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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - JPRS L/9700 ~ 30 April 1981 U SS R Re ort ~ - p POLITICAI AND SOCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS CFOUO 12/81) ; FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE FOFc OFFIClAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 NOTE - JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency ~ransmissions and broadcasts. Materials from fureign-language - sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [TextJ _ or [ExcerptJ in the first line of each item, or following the last line of a brief, indicate h ow the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted, Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- - tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the ~riginal but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an i~em originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- = cies, views or at.titudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR QFFICIAL USE ONI,Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE OPJLY JPRS L/970Q 30 Apri1 1981 USSR REPORT POLITICAL AND SQCIOLOGICAL AFFAIRS (FOUO 12/81) CONTENTS NAT l ONAL Collection of Tikhonov Speeches, Articles (N. A. Tikhonov; IZBRANNYYE RECHI I STAT'Y1, 1980) 1 Azeri Political Theoretician on Social Consciousness, New Soviet Man (G. Zaliyev; AZARBAYJAN KOMMUNISTI, No 1, 1981) 13 REGIONAL Views of Past Shown in 'Islam and the Muslim Family' (ISLAM I SEM'YA, 1980) 15 - a- [ III - USSR - 35 F~UO] cno nst~r~r e r T res n~it v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 ~ FOR QFFICIA~ USE ONLY - NA1`IONAL COLLECTION OF TIKHONUV SPEECHES, ARTICLES Moscow N. A. TIKHONOV: IZBRANNYYE RECHI I STAT'YI in RusSian 1980(signed to - press 8 Aug 80)pp 1, 3-5, 418-424, 442-443; 444-448 [Annotation, two speeches, table of contents from book by Nikolay Aleksandrovich Tiklionov, Politizdat, 100,000 copies, 448 pagesJ [Text] From the Publishers This collection of selected speeches and articles by Nikolay Aleksandrovich Tikhonov, first deputy chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, covers the period between 1949 and 1980. It includes speeches presented by N. A. Tikhonov to electors, at party conferences, administr.ative aktivs and international forums, addresses delivered at meetings for the formal presentation of awards to a. number _ of Union republ~.cs, oblasts and cities, reports delivered at sessions of the USSR Supreme Soviet and articles published 3n the magazine KOMMUNIST, in the newspapers PRAVDA and IZVESTIYA and in other periodicals. Most of the book describes the work performed by party, soviet and s3ministrativE agencies to implement the program of economic and social dPVeiopment for the nation worked out at the 24th and 25th CP~U Congresses. It convincingly demon- strates the fact that the Communist Party's policy conform to the basic interests of the workers, of all the Soviet people, and to the tasks involved in building communiGm, strengthening friendship of. peonles and fighting for peace. The author focuses upon the issues of the CPSU's economic strafegy, raising the effectiveness of public production and the quality of the work, imgroving manage~- ment, thoroughly applying the achievements of scientiPiG and technologic3l progress, increasing labor productivity, strengthening state discipline and fiirther enhancing socialist democracy, labor and political activeness among the masses under developed socialism. The author thoroughly describes the activities of the Communist Party and the Soviet government aimed at achieving ir~creasingly fuller satisfaction of the material and cultural needs of the Soviet people. The book discusses specific tasks involved in providing planned and proportionate " development of the national economy and its leading sectors at the contemporary - stage, intensifying production, making efficient use of material, labor and 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Einancia.l resources, increasing the output and improving the quality of consumer goods and other products. The author convincingly demonstrates the advantages of _ the socialist system of management an~ pro~~ides a specific analysis of shortcotrings p~esent in certain areas of econamic develapment. Many of the sections describe the foreign policy activities of the CPSU with respect to strengthening the world commonwealth of socialist nations, implementing the Program of Peace put forth by the party and relaxing international tensions. - A considerable porticn of this material deals with the improvement of our nation's foreign economic relations and the development and enhancement of all round political, economic, scientific, and. technological cooperation between the Soviet Union and the fraternal socialist nations. A number of the sections deal with the develop- ment o.f mutually advantageous, foreign economic relations between our nation and - the caPitalist natiuns in the interest of peace and progress. A prominent pla.ce in the book is devoted to articles and speeches by N. A. Tikhonov as chairman of~ the Co~ission for Observance of the International Year nr the Cl~ild in the USSR. This material illustrate;; the constant concern demon- _ strated by the Communist Party and the Soviet statF for the upcoming generation 3nd describes the extens~ve work performed by party, soviet and public organiza- tions and labor collectives in our nation in connection with the declaration of - 1979 as International Y~ar of the Child by the United Nations organization. The concluding sections of the book describe the enormous amount of creative work being performed by the Soviet people to implement decisions coming out of the 2~th CPSU Congress and subsequent plenums of the CPSU Central Committee. The aiithor's speeches and articles stress the exceptional importance of the multi- _ faceted and productive work of the CPSU Central Committee and its Leninist Politburo headed by Comrade L. I. Brezhnev, outstanding political figure and - statesman of modern times and tirele:ss champion of peace. . A number of the items includE3 in the book have been condensed. Some of N. A. Tikhonov's speeches are published here for the first time. itaise the Level of ~fanagement (from a speech delivered at a meeting of the USSR ~ Council of Minisrers on 2? Jr3nuary 1980) Comrades! We have heard reports by Comrades N. K. Baybakov and V. F. Garbuzov and speeches by ministers and chairmen of Union republic councils of ministers_ Permit me to sum up some of the results of our dis.:ussion, focusing your attention on the main results of 1979, but most impartantly--on the tasks which lie ahead. llecisions coming out of the November 1979 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee and the speech by Comrade Leonid Il'ich Brezhnev contained a thorough and p:-incipled appraisal of the nation's social and economic developme.nt, and outl~.ned a specific ~rogram of action for all sectors in the building of c~inmunism. 