Document Type: 
Document Number (FOIA) /ESDN (CREST): 
Release Decision: 
Original Classification: 
Document Page Count: 
Document Creation Date: 
November 1, 2016
Sequence Number: 
Case Number: 
Content Type: 
PDF icon CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8.pdf5.42 MB
APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY JPRS L/10273 22 January 1982 - U SSR R~ ort p a CYBERNETICS, COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY - CFOUO 1 /82) ~ FBIS FOREIGN ~ROADCAST IN~ORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICiAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, pe~iodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language soui:ces are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other char~cteristics retained. Headlines, editorial reports, and material enclosed in brackets are supplied by JPRS. Processing indicators such as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the _ last line of a briPf, indicate how the original information was processed. Where no processing in~icator is given, the infor- mation was summarized or extracted. Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names prec?ded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in context. Other unattributed parenthetical notes with in the body of an item originate with the source. Times within items are as given by source. The contents of this publicati~n in no way represent the poli- - cies, views or attitudes of the U.S. Government. COPYRIGEIT LAWS AND REGULATIONS GOVERI~ING OWDIERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PL'LLICATION BE RESTRICTED FOR OFI'ICIAL USE ONI,Y. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420042-8 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10273 22 ,7anuary 1982 USSR REPORT CYBERNETICS, COMPUTERS AND AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY ~ (~'ou0 1/8 2 ~ i CONTENTS ~t~w~tF SM-2M Master Computer Complex 1 Selection of Structure of One Claas of Threshold Element Memories. 3 Device for Measuring Steady-State Parameters of MIS LSI-Circuit Components 7 Pulse-~Sequence Phase-Shift Indicator 10 Special-Purpose Pi�~r_essor for Rapid Fourier Tran~rorm 13 Deaigning Special-Purpose Microprocessor Cotr~pute~s 16 Image-Comparison Processor 21 4K Memory Unit Based 1Jpon Plane Magnetic Domains 23 SOFTWAFiE - F~KAL-1975 Algorithmic Language Interpreter for SARATOV-2 ~~mputer 76 APPLICATIONS Automation of Scientific Research xn Geophyaics 31 Microproceasore in Control Systema ot Electric Traction Devices 47 - Regulating Subway Train Travel ?ime Microcomputers 49 Searching for Fragments of Section Mnemonic Circuit Uaing a Microcalcul.ator 52 Reconatructing Hexapod Gaita 57 - a- [III - USSR - 27.C S&T FOUO] F~R (1FFir?AT ifcF (1NT V APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020042-8 FIIRLICATIONS Modeling and Optimizing Complex Control Syetema 68 _ Deaign of Coxnputer Input/Output Syst~ms ......................e.o. 73 Hilbert Optics 76 Abatracts of Articles in Journal 'AUTOMATIC EQUIPMENT AND COMPUTF,RS', September-October 1981 ..........................o.. 79 Abstracts of Articlea in 'ELECTRONIC MODRLING', November- December 1981 85 ~ - b - FOR OFFICIAL iJSE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - HARDWARE SM-2M MA~TER COMPiITER COMPLEX Kiev ELEKTRONNOYE MODELIROVANIYE in RuSSian No 6, Nov-Dec 81 inside fronf ccver _ "C 5'~' ~ _ bz' . ~ f~~ faq~ , ..A33: : /i 1;_ i d=~". z~ a. ~ p c'~+ ~ kc- . a @ , _ M~Y;~s. _ 1 r. ' ~ , y ~'s y` t ' ~ n ~ ~ , i ~ ,y}~~ 7 1 i' - 8� t -a ~ _ pU ~~y ~~~41 ~;>.L, N~>N), which contains a set of L patterns divisible by one hypersurface into two classes in the presence of any 2L combinations of unidimensional vectors of teacher statement e. It . follows from this that the structure of a su~eroperational memory must always contain a vector code converter traiisforming x into x~. ~'rom 4 to 16 information words are usually written fc,r a superoperational memory with _ ca~~acity L. Therefore we can always obtain a secondary space X~in which there are I, vectors x~, divisible by one linear surface no matter what their distribution, as we can see below. A superoperational memory wou~d best consist of a digit recogni- ~ tion system composed of one logical threshold element having the capacit1~ fo.r learning in responsP to inputs during formation of the optimum hypersurface, which is a function _ of the memory. The output signal of the logical threshold element is defined as the sum of the products of the unity digits of the code of vector x~ times the weight coefficients ai of the corresponding inputs (1)--that is, by the size of the logical threshold clement's input, N' ~ a~z~, t-= ~ where i= 1,2,...,N~. In this case the threshold ~ for a learning threshold clement must be chosen in reiation to the initial values of the weight factors a ~ i~i su~h a way as to satisfy the following conditions: N' Xk = 1~ li ~ u~X~ ~l e~ - l=1 . N~ Xk = 0~ l~ ~ aixt n~pa: ator for comparing pulse durations, as a component of a direct--convers:ic;n ~~i~~~se n~et,~r ancl, given a channel-forming capability, for recording phase sYiifts in any i ~~riu oC ~cri~~dic c~sci.llation. 7'h~~ autiiurs ttave fabricated a working model of the phase-shift indicator, which has been tested on a YeS5012-01 MTS unit. It has been employed to make preventive checks and ad-- just r.he azimuth of a magnetic head unit and to test and compensate for phase shitt dur- ~ inc; "record" and "playback" operations. The experimentally established reso]ution of a ~l~~vice incorporaLiug series-15~i microcircuits does not exceed 40 ns, that is, less than ~.t a frequency of MTS timing-pulse sequence of 64 kHz. - BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. GOS'f 14287-69. "Magnetic-Tape Storage for Computers. Test Methads." ~!