Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 1, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6.pdf4.57 MB
APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400440070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/ 101 16 ~ 16 November 1981 U SS R Re ort . ~ LIFE SCIENCES BIOMEDICAL A~1D BEHAVIORAL SCIEN~ES CFOUO 15/~ 1) ~'g~~ FOREIGN BROADCAST IN~ORM~TION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USF ONL'Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources - are transcribed or reprinted, with the original and other characteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or followirig the last line of a brief, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. - Unfamilidr names rendered phonetically or trz.nslitera.ted are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- - tion mark and enciosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in conte:~t. Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. TEie contents of this publication in no way represent the poli- cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGHT LAWS AND REGUI~ATIONS GOVERIv'ING OWi~1ERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION BE Rr,STRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 EOR 0!'~'~C~~~,L ZJsE ONLY JPRS L/10116 16 November 1981 - USSR REPORT LIFE $CIENCES BIOMEDICAL RND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES (FOUO 1S/81) CONTENTS ~3IOCHEMIST'RY Jaurnal Outlines Medical Industry's Goals for 1st Yeax o� - llth Five-Year Plan 1 BIONICS Goais of and Prospects for Development of Neuronal Technology..... 5 - ~IOTECHNOLOGY Mechanisms c~f Interaction of Internal and External Analyzers...... 13 _ PHYSIOLOGY - Direct Transfer of Conditioned~Reflex Gustatory Aversion.......... 33 Electrophysiological Correlates of Perception and Cognition....... 38 Abstracts From the Book 'Description and Recognition of Ob~ects in Artificial Intellect Systems' 44 ' Mathematical Simulation of Elementary Reasoning 49 RADIATION BIOLOGY Gamma-Installations for Research and Radiation Biology............ 55 - a- [III - USSR - 21.a S&T FOUOJ FOR (3FFTCT ' ~ t f.SF (1NT v APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY HUMAN FACTORS Joint Work of Machine and Human Operator in Search Situation.~~~�~�r~r�~�~��~~��~��~~r~~�~~~~~~~~�~~��~~~~~~~�~~~~� 58 Method for Comprehensive Evaluation of Training of Operators of Peripheral Computer Units and Its Technical Itealitation...... 65 PSYCHOLOGY Research Methods in Engineering Psychology and Industrial Psychology 71 - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400470031-6 FaR ~FFICIAL USE ONLY , BIOCHEMISTRY i1DC 661.12.013:331.876.4 JOURNAL OUTLINES MEDICAL INDUSTRY'S GCIALS FOR 1ST YEAR OF 11TH FIVE-XEAR P LAN Moscow KHIMIKO-FARMATSEVTICHESKIY ZHURNAL in Russian Vol 15, No 3, Mar 81 PP S-7 [Article by editorial staff] [Textl The 26th Congress of the USSR Communist Party has just concl~uded. It marks a historic new frontier in the development of Soviet society er. route to Communism. The resoluti.ons of the Congress clearly reflected the Party's genuinely citizen-oriented policy, one that embodies the ideas of Lenin and the Octobe r Revolution and is permeated with revolutionary spirit and a bold approach to the solution of pressing problems. Workers in the medi~al industry, like all Soviet citizens, unanimously approve and support the decisions of the 26th CPSU Congress and the po~i- tions and conclusions set forth in the report made to the Congress by L.I. Brezhnev, the General Secretary of the CPSU Central ~ommittee, and have taken it upon themselves to implement them through steadfast effort. In conformity wiCh the docwrent entitled "Principal directions to be taken in the e conomic and social development of the USSR in 1981-1985 and the - period up to 1990~~' worker$ in the med~cal ~ndustry muat solve critic~l - problems pertaining to the further expansion of this order better to provide t~he populace and public-health inatitutions with drugs, the tools of inedical technology, and other producta intended for u~e in medicine. Discussion of the draft of this document by the personnel of enterprises and org3n~zations produced a new elevation of and occupational m~rale. Workers in the medical industry made many valuable proposals directed at improvement of work in their individual sections and at enter- prises, associations, and facilities serving the entire industry, as well as at elimination of existing shortcomings and deficiencies. New socialist obligations have been adopted for 1981. Having accomplished the planned tasks for 3980 and the IOth Five-Year Plan as a whole, workers in the public-health industry, inspired by the resolutions 1 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400440070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY of the 26th CPSU Congress, are filled With resolve to implement the Party's sweeping plans and to make a worthy contribution to further improvement of health care for Soviet citizens. The most important socialist obligations taken on by the personnel of a num- ber of industrial associations and enterprises in the chemical~-pharmaceutical industry for 1981 are describ~d below. , "Akrikhin" Order of the Red Banner of Labor Chemical-Pharmaceutical Plant To fulfill the annual production plan ahead of schedule (by 30 Dec 81) and produce goods with a value of 300.000 ruble~ over and above the planned level. To increase production (in comparison with~980) of hydrocortisone acetate and diprasine by a factor of 2, of potassium orotate hy 20~~ ~f carbocho- line by 38%~ of nitroxoline by 607, of sulfapyridazinE by 25~, of 6-mercapto- purine by 58~, of amidopyrine by 60~, of prednisone acetate by 25X, and of progesterone by 257. To effect the entire increase in output without enlargiug the workforee. To savQ 300,000 rubles in raw-material costs, 1 million kW-h of electricity, 500 Gcal of thermal energy, and 100Q fons oL- conventional fueZ. To obtain savings totalling 2.5 million rubles from introduction of 480 inventions and innovators' suggestions and no less than 65,000 rubles from implementation of ineasures for scientific organization of labor. To save 700,000 rubles as a result of intraduction of the latest scientific and technical developments. To have engineering and technical personnel draw up no fewer than 430 personal working plans directed at improving production efficiency. To render supervieory assistance to the Noginskiy Sovkhoz. "Oktyabr"' Leningrad Order of the Badge of Honor Industrial Chemical- ~ Pharmaceutical Association ! To fulfill the annual production plan ahead of schedule and, in conformity with the contingency plan, to produce additional medieal goods wi;.h a total value of 200,000 rubles, To provide the entire increase in pr4duction _ th*ough improved labor productivity. To put into production and submit for clinical testing five new drugs. "Biostimulyator" Odessa Irdustrial Chemical-Pharmaceutical. Aesociation To fulfill the annual production plan ahead of echedule sind to increase output by 6.6~ over the 1980 level; 84x of the increment coming from im- proved labor productivity. To exceed the production quota. for medical goods by 200,000 rubles, with consumer goods accounting for 130,000 rubles _ of this total. To save (in comparison with the specified levels) 161,000 kW-h of electricity, 218p Gcal of thermal energy, and 5000 rubles ~in raw materials and aemifinished goods. To obtain a savings amounting to 200,000 rubles as a result of introduction of new technology. In attempting to contribute to the social development of personnel, to take an appropri- ate part in the remodelling of the Ogonek youth camp. To organize an 2 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 - FOR OFFIf~IAL USE ONLY auxiliary fa~~ for vegetable production at ~he subsidiary Kolkhoz imeni S.M. Kirov. 7'o improve the skills of 540 w~rkers and engineering-technical atd maintenance personnel. . "Sintez" Kurgan Plant for Drugs and Medical Goods To increase standardnet output by 5.4Z. To ,produce consumer goods with a total value of no less than 600,000 rubles. To introduce six new high- efficiency technological processes. To begin serial production of four new types of products. To fabricate pilot models of three new types of products. To obtain a nominal annual savings of 300,000 rubles by implementation of organizational and technical measures and 95,000 rubles from implementation of ineasures for scientific organization of labor. Provisionally to free SS workers through technically progressive measures. To make use of 490 suggestions and inventions for a savings of 850,000 rubles. To save 6.1 million kW-h of electricity and 17.5 Gcal of thermal energy. To reduce the cost of goods produced by 70,000 rubles. To provide 6.2 million rubles of capital investments. To put into operation new production facilities = with an area of 2604 m2. To train 300 new professiunal workers, improve the skills of 560 workers and 45 engi.neering-technical personnel, and train i 120 individuals in allied professions. To assist the sovkhozes and kol- khozes of .the region in sowing and harvesting. "Mosmedpreparaty" Order of the Red Banner of Labor Industrial Association To fulfill the annual production plan for the most important types of goods _ ahead of schedule, by 30 Dec 1981. To produce and market goods with a value of 150,000 rubles in excess of quota. To overfulfill the plan for improve- ment of,labor productivity by 2.97. To reduce the cost of finished goods by 50,000 rubles, with savings on raw and semifinished materials providing 30,000 rubles of this total. To save 2.1 million kW-h of e;ectricity, 1350 tons of conventional fuel, and 10,000 Gcal of thermal energy. To - obtain profits of 75,000 rubles in excess of quota. To put into practioe 500 innovators' suggestions and obtain a nominal savings of 500,000 rubles. In conformity with the social-development plan, to improve the ~ducational , level of the association's workers with no loss of productivity, sending 77 individuals to specialized middle and higher educational ~nstitutions a*.zd 39 to schools for working youth.~ To provide all types of instruction, - includir~g economics courses for administrators and 1500 warkers and engineer ing-technical pe rsonnel. To obtain a savings of 250,000 rubles through introduction of new technology and automation and mechanization of produc- tion. Tn assist the subsidiary sovkhoz in improving agricultu�ral efficiency. "Farmakon" Leningrad Industrial Chemical-Pharmaceutical Association To fulfill the approved annual production plan ahead of schedule, by 29 Dec 81. To produce gaods with a value of 100,000 rubles in excess of quota. To market products with a total value of 70,000 rubles in excess of quota. To improve labor efficiency by 3X in comparison with 1980. 3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400470031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY To provide the entire increase in output by improving labor productivity. To reduce the cqst of finished goods by 30,000 rubles. To obtain a profit of 30,000 rubles in ex cess of quota. To begin coeimercial production of five new drugs. To obtain a savings of 192,0~0 rubles as a resul t of imple- mentation of progressive scientific and technic~l measures. To save raw - niaterials with a value of 25,OOp rubles, 800,00~ kW-h of electricity, 730 tons of conventional fuel, and 5500 Gcal~ of thermal energy. To obtain a savings of 130,000 rubles through implementation of sugges+~ions from innovators and inventors. To train 25 individuals in second professions and improve the skills of 240 workers through advanced training. To take _ an active part in rendering supervisory assistance to agriculture, the plant school and kindergarden, and other allied fa.:ilities. To continue r~ocial- ist competition with the Akrikhin Chemical-Phannaceutical Plant. These socialist obligations have been adopted at meetings of enterprise and association personnel with leading prodaction wo rkers, membe rs of party, union, and iiCL organizattions, and representatives of economic administration. CUP~RIGHT: "Khimiko-faYrnatsevticheskiy zhurnal", ~9s~ 2k 78 _ CSO: 1840/342 4 FOR O~FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400470031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY BIONICS UDC 616.8-091.81(088~8) GOALS OF AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF NEURONAL TECHNOLOGY Kiev OTBOR I PEREDACHA INF6RMATSII in Russian No 62, 1980 (manuscript received 17 M3y 79) pp 49-55 CArticle by V.L. Kuznetsova, V.L. Kuz'menko and I.M. Tsygel'nyy, L'vov] [Textl The progress be ing made in contemporary computer technology is due to a combination of work in tw~o areas, i.e., improvement of components through utilization of thE latest achievements in physics and technology and intensificiaion of the search for new theoretical principles upon which to base computer devices, including multivalent '[17] and neuronaI. [5] ' ~ logic. Attempts by resear~chers to combine the advantages of these two major trends have led to intensive study of the mechanisms of information processing by the htmman nervous system and to efforts to use these mechan- isms in computer design. It can be assume~i that some computers will be constructed in confoxmity with the principles underlying the processing and storage of information in the human brain, utilizing components that simulate the behavior of neurons and neuronal networks. Mode rn computers are generally intended for soZution of formalized problems. One advantage - of devices based on neuronal networks is the ~act that they will permit solution of nonformalized problems, such as those associated with image recognition or with the control of complex behav~or in an environment varying in a probabilistic and stochastic manner. The main distinctive feature of such computers will b~ their capacity for self-organization and self-programming, possibly conjoined with an ability to make nonlogical decisions, i.e., to decide am~ng equiprobable alternatives. It is expe- ~lient to use data on the evolution of biological atructures in designing them. What we have in mind he re is naturally not rote duplication of the