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON1,Y The most important tasks of Union republic ministries and councils of ministers to emerge from plenum decisions were defined in a decision of the Presidium of the ~ USSR Council of Ministers. Now, we have to specifically define ~these tasks for each level of management, taking into account the results of the economic work - already performed under the lOth Five-Year Plan. On the whole, our economic and cultural development has advanced. We have taken another step Forward to improve the material welfare of the people. Party, soviet and .nanagement agencies are performing a large amount of organizational work ~ toward fulfillment of decisions coming out of the 25th party congress. Today, however, we must focus our attention on unfinished tasks, on obstacles to pragress, as required by the Novemt~er 1979 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. First of all, I wouid like to turn your attention t~ th;e fact that although we have been successful in fulfilling the social program and have significantly increased the real income of the population, public consumption funds, the earnings of blue- and white-collar workers and the wages of kolkhoz workers, and the quantity of consumer services provided for the population, we can still not be satisfied with the present level of publi~c prvduction effectiveness, labor - productiwity or the quality af the goods produced. We know that a society can only distribute what is produced, and our central task therefore is still one of making fuller use of the intensive growth factors, production reservPS and - possibilities for economy and conservation. Certain ministries and Union republics did not fulfill last year's plan with - respect to some extremely important indices. Certain other branchess such as th~ coal industry, fe.rrous metallurgy and the lumbe:.-, pulp-an~-paper and construction materials industries and many construction ministries failed to increase praduc- _ , tion volumes. Development lags in the chemical industry and nonferrous metallurgy. It was pointed out at the November 1979 Plenum of the CPSU Central Conunittee that this was not ~ust a matter of last year`s adverse weather conditions but that many ministries and departmenCs werE unable to overcome the force of inertia, to - resolutely and consistently improve product qualit~, increase labor productivity = and achieve the best possible end results. I will not go into details about inadequacies in the performance o� all the ministries but ~vill discuss only those which have especially retarded our national economic development. T,Jith respect to t~e fuel branches, I have to point out the fact that there was a = - significant deterioration in the performance of the Ministry of ~he Coal Industry. Planned coal production assignments were not fulfilled, of course. The main cause of this has been a lag in the creation of new capacities, the development ef new capacities and the technical updating of enterprises. Almast half of the mines and pits failed to master production capacities placed into operation. Coal production was shozt by almosr 40 million tons because of t1~is. Coal production loss~es i.ncreased as a re~ult of a drop in th~ average monthly output af the workers and for other reasons. Despite repeated, sharp criticism, the ministry has - still not taken steps to remedy the situation. Coal extraction enterprises of the Kuznetsk Coal Basin and mines operated by the Ukrainian SSR Ministry of the Coa7. Industry continue to perf~~m iinsatisfactorily. 3 ~ F4R OFFI~CIA~L USE ONII.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - Today, we ha~e a~3ght to ask those in charge of the ministry: Just when are the coal enterprises going to operate smoothly and insure that the established assign- ments are fulfilled? Nor are we satisfied with the gerformance of the Ministr~ of Ferrous Metallurgy. Last year the c4nsumers were shorted a large quantity of f inished rolled products and pipe. P�roduction of the economical types of inetal products is being mastered - too slowly, as a result of which possibilities for conserving metal in the national economy aavG been reduced by approximately 1.5 million tons. The Ministry is not taking Pffective steps tu improve the performance of such large metallurgical enterprises as the Nizhniy Tagil Combine, the Krivo,yrog Ore Dressing Combine, the Ore-Dressing imeni Dzerzhinskiy in Dneprovsk, the Lebedin Ore-Dressing Combine, and certain others have not fulfilled the plan for tiie entire ~.etallurgical cycle in several years. There is extensive downtime for capital equipment in the branch, as a res~ult of which metal production fell short by a large quantity. ~ For a number of years now the USSR Ministry of Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical _ 7nc'ustry has not provided the yeast industry with liquid paraffin, as a result of - ~~:iich capacities available at enterprises of the microbiology industry have not l~een utilized for a long tim~. An ethylene production unit at the Lisichansk Refinery is bein~ mastered extremely unsatisfactorily. Only slightly more than ' 10 percent of the planned output was achieved at this unit last year. We have also heard major complaints today about the machine-building ministries, wh~ch are not fulfilling the production pl~*~s for many of the most important types of equipment. Production capaci~ies continue to be unsatisfactorily utilized in the machine-building ministries, and the shift index is still low. Nor can we say that the performance of rhe Ministry of the Pulp and Paper Industry is satisfactory. Such large industries under the Ministry as the Bratsk Lumber Industry Combine, the Selenginsk and Amursk Pulp and Cardboard Combines and the Segezha Pu1p and Paper Combine did not fulfill their assignments, while meeting the Ministry's raw needs. We have complete grounds for s~ating that this ministry is not moving rapidly enough to work out problems affecting improvemE~nt in the performance of these enterprises, is not determining the causes of their high accident rate or of violations of technological and production discipline, and is not taking .`.;:.P necessary steps. The performance of rail transport, as you know, was held up to especially sharp at tne November 1979 Plenum of the CPSU Central Committee. Transport proved to be the weakest link in the system of national economic sectors. Assign- ments were not fulfilled for many extremely important indices which describe the quality of this branch's performance. Productivity per car dropped below the 1978 level, the average turnaround time increased by five percent, and demurrage - related to cargo-handling operations i.ncreased. Labor productivity for rail trans- port was below the 1978 level. It should be ~orne in mini that all of this occurred despite the fact that the ministry has constantly received - assistance. 