulting in Recent Earthquakea in Western Cordillera," BUL. GEOL. SOC. AMER., Vol 71, No 12, 1960, p 2038. - - 426 ' FOR OFFICI,AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~btt c)~ptGtAt, USt~ ONLY 354. Pgge, Rob~rt. 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BULL.~ No.l;l, 1970, pp 41-60. 427 - POR OPFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 APPR~VED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5 ~dtt d~i~tGtAL t15~ dNt,Y 36g. `~chgipnkn~ J. A., ~nd Br~ud, J. "9~i~micity ~nd ~tru~eure nf the ~agra~ (Irga~ ~ th~ M~in 1tac~nt ~au1~ b~t~t~~n 33 and 35� N. pNiL. 'T~itAAN~, AOY. 50C. tONDON, ~9~4a. 3~i9. Tehai+~nlco, J. 3. ; H~~ud ~ .1 ~ ; ~nd ~erberiaa ~ ~t. "Dir~~very ~f ~hr~~ Ba~cthquak~ ~~ule,~ ~n Iran," NA'~URE~ Vol 248, N~ 5450, i9y4b, pp 6b1- G63. ~~n. "Th~ P~ru ~grthqu~kp: ~ Sp~ci~l ~eudy," BUL. ATOMIC. SCI., V~1 26~ No 3, 1970. 371 `Cocher~ Don. 'Th~ Alaska Ear~hquak~ ~f Ju1y 10, 1958~" BtJL. SEISM. 50C. At~R., Vo1 5A~ No 2, 19b2, pp ~53-162� 372. U1~n, ~ad S~ki, A. "tteletion b~tv~~en th~ Ar~~ of Aft~r~hdck end the ~nergy of 1~lain Shock Zisin (II), No 7~ 1455~ pp 233-240. 373. Ward, P. L.; Palmason~ G.; gnd Dr~k~, Ch. "Micro~~rthquak~ a~d the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in Icelend~" G~OPHY5. R~SLARCH, Vol 74, No 2, 1969, pp 665-684. 374. Welechet, W. "Further Obaervationa of Geologic and Geomorphic Ch~ngee Reeulting from the Cgtaetrophic L~rthquak~ of May 1960, in Chile," BUL. 5~ISM. SOC. AttER.~ Vol S3~ No 6, ~963~ pp 1259-1262. 375. Wellman~ N. it. " Recent Cruetgl Movements: Techniques and Achievementg~" - TECTONOPttYSIS~ Vol ~3, No 1-4, 1972, pp 3~3-392. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'etvo "Nauka," 1977 10845 C50: 8144/0607 ENU 428 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000100030011-5