arrangement of neural netw~rks. On the contrary, the evolutionary pathways for colloidal systems ar~ extremely limited and our task is to go beyond biologYcal evolution, i.e., models of ce rebral systems may contain types of neurons that do not 9ccur in nature (i~f they are needed for the creation of better computer systems) or have not as yet been discovered. Many neuronal models have now been devi~ed in *_he USSR and abroad and are suitable for use in the construction of ~eural-netw~ork models applicable to compute r technology, automatic control systems, information transmission and processing systems, image-recognition systems, etc. Since many of them 5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY are not sufficiently effective from the standpoint of information process- ing in the neuron~ it is necessary to establish more precise general cri- teria for the optimum design of circuits utilizing nerve-like componenta, which will ffiake it possible to characterize the ways currently being devel- oped for simulation of neurons. The design of nerve-like comgonents has necessitated solution of two prob- lems. The first is the creation of high-speed electronic models of the nervous system, in order that its behavior can be studied in cases Where - the capabilities of ordinary electroph~siological methods are limited (e.g., in studying networks that process sensory information, in attempting to determine the mechanisms of real-time memory, in constructing models of = nervous-system pathology for diagnostic purposes, etc.). The s~lution of these problems will of itself justify expending effort in the creation of a wide rang~. of neuronal models, although far from exhausting their possible applications. The second problem is that of the use of nerve-like components and networks composed of such components in technology. In accordance with these goals, two approaches have been employed in work- ing out the principles for cQnstruction of nerve-like components and net- works. The first and historically earlier approach is a product of attempts to copy n8tural analogs as closely as possib].e i2, 20, 24l , dupli- cating both the informatian-carrying and physiological properties of neurons. The second approach consists in simulating the componenta of a neural net- work as an information-processing system [12, 15]. W~ are justified in ~ speaking of neuronal technology in this inatance. ~ The term "neuronal technol~~?" refera to the use of the principles of infor- mation processing in neurons and neuronal networks in the design of elec- tronic devices. In contrast to neurocybernetics, a science that is pre- ~ i dominantly theoretical, neuronal technology is concerned with practical problems and, wit}~out obliging itself to duplicate a biologicAl analog exactly, attem{~ts to solve problems pertainYng to the use of such an analog for purely te~.hnical purposes. � The need to divide the approachea e~loqed into "m~delling of neurons" and "neuronal technology" is a conseqence of the fact that they belong to dif- ferent scientific disciplines, the former to biology and physiology and the latter to bionics, i.e., neuronal technology is that branch of bioai~s which utilizes the princiFle~ of information processing in neurons to create technical devices. There are at present several major trends in the development of neuronal technology. One of them entails the creation of general-purpose nerve-like components that would permit the conatruction of networks with any desired degree of complexity, the only restrictions being those imposed by the m~dels themselves [12, IS7. This is obviouslq a promising direction to take, since it is ~ost feasible in teehnological terms and gives the components and circuits of neuroual technology general applicability. 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Another area of concentrati~n entails the introduetion into neuronal net- works of components diff~rent from the basic structural unit, i.e., the nerve-like component. Thus, Pak [12] describes a model of a neuronal net- w~ork containing a random-number generator, a control unit, a triggering unit, and a clock-pulse generator. It mu~t b~ noted at this point that, as in the design of any complex measuring and information-processing system, unifornuity and regularity of structure are o,f great importance in the design of ultracomplex neurqnal networks. These requitements are especially sig- nificant in making the transition to microelectronic technology. It would therefore seem that the most effective approach is not introduction of additional units into the network but implementation of the necessary functiona of such units by the set of neurons employed. In devising neuronal models, researchers quite often attempt to reproduce the maximum number of properties inherent in the neuron in a single model. The model frequently includes comporier~ts carrying out functians that appear at first glance to be uncecessary Ee.g., nonlinear frequency enhancement of the processed signal to provide a clearer response to changes in the input signals C12] , attenuation of the input signals, etc.) s~d these coiapli- cate both the model and the character of the transfoYmations to which the information is subjected. How~eve.r, such circuitry can considerably increase the effectiveness with whirh a neuronal network functions in solving non- formalized problems. - Another trend that merits attention is that of the development of nerve- like compenents based on a minimum number of elements. The components described by Ivashchenko and Donov C4] and by I~agum~ et al. C25I fal~ in~:o this category. The history of work in this field illustrates the convo- luted manner in which neuronal technology has developed. The first nerve- like components [19, 22l had a simplified form, a consequence of the re- latively unsophisticated nature of the technology and eiectronics of the time. Increasingly more ~ complicated and cumbersome mc~dels were subsequently created in order to reproduce more exactly the ir~foima~.ion-carrying prop- erties of neurons C20] . These could mt be utilized to construct_ complex - networks. The next stage in the dewelopment of neuronal technology in- volved a reduction in the number of elements needed to create a nerve-like component. This "simplification" resulted from the use of components em- - bodying more extensive information-carrying propcerties; their effective- ness was a product not of their circuit design but of their internal physical processes (the avalanche ~ransistor, thyristor L4I, tunnel diode [257, multigate transistor, liquid crystal, etc.). Modern integrated-circuit technology can be used to create such nerve-like elements. The "simplifi- cation" of nerve-like components can, in our opinior~, be of particular value as we move toward their use as the basis for molecular and supermolecular cybernetics. Combined utilization of contemporary achievemente in the physics of supem~olecular s~tructures and neuronal technology can lead to the crea- tion of dynamic self-propagating cybernetic eystems. The creation of integrated circuits composed of nerve-Like elements and based on an optimum array of circuit components is also a pressing matter. 7 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400440070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY However, the underlying goal of the development of neuronal technology is not the construction of nerve-Like components but the creation of devices - that can be used in the national economy. It is natural and expedient to employ not neuronal m~dela but neuronal-network models constructed from them for the development of such devices. In designing neuronal-netw~rk models, ~ the rese arche r must take into conaide ration the fact that, in addition to the rigid steric structure of the neuron-neuron comtect~ons dictat~d by , rrorphogenesis [ 16] , operative neuronal net~aorks are formed randomly [7, 161 and spe cific networks are formed fc~ the accomplishment of definite tasks. Here each neuron can function in several netwvrks at different times. Hence it follows that qualitatively new components or m~difications of existing neuronal mod~ls are required for creation of a dyn~mxc neuronal- _ network structure. One achievement in this area is the network model pro- posed by Pak [12], which consists of ne rve-like components with inputs _ capable of unde rgoing a change of function, thus mak ing possible to obtain a stoehastic organization for the string of signals in the netWOrk. However, the number of types of nerve-like elements qualitatively specialized for performance of complex functions is no t yet sufficient for construction of complex neuronal networks. The nervous .system contains more than 1000 different types of neurons C137 that have been shnwn to exhibit m4rpholo- = gical differences (this does not preclude functional differences). In this coauiection, we ~st seek new functional designs for nerve-like compo- , nents. Thp list of neuronal models that can provide the requisite diversity might include models of recognitive neurans, distributive neurons, annun- ciator nei~rons, comparison neuro ns, and other special types whase develop- ment would facilitate the construction of oom~lex networks. f~ fo ~ 0 4_ o_~ S i a 6 ~ =~h;b~tlon E,~r,~ta#~on ~ c ' ~ ~ _ We feel that one promieing approach to this problem is the use of the organi- zational principles of multivalenC components and etructurea C9, 17] for the creation of nerve-like components and netw~or~cs. It has been shown [6, 10, 23] that a neuron can be deacribed not only as an analog elemeat but also = as a discrete threshold-type element. Proceeding from our investigations, it should be noted that the processes by which infnrmation is transfarmed in existing nerve-like components can be described Uy one of the three ftmc- - tions f(S) shown in Fig. la, b, and c, where , n ~ i i S= ~ a~fexc - S` 6;f tn~+ ~ rai � _ 8 FOR OFFIC7.AL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY here fout is th~e frequency of the pulse train at the output from the nerve- like component, fexc and finh are the frequencies of the pulse trains at the excitatory and inhibitory inputs respectively, f~ is the spontaneous- activity frequency, ai are.the weights on the ex citatory inputs, and b~ are the weights on the inhibitory inputs. The characteristic curve in Fig. la describes a threshold-type logic element that operates on the "all Qr nothing" principle. Figure lb shaws the characteristi.c curve for.a si.milar eleroent possessing infinite-value logic with upper and lower thres- holds, while Fig. tc represents an element of the same type with spon- taneous activity, which increases its sensitivity and extends its capabilities. , When the circuit of a nerve-like component includes certain additional features, e.g., quantization of the working frequency range, it is possible to construct neuronal networks with a rearrangeable in.formation structure, - whose operation can be described with the aid of multivalued logic. The neuron has a multiplicity of excitatory and inhibitory inputs with weights ~i and a single output. With appropriate normalization, the input parameters x and output parameters y vary within the limits 0~ x~ 1 and 0~~ y~~ 1. These parameters simulate neuronal signals (pulse frequencies) and do not change sign. Moreover, the neuron has upper and lower excita~ion thresholds. Its operation can consequently be described by the expression [57: ~ y = ~ c~;xi - 6, where 9 is the threshold; in arithmetic representation L18], this gives n n ~ (x~, x~, , x�) _ (6 1) & ~ c~~xi - 6 & ~ w~xi ~=i r=? and an analogous arithmetic representation of the multivalued logical func- tion C 18] . Attempts have been made to construct such models [9, 21] . The logic of development of modern electronics also dictates the creation of nerve-like elements based on digitai technology. which can specifically a considerable improvement in the precision with which information can be transfotmed and an increase in operating speed. Attempts have been made to move in this direction [3, 141 , but achievement of significant res�ults will require more intensive effozts, which will make it possible to construct complex neuronal networks that are no longer intermediate stages in information processing of the perceptron type .C11] but self- organizing systems capable of making independent decisions even when there is an information deficit, i.e., under conditions of quite substantial inde te rminacy . - 9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY At this point, we must set forth the basic principles of the structural organization and self-organization of such systems. The first principle is that the system mist include a sufficiently large set of components. This multiplicity is necessary in order to permit sig- - nal fluctuations. While fluctuations are undesirable in a system operating in confarmity with a rigid program, they are�necessary in an ultracomplex system capable of unforeseen actions. This is a consequence of well-known rules of .information theory [1l. ~ The second principle is that the network mu~t be capable of self-formation . ~ of feedback circuits. It should be noted that two types of neuronal feed- , - back circuits are distinguished, i.e., homeostatic and heterostatic; these ~ are apparently interconvertible. The purpose of homeostatic circuits (neuronal networks linked by negative feedback) is maintenance of equili- bri;.