} , Tt~us stored in memory is a rectangular matrix with dimensions M X n. The columns of tt~is matrix are then rearranged in accordance with the rule of the double inversion of tt~eir numbers, that is, to a mirror image with respect to the mean matrix vertical, and n~w index values calculated as binary sums n J = ~ k~ ? ~ , ~.r - wf~ere kj i5 the value of the ~-th order of the number of the transformed matrix. Acldresses are then, finally, assigned to the elements of the input block in accordance with the principle of indirect addressing ~(i) = Z~~) , t = 1,2,... ~M , ~ 13 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420042-8 FOR OFFIC'IAL USE S)NLY where 7- an unordered array of ?ourier coefficients, an ordered array of these coefficients. 1'I~ i:~ a 1~;or. ithm suf fers the drawbacks of large memory consumption (both matr~ces occupy a~~olume oF M X n cells each) and the extended time required to genera~.e ttiese matrices. '..~e proposed method of ordering coefficients is free of these shortcomings; it req~~ires Lh~:~ a secondary array of numbers be Lound of the dimensions M X 1. This permits a s;t~at reduction in the storage required and an acceleration of the sortin~ process, wl~ich cvntributes greatly to accelerating accomplishment of the taslc ~F determining tiie sE~ectrum of a signal as a whole. 'i'lie al borii:hm f~r processor operation consists essentially in the follo~a~n~. A reference block x(1) = 0, x(2) =2, x(J) =1 , z(4)=3 is writ~en i.nto memory. The first four elements of the secondary block (ordinal numbers u1- the ~lesired block) are determined as follows: cn-z) Z(f ) = x(i)2 ~ wlierr: t= I,2~3,4; n= tog= M (for a specific M) . The next element of ~he secendary b.loclc i:~ ti~en analyzed: Z~/7')r? ~ =P~n-3) s N;i;~~:-c m- number in sequence of the element of the secondary block ( m= St6,~..r~)9 j- t.he number of the secondary block element under analysis among the block elem:-.nts !inder analysis. Let us now look at two cases. the remaining elements of the secondary bloclc aze obtained by ad- ci:in~; ~o each preceding element of the secondary block, beginning with the second, the uni_ts: Z(m�l)=1(1; f)+l,t (m+7~= Z(3, f~+l,...,t(2m-2)=Z(m-!,~)+1 . Ij Z(m,j)=Nf1 , then to each preceding element of the secondary block, beginning with the second, we add the number N: i(m+J)=Z(2,~)+N, I(m+2) = Z(J, j)+N,... ~ t(2m-2)= Z(m-l,?)~~ ' ~ncl a~ain analyze the following element of the secondary block (its number among the ~~lc~~ucnts analyzed will be j+l, while among the elements of the secondary block fol].ow- ing in order it will be 2in - 2+ I= 2 m- I.) . '1'he Cormula used to analyze Chis element is as follows: I(m,J) ~1~ I (2m -1, f+l) = 2 . It tliis analyzed element equals 1, case a) is repeated and computation of tl~e elements _ 14 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR OFb'1('IA1. USH: ON1.Y � of the secondary block discontinued, fo].lowing which we make the next assignment (ordering): y(~) ==x(Z(~)) , ~2) x-- initial block, y- the unknown block and I,2,3,,..,,~/~ If the analyzed element is not equal to 1, however, we repeat case b). The analyzed element is then computed in accordance with formula 1. The analysis continues until the analyzed element does not equal 1. We then repeat variant a) and assign in accor- dance kith (2) . - The figure is a structural diagram of the proces- from rapid Fourier trans- sor performing these operations. Its_operation form processor consists in the following. At a signal from the control unit (1) the reference b~ock YY Mn 3YS x~~)=0, x(2)=2 , z(3)=1 , z(~i)=3 � ' (1) (4) (3) is written into memory (2). The nonordered coef- 3v~ (2) ficients are transferred to the memory of the spe- cial processor (3Y2) [as published; possi~ly (3) - in diagramj from the processor realizing the rapid Fourier transform of the signal. The control unit transmits the signal to begin operation and controls the operation of the microprocessor (4) in accordance with the algorithm presented above. The Fourier coefficients are then ordered as follows: - y~~)=~~Z(i)) ~ i =1,2,3,... , M . , COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo Leningradskogo universiteta, 1981 ~ ~3963 CSO: 1863/4'L - 15 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR ON'NI~C'IAL USE ONLY - UDC 681.3 s DESIGNING SPECIAL-PURPOSE MICROPROCESSOR COMPUTERS Moscow PROYEKTIROVANIYE SPETSIALIZIROVANNYKH MIKROPROTSESSORNYKH VYCHISLl'TEL~;I' in Rus- sian 1931 (signed to press 13 Apr 81) pp 2-8, 160-161 [Annotation, introduction and table of contents from book "Special-Purpose Microproces- sur Computer Design", by Yuriy Fedorovich Mukhopad, USSR Academy of Sciences, ~iberi.,.~n Divi.sion, ]:zdatel'stvo "Nauka", 45Q0 copies, 161 pages] [Text] 'This work deals with theoretical and engineering problems associated with the . design of computers with a specific functional algorithm. A unified LSI circuit or IC micro-assemblies are the components of execution. The book establishes applicability , for processing information on high-speed processes, real-time production control, signal filtering and erihancing the productivity of general-purpose computers. - The book is intended for specialists in the fields of computer science and cybernetics - and could also be useful to graduate students as well as students in upper-level courses. Introduction An orientation toward raising the qualitative level of the planned development of vari- ous branches of socialist industry, increasing the degree of aut-omation and the achieve- ment of higher levels of efficiency [1] dictates a comprehensive, integrated development of computer technology, which is governed not only by the quantity of general-purpose r_omputers and their accompanying software, but also by the availability of