4 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y The Ministry of Railways has reported on steps it plans to take to correct the situation in transport. We hope that these steps will actually be implemented and that transport will cease to be a bottleneck in the national economy. All of today's speeches have reflected special concern about the state of affairs in capital construction. USSR ministries and department and Union republic coun- cils of ministers failed to bring about a significant improvement in this impo~nt branch last year. A large number of extremely important production capacities in the .fuel and energy branches, in ferrous and nonferrours metallurgy and in the chemical industry were not placed into operation. What is the matter? Construction ministries and Union republics attribute the unsatisfactory fulfillment of the capital construction Ylan to a shortage of workers, among other things. We need to take a close J.ook at such explanations, however. Why is there a shortage of workers in construction organizations, when there is a surplus of able-bodied population in the repvblics? Apparently, it is primarily a matter of the Union republic cauncils of ministers not doing enough te attract workers into the construction branch. This applies most of all to the councils of minj.sters of. the Kazakh SSR, the Uzbek SSR, the Turlanen SSR, the _ Kirghiz SSR and the Tadzhik SSR. Furthermore, the construction ministries--the Ministry of Construction of Heavy Industry Enterprises, the Ministry of Construc- tion and the Ministry of Tndustrial Con~_iuction--have systematically failed to fulfill their plan for the training of skilled workers. Therein lies a shortcoming also of the State Committee for Vocational and Technical Education of the USSR. Because of poor management and the unsatisfactory use of available materials, equipment and personnel, labor productivity is not growing in most of the construc- tion ministries, and in 1979 it was below the 1978 level for the main construction min.istries. There is frequently an extremely large difference between the output per worker for enterprises under various ministries, with equal working conditions - and wages. y Construction organization capacities are not being fully utilized. Between 1975 and 1978 the Ministry of Construetion of Heavy Industry Enterprises, the Ministry of Industrial Construction and the Ministry of Construction invested several biliion rubles to devetop their production base, but despite this the volume of - contracted work last year was several hundred million rubles less than the 1975 figure. Ministries and departments, Stroybank [All-Union Bank for the Financing of Capital Investments], Gosbank and the People's Control Committee should exercise more stringent control over the observance of state plan discipline at _ construction sites and in contract organizations, resolu*.e1y eliminate localistic - tendencies in construction affairs and prevent the diverting of lubor, materials and equipment frem extremely important national economic projects. I want to discuss specif.ically the production of consumer goods. Right now, a draft decree is being prepared in the USSR Council of Ministers on certain additional steps to increase consumer goods prodtction in 1980. Assignments are being increased for the production of a number of goods, including children's undergarments, bed linen, thread, socks, toothbrushes and simple cultural, = personal and household items--by a tntal of almost 360 million rubles at retail 5 FOR GFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 I rvr vrri~.~HL UJC VIVLY prices. It is planned within the near futur~ to hold a special cor.~ference uf ' - deputy chairmen of Uni4n republic councils of ministers in charge of organizations : - for the prodLCtion of consumer goods and trade. We are hoping that trae Union republics will most carefully reexamine matters . lpextaining to consumer goods production and affined additional resources so as to increase production in 1980 not by the 360 million rubles presently planned but by considerably more. It should be brought to the attention of Union republic coundls _ of ministers that we must increase the production, improve the quality and enlarge the assortment of consumer goods produced at local industry? consum~r service and consumer cooperat~tve enterprises. Maximum use must be made of local raw materials for this purpose. - I would like to touch upon those explanations given for failure to fulfill plan assignments, which have to do wi th the fuel and energy supply for the national _ economy. It needs to be stated that there are inadequate grounds fnr such explana- tion5. Weather conditions at the end of last year and the beginning of this year ~�~e~.a conducive to industrial operation~, t1-~,3t they made it possible for enterprises ~ ,~th to operate normally and to fulf iIl fuel conservation assignments. There were ~ ~~.o ^ases in which production units were cut off from the electric supply aystem, and in general, requests for fuel and energy were promptly satisfied. In December ~ and the first 20 days of January, however, the production plan for a number of _ extremely important types of manufactured products was not fulfilled. This included the production plan for polyethylene, A.C. electric engines, metal rollin~ eqtipment, electric locomotives, lwnber and other products. Production dropped in industries under the Union republic councils of ministers (for Union republic and r.epublic ministries) . How does one explain this? I can say without exaggeration that one has the impression that the leaders of certain ministries and departments focused all their efforts not upon fulf~lling the plan but upon adjusting it, and in the process they demonstrated extraordinary zeal and a great sense of urgency, which unquestionably deserved better application. Unfortunately, many ministries failed to have their enterprises operating smoothly in January as well. This applies to such branches as ferraus and non- ferrous metallurgy, the coal industry and rail transport. The absence of such objective reasons as bad weather or a shortage of fuel and energy indicates that certain ministerial leaders apparently have not mastered the - modern style and methods of management and are unable to resolve important economic matters or to manage the branch in accordance with modern requiremer.ts. We hope that the Union republic councils of ministers will derive the proper conclusions from the decisions made at the November 1979 Plenum of the CPSU Central Co~nittee and from the requirements set forth by Comrade L. I. Brezhnev. Responsibility for the assi~ned work and for plan fulfillment must be increased drastical'_y. ~ b FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 FOR OFFICIAL L1SE ONI.Y Comrades! 