~m within a given program. In all probability, heterostatic circuits _ (neuronal networks with negative and positive feedback exhibiting aperiodic fluctuational activity) play a considerable role. The functional rhythm of the neurons in a heterostatic circuit depends on many Depending on the manner in which the primary circuits (homeostatic air.d heterostatic) are connected to form second- and third-order circuits; the system-rhythm pulsations can acquire a wholly individual character. In this case, the - exogenous action of receptor models can have ar. organizing influence on ttie rhythmic operation of an ultracomplex network. It also is important to provide th~ system with an initial program. The existence of an initial program is dictated by the need to compare newly arriving information with it. The initial program must obviously be similar to a gene tic program or instinct in a biological system and is de termined by the system properties~ although it can be introduced from without. _ In order to create conditions for self-organization, it is also necessary - to simulate the system's intrinsic requirements, its "attitude" toward - externa.l factors,� since a system lacking such piropertie~ caimot develop. For example, a system can require homeostatie balancing under full-load conditions. The goals of neuronal technology as a branch of bionics are thu~s extremely - interesting and far-reaching. The most i.mportant objective is the creation _ of a wide variety of initial components (neurons and ~eneral-purpose net- work subunits)~ followed by the developmen* of subcircuits of increasing _ complexity and hierarchic systems. , lt will be possible for rieuronal technology to solve these fundamental problems in the near future. As for the subse.quent development of organi- zational principles for complex and ultracomplex netw~nrks, it will obviously �ollow upon the establishment of a basis for an integrated-circuit tech- nology for neuronal-network elem,ents comprising large numbers of nerve- like components linked into suhcircuits. Utilization of the internal 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400470031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY infozmation-manipulating properties of materials is considerably uwre pro- mising in those cases where they are to some extent identical to those of neuronal structures. Such properties are displayed, for example, by the hierarchic system of supernwlecular compounds in polymers. BIBLIOGRA.PHY 1. Wiener~ N., "Cybernetics", Moscow, Sov. radio, 1968~ 326 p. - 2. Dudkin, K.N. and Gauzel'man, V.Ye., "A functional model of the neuron," "Tez. V Vsesoyuz. konf. po bionike" [Abstracts of Papers Presented at _ the Sth All-tinion Conference on Bionics] , Moscow, Nauka, 1973, pp 36-38. 3. Zvanov, Yu.N. and Kogorod, S.M., "One model of an inhom~geneous inter- calary-neuron network," "Problemy neyrokibernetiki" [Problems of Neuro- cybernetics7, Rostov-on-Don, Izd-vo Rost. un-ta, 1976, pp 69-72. - 4. Ivashchenko, V.G. and Donov, V.G., ~'A functional model of the neuron utilizing thyristors," "Issledovaniya po bionike, razdr.azhimosti i vozbuzhdeniyu" CStudies in Bionics, Irritability and Excitation], I~azan', Izd-vo Kazan. un-ta, 1976, pp 97-102. 5. Kirvelis, D.I. and Pozin, N~V., "Some problems of neuronal logie," "Voprosy bioniki" [Problems of Bionicsl, Moscow, Nauka, 1967, pp 163-173. 6. Klini, S.K., "Event representations in neural networks and finiCe suto- _ mata," "Automata", Moscow, Izd-vo inostr. l~t., 195b, pp 15-16. 7. Kogan, A.B., "Organization of nerve cells in neuronal ensemblea," "Sovremennyye problemy neyrokibernetiki" [Current Problems in Neuro- cyberneticsl, Leningrad, Nauka, 1972, pp 4-2~~ 8. Kuznetsova, V.L., Kuz'menko, V.L., and Tsygel'nyy, I.M., "A neuronal mndel with background activity utilizing frequency-voltage ti~nsducers," "Mnogoznachnyye elementy i struktury" [Multivalent Components and Struc= ture sl , Riev, Nauk. dumka, 1978 ~ pp 94-99. 9. Kuznetsova, V.L. and Tsygel'nyi, I.M., "Use of certain aspects of the theory of multivalent structures to describe neuronal networks," '~Mate- rialy VIII konf. molodykh uchenykh fiz.-mekh. in-ta AN USSR. Sektsiya otbora i peredachi, inform." [Proceedings of the 8th Confezence o:E . Young Scientists Working at the Physics-Mechanics Institute, Academy of - Sciences of the UkrSSR. Informatio~n Gathering and Transmission Sectionl, L'vov, 1977, pp 92-97. VINITI Archives No 993-79. 10. McCulloch, W.S. and Pitts, W., "A l:gical enumeration of ideas pertaining ~ to neural activity," "Automata", Moscow, Izd-vo inostr. lit., 1956, - pp 362-�384. 11 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404070031-6 - FOR OFFICIAI, USN: O1VLY 11. PSinsk}~, M. and Papert, S., "Perceptrons", Moscow, Mir, 1971. 12. Pak, ~~.G., "Problems in the technical realization of the learning-capable elen~ent of a decision-~making system," "Problemy neyrokibernetiki" [Problems of Neurocyberneticsl, Rostov-on-Don, Izd-vo Rost. un-ta, 1976, PP 12fi-138 . 13. Polyakov, G.I., "Osnovy sistematiki neyronov kory bol'shogo mozga cheloveka" [Taxonomic Principles for the Neurons of the Human Cerebral Cortex], Moscow, Meditsina, 1973, 307 p. 14. Popov, V.A., Skibenko, I.T. and Vasilenko, A.S., "One digital model of the neuron," PROBL. BIONIKI, 1977, No 18, pp 81-85. 15. Popov~ S.A., "Info~ation feedback with delay in a nervous-system model," Kazan', 1977, pp 29-32. VINITI Archives No 649-77. 16. Pribram, K., "Languages of the Brain", Moscow, Progress, 1975. 17. Rakov, M.A. (Editor), "Realizatsiya mnogoznachnykh struktur avtomatiki" [Implementation of Multivalent Structures in Automation], Kiev, Ivauk. dumka, 1976~ 350 p. 18. Samoilov, L.K. and Chernov, N.I., "Algebraic representation of logical functions," ODNOROD. TSIFROVYYE VYCHISL. STRUKTURY, 1978, No 9, pp 93-101. I~~. Tasaki, J., "Conduction of the Neural Impulse", Moscow, Izd-vo inostr. lit., 1957~ 186 p. 20. Taylor, W., "Computational devices and the nervous system," "Simulation in Biology", Moscow, Izd. inostr. lit., 1963, pp. 203-228. 21. Tuzov, V.M., "Opportunities for construction ~i formal neurons based on multivalent combinational harmonic-frequency components," "Mnogoznach- o nyye elementy i struktury" [Multivalent Components and Structuresl, Kiev, Nauk. dumka,� 1975, pp 105-114. . 22. Hodgkin, A., "The Nervous Impulse", Moscow, Mir, 1965 ~ 125 p. 23. Eecles, J.~ "The Physiology o� Nerve Cells", Moscow, Izd-vo inostr. lit., 1959~ 227 p. ~ 24. Gulrajani, R.M., Roberge, F.A. and Mathieu, P.A., "A field-effect _ transistor analog for the study of burst-generating neurons," PROC. I~:EE, 1977, Vol 65, No 5, pp 807-809. - 25. Nagumo, J., Arimoto, S.~ and Yeshizawa, S., "Artificial neuron," PROC. IRE, 1962, Vol 50, No ]0, pp 2094-2104. ' COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova dumka", 1980 . 24 i 8 CSO: 1u40/350 e 12 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 FOR OFFICEAL USE ONLY BICiEG'~'(NOZO~Y UDC 612.825.5:612.882 MECHANISMS OF INTCRACTION OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ANALYZERS Leningrad MEKHANIZMY VZAIMODEYSTVIYA VNUTRENNIKHH I VNESHNIKH ANALIZATOROV in - Russian 19f30 (signed to press 8 Aug 80) pp 2~ 132-142, 149 [Annotation, bibliography and table of contents from book "Mechanisms of Interaction of Internal and External Analyzers", by Professor Vladimir Semenovich Raytses, Institute of Physiology imeni I. P. Pavlov, Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", 1350 copies, 150 pages ] _ [Text] The monograph correlates data from the literature and the author's own materials from electrophysiological investigation of the functional organization of the central sections of the internal (visceral) analyzers and the mechanisms of the interaction of visceral afferent signals with sensory streams entering the nervous system from somatic, vestibular and visual receptors. Current data is reported on the participation of the hypothalamolimbic structures of the brain in the central control of sensory processes and in the mechanisms of the interaction of intero- and exteroceptive signalling. The book examines the significance of visceral signalling to the formation and realizatian of certain forms of emotional reactions and purposeful behavior, as well as to disLUrbances in tY~e emotional sphere under conditions of visceral pathology. Bibliagraphy: 449 titles; 50 figures; 5 tables. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Adrianov, 0. S. "0 printsipakh integrativnoy deyatel'nosti mozga" - [Principals of the Integrative Activity of the Brain], Moscow, 1976. 2. Ayzikov, G. S., Malikova, S. N. and Radkevich, L. A. "The Effect of - Vestibular Afferent Impulses On the Activity of Individual Neurons of the Nuclei of the Vestibular Complex in Kittens," NFYROFIZTOLOGIYA, Vol 8, No 5, 1976. 3. Ayrapet'yants, E. Sh. "Vysshaya nervnaya deyatel'nost' i retseptory vnutrennikh organov" [Higher Nervous Activity and Receptors of the Internal Organs7, Moscow-Leningrad, 1952. U. Ayrapet'yants~ E. Sh, and Batuyev, A. S. "Printsip konver~entsii analizatornykh sistem" [The Principle of Convergence of Analyzer Systems7~ Leningrad, 1969. 13 . ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000440070031-6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 5. Ayrapet'yants, E. Sh, and Vasilevskaya, N. Ye. "Yisceral Signalling and the Thalamus," USP. FIZIOL. NAUK~ VOL 6, 1975~ ~ 6. Ayrapet'yants, E. Sh. and Sotniehenko, T. S. "Limbika" LThe Limbic System], Leningrad, 1967. 7. Amvros'yev~ A. P. "Anatomiya afferentnykh sistem pishchevaritel'nogo trakta" [Anatomy of the Digestive Tract Afferent Systems), Minsk, 1972. 8. Anokhin~ P. K. "The Neurophysiological Bases of the Electrical Activity of the Cerebral Cortex" in "Sovremennyye problemy elektrofiziologicheskikh issledovaniy nervnoy sistemy" CCurrent Pro'~lems in Electrophysiological Investigation of the Nervous System], Moscow, 1964. 9. Anokhin, P. K. "Biologiya i neyrofiziologiya uslovnogo refleksa" [Biology and Neurophysiology of the Conditioned Reflex], Moscow, ~968. _ 1U. Anokhin, P. K. "Systemic Analysis of Integrative Activity of the Neuron and the Concept of Its Degree of Freedom" in "Sistemnyy analiz integrativnoy deyatel'nosti neyrona" [Systemic Analysis of the Integrative Activity of the Neuron], Moscow~ 1974. 11. Arushanyan, A. V. and Belozertsev, T, T. "The Effect of Strychnine and Corazol on Certain Types of Supraspinal and Segmented Inhibition of the C~rebrospinal Reflexes," in "Materialy nauch. konf. po probl. 'Fiziologiya i patologiya kortikovistseral'nykh vzaimootnosheniy i funktional'nykh sistem organizma" [Materials of Scientific Canference on Physiology and Pathology of Corticovisceral Interrelations and Funetional Systems of the Organism], Vol 1, Ivanovo, 1965. 12. Arshavskiy, Yu. I., Berkinblit, M. B. and Gel'fand~ I. M. "Organization of Projection of Somatic Nerves in Different Regions of the Cerebellar Cortex of Kittens~" Vol 3, No 2, 1971. 13. Astvatsaturov, M. I. 1939~ cited in Bykov, K. M. and Kurtsin, I. T., "Kortiko-vistseral'naya patologiya" [Cortico-Visceral Pathology], Leningrad, 1960. 14. Ayupova, R. S.~ Akhmediyeva~ Z. Kh.~ Kurbanova, G. V., Grinin, V. V. and Tashenov, K. T. "On the Question of In~eroceptive Influences From the Stomach on the Bioelectrical Activity of the Hypothalamus," TR. IN-TA FIZIOLOGII AN KazSSR, Vol 23, 1977. 15. Baklavadzhyan, 0. G. "Vegetativnaya regulyatsiya elektricheskoy aktivnosti mozga" [Vegetative Regulation of the Electrical Activity of the Brain], Leningrad, 1967. 16. Baklavadzhyan, 0. G. "Electroph~rsiological Analysis of the Representation of Visceral and Somatic Afferent Systems in the Hypothalamus," report summary in "IX s"yezd Vsesoyuz. fiziol. o-va,"Vol 4, Leningrad~ 1970. 14 FOR OFFIC~AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 1'l. Baklavadzhyan, 0. G., Adamyan~ F. A., Avetisyan, E. A. "Reactions of the Neurons of Frontal and Posterior Lobes of the Hypothalamus on Stimulation of the Vagus and Sciatic Nerves to Light Stimulation," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR. vol 63, 1977. _ 18. Baklavadzhyan, 0. G. and Astvatsatryan, E. G. "Comparative Electro- physiological Investigation of Hypothalamic Projection of Afferent Systems of the Celiac and Sciatic Nerves," FIZIOL ZHURN SSSR, Vol 5I~ 1973. 19. Baklavadzhyan~ 0. G. and Bagdasaryan, K. G. "The Reaction of Neurons of the Anterior and Posterior Regions of the Hypothalamus to Stimulation of the Celiac and Sciatic Nerves to Light Stimulus," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 8, 1976. 20. Baklavadzhyan, 0. G. and Bagramyan~ Z. A. "Analysis of Induced Potentials of ~he Limbic Cerebral Cortex," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 2, 1970. 21. Bakuradze, A. A. and Chkhenkeli, S. A. "Some Mechanisms of the Conditian of Formation of Satiation" in "Mekhanizmy neyrogumoral'noy regulyatsii vegetativnykh funktsiy" (Mechanisms of Neurohumoral Regulation of Vegetative Functions7, Leningrad, 1970. 22. Batuyev, A. S. "Multisensory Convergence On Neurons of the Associative = Fields of the Cortex" in "Mater. Vsesoyuz. konf. po elektrofiziologii TsNS" [Materials of the All-Union Conference on Electrophysiology of the CNS]~ Leningrad, 1971. 23. Batuyev, A. S. and Gafurov, B. G. "Reactions of the Cortical Neurons To Viscerosomatic Stimulation~" NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA~ Vol 3, 1971. 24. Bezhenaru, I. S. "Investigation of the Neur~l Structures of the Brain Stem Which Create Rapid Reactions in the Reticulospinal Pathways," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 3, 1971. - 25. Beller, N. N., Musyashchikova, S. S. "Induced PQtentials of the Limbic Cerebral Cortex of the Cat with Stimulation of the Mesenteral Nerves~" FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR~ Vol 51, 1965. _ 26. Belov, V. P. "Personality Features and Psychosomatic Interrelations in Patients with Gastric Ulcer (of the Duodenum) and Chronic Nonspecific ~ Colitis," ZHURN. NEVROPATOL. I PSIKHIATR., Vol 21, 1971. 27. Berdashkevich, A. P. "Issledovaniye dvigatel'nogo povedeniya krys pri gipotalamicheskoy samostimulyatsii mozga" [Investigation of the Motor ~ Behavior of Rats in Hypothalamic Autostimulation of the Brain], author's abstract of candidate's dissertation, Moscow, 1973. 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404070031-6 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY 28. Beritashvili~ I. S. "Structural and Functional Bases of Mental Activity" in "Strukturnyye i funktsional'nyye osnovy psikhichheskoy deyatel'nosti" [Structural and Funetional Bases of Mental Activity], Moscow, 1963. 29. Beteleva, T. G. "The Effect of Prolonged Light and Auditory Stimulation on Activity of Neurons of the External Geniculate Body of Rabbits" in "Problemy fiziologii optiki," Leningrad, 1969. 30. Bekhtereva, N. P. "Neurophysiological Aspects of Human Mental Activity," USPEKHI FIZIOL. NAUK, Vol 1, 1970. 