microproces- sor systems for computer information input and output and by the development of special- purpose computer equipment and systems. PreSC~nt-day high-productivity computer systems incorporate 4-6 general-purpose proces- _ :;c~r5 and 12-20 special-purpose processors [2] to control information input and output, ~~l.ottcr.s, displays, "automatic" text editors [3], automatic readers etc. On the ot]ier I~c:ncl, tt~e clevelopment of powerful associative information-processing systems confronts - cic~:;if;n~rs with the necessit~~ of creating an homogeneous optoelectronic system, each com- ponent of which should essentially play the role of a special-purpose processor. Tl~e em~~loyment of special-purpose computers and systems is also dictated by the need to Systems ~or r~al-time control of Caciliti~s and proce.sses, where even with the u5c e~~ 5pc~cial programs the use of general-purpose microprocessors would be impossible because of the requirements for high operating speeds and, at times, for reliability, size and availability as well. In these systems, microprocessors may play the auxil- iary role of an advanced arithmetic-logic unit, although simultaneously with the in- corporation of parallel systems for high-speed execution of special functions, high- speed execution of multiplication operations, special interfaces and control devices [4]. 16 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420042-8 FOR OFFICIAI. USE (~NI.Y 't'li~~ ,~vriilrihilicy c>f rnlcr~~c'.c~~~tr~~nLc I.S1 circuita for workinfi ~ncl permr~nent stora~e, - ~~ro~;ranur~ecl .logtc matrices,, analog-digital converters `te. has made it possibi.e to develop specialized computer hardware and systems with higl: levels of ~~.andardization, while at the same time maintaining an effectiv~ prob?em or.ientation ris dictated by a particular sphere of application and requirements for specific fea- ~ tures (5]. Tl~e trend toward specialization has also emerged in consequence of the fact that the increasing degree of component integration poses the problem of optimizing the correla- tioi~ of SoLtware programs and hardware and permits a number of subsystems (emulators, translators etc.) to be fabricated in the form of special-purpose LSI-circuits. ~ Many tasks in the sphe:es of management and control require no calculi*ions with accu- racies greater than 0.1-0.5 per cent because of inaccurate raw information or error characteristic of tre particular contr.ol servo components involved. A relay or analog- digital system functionally equivaleiit to the program as compiled, the general-purpose structure and its execution proves in this instance to be operationally faster and more reliable (above a11 Uecause of the smaller number of components). The need to search for a more generalized structure for computer hardware without lean- inp, upon ~eneral-purpose digital-con.puter structure has also arisen with the development ot analog-diRital devices and their incorporation of the sequential principle of opera- t:ion. This trend has now made its appearance in the specialized sphere of. analog-to- cl:i~ital information conversion, what with the fact that with coding comes the combina- tion of the analog and digital noise-smoothing functi.ons, functional scaling, informa- tion storage etc. The use of functional converters (b oth a:~alog and digitaZ) in analog-digital and special- purpose devices eliminates the necessity of indicating the operation code, it being in this instance sufficient to indicate only the fact of access to the functional converter. A Pundamental change is taking place in conception of the inter-relationship between converters and memory. In place of the traditional sequence of AU-ZU-AU [arithmetical iinit-memory-arithmetical unit] transfers, the system now under discussion requires only tt~at we insure the proper transfer of information between functional converters with storage of only a very limited num~~er of intermediate results. Tt~e cunc~pt "~omputer system" today is probably as broad as that of "computer hardware." As annl~ed to microel.ectror'.c equipment this term may be understood to re~er to multi- processor compu~er. systems ~particularly those combining 4, 8, 16 or more microproces- ~~~r.s) witli parallel computers or a system of digital and analog hardware including _ mi~r.oe.lectronic versions of analog-code and code-analog converters, a microprocessor, working and permanent storage, an input/output control system and special units con- trolling the operation of the system as a whole. Aclvances in the field of microelectronics permit utilization of the primarily hardware rc~alization by virtue of the low co st, small dimensions and reliability with a compara- tive].y complex circuit in a single crystal. This book therefore deals primarily not wilV~ ~~r.oblems in programming serial microprocessors in special-purpose ~ystems, but rather with those involving the development of a system of devices employing a variety of microelecLronic LSI-circuits, the principles governing optimum design of .functional ex1>~.inclc~rs Cur microprucessor systems and with problems in the design of control devices for special-purpose microprocessor systems. We wi11 be using the term "computer" to refer to a physical device consisting of informa- tion cc~nverters linked in a space-time relationship and realizing its functional purpose 17 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024442-8 I~OR nb'b'1('IAL [l~H: ONI.Y ul inlurwu~ic~u pruces5ln~; thruugh sec~uential m~vement of input information toward out- ,~ut ce~rmin~zis via converters with switching of coz~verter functions if part of them can hc~ set to p~rform a certain set of elementary conversions. c.:,uu~u~er must obviously consist of at least two basic units. A device consisting of _ ocily a single unit would be simply an el~mentuM J _ ~ ll ~ ~ N ~ _ \ ~ s ~ 4 ~;,~�~~~,~~a ~ cG, ~ ~r Oii.;i.