1980 is an important year, in the life of our party and our people. This is the final year of the lOth Five-Year Plan, the year in which we celebrate the 110th anniversary of the birth of Vladimir I1'ich Lenin, the year of prepara- - tions for the 26th party congress. The CPSU Central Committee calls upon all _ party organizations and all labor collectives to commemorate these historic events in the nation's life in a f itting manner. Our present task is one of considerably improving management in all sec tors of the nat.ional economy, strengthening state and plan discipline and making f uller use of existing reserves and possib~.lities for making public production even more effective, strengthening the nation's _ defenses and improving the people's welfare. Speech Delivered at_ a Meeting of the Presidium of. the USSR Supreme Soviet on 4 March 1980 Dear Leonid Il'ich! Respected comrade members of the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet! As you know, important proposals and c~mments were made ty the permanent com- missions of the chamber.s and the Supreme Soviet deputies upon reviewing the draft plan and dubdget for the current year and the report by the USSR Council of Ministe.z�s on fulfillment of the 1979 plan at the second session of: the USSR Supreme Soviet, lOth convocation. Their objective is primarily one of revealing more thoroughly and making fuller ' use of reserves in the national economy, strengthening state discipline and eliminating bottlenecks in the d evelopment of the economy, as well as shortcomings in the performance of individual branches, especially those which were the focus - of attention in Comrade Leonid I1'ich Brezhnev's speech at the November 1979 Plenum oF the CPSU Central Committee. By way of carrying out the task assigned it by the USSR Supreme So~viet, immediately following the session the Presiciium of the Council of riinisters ordered mitiistries and departments of the USSR and Union republic councils of ministers to review the proposals and co~nents pertaining to them, to take the ' steps necessary to implement them and to report on the r.esults. ~ There is no need to describe the steps t3ken in detail at this session, since the ' members of the Yresidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet have the government's report on this matter. t need to tinderscore the fact ttiat the main attention of the USSR Council of Ministers, the Union republic councils of ministers and the ministrie~ and depart~nents of the USSR is directed toward the mosr important and urgent matters in the development of the nation's economy, improvement of the people's welfare and the development of culture. Specific measures have been worked out and are being implemented with the ob~ective of successfully fu].f il ling decisions coming out of. the 25th CPSU Congress and the July 1978 and November 1979 Plenums of the CPSU Central Com- mittee, and assignments established by the plan, continuing the dynamic and pro- portionate development of public production, razsing a.ts effectiveness and improving the quality of the work. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USF; ONI.Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The USSR Council of Ministers is devoting special attention to the matters of resolving the fuel an1 energy problem and achieving basic improvement i.n the ~ performance of ra i1 transport, to the state of affairs in capital construction, the matter of imp rovi.n g agricultural production and implementation of the social program worked out by the party, primarily with respect to further improving housing conditions for the workers and providing better health protection for women ~ and children. At tY~e personal initiative of Leonid I1'ich the CPSU Central Committee and the Council of Minist ers have reviewed and jsopted decisions on matters of improving _ the material circumstances of Great Patriotic War veterans. Constant attention is b eing given to the imp':.ementation of decisions adopted by the CPSIJ Central Committee and the USSR of Ministers on the matters of improving plannin g and perfecting the economic system, strengthening labor discipline and reducing labor turnover, stepping up scien~~`ic and technological + pr.o.^ ess in the most important sectors, increasing environmental protection and ' 7~~~roving management. i: number of important decisions have been adopted recently with respect to accelerating the economic development of a number of the nation's regions, particularly Siberia, the Far East, Kazakhstan and a number of regions in the North. A great deal is being done to achieve more affective consumption of materials and finances, p articularly .fuel, metal products, other raw and processed materials, to improve the us e of secondary resources in the national economy and to increase _ the protection of socialist property. Ministries and departments have reported to the Presidium of the USSR Supreme Soviet and to the deputies on action taken on comments and proposals made by the permanent commissions of the chambers and by the deputies of the USSR Supreme Soviet. . We feel that today's d iscussion of this matter at the meeting of the Presidium of the i1SSR Supreme Soviet is proof of the great concern demonstrated by the nation's ~ highest governing body and by you, Leonid Il'ic:i personally, for the implementa- tion of the cours e worked out by the party to further improve the nation's economy - and strengthen its def enses, to improve the people's welfare, to perfect the democratic principles underlying our society and involve the masses more extensively in management. (Prolonged applause. ) Contents Page Fi-om the Editors 3 WORIC THE LENINIST, THE COMMUNIST WAY (A speech on elections to the RSFSR Supreme Soviet delivered at a 12 Febxuary 1980 meeting with electors of the Obukhovskiy Electoral District in tne city of Leningrad)....,.... 6 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 F~()~ OFF~C~AL U~F ~JN1.Y Page IMPROVEMENT OF MANAGEMENT--AN IMPORTANT RESERVE F'OR RAISING THE ErFECTIVENESS OF PUBLIC PRODUCTION (Article published in the magazine KOMMUNIST, No 7, 1979) 21 MAKE FULLER USE OI~ PRODUCTION P~ES~RVES (Fram a speech delivered at a 5 March 1949 scientific and technical conference at the Yuzhnotrubnyy Plant in Nikopol`) ...................................v.........~........... 42 FEATURES OF THE N~W (From an ar-ticle puUlished zn the Dnepropetrovskaya Oblast newspaper 7.ORI'A ~n 6 November 1949)e .....................e.......... 45 TF~E PARTY CONCERNS 1TSELI' WI'J'ti T1~C~INOLOGICAT, PROG1tE~S (P'ro~n the pamphlet ~ "Partiya zabotilsya o t~~1:.t,nicheskom prugresse" [Ttie Party Concc~r~ns Itself With Technological Px~og:~-ess] , Dnepropetr.ovsk BooY Pub1i_slzer's, _ 1959) ...................