31. Blagoveshchenskaya, N. S. "Topicheskoye znaeheniye narusheniya zvuka, vestibulyarnoy funktsii~ obonyaniya i vkusa pri porazheniyakh golovnogo mozga" [Local Significance of Disturbances in Hearing, the Vestibulary Funetion, Smell, and Taste in Cerebral In~uries7~ Moscow, 1962. 32. Bogovarova~ Ye. F. "Materials for Physiological Description of Interoceptive Inhibition of Cerebrospinal Motor Reflexes" in "The Cerebellur~ and Regulation of Function], Kiev. 1963. 33. Bratus', N. V. "Mozzhechok i vistserotseptsiya" [The Cerebellum and Visceroception]~ Leningrad, 1969. - 34. Bratus', N. V., Levchuk, 0. V., Moroz, V. M., Solov'eva, L. A. and Yanch~ik, G. V. "Participation of Certain Cores of tt;s Brain Stem in the Formation of Induced Reactions of the Cerebellar Cortex in Somatic and Visceral _ Stimulation~" report summary~ in "XII s"yezd Vsesoyuz. fiziol. o-va.," Leningrad, 1975. 35. Bulygin, I. 1, "The Effect of Stimulation of Internal Organs on the Cerebrospinal Reflexes and the Role of the Brain~" BYULL. EKS~ER. BIOL. I MED., Vol 12, i941. _ 35. Bulygin, I. A. "Issledovaniye zakonomernostey i mekhanizmov interotseptivnykh refleksov" [Investigation of Patterns and Mechanisms of Interoceptive Reflexes], Minsk~ 1959. 37: Bulygin~ I. A. "Afferentyye puti interotseptivnykh refleksov" [Afferent Pathways of Interoceptive Reflexes], Minsk, 1966. i8. 13ulygin, I. A. "Organization of Visceral Afferent Systems" USPEKHI " FIZIOL. NAUK, Vol 8~ 1977. 39. Bulygin, I. A, and Soltanov~ V. V. "Elektrofiziologicheskiy analiz vistseral'nykh afferentnykh sistem" [Electrophysiological Analysis of Visceral Afferent Systems], Minsic~ 1973. 40. Bykov~ K. M. "Kora golovnogo mozga i vnutrenniye organy" [The Cerebral C~rtex and the Internal Organs]~ Kirov, 1942. - 41. Bykov, K. M, and Kurtsin, I. T. "Kortikovistseral'naya patologiya" - 16 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 FOR OFFIC(AL USE ONLY . [Corticovisceral Pathology], Leningrad, 1960. 42. Vaynshteyn, I. I. and Si~onov, P. V. "Emotsiogennyye struktury mozga i serdtse" [Emotion-Generating Structures of the Brain and Heart], Moscow~ 1979. 4;. Val'dman, A. V. "Results of, and Outlook for, Functional-Morphological Investigation of the Action of Neurotropic Agents on Regulation of Physiological Funetions" in "Neyrofarmakologiya protsessov tsentral'noy regulyatsii" [Neuropharmacology of the Processes of Central RegulationJ, Leningrad, 1968. U4. Val'dman, A. V. "Principal Problems in the Investigation of Emotional Behavior in Experiments on Animals" in "Eksperimental'naya neyrofizologiya _ emotsiy" [Experimental Neurophysiology of Emotions], Leningrad, 1972. _ ll5. Val'dman, A. V, and Kozlovskaya, M. M. "Correlation of Somatovegetative Manifestations of Emotional and Behavioral Reactions," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 55, 1969. 46. Vasilevskaya, N. Ye. "0 funktsii i strukture vistserokhimicheskogo analizatora" [On the Functions and Structure of the Viscerocheroical Analyzer], Leningrad~ 1971. ~7. Vedyayev~ F. P. "Analysis of the effects of electrostimulation of - Certain Limbic Structures," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 1, 1969. 48. Velikaya, R. R. "On the Influence of the Hypothalamic Nuclei on Electrical Activity of Neurons of the Visual Cortex," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 7, 1975. 49, ilelikaya, R. R., and I1'in, K. G. "Induced Reactions of the Neurons of the Visual CortPx in Stimulation of the Hypothalamic Formations," FIZIOL. ZHURN. URSR, Vol 23, 1977. 50. Vinnikov, Ya. A. "Tsitologicheskiye i molekulyarnyye osnovy retseptsii. Evolyutsiya organov chuvstv" [Cytological and Molecular Bases of - Reception. Evolution of the Sense OrgansJ, Leningrad, 1971. 51. Voronin, L. L., Skrebitskiy, V. G. and Sharonova~ I. N. "Microelectrode Investigations of Convergence af Signals of Different Sensory Modalities in the Cerebral Neurons~" USPEKHI FIZIOL. NAUK, Vol 2~ 1971. 52. Gadzhiyeva, N. A. "The Effect of Heterosensory Reactions On Induced Activity of the External Geniculate Body," IZV. AN AzSSR SER. BIOL., No 3, 1970. 53. Gadzhiyeva, N. A. and Rzayeva, N. "Electrophysiological Investigation of Integration of Dermosomatic and Visceral Impulses in the Somatosensory Cortex and Specific Thalamus Under Different Funetion Staties of the - Reticular Formation of the Brain Stem," report summary, in "IX s"yezd - 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404070031-6 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY - Vsesoyuz, fiziol, o-va," Vol 2, Leningrad, 1970 5~. Gal'~erin, S. I. "Znacheniye interotseptsii (chuvstvitel'nosi,i) = vnutrennikh organov v regylyatorno3~ roli vysshikh otdelov nervnoy sistemy" [The Significance of the Interoception (Sensitivity) of Internal Organs to the Regulatory Role of Higher Branches of the Nervous System]~ author's abstract of doctoral dissertation, Leningrad~ 193b. 55. Ganitkevich, Ya. V. "Zhelch' i deyatel'nost' nervnoy sistemy" [Bile and Nervous System Activity]. author's abstract of doctoral di~sertation~ Dortetsk, 1968. 56. Gasanov, G. G. "The Role of the Posterior Region of the Limbic Cortex of the Cerebrum in Interoception of Metabolic Jnconditioned Reflexes from the Stomach," DAN SSSR, Vol 159, 1964. 57. Gershuni~ G. V. "Organization of the Afferent Stream and the Process of Differentiation of Signals of Different Durations," ZhVNH~ Vol 15, 1965. 58. Gershuni~ G. V., Kozhevnikov, V. A., Maruseva, A. M. et al. "Changes in the Electric of the Auditory Systero to Different Forms of Higher Nervous Activity" in "Elektroentsefalograficheskoye issledovaniye visshey nervnoy deyatel'nosti" [Electroencephalographic Investigation of Higher Nervous ActivityJ, Moscow, 1962. 59. Gokin, A. P. "Properties of the Synaptic Activation of Intermediate - Neurons of the Thoracic Segments of the Spinal Cord of Dermal, Muscular and Visceral Afferents." NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA. Vol 2, 197p. 60. Gokin, A. P. and Preobrazhenskiy, N. N. "Synaptic Mechanisms of Int~r- action between Somatic and Visceral Influences in the Spinal Cord" in "Mekhanizmy Ob"yedidneniya neyronov v nervnom tsentre" [Mechanisms of Union of Neurons in the Nervous Center], Leningrad, 1974. 61. Gorgiladze~ G. I. "Investigation of the Mechanisms of the Dual Funetion of Vestibular Apparatus," DAN SSSR, Vol 158, ~964. G2. Gorgiladze~ G. I. "Microelectrode Investigation of the Reactions of the Neurons of the Vestibular Nuclei in Cats With Polarization and Caloric Stimulation of the Labyrinths," in "Fiziologiya vestibularnogo analizatora" [The Physiology of the Vestibvlar Analyzer], Moscow~ 1968. - 63. Gorgiladze G. I. and Smirnov, G. D. "The Effect of Vestibular Stimulation on the Neuronal Activity of the Visual C~rtex of the Cerebrum of Cats" ZhVND, Vol 17, 1967. 64. Grashchenkov, N. I. "Gipotalamus i ego rol' v fiziologii i patologii" LHypothalamus and Its Role In Physiology and Pathology], Moscow, 1964. 65. Gromova, Ye. A., Gil'man, I. M. "Comparative Analysis of the Rising Influence of the Hypothalamus on the Cerebral Cortex and the Behavior of 18 _ FOR OFF[C[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL'( Unanesthetized Cats," ZhVND, Vol 19, 1969. 66. Dmitriyev, A. S. "Labirintnyye i ekstralabirintnyye mekhanizmy nekotorykh - somaticheskikh i vegetativnykh reaktsiy na uskoreniye" [Labyrinth and ~ Extralabarynth Mechanisms of Certain Somatic and Vegetative Reactions to AccelerationJ, Minsk, 19b9. 67. Dmitriyev, A. S.. Burko, Ye. V. and Tropnikova, G. K. "The RoZe ~f the Vestibular Nuclei of the Medulla Oblongata in Formation of Neurohumoral Reactions of the Organism to Labyrinth and Extralabyrinth Stimulation" report summary, ir~ "III s"yezd Vsesoyuz. fiziol. o-va,"Vol 1, Alma-Ata, 1979. 68. Durinyan, R. A. "Tsentral'naya struktura afferentykh sistem" [Central Structure of Afferent SystemsJ, Moscow-Leningrad, 1965. 69. Durinyan~ R. A. "How Should the Physiological Significance of the Thala~ocortical Representation of Visceral Afferent Systems Be Under- stood?" in "Mekhanizmy interotsept~ii" jMechanisms of Interoceptioi~], Ivano-Frankovsk~ 1967. 70. Durinyan~ R. A. "Several Concepts of the Mechanisms of Visceral Sensitivity" in "Problemy interotseptsii, regulyatsii fiziologicheskikh - funktsiy i povedeniya" (Pr�oblems in Interoception, Regulation of Physiological Functions and BehaviorJ, Leningrad, 1976. 71. Dutov, A. M. "Rol' vistseral'noy afferentatsii v deyatel'nosti - vestibulyarnoy sistemy" [The Role of Visceral Afferentation in the Activity of the Vestibular System], author's abstract of doctoral disser~tion, Ivano-Frankovsk, 1971. 72. Dutov, A. M. "Reaction of Neurons of the Vestibular Nuclei to Interceptive Stimulation," BYULL.EKSPERIM. BIOL. I MED.. Vol 6~1, 1974. 73. Dutov, A. M. and Shlyakhovenko~ A. A. "On the Interaction of Vestibular and Viscerosomatic Afferent Stimulation on the Neurons of the Vestibular Nuclei" in "Funktsional'nye i strukturnyye osnovy sistemoy deyatel'nosti i mekhanizmy plastichnosti mozga" [Functional and Structural Bases of the System of Activity and Mechanisms of the Plasticity of the Cerebrum], Moscow, 1y75. 'j4. Yevtushenko, 0. Ye. "Influence of Interoceptive Impulses on Mono- and . Polysynaptic Responses of the Flexor Motoneurons" FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 10-11, 1963. 75. Yegorov, B. B. "Nekotoryye osobennosti sfferentnykh svyazey neyronov vestibulyarnykh yader" [Several Properties of the Afferent Connections of the Neurons of the Vestibular Nuclei], author's abstract of candidate's dissertation, Moscow, 1967. 76. Yemel'yanenko, I. V. "The Effect of the Status of Alimentary Excitability 19 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 FOR OFFIC?AL USE ONLY on Emotional and Behavioral Reactions," FIZIOL. ZURN. URSR~ V~~1 21. 77. Yemel'yanenko, I. V. "The Significance of Interoceptive Signalling in the Regulation of Emotional Behavior" BYULL EKSPER BIOL. I MED., author's abstract of candidate's dissertation, Ivano-Frankovsk, 1977. - 78. Yemel'yanenko, I. V. and Raytses~ V. S. "The Significance of Intero- ceptive Signalling in the Modulation of Emotional and Behavioral Reactions~" BYULL. EKSPER. BI01.. I MED., Vol 66~ 1976. 79. Yermolayeva, V. Yu. and Chernigovskiy~ V. N. "Participation of Certain Structures of the Limbic System in the Performance of Visceral and Somatic - Signalling," DAN SSSR, Vol 159, 1964. 80. Yesakov~ A. I. "On the Question of Efferent Regulation of Receptors (On the Example of the Chemoreceptors of the Tongue)," BYULL. EKSPER. BIOL. I MED., Vol 51, 1961. 81. Zhukova, G. P. "On the Neuronal Structure of the Vestibular Nuclei in Predators," ARKHIV ANAT. GISTOL. I EMBRIOL., Vol 49~ 1965. ~ 82. Zhukova~ G. P. "On the Neural Structure of Vestibular Nuclei in Predators," ARKHIV ANAT. GISTOL. I EMBRIOL., Vol 49, 1965. 33. Zhukova~ G. P. "Rollandovo Substance and its Place in the Analyzer System," USPEKHI SOVREM. BIOL., Vol 61. 1966. � 84. Zabolotnykh~ V. A. "Investigation of the Activity of the Neurons of Hypothalamic Branch of the Alimentary Center Under the Influence Qn the Mechanoreceptors of the Stomach and the Introduction of Insulin or Glucose to the Vascular Bed~" DAN SSSR~ No 1;3, 1963. 85. Zayko, N. S. "The Activity of Human Taste Receptors in the Aspect of Their Interaction with the Interoceptors of the Stomach," report sutnmary, in "XI s"yezd Vsesoyuz. o-va fiziol.," Vol 2, Leningrad~ 1970. _ 86. Zilov, V. G., Rogacheva~ S. K. "Effect of Electrical Stimulation of Different Regions of the Cerebral Cortex on the Alimentary Reaction of Rabbits," ZhVND, Vol 25, 1975. 8'T. Zubilov, Yu. N. and Kosilov, P. A. "Electrophysiological Character of Afferent Influences F'rom the Internal Organs on the Reflector Reactions of ~lotor Centers," NAUCHN. SOOBSHCH. IN-TA FIZIOL. AN SSSR~ No 2~ 1959. 88. If3natov, Yu. D. and Medvedev, 0. S. "Arialysis of the Interaction of the Somatic and Vegetative Afferent Inputs on the Segmentary Level," doctoral thesis, in "III Vses, konf. po fiziol. veget. nervn. sistemy," Yerevan, 1967. 8y. I1'inskiy, 0. B. "Mekhanoretseptory. Voprosy fiziologii sensornykh sistem" [Mechanoreceptors. Questions of Physiology of Sensory Systems]~ Leningrad, 20 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040400070031-6 F'()R OFFICiAL V...:, ONLY 1967. 90. I1'inskiy, 0. B. "Fiziologiya mekhanoretseptorov" [Physiology of - ~lechanoreceptors], Leningrad, 1975. ' 91. Istamanova, T. I. "Funktsional'nyye rasstroystva vnutrennikh organov pri nevrastenii" [Functional Disorders of Interal Organs in Neurasthenia]. Moscow, 1958. 92. Kazakov, V. N. "Representation of Pulmonary Receptors in the Cerebral Cortexes of Cats," F'IZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR~ Vol 53. 1966. 93. Kazakov, V. N.. "Funktsional'naya organizatsiya i svyazi orbitofrontal'noy kory" [Funetional Organization and Connection of the Orbitofrontal Cortex], author's abstract of doctoral dissertation. Odessa, 1971. 94. Kalyuzhnyy, L. V. "Variation in Induced Potential In Different Motivated Reactions of Rabbits," DAN SSSR~ No 189~ 1969. 95. Kassil', V. G. "Reception in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Alimentary Behavior" in "Problemy interotseptsii, regulyatsii fiziologicheskikh funktsiy i povedeniya," Leningrad, 1976. 96. Kassil', V. G.~ Ugolev, A. M. and Chernigovskiy, V. N. "Regulation of Selection of Consumption~ Food and Metabolism," USPEKHI FIZIOL. NAUK, VOL 1, 1970. y7. Kashtanov, S. I. "Convergence of Somatic and Vegetative Afferent Impulses at Individual Neurons of the Hypothalamic Region of the Brain," in "Funktsional'naya organizatsiya deyatel'nosti mozga" [Funetional = Organization of the Activity of the Cerebrum], Moscow, 1970. . 98. Kekcheyev~ K. Kh. "Interotseptsiya i propriotseptsiya i ikh znacheniye dlya kliniki" [Interoception and Proprioception and Their Significance for Clinical Practice]~ Moscow, 1946. 99. Kislyakov, il. A. "New Data on the Mechanism of the Function of the Vestibular Apparatus. (Dynamics of the Cupula, Nystagmus, Experiment with Modeling)." In "Problemy sovremennoy fiziologicheskoy nauki" [Problems of Modern Physiological Science], Leningrad, 1971. 1~~0. Klimov, P. K. Nozdrachev, A. D. and Chernigovskiy~ V. N. "Afferentation in the Sympathetic Pathways of the Stomach~ Associated With Its Mo`or- Evacuation Activity," FIZIOL ZHURN. SSSR~ Vol 59, 1973. 