~ucc~a /~duonam,ar~~o co~nr.~yNN!% ~rui~~iy~n (6~ ' ' h'a~vuc~turnc,anN,~n ' ' I ~ " I I Cu~://.'L'~'14,~ ~~t?-' ~ ~8~ ~~~~b,x A/~xu~1(7) ~ - ~ BHeu~~i�r. (9) no~a.~a~lam.ou _ (10) ~je.r.~;~~ra~u~ aud~,~daaie~'a _ ~ Figure 4. Data Gathering and Display System Key: 1. Sensors on satellites 6. Radio patrol 2. Ground sensors 7. Archives 3. MIM magnetometers 8. Data base computer system 4. Optical solar patrol 9. External users 5. Communications systems 10. Duty observer programming language. The third computer is compatible in language and data for- mats with the NOVA-1200 minicomputer, but has expanded arithmetic due to realiza- tion of operations with floating decimal by the schematic method, higher speed, larger internal storage and a large set of information display devices. This com- " puter is designed �or organizing work by different users with the data base. It is used to display information on displays, to print tables, to display informa- tion in graphical form and also to print out information to remote users over - communications channels. Communications with a large computer system based on computers of CDC 6600 type are maintained through a third computer. 38 FOR OFFICiAL US~ ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The entire system functions in the following manner. Information on different communications channels comes into the system in real time. After preliminary processing, the information is fed to a data base (BD) and is simultaneously re- corded on magnetic tape in the data archives. A specific lifetim~e of the data in the data base, during which data can be obtained operationally both directly in the forecasting center and over commurications channels, has been established for each type of data. The one-minute values of data are usually stored for four days and five-minute and higher values are stored for one calenda:r month. At the end of this deadline, ~he data can be obtained only through the archiv~s with a time de- lay. Fc~rmats for printing out data and methocis of data ciisplay on paper, teletype, on a display screen and so on have been developed for all types of data. Structure of the system for automation of scientific research at the Arctic Geo- physical Tnstitute. Taking the specifics of geophysical research, the experience of developing experimental and geophysical information gathering and processing systems and recommendations of the Council on Automation attached to Presidium of ,k the USSR Academy of Sciences into account [17), a project for automation of scien- tific research was developed at the Arctic GeophyGical Institute, Itola Branch, USSR Academy of Sciences. Selection of the structure ~f the automation system for PGI - [Arctic Geophysical Institute) is related to the configuration for location of automatic facilities. The geophysical observatories and observation stations of PGZ are located tens and hundreds of kilometers from each other and from the re- gional center. A subsystem consisting of ineasuring-comput~r complex designed for - gathering, preliminary processing and display of recorded information in real time, has been established at each observatory and complex observation station due to ' the absences of special communications equipment between these stations to transmit digital information at a high speed. Operational information is transmitted over a standard telegraph subscriber channel (AT) to the regional geophysical data center upon the initiative of the regional center. The main volume of geophysical data comes into the data base of the subsystem on magnetic disks and is recorded on magnetic tape. The entire volume of data is transmitted to the regional center by transmission of magnetic tape during specific periods. Each informatidn gathering subsystem can store all the data on magnetic tapes (the subsystem archive) and has - operational access to the data base of the subsystem, the period of data storage to which comprises one week (a di.fferent storage period can also be selected). Thus, the researcher, being in the observatory or at the observation station, ha~ the capability ot analyzing the data coming in both in real time and all the data received up to this moment of time. Any data stored in the subsystem can be trans- mitteci operationally from the regional center when required and the amount of data is limited only by the carrying capacity of the telegraph channel. Thus, for ex- amPle, the telegraph channel must be occupied for one minute to transmit the minute values of the hourly interval of a sinqle magnetic field component; the daily in- terval is transmitted within 24 minutes and so on. Instructions to convert the s~ibsystems to other information gathering modes and to transmit them to the re- glonal center can be transmitted to the aubsystems over the same channel at the of the regional center. There is also the capability of transmitting i.nformation from a central data base upon the initiative of the subsystem, but the pz~iority of communications remains with the regional center. A version of service azid scientific information exchange is possible between subsystems over the same subscri.ber telephone channel. It is desirable to have two subscriber telegraph char~nels in each subsystem but this is not obligatory. 