~.......,a,.,..........,.,,o....................... 50 WE BID NOT TAKE AN OATH T.0 1.HE B~',ll TRt~DITIONS (From an art~_cle~ pu}~.lisi~ed in the newspaper I7VE57.'IYA on J3 August 1.959).....,...e..,~ 55 THE FOUNDATION FOR MOD~RN INDUSTRY (Ar_ticle publ.ished zn EkUNOMIC1i~SK1YA , GAZETA on 14 Augusr_ i95:1),,...,,.,o...~.........~.,..,..,..~,.........,e.... 59 - THE CONVERTER ENTERS 'hiETE~I,LURGY ( publislied in the newspap{~~ PRAVADA on 18 Apri7. 1961).......,,...~....,..,..o..........~ '10 , - A SUPER-STRONG FUSION Ot~ rRI.CNPSHIP (Inter.view concluc::ed by a S7R~IT~T~'Nt1X~ GAZETA correspondFZit c~n 14 J~~~ 1963).~.,a,~~.~..~�.-,~...�.~...~~........... 73 FERROUS METALLURC'=Y :ti>1 Tl~t; US:iR (~1.rtzcl~ published in the ~agazzne SS~lt, No 9, 1963) .................~e,o~.~...~.,.,..,,...,,~....,..~,...~.,....... 76 - - DAY OF SOVIET METALLURGISTS (I'rorn ~.n axticle published in th.e new:>paper PRAVDA an 21 Jul.y 1.9E3)....,...~..,.......,o ....................e.......... 80 THE HOMELAND'S AWARU~--~ON THE COMf3II~IE BANNER (Speech deliver.ed at f.ormal - meeting of worker.s at r_he No.ri1'sic Mining an.d rte.t-�11ur.gical Com"s~~ne on 29 December 1965),...,o .......................~..,..,.........,.,..e......,. 84 SPEECH DELIVERED AT TI-I~ Qk'ENI~?G OF TFiE "INTrRGOR2~iAS~i--67" .T.NT~RN~T ~ONE1L EXHIBIT OF MINING LQUIi'~ii~i~~T (8 July 1967) 92 SPEECH DELIVERED A'T' I'ii~ I~T.N1',i INTERN~TIONAL MIN,T_NG CONGF.ESS (10 Ju~~ j~ 1967) . 96 GLORY TO ORDER-BF~IRING St~KHL1L?'N !(Sgr.~~ch at a fvrmal me~ting of repres~ntatives of the ~aorkers o~ ~akhalinslcaya Ob].ast for the - presentation of tt~e Urder o~ Len~n i:o tne oblast, G October 1.967),..,...... 99 9 ~'QA~2 ~k'IFd+C~Al. 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Page ~ RAISE THE I.EVEL OF PARTY 5UP~RVISION OVER ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (From a spePch delivered ,st the ninth Lipetskaya Oblast party conference - on 20 Februarq 1968).......o 111 FRl3IT1~UL COOPERATION (Article published in a special edition of ERONOMICHESICAYA GAZETA on the Leipzig Fair, March 1969) 123 FRI~:NDSHII' ETERNAL AND INDESTRU~TIBLE (Report delivered at a formal . ~ meeting of representatives of the workers of the city of Moscow dedicated - to the 25th anniversary of the German people's liberation from fascism; S May 1970) 131 SPEECH DET:I:~ ;F.ED AT THE OPFTIING OF THE "KHIMIYA-70" INTERNATIONAL F~HIE"LTION (9 September 1970) 14G - , - ~'r ~..r~TIVI:, SELFLESS LABOR--THE FOUNDATION OF THE HOMELAND' S S'i'RENGTH - (Speech delivered at a formal meeting of representativeG of the ' ~ collectives of workers, party, soviet and public organizations of the - city of Kalinin foi- the presentation of the Order of the Labor Red - Banner to the city, d October 1971) 144 PATHS 0 F MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING (Interview published in the newspaper IZVESTTYA on 26 April 1972) 153 _ THE HOrIl:LAND'S AWARP CALLS FOR NEW ACHIEVEMENTS (Speech deiivered at a formal meeting of the oblast committee of the CPSU and the Supreme Sovier of the Komi ASSR for the awarding of the Order of Friendship of Peoples to the republic, 25 January 1971) 156 - THE IMPORTANT TASKS OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY WORKERS (From a speech delivered I to the part;y-managenent aktiv of the Ministry of the Chemical Industry on 19 February 1974)................ 167 CONSOLIDAT.E AND ADD TO THE SUCCESSES ACHIEVED (Speech delivered at a formal - meeting ot representatives of the workers of the Azerbaijan SSR for the - award ing of the Red Banner of the CPSU Central Committee, ttie USSR Council of Ministers, the AUCCTII and the Komsomol Central Committee to the republic, 27 February 1974) 172 - StiCCESSFi1LLY CONCLUDE THE FIVE-YEAR PLAN (Speech delivered at a formal ; meeting of representatives of the workers of the Azerbaijan SSR for the e aw~rding of the Red Banner of the CPSU Central Committee, the USSR Co~incil of Ministers, the AUCCTU and the Komsomal Central Committee to - the republic, 11 March 1975) 184 THI: COU-RSE--TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS (Articl.~ published in the czewspaper TRUD on 13 May 1975) 196 10 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 - FOR OFFICIAL U~E ONLY ~ Page ON MEASURES TO INCREASE CONSERVATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES AND IMPROVE THE USE QF MINERALS, AND ON THF. DRAFT BASIC LEGISLATION OF THE USSR AND UNIQN REPUBLICS ON MINERAL R~SOURCES (Report delivered at the third session of the USSR SupremP 5oviet on 8 July 1975) 204~ ` ' CONCLUDING STATEMENT AT THE THIRD SESSION OF THE USSR SUPREME SOVIET (9 July 1975) 222 TODAY, THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY IS ONE OF OUR IMPORTANT PARTNERS IN MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL, BUSINE~S COOPERATION WITH THE WEST (Article - - published in the Wes*ern German magazine OST WEST KOMMERZ, No 5, 1976).... 226 FERROUS METALLURGY AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS IN INDUSTRY (From an article published in tt2e magazine STAL', No 10, 1977) 232 SIXTY YEARS ON THE PATH OF OCTOBER (Article published in the magaaine SSSR, No 21, 1977) 250 IN RESPONSE TO THE AWARD--INSPIRE LABOR (Speech delivered at a meeting of the party, soviet, trade union and Komsomol aktiv of the Azerbaijan SSR - for the awarding of the Challenge Red Banner of the CPSU Central Committee, - the USSR Council of Ministers, the AUCCTU and the Komsomol. Central Com- ~ mifi tee to the republic, 17 March 1978) 261 - _ TOWARD CONSISTENT AND ASCENDANT DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN - THE USSR AND THE F1tG (Speech delivered at a meet;ng with representatives - of FRG business groups on 5 May 1978)..........~ 272 ~ THE IMPORTANCE OF THE VISIT TO THE FRG BY COMRADE L. I. BREZHNEV, GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE CPSU CENTRAL COMMZTTEE AND CHAIRMAN OF THE PRESIDIUM - - OF THE USSR SUPREME SOVIET, FOR THE FURTHEK DEVELOPMINT OF TRADE AND _ ECONOMIC RELATIONS ~ETWEEN THE USSR AND TH~ FRG (Taken from answers to questions posed by the "Novosti" Press Agency, published in the West _ German magazines OST-VEST KOMMERZ, No 4, and PANORAMA WEST-OST, No 3, 1978) 276 - THE STATE OF AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC, S~IENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION BEZ'WEEN THE USSR AND THE FRG (Answers to questions posed by the magazine SOVETSKIY SOYUZ SEGOUNYA published by the "Novosti" Press Agency in the FRG, No ~.2, 1978) 280 THE MATERIAL FOUNDATION OF COOPERATION (Answers to questions posed by a - correspondent for the newspaper IZVESTIYA, 29 December 1978) 286 _ TRIUMPH FOR SOCIALIST DEMOCRALY (Speech delivered at a meeting with electors of the Nikopol'skiy Electoral District, Dnepropetrov~skaya Oblast, on elections to the USSR Supreme Soviet, 9 February 1979) 290 11 FOR OFFI~IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 NUK UM~N'IC:IAI, USE ONLY THE PERFOR1~fANCE OF FERROUS METALLURGY IN THE DNEPROPETROVSK AREA-- Page = TOWARD NEW GOALS (From a speech to leading workers of ferrous metallur~;y enterprises in Dnepropetrovskay;. Oblast, 10 February 1979)...... 