101. Koval'zon, V. M. "On the Cerebral Substratum of Self-Stimulation" in "Fiziologiya cheloveka i zhivotnykh" [The Physiology of Man and Animals], Vol 15~ "Fiziologiya emotsiy" [The Physiology of Emotion]~ Moscow, 1975. 102. Kozhechkin~ 0. N., Zhadina, S. D, and Bondar', G. G. "Variation in Spontaneous and Induced Activity of the Neurons of the Visual Cortex of 21 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the Rabbit With Stimulation of Different Regions of the Hypothalamus," y Zr1vND ~ VOZ 25 , 1975 . 103. Kozlova, I. A. "Rol' interotseptorov v regulyatsii obmena mikroelementov (medi, zheleza, tsinka) i sopryazhennykh s nimi metalloprat2idov" (fhe P,ole of Interoceptors in the Regulation of the Metabolism of Microelements (Copper, Iror~~ Zir.c) and the Metalloproteins Combined with Them], author's abstract of doctoral dissertation~ Ivano-Frankovsk, 1971. - 10?. Komendantov, G. L. "Ustanovochnyye refleksy" [Regulating Reflexes], author's abstract of doctoral dissertation, Moscow, 1964. 104. Koryukin. V. Ye. "The Influence of the Hypothalamus on Cardiovascular Activity Under Conditions of Cumulation of Acceleration," ZHURN. USHNYKH, NOSOVYKH I GORLOVYKH BOLEZNEY, Vol 4, 1977. 105. Kostyuk~ P. G. "Neuronal Mechanisms of Supraspinal Visceromot*or Reflexes" in "Mekhanizmy interotseptsii" [Mechanisms of Interoception], Ivano- Frankovsk, 1967. 106. Kostyuk~ P. G. and Preobrazhenskiy, N. N. "Supraspinal Control of the Sympathetic Processes in Visceral Reflexes," BYULL. EKSPER. BIOL. I MED., Vol 62. 1966. 107. Kostyuk, P. G. and Preobrazhenskiy~ N. N. "Mekhanizmy integratsii vistseral'nykh i somaticheskikh afferentnykh signalav" [Mechanisms of Integration of Visceral and Somatic Afferent Signals], Leningrad, 1975. " 108. Kotlyar, B. I. and Flnrov, A. G. "Reorganization of the Activity of ~ Neurons of the External Geniculate Body in Sound-Light Associations," ZhVND~ Vol 21, 1971. ! I 109. Kratin, Yu. G. "Analiz signalov mozga" [Analysis of Cerebral Signals], Leningrad, 1977. 110. Krauz~ V. A. "Sravnitel'naya kharakteristika deystviya ryada tsentral'nykh M- i N-kholinolitikov na razlichnyye struktury i sistemy golovnogo mozga" [A Comparative Description of the Action of a Number of Central M- and N-cholinolytics on Different Structures and Systems of the Cerebrum7, Leningrad~ 1969. 111. Kullanda, K. M. "On the Representation of Internal Organs in the Cerebral Cortex and Cerebellum of Cats and Dogs. Report I.~" BYULL. EKSPER, BIOL. I MED,, Vol 43~ 1951. 112. Kullanda, K. M. Ibid, Report II, BYULL. EKSPER. BIOL. I MED., Vol 43, [sic] 1 ~357 . 113. Kuman, E. A, and Skrebitskiy, V. G. "Interaction of Visual and Auditory Afferentation in the External Geniculate Body of the Brain of Rabbits~" _ ZhVND, Vol 18, 1968. 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 114. Kurashvili, A. Ye., Borodkin~ 0. S. and Koryukin, V. Ye. "On the Role of - the Hypothalamus in the Formation of Vestibular Reactions," VESTN. OTORINOLARINGOL., No 6, 1975. 115. Kurtsin, I. T. "The Effect of Afferent Impulses of the Digestive Tract on the Course of the Cortical Processes," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR~ Vol 25, 1938. . 116. Lakomkin, A. I. and Myagkov, I. F. "Golod i zhazhda" [Hunger and Thirst], Moscow, 1975. 117. Latash, L. P. and Kuman, E. A. "Variation in the Reaction of Neurons of the Visual Cortex to Flashes of Light in Hypothalamic and Reticular Stimulation," NEYROFIZIOLOGYA, Vol 3, ~971. 118. Lebedeva, V. A. "Mekhanizmy khemoretseptsii" [Mechanisms of Chemoreception]~ Moscow-Leningrad, 1965. 119. Lebedeva, V. A., Filippova, L. V., and Chernigovskiy, V. N. "The Reaction of Tissular Chemoreceptors of the Small Intestine to Changes in - pC02, pH and H2COg in Perfusion Solutions~" FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 62, 1976. 120. Levchuk, 0. V., Bratus'. N. V., and Grigoryan, R. A. "The Properties of ~ Electrical Reactions of Neurons of the Cortex of the Cerebellum of Rats in Stimulation of the Vagus Nerve and Nerves of the Limbs," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 4, 1972. 121. Leshchinyuk, I.I. "Primeneniye neyrotropnykh sredstv dlya analiza tsentral'nykh mekhanizmov vestibulyarnogo ~istagma~~ [The Use of = Neurotrophic Agents in Analysis of Central Mechanisms of Vestibular Nystagmus] in "Informatsionnyye materialy (Ob"yed. nauchn. Sovet 'Fiziologiya cheloveka i zhivotnykh')" [Information Materials (Association . of Scientific Council on The Physiology of Man and Animals of the USSR Academy of Sciences)J, Vol 15, 1968. - 122. Lobanova~ L. V. "On Certain Functions cf the Caudate Nucleus~" report summary, in "IX s"ezd Vsesoyuz. fiziol. o-va" [Ninth Conference of the All-Union Physiology Society], Vol 2~ 1970. 123. Lobanova~ L. V. and Smirnuv, S. I. "Reflection of Visceral Signalling in the Impulse Activity of the Caudate Nucleus," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 62, 1976. 124. Luriya, R. A. "Vnutrennyaya kartina bolezney i iatrogennyye zabolevaniya" ' (Internal Picture of Diseases and Iatrogenic Disorders7, Moscow, 1944. 125. Makarenko, Yu. A. "Properties of the Central Mechanisms of Reinforcement - in Reaction of Self-Stimulation and Their Connection to the Basic Biological Motivations" in "Strukturnaya, funktsional'naya i neyrokhimicheskaya organizatsiya emotsiy" [Structural, Functional and 23 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 FOR OF FICIAL USE ONLY I Neurochemical Organization of the Emotions], Leningrad, 1971. 126. Makarov, V. A. "The Role of the Amygdaloid Complex in the Mechanism of Convergence of Stimulations of Different Sensory Modalities on the Neurons of the Cortex of the Cerebral Hemispheres" DAM SSSR Vol 194, 1970. 127. Makarchenko, A. F. and Dunaburg, A. D. "Mezhutochnyy mozg i vegetativnaya nervnaya sistema" [The Interstitial Brain and the Vegetative Nervous SystemJ, Kiev, 1971. ~ 128. Makarchenko, A. F., Velikaya, R. R. and I1'in, V. N. "The Hypothalamus and the Visual System," FIZIOL. ZHURN. AN I~RSR, Vol 23, 1977. 129. Merkulova, 0. S. "Interotseptory i skeletnaya muskulatura" [Interoceptors and the Skeletal Musculature], Moscow, 1959. 130. Merkulova. 0. S. and Popova, T. V. "Variation in the Bioelectrical - Activity of the Medulla Oblongata in Stimulation of the Receptors of the _ Urinary Bladder~" FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 53~ 1967. 131. Mogendovich, M. R. "Chuvstvitel'nost' vnutrennykh organov (interotseptsia) i khronaksiya skeletnoy muskulatury" [Sensitivity of the Internal Organs (Interoceptian) and Chronaxia of Skeletal Musculature], Leningrad, 19~41. 1j2. Mogendovich, M. R. "Reflektornoye vzaimodeystviye lokomotornoy i . vistseral'noy sistemy" [Reflector Interaction of Locomotor and Visceral Systems], Leningrad, 195'l. 133. Moisr~yeva, I. A. "The Effect of the Mechanoreceptors of the Stomach on Higher Nervous Activity," TRUDY IN-TA FIZIOLOGII IM. I. P. PAVLOVA AN SSSR, Vol 1, 1952. 134. Mokrushin, A. A. "Change in the Cortical Responses to Repeated Stimulation of the Celiac Nerve of the Cat," DAN SSSR, Vol 227, 1976. 135. Musyashchikova~ S. S. "Induced Potentials in the Cortex and Underlying Structures of t;he Cerebrum of Cats in Stimulation of Visceral Systems" in "Mekhanizmy vyzvannykh potentsialov mozga"[Mechanisms of Induced Cerebral Potentials7, LeninQrad~ 1971. 1.;6. Musyashchikova and S. S. Chernigovskiy, V. N. "Kortikal'noye i subkortikal'noye predstavitel'stvo vistseral'nykh sistem" [Cortical and Subc:ortical Representation of Visceral Systems7~ Leningrad, 197~. 13'(. r1usyashchikova, S. S, and Sinyaya~ M. S. "Activation of Goll' and _ t3urdakh 's Nuclei of the Medulla Oblongata by Visceral Afferent Systems," NEYROI~IZIOLOGIYA, Vol 6, 197~. 138� ~4usyashchikoa, S. S., Sinyaya, M. S. and Mokrushin, A. A. "Neuorphysiological Analysis of Visceral Afferent Systems~" FIZIOL. ZHURN. - SSSR, Vol 62, 1977. 24 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 F'OR OwFICIAL USE ONLY 139. Myakushko, V. A. "Vzaimodeystviye afferentnykh interotseptivnykh i eksterotseptivnykh vliyaniy na strukturakh yader bluzhdayushehikh nervov" [Interaction of the Afferent Interoceptive and Exteroceptive Influences on the Structures of the Vagus Nerve Nuclei]~ author's abstract of candiddte's dissertation, Dnepropetrovsk, 1974. 1u0. Narikashvili, S. P. "Associative Region of the Cerebral Cortex and Its Interaction with the Sensory Zones," ZhVND, Vol 19, _ 1969. 141. Naumova~ T. S. and Popova, N. S. "On the Role of the Analyzers in Systemic Activity," USPEKHI FIZIOL. NAUK, Vol 3, 1972. 1U2. Nevzorova, T, M. "Psikhotropnyye sredstva v somaticheskoy meditsine" [Psychotropic Agents in Somatic Medicine], Moscow, 1972. - 143. Nozdrachev, A. D. "Electrophysiological Description of Afferent and Efferent Impulses in Vegetative Nerves in Long-term Experiments," FIZIOL. _ ZHURN. SSSR~ Vol 52, 1966. 144. Nozdrachev, A. D. "Vegetativnaya reflektornaya duga" [The Vegetative Reflex Arch], Leningrad, 1978. _ 145. Orlov, V. P., Merten, A. A.~ Yankovskiy, G. A. and Tayban, I. L. "Induced Potentials of (Deyters') Nucleus in Stimulation of the Neural Eleroents of Bones, Cutaneous and Muscle Nerves," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol _ 64, 1978. 14~. Pavlov, I. P. "Chief Laws of the Activity of the Central Nervous System, as Ascertained in Investigation of Conditioned Reflexes" in "Poln. sobr. soch.," Vol 3, Moscow-Leningrad, 1949. 147. Pavlovich~ N. V. "Toward Electrophysiological Analysis of the Mechanisms of Viscerosomatic Reflexes in Inflammation," PATOL. F~"L]OL. I EKSPER. TERAPIYA, Vol 10, 1966. 148. Pavlovich, N. V. "On the Question of the Interaction of~ Somatic and Visceral Afferent Systems on the Spinal and Thalamic Levels," report summary, in "XI s"yezd Vsesoyuz. fiziol. o-va:; Vol 1, 1978. 149. Pavlovich, N. V. "The Interaction of the Afferent Pelvic and Sciatic Nerves in Goll' 's Nucleus," report summary in "XIII s"yezd Vsesoyuz. ~ fizi.ol. o-va,"Vol 1, Alma-Ata, 1979. 150. Pavlovich~ N. V. and Raytses, V. S. "Pathophysiology of Associated Interceptive Influences on the Skeletal Musculature" in "Mater. III. Ukr. Konf, patofiziol." [Materials of Third Ukrainian Conference of Pathophysiologists], Odessa, 1966. 151. Pityk, N. I. "Reactions of the Neurons of External Geniculate Bodies of " 25 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the Cat on Somatic a7d Visceral Stimulation," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 4, - 1973. 152. Pituk, N. I. "The Influence of Stimulation of the Cortical Representation of the Vagus and Nerves on the Activity of the Neurons of the - Visual Cortex" in "Mater. 4-y Vsesoyuz. konf. po fiziologii vegetativnoy nervnoy sistemy" [Materials 9f the Fourth All-Union Conference on the Physiolagy of the Vegetative Nervous System]~ Yerevan, 1976. 153. Pityk, N. I. "On the Participation of Interoceptive Afferent Stimulaticn in the Processes of Sensory Integration in the Neurons of the Visual Zone of the Cat~" NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 9, 1977. 154. Pityk, N. I. "Participation by the Interoceptive Afferent Signals in the Polymodal Reactions of the Neurons of the Anterior Lamina Tecti of the Cat," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA, Vol 10, 1978. 155. Pityk, N. I., Raytses~ V. S. and Khananashvili, M. M. "Convergence and Interaction of Visceral, Somatic and Visual Stimulation on Separate Neurons of the External Geniculate Bodies of the Ca'c," FIZIOL ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 61, 1975. 156. Polyakov, G. I. "0 printsipakh neyronnoy organizatsii mozga" [On the Principals of the Neural Organization of the Brain]~ Moseow~ 1965. 1~7. Preobrazhenskiy~ N. N. "Synaptic Processes of Motoneurons in Adequate Sti:nulation of the Interceptors" in "Mekhanizmy interotseptsii," Ivano- Frankovsk, 1967. 158. Preol~razhenskiy, N. N. and Limanskiy, Yu. P. "Activation of the _ Reticular Neurons of the Medulla Oblongta by Visceral Afferents~" NEYROFIZIOLOGYA~ Vol 2~ 1969. 1~~ . Provodina, V. N. "~lectrophsyiological Analysis of the Rising Influence of the Frontal Regions of the Hypothalamus on the Cerebral Cortex in Unanesthetized Rabbits," BYULL EKSPER. BIOL. I MED., Vol 26, 1969. 160. Razumeyev, A. N. and Shipov, A. A. "Nervnyye mekhanizmy vestibulyarnykh reaktsiy" [Neural Mechanisms of Vestibular Reactions]~ Moscow, 1969. = 16?. Raytses, V. S. "On Changes in Higher NervoUS Activity in Experimental Pathology of the Stomach,~~ BYULL. EKSPER. BIOL. I MED.~ Vol 14, 1956. 162. Raytses, V, S. "The Effect of Stimulation of the Mechanoreceptors of the _ Stomach on the Bioelectrical Activity of the Cortex and Subcortical - Formations of the Cerebrum Under Normal and Pathological Conditions," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 14, 1958. 163. Raytses, V. S. "K patofiziologii interotseptsii (reflektornyye vliyaniya s patologicheski izmennogo zheludka i ikh korrelyatsiya)" [The Patho- 26 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE 4NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY physiology of Interoception (Reflex Influences From the Pathologically Changed Stomach and Their Correlation), author's abstract of doctoral dissertation, Leningrad, 1962. 164. Raytses, V. S. "Interoceptive Influences on the Fine Reflexes of ~he Labyrinth~" BYULL. EKSPER. BIOL. I MED., Vol 56, 1966. 165. Raytses~ V. S. "Funetional Organization of Visceromotor Reflexes Under Normal and Pathological Conditions" in "Mekhanizmy interotseptsii," Ivano- ' Frankovsk~ 1967. 166. Raytses, V. S. "~entral Apparatuses and Mechanisms of Viscerosomatie Integration (According to the Data of Electrophysiological Investigations)," USPEKHI FIZIOL. NAUK, Vol 4, 1973. - 167. Rayt~es~ V. S. "Neurophysiological Aspects of the Interaction of the Vestibular System with Other Sensory Systems of the Organism," KOSMICH. BIOL. I AVIAKOSMICH. MED.. Vol 1974. 168. Raytses~ V. S. "Neural Mechanisms of Visceral, Somatic and Sensory- Specific Signalling in the Subcortical-Trunk Relay of the Visual and - Vestibular Analyzers" in "Sovremennyye tendentsii v neyrofiziologii" _ [Current Trends in Neurophysiology], Leningrad, 1977. 169� Raytses, V. S. and Dutov, A. M. "The Role of Visceral Afferentation in the Activity of the Vestibular System," KOSMICH. BIOL. I MED., Vol 5, 1971. 