39 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 - FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY The regional center is constructed on the basis of a multiprocessor complex joined by means of a standardized information exchange mainline where all machines play the part of equivalent partners. The regional cer.ter has minicomputers to provide communications with subsystems over s ubscriber telegraph, ;ninicomputers with ex- ~ernal magnetic disk and magnetic tape storage for organization of the data ar- chive and the central data base (TsB), minicomputers for deco ding and processing of telemetry information coming from drifting ballaons and satellites and also to digitize and enter information into the central data base from autonomous informa- tion recording devices and other digit al devices (for example, digitizers or de- vices for reading information from movie film) and medium- or high-productivity computers to carry out calculating operations on data, for numerical modelling and for working in a collective-use system and so on. The regional center should have good information display equipment both in alphanumeric and in graphical displays, on graph plotters and on digital printers. - The hardware of the system. A survey o f existing systems for automation of exper- imental information gathering showed tYiat apparatus in the CAMAC standard is most promising and simplest to use for these purposes. Taking the reqnirements pZaced on the experimental information gathe r ing and processing system into account, ser- ially standardized measuring-compute r complexes (IVK-1 and IVK-2), which contain _ a full set of minicomputers of the SM- 3 or SM-4 type and appa ratus in CAMAC stan- dard already integrated with computers , were developed and produced [18]. Soft- ware which consists of the following parts is delivered together with the complex: papertape operating system (PLOS) ; disk operating system (DOS) with r^ortran-IV, Assembler and Macroassembler programming languages; real-time disk operatin.g system (DOS RV) with program preparation in Assem- bler, Macroassembler, Fortran-IV and real-time Fortran and so on; s~ftware for access to CAMAC modul es. A typical CAMAC crate contains the fol lowing functional modules: input register (type 305) that pe rmits entry of digital information in paral- ' lel code; ~utput register (type 350) that permits output of digital information to any device; analog-digital converter (type 71 1) for entry of analog information into the complex; digital-analog converter 2TsAP10 for output of information in analog farm, for example, on a graph plotter or automatic recorder; teletype interface (type 500A) wh i ch can be used to transmit information over - subscriber telegraph lines; 40 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY relay multiplxer (type 750) for connection of several analog signals to the analog-digital converter; pulse counter (type 401) ; timing pulse generator or timer and s~ on. Moreover, several hundred different modules which can be used in any system have al- ready been developed in the C'.AMAC standard. The given set of modules satisfies most requirements on information converters to digital form in geophysical investigations. Thus, an infoxmation-computer complex af type IVK-1 or IVK-2 is selected at observatories and observation stations as the basis of the data qathering subsystems. The difference of these two complexes in- Cludes different productivity of the processors. The structure of the information gathering, preliminary processing and display sub- system is shown in Figure 5. The geophysical information sensors are connected through CAMAC models. The additional external devices not contained in the IVK set are connected by special modules. The subsystem is joined to the subscriber tele- graph ch~nn~l by an integration module. Two magnetic tape stoYas (I~Il~+IL) and an ad- diti~nal magnetic disk store are connected to the complex in addition to the mag- netic disk store (NMD). One (or several) microcomputez of the Elektronika-60 type, us ed as a specialprocessor to calculate statistical and spectral characteris- tics of geophysical processes, is connected by the CAMAC apparatus to expand the calculating capabilities of the complex. Incoming data are recorded on magnetic tape fo r subsequent transmission to the regional center and on magnetic disk for transmi ssion to the data base of the subsystem (BD). The data stored on aisk are access ible for operational ~eview. The data storage in the data base com- prises no more than one week. The subsystem has the capability of reviewing the information data available in the base simultaneously with information gathering and also of displaying the information in the form of graphs on a graph plotter or graph display (if it is available). Moreover, information about current time and the state Qf the system is shown on the duty operator's display and instructions to the operator can essentially be issued. A block diagram of a regional center is shown in Figure 6. According to the se- lected structure, the regional center consists of four subsystems joined to each other by a machine-independent standardized mainline exchange system (UMSO) con- trolle d by a communications processor KP. The first subsystem based on the IVK-1 is used to organize communications and information reception from the information gathe ring and preliminary processing subsystems. It also exchanges information - with all remote users. The second subsystem based on the IVK-2 is used for entry and preliminary processing of telemetry information through the telemetry informa- tion decoder (URTI), for processing geophysical information recorded on a slow analog tape recorder, to digitize ONCh signals, for digitization ar~d preliminary proces sing of information presented on movie film and so on. The second subsystem has a d irect communications channel with the telemetry information receiving sta- tion from satellites in order to process the signal during reception of the in- format ion. Installation of a minicomputer directly at the satellite information 41 FOR OF~FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - !lr~iiivi~~u(i) ~ /~R~~~ 3 60 - ~3 d~eu l(AMAI( (4) AT NMA ~ 5I . ~eyama 6~ HMA 5) CM_3 ,QuG- ( ) . _ n~ev 3 _ (7) - Hl'1~1 NMQ Figure 5. Structure of Real-Time Data Gathering Subsystem Key: 1. Sensors 5. Magnetic tape store 2. Graph 6. Printout 3. Display 7. Magnetic disk store 4. CAMAC receiving station is plannec3 in the future. The third subsystem based on a mini- _ computer of type SM-1 and graph display (SIGDA) permits the investigator to work with data presented in graph form. As shown ~y practice, the effectiveness of analyzing the resul.ts increases when it is displayed in graph form. Historical data obtained as a result of information processing was initially presented on a digital printer and was then constructed manually and then evaluated. Graph plot- ters then appeared. Graph displays which in combination with a computer with suf- ficiently high speed display graphical information are now used extensively and they can be controlled by the operator by means of a keyboard and light pen. The required information is fixed on the graph plotters after review and correction of the data received. The fourth subsystem is based on the M-4030 ASVT and is the main computer equipment of the regional geophysical information gathering, proces- sing, storaqe and display center. Besides stationary observation stations and observatories, geophysical observa- tions ar~ also made under temporary field and expeditionary conditions and also in - difficultly accessible locations where there is no possibility of installing auto- mated information gathering subsystem. Autonomous magnetic tape geophysical infor- mation recorders have been developed for these purposes jointly with the Institu~e of Physics of the Earth, USSR Academy of Sciences [2]. There are two essentially 42 FOR OFFICIAL U5E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL~' different methods of recording information on magnetic tape. These are recording an analog signal directly and using different methods of modulation without time quantification and recording information in digital form. Both these methods have their advantages and disadvantages. The greatest density of information recordirig is achieved when an analog signal is recorded on magnetic tape and as a result longer recording is possible. The accuracy of recording and time resolution can be regulated during digitization and processing of the information. The record- ing tape recorder is simpler in mechanical design and electronic circuits and is . more reliable. The disadvantage is that a rather complex information digitizing and computer entry device is required. Digital recording of information has the advantage that it is easier to enter into the computer for processing and no spe- _ cial input devices are required when information is recorded on magnetic tape in a computer standard= a magnetic tape cassette need only be installed on a standard magnetic disk store contained in the computer. The disadvantage of digital tape recorders is the great complexity of the mechanical and electronic units and the fact that accuracy and time resolution are limited by the selected quantification during recording. Both directions are used at PGI in developing autonomous geo- physical information recorders. A description of a slow analog tape recorder (MAM) and digital step tape recorder (TsShNML) is given in [2]. AT! NBK-I CN-1 Guzd~ (1) AT? l11 (3 ) yMCO ' OHy NBlf 3 -60 3-60 f11 p ~ MAM AGBT T M - 4U30 N ~ Tcnenc pua / ' /1Pae~~a~iV ny~,rm i7c~eryempuu ~ 3 ~ Figure 6. Structure of Regional Center Key . _ 1. SIGDA 3. Telemetry receiving station Telemetry A ~roject to automate the geophysical research of PGI is in the realizatio n stage. A real-time data gathering and processing sys~em based on the Nairi computer, on 43 _ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLX APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407102/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY which geoptiysical data processing algorithms are being completed, is undergoing experimental operation. A gathering subsystem based on the measuring-computer complex IVK-1 is now being developed. An M-4030 ASVT--the main computer device of the future regional center--was installed in 1978. A telemetry information decod- ing device (URTI) operatES in combination with the M-4030 ASVT [19]. Methodical investigations are being conducted on digitization and spectral-time analysis of oNCh-signals [20]. A new camera has been developed for photographing the aurora borealis with regard to further processing of information from movie film in an information digitization and input system to a computer (21]. Development and introduction of automation systems in planned in stages by the de- gree of readiness of the type of observation for entry and processing of data in real time in the gathering subsystem. Existing systems wRll be modernized by evo- lution, parallel with the new system being developed prior to its being put into operation and information will be processed in the old system. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Ostapenko, A. A. and V. S. Smirnov, "M~odelling of Electromagnetic Processes in the Auroral Ionosphere by t}ie Numerical Modelling Method," this collection. 2. Deryabin, V. M., B. N. Kazak, V. I. Makarov et al, "Autonomous Geophysical Information Recorders Based on Magnetic Carrier," this collection. 3. Yakubaytis, E. A., "Collective-Use Computer Centers," in "Struktura, tekhni- cheskiye sredstva i organizatsiya sistem avtomatizatsii nauchnykh issledovaniy" [The Structure, Hardware and Organization of Systems for Automation of Scien- tific ResearchJ, Proceedings of the lOth All-Union School for Automation of Scientific Research, Lenlr.gra, Izd-vo LIYaF, 1977. 