308 ' TOWARD A PEACEFUL AND HAPPY FUTURE FOR ALL CHILDREN (Answers to questions posed by a LITERATURNAYA GAZETA correspondent, published on 28 March 1979). 322 THE RIGHT TO GROW TJP HAPPY (Answers to questions posed by a correspondent ' for the magazine NOVOYE VREMYA, published in is~ue vo 35, 1979)............ 333 ALL THE BEST FOR THE CHILDREN (From the pamphlet "Detyam--schastlivoye - budushcheye" [For the Children--A Happy Future], Moscow, 1979) 343 THE CHILDREN--OUR LOVE, OUR HOPE, OUR TOMORROW (Speech delivered at the formal opening of the World Conference "Toward A Peaceful and Happy Future _ - For All Children," 7 September 1979) 376 rR~,~G UP WORTHY SUCCESSORS (From a speech delivered at a meeting of the Commission for Observing the International Year of the Child in the USSR, 14 September 1979) 381 USSR-GDR: THIRTY YEARS OF FRUITFUL COOPERATION (Article published in the newspaper NEUES DEUTSCHLAND, 3 October 1979) 386 A NEW STAGE OF ECONOMIC COOPERATION (Artici~ published in the newspapez� IZVESTIYA, 13 November 1979) 393 ON THE D1tAFT USSR LAW ON PEOPLE'S CONTROL IN TH~ USSR (Report delivered at ~ the second session of the USSR Supreme Soviet, 30 November 1979)........... 401 THE NATION'S JOY AND HOPE (From a speech delivered at the concluding session of the Commission for Observing the International Year of the Child in the USSR, 24 December 1979) 412 RAIS~ THE LEVEL Or MANAGEMENT (From a speech delivered at a meeting of the USSR Council of Ministers on 23 January 1980) 418 THE PRIME TASK OF LABOR ORGANIZATION (Articl~ published in the magazine KOMMUNIST, No 3, 1980) 425 _ SPE~CH DELIVERED AT A MEETING OF THE PRESIDIUM OF THE USSR SUPREME SOVIET (4 ~tarch 1980) 442 COPYRIGHT: POLITIZDAT, 1980 11499 CSO: 1800/335 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE OI3LY ~ NATIONAL ~ AZERI POLITICAL THEORETT.CIAN ON SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS,.NEW SOVIET PtAN Baku AZARBAYJAN KOMMUNISTI in Azeri No 1, 1981 pp 95-103 - [Summary of Artlcle by G. Zaliyev: "The Formation of Social Consciousness and - the New Man under Conditions of Developed Socialism"] [Summary] "One of. the important duties of our development is to constantly raise _ so~~ial consciousness" and "social consciousness is a component of the practice of mass revolutionary change which is active under socialism and whose influence is constantly growing." "Social consciousness embraces the social feelings, mentality, qualities, already formed traditions, characteristics of the psychology of different classes and social groups and the psychic form of nations and peoples." After reviewing the process of historical materialism which is the basis of Marxism-Leninism it is concluded that "the actively changing role of ideas and - consciousness and their influence on all aspects of the life of a society in- creases to a significant degree under conditions of socialism, especially under the conditions of a developed socialist society." "The national independence of social consciousness appears in the cultural heritage of humanity, in the - reflection of ideological forms on the economy and the fact that these do not corrPSpond to social truth at any specifi.c time." The theory of Marxism- Leninism demonstrates that social consciousness has the "capacity to outstrip historical development," _ "Social consciousness" is dependent on "individual consciousness," which is "an - er,pression of social and class consciousness," and is "more specific and multi- _ faceted" than social consciousness. "Social consciousness" however "is a new quality emerging from social relatzons," and can be separated into "theoretical" - and "empirical" levels. "The sor_ial perceptions, ideas and mentalities of inen take theoretical shape in ideology." "Socialist ideology plays an important role . in the struggle against the reactionary ideology of the contemporary imperialistic bourgeoisie." It is conceded that "there are definite differences in the psychology of the worlc- - ing class, the kolkhoz workers and the intelligentsia..." "As noted at the XXVth Congress of the CPSU, the study o� Mancism-Leninism by the masses has turned into the most important characteristic of socialist social consciousness..." The sig- nificance of the c~ocument "Basic Directions of the economic and social development 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02108: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE GNLY , of the USSR...ti.ll the year 199U" ~s stressed for its strategy which "consists of raising the material and spiritual way of life and creating better conditions for the multi-faceted development of the personality." "It is also very important to - demonstrate that successes in the building of communism depend on the high - activity of the masses...and their political conscioasness." As noted at the XXVth Congress of tne CPSU "the most important result of the last sixty years is the Soviet man..." "The educating of the new man is a necessary condition of o~ir f.urther progress..." "By changing living conditions, man himself is changed" but "it xs impossible to form the new man without palitical education and without the commuriist ideology." The decree "On the further improvement of ideologica~. work and political education" points out the significance of political education. "The sciE~ntific level of defined by its ca*~acity to form a Marxist-Lenin~ist world-view as a complete Gystem of knowledge within men." "Under conditions of developed socialism labor education is based on principles wh:~~h have great s~~cio-economic and political importance and which define the ~~~,~tent of the sp:iritual resources of a mature socialist society." The importance - .~f the work ethic in the society is stressed. At the XXVth Party Congress, while ~.:he importance o~ the spiritual education was emphasized, the obligation to form an acrive liFe stance was put forth. The two qualities inherent in this stance are: firstl~~, recognition and comprehension "of the high social goals" in Marxism- Leninism, and secondly, ability and readiness to perform work useful to the society. - The All~-Union Scientific-Practical Conference in Baku stressed this point as noted - by H.A. [~liyev in his book "The Formation cf an Active Life Stance: The Experience and Current Pr~~blems of Spiritual Education" (Azarnashr, 1979). _ "The new view of the Soviet man, his co~unist morality and his world view rest upon a constant...struggle with remnants of the past...A scientific world-view, communisC tnoraiity, general and polytechnical education create a spiritual cultural wealth which is necessary for the multi-faceted development of the personality." COPYRIGHT: "Azarbayjan kommunisti", No 1, 1981 - 967u _ CSO: 1810/065 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ I APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 a FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY REGIONAL VI~?dS OF PAST SHO~JN IN 'ISLAM AND THE MUSLTM FAMILY' Moscow ISLAM I SEM'YA in Russian 1980 (signed to press 21 Nov 80) pp 114-153 [Part II of book "Islam and the Family" by Mikhail Vagabovich Va~abov, I~.datel'stvo "Nauka", 10,000 copies, 173 pages] - [Excerpt] Singularities of the Manifestation and Reasons for the Preservation of Vestiges of Islam in MaYriage and Family Relationships The 60-year histary of Soviet society has corroborated the Marxist proposition that religion will disappear proportionate to the development of socialism. Socialist building in the USSR initiated the process of the conception of history's first - athe;Lsm and the formation of a new man free not only of socioeconomic but also ~ spiritual oppressian. - Y The fundamental transformations in our society's social, economic and cultuYal iife have led to the point where the bulk of th~ population has been liberated from t.he _ influence of religious ide~logy. Believers' departure from a religious philosophy of life is a general sociological regularity ensuing from the essence of socialism. At the same time we cannot ignore the vestiges of the influence of reactionary ?-e1i- gious ideology, including the ideology of Islam, which are still impeding our success- ful advance toward communism. In our country the social roots of religion have had the soil removed from under them and the base on which the church relied for centuries has been done away with, but, nevertheless, religious prejudices and superstitions live on in the minds, men~ality and everyday existence of a part of the popu?.ation. Vestiges of religious ~ consciousness in our society are manifested in various spheres of our life; in some ~ they make their pre.sence felt more intensively, wrile in others their influence is quite negligib].e. To speak, for example, of the sphere of political ideology, all religious systems and the ministers of all Y~eligions accommodate themselves to the _ statutes and measures of the Soviet state inside the country and internationally. - Practically all clergyme~n are lo~~al to them and support them. It is quite a different matter in the spheres of everyday life, where the vestiges of religious consciousness are manifested comparatively intensively and statically. Everyday consciousness is th~ part of the social consciousness which is most lagging in its development behind ~he qualitative changes in social being. Here the atti- tude toward traditions and receptiveness to what is new is displayed in the most convervative form. - 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The process of the withering away of religious vestiges at the time of the transi- _ tion from one socioeconomic formation to another has its own specific features. As distinct from political and legal ideology, religion, together with phi_losophy, is considerably further from directly reflecting the society's economic system and has a relative independence. For this reason even after the destruction of the economic system which gave rise to religion, vestiges of the lattpr are preserved in the so- cial and, particularly, evQryday consc~.ousness. The classical authors of Marxism-Leninism repeatedly observed that, as distinct from many aspects of social relationships, family and ~veryday traditions of past eras have a great conservative strength in the nec~ soci~:ty and, compared with other survivals of the past, are preserved cons-I.derably longer: "The traditions of all _ dead generations ~ower, like a nightmare, over the minds of the living."1 They _ still take ruot in many people's everyday life anc; consciousness long after the socioeconomic conditions which engendered them have disappeared. ThF dependence of fataily-everyday customs and traditions on all contemporary reli- - S;i~ns has deep historical roots. Thus the solemnization of a marriage, wedding rituals, divorce, the birth of a child, property relations and a person's death were :iot initially of a religious nature. But the religions brought them under their auspices and imparted to them the definite form of religious rites and rituals, and in these forms they gradually became a tradition, became a part of people's every- day life and became secand nature to man. These customs were handed down from ~he elder to the younger generations and from one era ~:aother, and many of them in fact became indispensable norms, as it were, of man's being. That which was intrnduced and hammered into man's consciousness over centuries be- came an inalienable ~,art of everyday ~ife and does not, naturally, desert it im- mediately with a change iii socioeconomic conditions. The victory of the October Revolution in our country did not lead and objectively could not have led to the _ irrunediate automatic disappearance of habits and traditions and customs and views which had for centuries prevailed in people's minds and mentality, although it initiated the great turnabout in the minds and hearts. Thus the preservation of vestiges of the past, including Islamic statutes, in family and marriage and everyday relationships under the conditions of the transition from - one socioeconomic formation to another is inevitable. However, this by no means signifies that we should not fight them. Ideological struggle against vestiges of the past which are hindering the establishment of new relationships is a struggle for communism. - Ttie classical authors of Piarxism-Leninism poirited out repeatedly that the struggle against religivn cannot be successf ul if it is conducted merely with the use of naked coercion. It should primarily be ideological and have a profound natural scientific basis and should be cogent in that the masses might themselves be con- . vinced of the groundlessness of re~.igion. It was not fortuitous that V.I. Lenin demanded that we "organize the struggle against religion more scientifically."2 To realize the most important propositions of Marxist-Leninist at}~~~ism and to en- sure that scientific-atheistic upbringing be conducted comprehensively and in 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY skilled fashion, on a scientifically cogent basis, what i3 primarily needed is a _ most profound understanding of the social nature of religious manifestations in our society and their place ~nd role in the population's consciousness, mentality and everyday life. It is essential to probe more deeply the spiritual world of believers and ascertain the general and specific causes of the existence and prac- _ tice uf a belief. This is undoubtedly a complex, but extremely necessary task. Determination of the e~ctent of the population's religiosity, � social analysis of the state of religiosiCy in different regions and republics, determination in pre- cisely which spheres of people's relationships vestiges of religious consciousness are manifested in the most intensi~~e