170. Raytses~ V. S., Dutov, A. M. and Shlyakhovenko, A. A. "The Funetional Interaction Between the Visceral, Somatosensory and Vestibular Systems," report summary~ in "XI s"yezd Vse-soyuz. fiziol. o-va," Vol 2, Leningrad, - ~970. 171. Raytses, V. S.~ Pavlovich, N. V. and Belokon', L~. I. "Electrophysiological Analysis of the Viscerosomatic Integration at the Bulbar, Thalamic and Hypothalamic Levels" in "Matr. XI Vsesoyuz. konf. po elektrofiziologii TsNS," Vol 2, Leningrad, 1971. 172. Raytses, V. S. and Pityk, N. I. "The Funetional Interaction of Specific ~ (Visual) and Viscerosomatic Afferent Stimulation in the External Geniculate Body" in "Funktsional'no-strukturnyye osnovy sistemnoy deyatel'nosti i mekhanizmy plastichnosti mozga" [The Funetional and Structural Bases of the Systemic Activity and the Mechanisms of the Plasticity of the Brain], No 4~ 1975. 173. Raytses, V. S., Pityk, N. I. and Shlyakhovenko, A. A. "Modeling of the Effect of the Hypothalamolimbic Structures of the Brain on Reactions of the Visual and Vestibular System" in "Mater. 4-y Vsesoyuz. konf. po fiziol. veget. nervn. sistemy" [Materials of the Fourth All-Union Conference on Physiology of the Vegetative Nervous System]~ Yerevan, 1976. 27 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 174. Raytses, V. S. and Shlyakhovenko, A. A. "On the Funetional Organization of Visceral and Somatic Afferent Connections of the Vestibular Nuclei," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 58~ 1972. 175. Raytses, V. S. and Shlyakhovenko, A. A. "Modulation of the Activity of the Neurons of (Deyters)' Nucleus in Electrostimulation of the Hypothalamus and the Limbic Structures of the Brain," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 64, 1978. 176. Raytses, V. S., and Shlyakhovenko, A. A. "The Participation of the Hypothalamolimbic Structures in the Regulation of Vestibula~ Functions," report summary, in "XIII s"yezd Vsesoyuz. fiziol. o-va," Alma-Ata, 1979. 177. R:>,vtses, I. V. "The Effect of Electrostimulation of the Hypothalamus and Limbic F~rmations on Vestibulosomatic Reflei~es~" KOSMICH. BIOL. I MED., Vol 11, 1977. 178. Raytses, I. V. and Shlyakhovenko, A. A. "The Effect of Stimulation of the Motivation Centers of the Hypothalamus and Amygdaline Region on Vestibular NystagmUS," BYULL. EKSPER. BIOL. I MED., Vol 79, 1974, 179. Rzayeva, N. M. and Gadzhiyeva, N. A. "The Interaction of Dermo-Somatic and Visceral Induced Potentials in the Sensomotor Cortex of the Rabbit," IZV. AN SSSR, SER. BIOL., No 4, 1975. 180. Rozhanskiy, N. A. "Ocherki po fiziologii nervnoy sistemy" [Synopsis of the Physiology of the Nervous System], Moscow, 1957. 181. Roytbak, A. I. "Induced Potentials of the Cerebral Cortex" in "Sovremennyye problemy elektrofiziulogicheskikh issledovaniy nervnoy sistemy" [Current Problears in EZectrophysiological Investigations of the Nervous SystemJ. Moscow, 1964. 182. .Savin, B. M. "Gipervesomost' i funktsii tsentral'noy nervnoy sistemy" [Overweight and the Functions of the Central Nervous System], Leningrad, - 1970. 183. Samsonova, V. G. "Change in the Electrical. Activity of the Brain of Animals and Man in Stimulation of the Vestibular Apparatus" in "Fiziologiya vestibulyarnogo analizatora" [The Physiology of the Vestibular Analyzer7~ Moscow, 1968. 184. Sergeyev, A. A. "Fiziologicheskiye mekhanizmy deystviya uskoreniy" [Physiological Mechanisms of the Action of Acceleration], Leningrad, 1967. 185. Serkov, F. N. and Bratus', N. V. "Electrical Reaotions of the Hippocampus in Stimulation of the Vagus Nerve" in "Sovremennyye problemy elektrofiziologii TsNS LCurrent Problems in the Electrophysiology of the - CNS], Moscow, 1967. 28 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICtAL USE ONLY 186. Serkov, F. N. and Makul'kin, R. F. "Induced Potentials of the Hippocamp," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR~ Vol 52~ 1966. 187. Sechenov, I. M. "Izbrannyye proizvedeniya" [Selected WorksJ, Vol 1, _ Moscow, 1952. (1863) 188. Sechenov, I. M. "The Physiplogy of the Nerve Centers," Ibid, Vol 2, 1956. (1891) 189. Sidneva, G. M. "Vestibulo-vegetativnyye reaktsii pri opukholyakh golovnogo mozra, vosdeystvuyushchikh na gipotalamo-gipofizarnyye obrazovaniya" [Vestibular-Vegetative Reactions to Cerebral Tumors Acting on the Hypothalamo-Hypophysial Formations], author's abstract of candidate's.dissertation, Leningrad, ~967. 190. Silakov~ V. L. and Khanayeva, Z. S. "Impulse Activity of the Neurons of the Frontal Tubers of the Lamina Tecti After Disengagement of Corticifugal Regulation~" NEYROFIZOLOGIYA, Vol 10~ 1978. 191. Simonov~ P. V. "~hto takoye emotsiya? CWhat is Emotion?], Moscow, 1966. 192. Simonov, P. V. "Teoriya otrazheniya i psikhofiziologiya emotsiy" [The _ Theory of Reflect9.on and Psychophysiology of Emotions]~ Moscow, 1970. 193. Simonov, P. V. "Conditioned Reactions of Emotional Resonance in Rats" in "Neyrofiziologicheskiy podkhod k analizu vnutrividobogo povedeniya" LNeurophysiological Approach to Analysis of Intraspecies BehaviorJ, _ Moscow, 1976. 19~. Sklyut, I. A. and Vil'ner~ B. Ya. "On the Question of the Role ~f Subcortical Nodes in the R~gulation of Vestibular Reactions," ZDRAVOOKHR. BELORUSSII, Vol 12, 1966. 195. Sosnovskiy, A., 1969, quoted in Sudakov, K. V. "Biologicheskiye motivatsii" CBiological Motivations], Moscow~ 1971. 196. Spevak, S. Kh. "Rol' serotonina v mekhanizmakh realizatsii intero- tseptivnykh gomeostaticheskikh obmennykh refleksov" [The Role of Serotonine in the Mechanisms of th~ Realization of Interoceptive Homeostatic Metabolic Reflexes), author's.abstract of candidate's disseration, Baku, 1967. 197. Stadnichenko, L. I. "Analiz elektricheskoy aktivnosti nekotorykh vegetativnykh nervov pri golode, zhazhde i nasyshchenii (dannyye - khronicheskikh opytov)" [Anal.ysis of the Electrical Activity of Certain Vegetative Nerves in Hunger, Thirst and Satiety]~ author's abstract of candidate's disseration, Voronezh~ 1969. 198. Sudakov, K. V. "Neurophysiological Mechanisms of the Rising Activating Effects of the Hypothalamus on the Cerebral Cortex in Nutritional Deficiency" in "Fiziologiya i patologiya gipotalamusa" [The Physiology and Pathology of the Hypothalamus], Moscow, 1966. 29 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 199. Sudakov, K. V. "Biologicheskiye motivatsii" [Biologic~l Motivations]~ Moscow, 1971. 200. Supin~ A. Ya. "Neyronnyye mekhanizmy zritel'nogo analizatora" [Neural Mechanisms of the Visual Analyzer], Moscow, 1974. - 20i. Syabro, P. I., Dmitrichenko, A. M., Bozhko, V. A. et al. "The Interaction of Somatic and Visceral Afferent Systems on the Structures of the Spinal Cord and Cerebrum" report suromary~ in "XII s"yezd Vsesoyuz. fiziol. o-va im. I. P. Pavlova," Vol 2, Leningrad, 1975. 202. Tolmasskaya~ S. S. "0 nervnykh mekhanizmakh koordinatsii somaticheskikykh i vistseral'nykh funktsiy organizma" [Neural Mechanisms for Co~rdinating Somati.c and Visceral Funetions of the Organism], Moscow, 1964. 203. Tonkikh~ A. V. "Gipotalamo-gipofizarnaya oblast' i regulyatsiya fiziologicheskikh funktsiy organizma" [The Hypothalmic and Hypophysi2l Region and the Regulation of the Physiologic~al Functions of the Organism7~ second edition, Leningrad~ 1968. 204. Ugolev, A. M, and Chernigovskiy, V. N. "The Role of Interoceptors and _ the Development of the Behavior of Higher Animals~" DAN SSSR, Vol 126, 1959. - ~'~5. Khanayeva, Z. V. "Projection of the Periphery in the Frontal Tubers of _ the Lamina Tecti of Cats," SOBSI~CH. AN GruzSSR, vol 64~ 1971. - 206. Khananashvili~ M. M. "Eksperimental'noye izucheniye tsentral'nykh ; mekhanizmov zritel'noy funktsii" [Experimental Study of the Central i Mechanisms of the Visual Funetion]~ Leningrad~ 1962. 207. Khayutin, S. N. "Vzaimodeystviye motivatsionnogo i sensornogo vozbuzhdeniya na odinochnykh neuronakh zritel'noy kory" [Interaction of Motivated and Sensory Stimulation on Single Neurons of the Visual CortexJ, author's abstract of candidate's dissertation, Moscow, 1971. 208. Khilov, K. L. "Funktsii organa ravnovesiya i bolezn' peredvizheniya" [Functions of the Organs of Balance and Motion Sickness], Leningrad, 1969. - 209. Tsimmerman~ G. S. "Ukho i mozg" [The Ear and the Brain)~ Moscow, 1974. 210. Chvalun, A. V. "Quantitative and Qualitative Changes in Induced - Potentials In Light As A Funetion of the Zone of Stimulation of the Intestine" in "Mater. IX Vsesoyuz. nauch. konf. po probl. kortiko- vistseral'noy patologii" [Materials of the Ninth All-Union Scientific Conference on Problems of Corticovisceral Pathology], Baku, 1971. 211. Chernigovskiy, V. N. "Afferentnyye sistemy vnutrennikh organov" [Afferent Systems of the Internal Organs7, Kirov~ 1943. 212. Chernigovskiy, V. N. "Interoceptors and the Skeletal Musculature. 30 FOit OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Report I. The Effect of Stimulation of Interoceptors of the Intestine and Urinary Bladder on Skeletal Muscles," FIZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 33. 1947. 213. Chernigovskiy, V. N. "Interotseptory" [Interoceptors], Moscow, 1960. 214. Chernigovskiy, V. N. "Znacheniye interotseptivnoy signalizatsii v pishchevom povedenii zhivotnykh" [The Significance of Interoceptive - Signalling in the Feeding Behavior of AnimalsJ, Moscow-Leningrad, 1962~ 215. Chernigov~kiy, V. N. "Neyrofiziologicheskiy analyz kortikovistseral'noy reflektornoy dugi" [The Neurophysiologica~ Analysis of the Corticovisc~ral Reflex Arch), Leningrad, 1967. 216. Chernigovskfy~ V. N. "I. M. Sechenov's Thoughts on 'Dark' Perceptions an.d Their Subsequent Development," IZV. AN SSSR. SER. BIOL., No 1, 1977. - 217. Chernigovskiy~ V. N., Klimov~ P. K. and Nazdrachev~ A. D. "Vagus Afferentation and Motor-Evacuation Activity of the Stomach," ~'IZIOL. ZHURN. SSSR, Vol 58~ 1972. 218. Chuppina, L. M. "The Interaction of Potentials Induced by Electrical Stimulation of the Hypothalamus and Flares of Light in the Primary Visual Cortex of the Rabbit~" report summary in "XI s"yezd Vsesoyuz. fiziol. o-va," Vol 2, Leningrad, 1970. 219. Chkhenkeli~ S. A. "Electrical Activity of Certain Structures of the Brain in Hunger and Satiety" in "Problemy fiziologii gipotalamusa," Vol 2, Kiev, 1968. 220. Shapiru, B, I. "Optiko-vegetativnyye svyazi ~ezhutochnogo mozga" [Optico-Vegetative Connections of the Interstitial Brain]~ Leningrad, 1965. 221. Shapovalova, K. B. "Convergence of Visceral and Somatic Inluences on the Neurons of the Posteroventral Nucleus of the Thalamus," ZhBND~ Vol 21, 1971. 222. Shapovalova~ K. B and Shiry~ayev~ B. I. "Features of the Influence of Visceral and Somatic Afferent Stimulation on the Activity of the Neurons of the Posteroventral Nucleus of the Thalamus," DAN SSSR. Vol 184, 1969. 223. Shapovalova, K. B. and Shiryayev~ B. I. "Features of the responses of . the Neurons of the Posteroventral Nuclsus of the Thalamus Induced by Stimulation of Different Modalities," in "Mekhanizmy vyzvannykh potentsialov mozga" [Mechanisms of Induced Cerebral Potentialsl, Leningrad~ 1971. 224. Shvyrkova, N. A. and.Shvyrkov, V. B. "Activity of the Neurons of the Visual Cortex in Feeding and Defensive Behavior," NEYROFIZIOLOGIYA~ Vol 7, 1975. 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40850R000400470031-6 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY 225. Shlyakhovenko~ A. A. "Induced Potentials of the Vestibular Nuclei in Stimulation of Visceral and Somatic Nerves," BYULL. EKSPER. BIOL. I MED., vol 76, 1971. 226. Shlyakhovenko, A. A. "0 funktsional'noy organizatsii vistseral'nykh i _ somatichheskikh afferentnykh svyazey vestibulyarnykh yader" [On the Funetional Organization of Visceral ar~d Somatic Afferent Connections of the Vestibular Nuclei]~ author's abstract of candidate's dissertation, Ivano-Frankovsk, 1972. 227. Shpayer, Ye. A.~ 1948, cited in Tsi~nerman, G. S. "Ukho i Mozg" [The Ear and the Brain]~ Mosow, 197~. 228. Shuleykina~ K. V. "Sistemnaya organizatsiya pishehego povedeniya" . [Systemic Organization of Feeding Behavior], Moscow, 1971. 229. Shumilina, A. I. "Neurophysiological Analysis of Systemic Organization of Conditioned Reflexes" in "Kibernetieheskiye aspekty v izuchenii raboty mozga" [Cybernetic Aspects in the Study of Cerebral Function], Moscow, 1970. TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword .......................................................................3 Introduction ...................................................................5 ~'t~apter 1. Concise Information on the Morphofunetional Structure of the Internal (Visceral) Analyzers ......................................8 Chapter 2. Central Apparatuses and Mechanisms of Viscerosomatic Integration .......................................................28 Chapter 3. Viscerosomatic Influences on the Reactions of the Vestibular System ............................................................49 Chapter 4. Convergence and Interaction of the Viscerosomatic and Visual Afferent Signals ..................................................68 Cl,~pter 5. The Participation of the Hypothalamolimbic Structures of.the Brain in Central Control of the Sensory Processes .................88 Chapter 6. Visceral Signalling and Elements of Behavior .....................109 C017CZUS10!15 .......................................�.......�..............�..�~26 Bibliography .................................................................132 COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka"~ 1980 9380 cso: ~8uo~357 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 ~ FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY PHYSIOLOGY UDC 612.8.015 DIRECT TRANSFER OF C~NDITIONED-REFLEX GUSTATORY AVERSION Moscow DOKLADY AKADEMII NAUK SSSR in Russian Vol 259, No 5, 1981 (manu- script received 6 Mar 81) pp 1265-1267 [Article by G.A. Vartanyan and T.M. Makarova, Scientific-Research Institute of Experimental Medicine, USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Leningradl ~ [Text] The first expe riments on duplication of habits of the conditioned- reflex type by administration of a cerebsal extract from irradiated donor animals to unirradiated animals were ~arried out in 1965 [1, 27. They pro- duced many contradictory opinions, with some suthors totally denying that this phenomenon could exist C3] . However, many data have now been amassed that basically r_onfirm the existence of the "transfer" phenomenon in ver- tebrates [4-6] . Analysis of the literature showed that the euccess of "transfer" depends in large measure on the model selected. Attempts to "transfer" complex reactions have generally been unsucoessful. It can be~ assumed that "transfer" of complex foxms of conditioned-reflea activity is naturally hamp~red by the multistage, multilevel organization and func- tional lability of the nervous mechanisms responsible for complex adap- tive behavior. It is therefore best to use reactions characterized by rapid induction, stability, and simplicity of expression, since the func- ' tional systems responsible for such reactions are at least to some extent genetically predetermined. The gustatory-aversion reaction developed in 1955 L7], provides one such m~-.