4. Ryabov, Yu. F., "Multimachine Systems of the L~eninqrad Institute of Nuclear Physics imeni B. P. Konstantinov, USSR Academy of Sciences," in "Struktura, tekhnicheskiye sredstva i organizatsiya ~istem avtamatizatsii nauchnykh issled- ovaniy , Proceedings of the lOth All-Union School for Automation of Scientific Research, Leningrad, Izd-vo LIYaF, 1977. 5. Kutsenko, A. V., Phases in Development of the Minicomputer Network of the Physics Institute�imeni O. Yu. Schmidt, USSR Academy of Sciences" in "Struk- tura, tekhnicheskiye sredstva i organizatsiya sistem avtomatizatsii nauchnykh issledovaniy", Proceedings of the lOth All-Union School for Automation of Scientific Research, Leningrad, Izd-vo LIYaF, 1977. 6. Kutsenko, A. V., "MOdel of System for Complex Automation of Large Research In- stallations Based on a Minicomputer Network;" in "Sistemy avtomatizatsii nauchnykh issledovaniy i ikh programmnoye obespecheniye" [Systems for Automa- tion of Scientific Research and Their SoftwareJ (Transactions of FIAN, Vol 112), Moscow, Nauka, 1979. 7. Basov, N. G., O. N. Krokhin, A. V. Kutsenko et al, "Multimachine System for Automation of Powerful Laser Installation Del'fin to Investigate Th~rmonuclear 44 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020042-8 HOR QFFICIAL USF ONLY Fusion (Draft)," in "Sistemy avtomatizatsii nauchnykh issledovaniy i ikh pro- grammnoye obespecheniye" (Transactions of FIAN, Vol 112), Moscow, Nauka, 1979. e. Bobko, V. D., Yu. M. Zolotukhin, Yu. M. Krenzel' et al, "Mainline Information Exchange System," AVTOMETRIYA, No 4, 1974. 9. Vas'kov, S. T., "Systems for Autcrmation of Scientific Research Based on the CAMAC Standard Developed at the Siberian Department, USSR Academy of Sciences," in "Struktura, tekhnicheskiye sredstva i organizatsiya sistem avtomatizatsii nauchnykh issledovaniy", Proceedings of the lOth All-Union School for Automa- tion of Scientific Research, Leningrad, Izd-vo LIYaF, 1977. 10. Ivanov, I. I., A. F. Lagovskiy, Yu. S. Sayenko et al, "Ionospheric Diagnostic Canplex of KMIO, IZMIRAN," in "Diagnostika i modelirovaniya ionosfernykh voz- mushcheniy" [Diagnosis and Modelling of Ionospheric Disturbances], Moscow, ' Nauka, 1978. 11. Lagovskiy, A. F, and Yu. S. Sayenko, "Methods of Processing Geophysical Data in Real Time," in "Avtomatizatsiya nauchnykh issledovaniy" [Automation o` Scientific Research], Proceedings of Second All-Union School for Automation of Scientific Research, Minsk, Izd-vo Instituta tekhnicheskoy kibernetiki AN BSSR, 1978. 12. Vetrina, M. A., V. P. Yelistratov, I. A. Kuz'min et al, "Geophysical Informa- tion Gathering and Processing System LANI-1," in "Struktura, tekhnicheskiye sredstva i organizatsiya sistem avtomatizatsii nauchnykh issledovaniy", Proceedings of the lOth All-Union School for Automation of Scientific R,esearch, Leningrad, Izd-vo LIYaF, 1977. 13. Yelistratov, V. P., I. A. Kuz'min and A. A. I~rushchinskiy, "Real-Time Geo- physical Data Gathering and Processing System," in "Polyarnyye siyaniya i vtorzheniya avroral'nykh chastits" (The Aurora Borealis and Irruption of Auroral ParticlesJ, Leningrad, Nauka. 14. Yelistratov, V. P., I. A. Kuz'min, L. L. Lazutin et al, "Experience of Oper- ating Automated Real-Time Geophysical Data Gathering and Processing System During SAMBO Experiment," in "Magnitosfernyye vozmushcheniya i protsessy zony polyarnykh siyaniy" [Magnetospheric Disturbances and Process of the Aurora Borealis ZoneJ , Apatity, Izd-vo Kol' skogo filiala AN SSSR, 1976. 15. Yelistratov, V. P. and A. A. Negrebetskiy, "Real-Time Recording and Processing - of Geomagnetic Fluctuations," this collection. 16. Williams, D. J., "SELDADS--An Operational Real-Time Solar-Terrestiral Environ- ment Monitoring System," NOAA Technical Report ERL 357-SEL37, 1976. 17. Kuklin, G. N., "Future Trends for Automation of Scientific Research," in "Struktura, tekhnicheskige sredstva i organizatsiya sistem avtomatizatsii nauchnykh issledovaniy", Proceedings of the lOth All-~Union School for Auto- mation of Scientific Research, Leningrad, Izd-vo LIYaF, 1977. , 1 45 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 18. Tsvetkov, E. I., "Development of Investigations to Create Measuring-Computer Complexes," PRIBORY I SISTEMY UPRAVLENIYA, No 1, 1980. 19. Radkevich, V. A. and A. M. Perlikov, "Apparatua Complex for Processing Analog and Telemetry Information Obtained During Geophysical Experiment," this collection. 20. Perlikov, A. M. and A. A. Ostapenko, "Analysis of ONCh-Signals by Digital ~ Methods," this collection. 21. Solov'yev, V. M., G. V. Starkov and V. F. Yushchenko, "An AutomatEd Complex for Recording the Nighttime Sky Glow and Processing of the Information Ob~ tained," this collection. COPYRIGHT: ICpl'skiy filial AN SSSR, 1980 6521 - CSO: 1863/18 46 FOR G~FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024442-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MICROPROCESSORS IN CONTROL SYSTEMS OF ELECTRIC TRACTION DEVICES Moscow TRUDY VSESOYUZNOGO ORDEAiA TRUDOVOGO IQtASNOGO ZNAMENI NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATEL'- SKOGO INSTITUTA ZHELEZNODOROZHNOGO TRANSPORTA: MIKROPROTSESSORY V SISTEMAKH UPRAVLENIYA ELEKTROTYAGOVYKH USTROY5TV in Russian No 643, 1981 (signed to press 19 Mar 81) pp 3, 76 (Preface by Deputy Director of Institute, Doctor of Technical Sciences V. G. Inozemtsev and Head of Railway Electrification Division, Candidate of Technical Sciences A. L. Lisitsyn and table of contents from the collection "Transactions of All-Union Order of Red Banner of Labor Scientific Research Institute of Railway Transport: Microprocessors in Control Systems for Electric Traction Devices", ed- _ ited by Candidate of Technical Sciences G. V. Faminskiy, Izdatel'stvo "Transport", 820 copies, 80 pages ] - [Text] Microprocessors and microcomputers make it