form--all this is not only of theoretical- cognitive Uut also the most topical practical significance. Only a determination of the real state of the masses' religiosity and the spheres of its intensiveness afiord - an opportunity for ~he selection of the most effective ways to surmount the vestiges of religious consciousness. Without such an all-around dialectical study of the social nature of the manifestations of religious consciousness, without an in- - depth study of the nature and singularities of the historical, social and ideologi- - cal nature of religious vestiges and without a scientific comprehension of the essence of all these phenomena it is hardly possible to talk of the effective de- velopment of work on atheistic upbringing. A study of the state of the masses' religiosity must under no circumstances be approached in stereotyped fashion. A differentiated, concrete-historical approach is required here. Although the manifestation of vestiges of religious conscious- ness (mainly, as already said, in the spheres of everyday conscioiisness) is char- acteristic of all religions in our society, these manifestations are, nevertheless, _ highly varied, depending on the specifics of each religion and on the historical and social conditions of the development of this people or the other. - A comprehensive investigation and a social analysis of religiosity show that Islamic vestiges are preserved in the most enduring form in famil}~ and ma.rriage and other everyday relationships. Despite the far-reaching socioeconomic and cultural-social changes which have occurred in the life of the af the Soviet East in the years of socialist building, we still encounter numerous manifest~ztions of Islamic, - particularly Shariah, statutes and medieval norms of feudal moral.ity in marriage and family relationships and in the attitude toward women. The spheres of marriage and _ family relationships and everyday life are n~t only a pocket of conservation of the ' vestiges of Islam but also remain to a certain extent a source of the reproduction of religious consciousness in our society~ Devotees of the past are trving consciously or subconsciously to prevent the formation and establishment of new, Soviet family relationships and the equality of the sexes . and the spouses in a family. Under current conditions thE:y are attempting to act ' not as champions of the faith (least of all in this role) but as supporters and de- - fenders o� "national distinctiveness" and "national traditians" under the flag of devotion to their nation and national group. The data of concrete-sociological research conducted in many republics of the Soviet East testify to this. The major- ity of the believers and nonbel.ievers question@d why, for example, they arrange a Shariah marriage answers, as a rule, that it is the national form of contracting a _ msrriage. Here the cpirit of devotion to the nationally distinctive prevails in _ many respects over the ~pirit of observance of religious obligations, and this _ feature of the national mentality is u~ed by representstives of the Muslim religion - 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/08: CIA-RDP82-00850R000300100063-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02148: CIA-RDP82-44850R000300104463-8 to preserve religiosity among the population. Speculating on national sentimer_ts, the representatives of the Muslim religion (and fanatical believers) present them- se.lves, however, as tlie custodians of national val ues. Correspondingly, there are frequent instances in o ur social reality of devotion to the traditions of Islam and observance of its feasts being wrongly considered the observance of national traditions. Arguments can be heard frequently that it is necessary not only to preserve but alao return to f.ull citizenship snch outmoded norms of Shariah injunctions and Islamic morality as bride money, Muslim seclusion, the arranged marriage of minors, polygamy and so f orth. All this the devotees of , Is1am present as "purely" national, popular traditions. Observance of the tradi- tions, customs and rituals of Islam as national and popular is a characteristic feature of the manifestatir~n of religiosity among part of the population of the republics of the Soviet East at the current stage. - Such speculative propaganda of Islamic norms finds favorable ground�mainly among the population with a backward consciousness, particularly in rural localities. This - is ;plained bq the duration of the domination of Islam and the syncretism of its ~::iditions with natienal traditions. - '`ie idea was implanted in the minds of the masses for centuries that allegiance to a religious creed is a basic indication of national allegiance. Having assimilated popular customs and traditions and having accommodated them to its religious prac- tice, religion acts the part of the creator and custodian of national distinc*ive- _ ness. Consequently, loyalty to Islam and its traditions, in the arguments~~of re- _ presentatives of the Muslim re~.igion, is ar. essential condition of loyalty to one's people, and, on the contrary, ind:~.iietaa~ce or a negative attitude toward Islam (the b~Ti~ef ot the fathers) is categor~zed as national apostasy. It is very important under contemporary conditions to reveal the interconnection of Islam and nationalist survivals. It is essential to show the inseparable connec- tion between the vestiges of Islam, including (and mainly) those in marriage and family relationships, and the vestiges of nationalism, which are often mutually com- plementary, impede Soviet people's international upbringing and become an obstacle on the path of the creation of inter-nation families. Upon an analysis and critique of such complex plienomena it is essential to clearly distinguish national singulari= ~ ties, nationalist, religious Qurvivals and popular customs. _ Another characteristic of the manifestations of vestiges of Islam in our country, - includir.g it-.s survivals in family and marriage re I ationships, is the fact that they have to a considerable eatent been subject to change a la contemporary mode. Much that is new has appeared. The spirit of Islam is not al~ways adhered to literally in the observance of many rites, and strict observance of religious statutes is l.acking i.n many instances. This applies to the p reservation of female seclusion, the proc_esses of the solemnization of a Shariah marriage, mutual relations between spouses ancl so forth--the aspects of the rites wh ich are of an ugly nature in the eyes of the ;.ontemporary believer are rejected. Thu~ the former patriarchal atti- ~ucle toward the woman and children on the part of the head of the family--the hus- band--and also the father and brother is not observed in the majcrity of believers' families. Ir~ many cases these manifestations of Islamic mor~?a are of an ambivalent and not entirely consistent nature. 18 FOR OFFICIAL 'J5E Oi