~ del. These researchers induced aversion to a saccharin solution by con- _ joining its ingestion with irradiation of the eaperimental animals with large doaes ; f ionizing radiation. The gustatory-aversion reaction was subsequently subjected to extensive study in nrder to find different methods for evoking it and to establish the mechanisms of its oentral organizatioa [8] . It was found that the procesaes underlying the formation and expres- sion of the gustatory-aversion reaction are most probably functions of the phylogenetically anciEnt guetatory viaceral syetem and require only minimum support from other cerebral centers. A number of data~ however, indicate that higher levels of the central nervous system participate in this reac- tion C9] . The great biological significance of the gustatory-aversion ~3 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404070031-6 - . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ reaction and its high induction rate ( 1-3 joint presentations of the con- ditioned sti.mulus and unconditioned reinforcement are adequate for 100~ fixation of the reaction) enable us to regard it as a phenomenon similar in its mechanisms to natural conditioned reflexes and enhance its value as a model for "transfer." A number of researchers [10, 11] have "trans- _ ferred" gtistatory-aversion reactions by ad~ninistering homogenized cerebral tissue from donor rats to intact animals. Ttie gustatory-aversion reaction was induced in the donors by conjoining ingestion of saccharin with ex- posure to ionizing radiation. The present investigation was conducted to determine whether it is possible to "transfer" a gustatory-aversion reaction induced pharmacologically by the cerebrospinal-fluid method, which is physiologically the most adequate technique and corresponds to a natural pathway for neuropeptide transport in the central nervous sys tem L 12, 13] . We employed the procedure described by Reinis tl] for induction of the aversion reaction. The donor rats were deprived of drinking water for 3 clays; they were permitted access 2o water for only 15 min per day, in special cages equipped with graduated waterers. On the fourth day, the animals were presented with 0.1~ saccharin solution instead of water (alsc for 15 min) and, after 30 min, they Faere injected intraperitoneally with - a 0.5 M LiCl solution in an amount equivalent to 2Z of body weight. A similar procedure was carried out on the sixth and ninth days. The aver- ~ sion reaction thus induced was found to have bean retained when the donor rats were tested 1.5 months after ita induction. The recipient rats were - also deprived of drinking water. These animals w~ere daily presented with their choice of two graduated waterers con~aining water and saccharin solu- tion (for 15 min). The amount of liquid drunk was precisely determined and only those animals that preferred the saccharin solution were selected. _ "Transfer" of cerebrospinal fluid from the donors to the recipients was carried out 9 days ~after induction of the aversion reaction in the donors, since this represented the optimum interval after 1007. fixation of the reaction in the donors CIS7. For this purpose,� 0.1 ml of cerebraspinal fluid drawn from the suboccipital cisterna was injected into the suboccipi- _ tal cisternae of the recipients. The operation was carried out under shallow ether anesthesia. The recipients were ther~ tested daily for 6 days. The rats in the two control groups w~ere subjected to the same conditions as the recipient anima3.s. After a stable saccharin--consumption background was established for the first group of animals, the intact rats were in- jected suboccipitally with cerebroapinal fluid and the amount of liquid ingested was observed for 6 days. The rats in the second control group were not i,nterfered with at all and we merely observed their saccharin and water consumption levels for 12 days. This period was divided into ~wo 6-day intervals and the saccharin-consumption levels for the first and second intervals were compared. ~ The experimental group consisted of 80 animals, 40 of which were donors and 40 recipients. The first control group consisted of 20 animals (ten 34 FOR OFFICIAL USE ~NLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400470031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY i ~ 11 6 ~10 Q 6 ~ . a 9 I w~0 ,L~ e � 'b ' ~ ~ ~ ' , ~ 7 � ' ~7 a 6 ~6 . u6 ~ ~S . 6 ps a ~y ~ 4 � I a ~3 01 y~ v' ~ . 1 1 p D ~ I Fig. 1. Consumption af saccharin solution (0.1~) in experimental and oontrol groups. I) Experimental group, recipients (n = 40) receiving subdural injection of cerebrospinal fluid (0.1 ml) from aversio~condi- tioned donors; II) first control group, recipients (n = 10) receiving subdural injection of cerebrospinal fluid from normal, non-aversion-condi- tioned rats; III) second control group, animals (n = 15) not given injec- tion of cerebrospinal. fluid; a) average amount of saccharin soZution con- sumed over 6 days prior to injection of donor cerebrospinal fluid (before "transfer") (I), injection of cerebrospinal fluid from norma:l animals (II), and midpoint of observation period (over first 6 days) (III); b) a~erage auqunt of same solution consumed after administration of donor cerebro- spinal fluid (after "transfer") (I)~ administration of cerebrospinal fluid from normal animals (II), and midpoint of observation period (over second 6 days) (III). ~ Fig. 2. Water consumption and total liquid consumption for animals in experimental group before (a) and after (b) subdural injection of cerebro- spinal fluid (0.1 �ml) from aversion-conditioned .donors. I) Average water consumption (over 6 days) by recipients (n = 40); II) aver--~ total fluid (water + saccharin solution) consumption (over 6 days) by r~ :ipients (n = 40). intact donors and ten recipients. The secotd control group consisted of 15 recipients. In addition to evaluating the amounts of saccharin con- = sumed by the recipients before and after "transfer" of cerebrospinal fluid, ~ we determined the amount of water drunk and the total atnount of liquid - inges ted . It can be seen from Fig. 1 that the recipiants exhibited a reliable reduc- zion in saccharin consumption (p ~ 0.05) as a result of administration of cerebrospinal fluid taken from a donor in which the aversion reaction had been induced. The control recipients that received cerebrospinal fluid from intact donors not only failed to display any decrease in saccharin consumption but even exhibited a slight rise. Saccharin consumption by 35 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the recipients in the second control group, which reflected the "sponta- neous" fluctuations over the 12-day test period, rose toward the end of this period. Water consumpti~n clearly inc'reased after the recipients - were given cerebrospinal fluid from donors with a pronounoed aversion reaction (p < 0.0.~), while the total amount af liquid consumed was not altered as a consequence of "tzansfer"~ (Fig. 2). - The data obtained enable us to draw the following conclusions. First of all, the reliable reduction in saccharin consumption by the recipients after administration of cerebrospinal fluid fsom donocs With a gustatory- aversion reaction prove~ the existence of direct "transfer" of gustatory- aversion reactions in rats. Secondly, the results of our investigation confinned earlier data on the role of the cerebrospinal fluid as the most important pathway for neuropeptide transport in the central nervous system [12, 131. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Reinis, S., ACTIV. NERVOSA SUPER., 1965, Vol 7, No 2, p 167. 'l. Babich, F.-R., Jacobson, A.L., Bubash, S. and Jacobson, A., SCIENCE, 1965, Vol 14 y, No 3684 , p 656. 3. Byrne, W.L. et al.~ SCIENCE, 1966, Vol 153, N~ 3736, p 658. - 4. Ungar, G., FIZIOL. CHELOVEKA, 1977, Vol 3, No 5, p 87. 5. Vartanyan, G.A. and Balabanov, Yu.V., BYUL. EKSPER. BIOL. I r~D., 1978, Vol 86, No 8, p 147. 6. She rstnev, V.V., Poletayev, A.B., and Dolgov, O.N., USP. FIZIOL. NAUR, 1979, Vol 10, No 3, p 66. 7. Garsia, J., Ki.meldorf, D.J. and Koelling, R.A., SCIENCE, 1955, Vol 122, p 157. 8. Rilley, A.L. and Baril, L.L., ANIMAL LEARNING AND aEHAVIOR, 1976, Vol 4, No 18, p 18. ' 9. Bures~ Ja. and Buresova, 0,~ "Mekh anizmy Upravleniya pamyat'yu" (Mechanisms of Memory Control), Leningrad, 1979. ~ 10. Moos, W.S., LeVan, H., Mason, B.T., Hebron, D.L. and Mason, H.C., EXPERIENTIA, 1969, Vol 25~ No 11, p 1~15. 11. Levan, H., Hebron, D.L., Moos, W.S., and 24ason, H.C., IBID., Val 26, No 6, p 648. 12. Vartanyan, G.A., "Vysshiye funktsii mozga v norme i patologii" (Higher 36 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R040400070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Cerebral Functions Under Normal And Pathological CcrJiitions), Leningrad, 1979, p 19. 13. Balabanov, Yu.V. and Varlinskaya, Ye.I., "Teoreticheskie osnovy ~ patologicheskikh sostoyaniy" (ThQOretical Principles of Pathological States), Leningrad, 1980, p 176. " 14. Aleksanyan, Z.A., Buresova, 0. and Bures, J., PHYSIOL. BEHAVIOR, 1976, Vol 17, p 173. 15. Ungar, G. and Irwin, L.N., NATURE, 1967, Vol 214, No SOt37, p 453. COPYKIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Nauka", "Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR", 1981 24 78 CSO: 184 0/335 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF PERCEPTION AND COGNITION Prague STUDIA PSYCHOLOGICA in Russian Vol 21, No 3, 1979 (manuscript received 9 Apr 79) pp 162-166 [Article by J. Radilova and T. Radil, Institute of Physiology, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague] ~ [Text] This work is concerned with the study in man of evoked potentials, in particular of P 300 waves, in response to visual stimuli. A technique was applied which allowed us ta sort into two groups and to average separately the evoked potentials in relation to how the stimulus was interp.reted; sub~ectively, correctly or incorrectly, with certainty or uncertainty, although the subject was incorrect objectively. The results point to the fact that given a correct response with subject~:ertainty, the _ amplitude of the P300 wave was greater in the majority of cases. Uncovering the nerve mechanisms involved in psychological p~ocesses and understanding th~ir conscious components is an important but extremely difficult task. It can be accomplished only by experimentation on human subjects. Modern electrophysiological, computing and experimental psycholagical approaches have apenedup new possibilities m~~11y in the field of objective analysis of inechanisms for perception and cognition (~?adil et al., 1979). However, in spite of the complex nature of the nerve processes involved, we should consider the impact of the stimulus effect. With this in mind, we can define accurately the temporal parameters of nerve processes which are the basis for perception and cognition. Therefor~, wP can detect the relationship between the processes, physiological correlates of which can be ~ecorded using electrophysiological ;~�~l otlter methods, and the psychic components about which it is possible to obtain in- form;~tion using experimental psychological methods. Based on natural scientific and phil.osophical points of view, is the that, despite all qualitative differences, we are not dealing with two parallei processes. Building on principles of dialectic- mat~~rialistic monism, we consider that the "neurophysiological" and "psychological" level~ of phenomena are only two aspects of complex activity in the neuronal networks, r.esPc~nsible for the entire complex process of perception and cognition. Therefore, we can suggest positively the causal relationships between simultaneously occurring physiological and psychic events during perception and cognition, despite the fact that these very methods of analysis provide us only with correlates for a certain tempc~ral congruence of processes. 38 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404070031-6 FOR OFFI('IA1. USF. ONLY A psychopl~ysiological approach to the study of information intake is considerably more complex than a neurophysiological one which deals only with the neuron~l mechanisms for coding and decoding and sometimes with motor reactions in response to stimuli. For analysis of information intake by man, it is necessary to bear in mind that during the process of indentification of a stimulus, results of perceptive and cognitive learning, the imprints of which are retained in memory, have a significant influence on a perception test. Moreover, identification depends on a specific per- ceptive-cognitive program which was created previously and also retained in memory. Thus, cognition depends to a significant degree on the nature of the perceptive- cognitive task presented to the subject by the investigator and formulated with re- lated psychological instructions. Without doubt, even in the case of physically identical stimuli, the quality of which in all likelihood is coded and decoded by identical neuronal mechanisms, this very identification can be altered fundamentally in relation to a change in the program for perception and cognition. It stands to reason that there is no place in this scheme for any kind of indeterminate phenomenon; reflection of the stimulus in the brain results from a complicated interaction between coclification and decodification mechanisms "proposed" and retained in different parts of inemory. Using this approach, we can show the effect of "internal dynamic functional structures" of perception and cognition on the basis of which cognition occurs. Un- dottbtedly, a similar structure has its own neuronal basis which can be studied success- fuLly usin~; objective approaches even though an important component of it is the con- scious-subjective process. This study is concerned with objective examination.of perceptive and cognitive processes related to consciousness. From the methodologic point of view, it is advantageous to construct an experimental situation, during which peripheral codification and decodi- - fication mechanisms, given repeating stimulation, are not altered. The sensory systems are usually studied in this way to analyze the differences in responses given the effect of different stimuli. With this approach, it is suggested that the internal state of the system does not change. However, this theory is npt only without foun- dation, but also changes in the internal state are the object of a special study. There- fore, it is important to maintain a constant quality of stimuli in any study on the nature of information intake. Furthermore, it is advantageous to create an experimen- tal situation during which the quantity of internal states of the interpreting system is wholely circumscribed. A final approach is the use of only two perceptive-cogni- tive states. This approach was used in our tests, described in this report. Given the presence of two internal perceptive-cognitive states, the possibility arises for classification of evoked electroencephalographic responses into two groups in re- lation to which perceptive-cogr.itive programs for the stimulus are perceived. It is important to note here that the stimulus is retained from the point of view of its own basic qualities. The evoked electroencephalographic responses are averaged into two unrelated groups; at the end of the test it is possible to compare the form of both evoked potentials. For this analysis, we used tlie technical apparatus shown in figure 1. It consisted of _ an LAB 8 computer and units of an SUP programmed apparatus. Each separate evoked potential was retained in the computor memory in a nonaveraged form prior to activa- tion of the sorting pragram which transmitted ?t to one of the two parts of the compu- - tor memory where a procedure far sorting was carried out within the framework of one or another group of evoked responses which corresponds to one or another perceptive- 39 FOR OFF(CIAL i1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPR~VED F~R RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000400070031-6 N'OR UF'NICIAI. USF~ ONLY - cognitive state of the subject. This system allowed us to overcome the problem of the latent period of the evoked potential which is significantly shorter than the latent period of the psychic process of cognition. AMDLIF, ~~W SUBJECT ~ DASS FILTER ~ ~ E ''~-s ANAIOG ~ ~ INPUT I ~ ~ L- SUD SORi BUiTONS lAB 8~E ~z: ~ race - DUNr�H ilT I~r I I....,in :,�~i,,,,� ~,~n ;i n, i,:~,~,,~r rn~,r c~ i.i~i~~r.~a;r,c: i,tu~u i:,~ .i .l.lh A, . ~.~,u ~~~~,~^+n~~,~~,.uurn ,~ii.~,in'ua ~`.'II i~ ~~p~~~!:iun~itn~:i� :i" Figure 1. Technical Apparatus which Consists of an LAB 8 Computer and Units of an SUP Programmed Apparatus and Projection Equipment _ 1n the above mentioned tests, both internal perceptive-cognitive states corresponded ~ to which stimuli were correctly or incorrect recognized (Radilova et al., 1979). _ This test represents a variant of a solution to the problem referred to in experi- mer.tal. psycholo~y by the name "7�2" (Miller, 1956). The essence of this problem ; consists of how much information can be absorbed in a parallel fashion by an individual. ~ In figure 2, a sample stimulus is shown. Using a projection .tachistoscope, randomly dis- Pnc. 2 flpur~ep cr~iH}�.~on. Figure 2. Sample of stimulus tribt~ted squaresWith surface dimensions of 3 x 3 cm were presented or~ a 48 x 31 cm screen. Similar pictures were used with 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 elements. The randomness ~>f ~I~cir distribution was limited by the fact that they could not be placed in the cen~~~r of the screen, thae is in the area of eye fixation and that thE: squares were never 40 FQR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 FOR OFMICIAL t1SE ONLY arranged in a row. The task of the subject who received related instructions was to determine the number of squares which appeared on the screen. The results were communicated to the investigator ;aho then pressed one of two buttons connecting the electrical charge of the evoked potential to one of two groups for averaging. Aftet an acoustical stimulus of a 20 ms duration, the shutter of the projection tachisto- scope was turned on. This length of projection time was adequate for completing of the task, but inadequate for scanning of the stimulus with saccaduc eye movement, Stimuli consisting of different distribution in space and number of squares were alternated in a random order. After classification of evoked potentials by the in- vestigator, sZides were alternated automatically in the projection tachistoscope. In one experimental series, 30 tests were conducted. The most constant components of evoked potentials were the primary positive component, the primary negative com- ponent and the latent positive component, manifested with a latent period of approxi- mately 300;ns (P 300 wave) (figure 3). We also found that the amplitude of the latent positive component was frequently higher when the task was completed correctly, that is, when th~e subject evaluated correctly the number of squares in the sti~ lus presented ~lll 70 percent of the tests). In 20 percent, no difference was detected, in 10 percent a difference in the reverse direction was detected. As the criterion for the difference in amplitude, we se.lected a difference exceeding 20 percent. In the second series of experiments, the criterion for classification was certainty or uncertainty of tlie subject as to whether he recognized correctly the number of squares in the stimuli. In this experiment, it was not important to determine ' whether or not the subject accomplished the task correctly. In other words, given certainty by the subject, the correct and incorrect responses were classif ied in the same group of evoked potentials and vice versa. The results were similar to those found in preceding tests. Given subject certaiii~y, the amplitude of the latent positive component (P 300) of averaged evoked responses was greater in the majority of cases. Similar results were found in experiments conducted in our laboratory (Grabowska et al., 1979) where sub~ects were given the task of identifying a very weakly illuminated series of 10 letters (A, B, C, E, F, L, 0, P, T, Z). Only one letter was shown on the screen for a period of 20 ms and the letters were alternated in random order. The criterion for classification was correctness of recognition. The form of the evoked response was distinct from the previous tests because threshold stimuli were used. Regardless of this, in the majority of cases, the amplitude of the latent ~ positive component was greater given correct cognition. Although interpretation of different components of evoked potentials is extremely complicated from the neurophysiological point of view, it is clear that different waves, including the latent positii~e wave (P 300) represent the summarized electrical phenomena originating in large numbers in neuronal element.s in time and in space. The increase in wave amplitude in the summarized evoked respunses signifies an increase in the quantity of neurons participating in a given phase of the process of percept~.on and cognition. Increase in the amplitude g~ven correct cognition and cognition with certainty of the subject about correctness of the solution could possibly be interpret~d as a consequence of the fact that, in the process of percep- tion, a large quantity of nerve elements are involved. The variation in number of 41 NOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 _ f~OR OFI~K'IAL USE ON1.Y t 2 I �f00 0 t00 700 S00 100mi t STIM. I'r.~. Y~rE~~~:~~icnri~,~e noTCtruu~ii~l :ISTb1.qU~lHUN nrin:~rri~ .1~iri,~nn~ia nunrti.i fi 300 npH - '1~`:Ilill.'ILIi~'M 0f109H3N1t3f (H~ 0'_'})XV) {I:lt'IfTL14~ . H~ I)C l"lNMy'.IUU. Figure 3. Evoked Potentials from the Occiput Region. Amplitude of the P 300 Wave was Greater given Correct Cognition (shown on top) of Identical Stimuli activated neurons in the course of the experiment is probably the cause (that is, the i~europl~ysiological basis) for variation in the level of stimulation--vigilance or attention. Thes~~ tests showed that the latent component of evoked electr~encephalographic 42 � - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R000440070031-6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY rctentals is the correlate of the psychic process related to cognition of visual stimuli. Similar types of tests can aid in uncovering the mechanism for activity of the nerve substrata in complex psychic processes involved in perception and cognition. - BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Grabowska, A., Radilova, J., Radil, T., Maras, L., "Letters recognition and evoked potentials," ACTIV. NERV. SUP., in press, 1979. 2. Miller, G.A., "The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information," PSYCHOL. REV., 1956, vol 63, p 81-. ~ 3. Radil, T., Radilova, J., Bohdanecka, Z., Indra, M., Lansky, P., Maras, L., "A system for psychophysiological correlation between subjective interpretation and bioelectric manifestations of visual stimuli," ACTIV. NERV. SUP., in press. (1979) 4. Radilova, J., Radil, T., Maras, L., "Detection of the number of stimuli and evoked potentials," ACTIV. PdERV. SUP., in press. (1979) COPYRIGHT: Unavailable 9139 CSO: 8144/1890 . 43 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000404070031-6 FOR OFFICIAI. USE UNLY UDC 621.391.19 - ABSTRACTS FROM THE BOOK 'DESCRIPTION AN~ RECOGNiTION OF OBJECTS IN ARTIFICIAL INTELI.ECT SYST~IS' Moscow OPISANIYE I RASPOZNAVANIYE OB"YEKTOV V SISTEMAKH ISKUSSTVENNOGO INTELLEKTA in Fussian 1980 (signed to press 30 Jun 80) pp 2-4, 135-137 [Annot~ition, f.oreword and abstracts from book "Description and Recognition of Objects in Artificial Intellect Systems", edited by Doctor of Medical Sciences V. S. Gurfinkel' and Candidate of Technical Sciences V. S. Fayn, Institute of I'roblems of Information Transmission, USSR Academy of Sciences, I~datel'stvo "Nauka", 2300 copies, 137 pages] ['1'ext] This collectic~n includes articles that refer to the following three pro- t~lE~ms: mathematical modeling of variability in a number of objects which are of ~~r,~tical importance (speech process, certain types of images, etc.), use of , ~nzttiematical methods in medicine, and certain aspects of voice control of a cumputer in man-machine systems. lt is designed for specialists in the field of artificial intellect, pattern recog- nitiou and in related fields. Fo rcrword 'I'ime }ias made noticFable corrections in the interpretation of the problem of pattern recognition, and in the understanding of its essence and place in modern scientific and t~chnical knowledge. One of the primary manifestations of this development is the clearer realization th;at rlie t.isk of st-ric�t rc~cn~;ciition is secondary in a certain sense in relation to ~~n~~~hc~r trisk, n~~mc~ly. dete~~~ion and descrirtion of. the essence of variability in _ tlie r~~co~;nized objc~ct. In all thuse cases where the essence of variability has heen wc~ll studied, or~anization oF the recognition process on its basis has alrc~.~~l}~ 1>een suffici~~ntl.y investigated. Construction of a description of variabi- lity :~lso has value independent of recognition, since th~s affords a solution to another problem in the field of artificial intellect, namely, artificial generation of ch~n~es in the object (design, speech synthesis, automatic multiplication, etc.). All ~f ti~is iias res~~lted in tl~e appearance in recent years of a large number of w~rt:s :~i1 mathem~itic~il modelin~; of the laws governing a certain variabl.e phenomenon ~~r ~~hjt~ct. This trc>nd also appears in this callection: the articles of Ye. F. Yurkov and V. S. Na~;~r.nov, A. S. Omel'chenko and V. S..Fayn, Ye. P. Ponomarev 44 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000400070031-6 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004400070031-6 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY and Yu. N. Prokhorov, V. N. Sorokin,and A. P. Vaynshtok treat a search for descriptions of the laws which characterize the variability of objects in diverse, practically important taslcs. Detection c~f the essence of variability or its ties to externally observed charac- teri.stics of an object is unfortunately a very difficult problem which cannot - always be resolved even today. A classic example of this type is the problem of _ seismic prediction or zoning. The tasks of inedical diagnosis which are also exceptionally difficult are no less urgent. However, the urgent need for their resolution is a powerful stimulus for the application of new efforts. In this collection, these tasks are covered by the articles of A. M. Alekeseyevskaya and V. S. Pereverzyev~-Or1ov~P. Ye. Kunin and V. P. Karp, and Yu. B. Fogel'son. Yet another problem of artificial intellect which is covered in the collection is orKanization of dialo~ue in the man-machine system. One of the inethods of satisfyin~ the reqtiirement for maximum comfort ~nd natural functioning of man in this5ystem i5 to giv~~themachine the capability of understanding commands given by vaice. Studies which have already been made in this area for a number of years are represented by the articles of S. N. Krinov, V. P. Savel'yev, G. I. Tsemel', as well as A. V. Vasil'yev, S. S. Raksheyev and V. M. Chizhkov, and S. M. Shevenko. The originality of the suggested methods and urgency of the ropics raised will be oF uncioubted int~rest to specialists in the field of pattern recognition and prediction. UDC 621.391 FINDLNG THE F.MPIRICAL RELATIONSHIP USING ONE-DIMFNSIONAL FUNCTIONS [Abstr