possible to automate the con- trol of those processes in electric traction devices which were previously impos- sible to automate due to the extremely high cost of the equipment, its ctunbersome- ness and the comparatively low reliability for continuous operation. The results of investigations in this field, conducted ai: the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Railway Transport (VNIIZhT) are outl~ned in the given collection. The advantages of using microprocessors and microcomputers for automatic control are most obvious. Therefore, basic attention is devoted in the collection to de- velopments in this field. At the same time some possible directions �or using microprocessors and microcalculators to automate the simpler production processes in electrical supply devices are investigated. _ We request that comments and remarks on the materials of the collection be sent to the address: 129851, Moscow, Third Mytishchinskaya ulitsa, 10, Editorial-Publish- ing Department, VNIIZhT. Contents Page Preface 3 1. Faminskiy, G. V. and N. D. Sukhoprudskiy, Use of Microprocessors in Automation of Electric Traction 4 2. Astrakhan, V. I., Use of Micro- and Minicomputers for Centralized Traffic Control of Subway Trains 11 47 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY 3. Astrakhan, V. I. and Ye. G. Faminskaya, Regulating the Travel 17 Time of Subway Trains by Using Microcomputers 4. Astrakhan, V. I. and Ye. V. IGomkov, Controlling the Braking of 2~ Subway Trains by Means of Microprocessors 5. Malinov, V. M., Analyzing Passenger Traffic Volumes of a Subway 26 by Means of Microcomputers 6. Faminskiy, G. V., Controlling a Train on a Section by Using 31 Microprocessors 7. Bushnenko, Yu. V. and N. B. Nikiforova, Principles of Designing a Universal Train Control System and Realization of it by Means 38 of a Microcalculator S. Sukhoprudskiy, N. D. and V. P. Molchanov, Finding the Fragmenta of a Mnemonic Circuit af an Energy Section Using a Microcalculator 45 g, Ic,~gan, Yu. L. and V. M. Malinov, Using Microprocessors and Micro- 49 computers to Control Train Traffic Abroad 10. Tatarnikov, V. A., Improving the Automatic Machine Operator of the Central Scientific Research Institute on the Basis of Large 56 Integrated Circuits (BIS) 11. Faminskiy, G. V., Prospects for Use of Mxcroprocessors for Remote 65 Control of Locomotives 12. Nikiforov, B. D., A. Ye. Pyrov, B. I. Vetlugin and A. A. Drobyshev, 68 Principles of Mc~nitoring Fail-Safe Electronic Devices COPYRIGHT: Vsesoyuznyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut zheleznodorozhnogo tzansporta (VNIIZhT), 1981 6521 CSO: 1863/17 48 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY REGULATING SUBWAY TRAIN TRAVEL TIME USING MICROCOMPUTERS Moscow TRUDY VSESOYUZNOGO ORUENA TRUDOVOGO KRASNOGO ZNAMENI NAUCHNO-ISSLIDOVATEL'- SKOGO INSTITUTA ZHELEZNODOROZ~INOGO TRANSPORTA: MIKROPROTSESSdRY V SISTEMAKH - UPRAVLENIYA ELEKTROTYAGOVYKH USTROYSTV in Russian No 643, 1981 (signed to press 19 Mar 81) pp 17-26 [Article by Candidate of Technical Sciences V. I. Astrakhan and Engineer Ye. G. Faminskaya from the collection "Transactions of All-Union Order of Red Banner of Labor Scientific Research Institute of Railway Transport: Microprocessars in Control Systems for Electric Traction Devices", edited by Candidate of Technical Sciences G. V. Faminskiy, Izdatel'stvo "Transport", 820 copies, SO pages] [Excerpt) Bringing actual train speed closer to the permissible speed increases ~ the acceleration reserve compared to existing conditions. To evaluate this re- serve, comparative traction calculations were made for one of the Moscow subway lines. The calculations were made on a YeS-1030 computer from a program developed at VZIIT [All-Union Correspondence Institute of Railroad Transportation Engineers] - [1). The calculated acceleration reserve time found when one-time and multiple connection of traction motors was compared in the case of,fulfilling li.mitations on the permissible traffic speed comprises an average of 4-6 seconds per wayside. The time expended for train traffic on the deceleration track of the station de- pends on the rate of the beginning of braking. Time stability for braking should be provided under intensive traffic condition.s during "peak" hours by maintaining a given train speed upon coming into the station by using the ASR [Automatic speed control] subsystem. The stability of the length of deceleration does not play such an important role during hours of a load decrease. Therefore, the speed of the of deceleration rnay be different. Monitor~ng fulfillment of the train traffic schedule is easy by using microcom- puters which will calculate the required train travel time under traction on a given block section, obtaining~information about the time the train passes the ends of the block sections. If the length of the sections is sufficiently short ~ahen the difference in travel time with and without current is less than the per- missible deviation, a microcomputer will determine the �~rain traffic conditions over the entire section by the sign of deviation alone, i.e., it can determine only whether the train on the section is under current or is coasting in order ~o fulfill the programmed time of arrival at the next section. , 49 . - FOR C,FFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY One or several (without reger.d to redundancy) microcomputers, specifically micro- computers constructed on a microprocessor of series K589, can be used to control wayside travel time [2]. Z'his microcomputer is similar in output to universal computers of type M6000 and realizes expanded arithmetic instructions and special instructions introduced by the user so that two control memory files are. provided in it. The microcomputers (overall dimensions of 450 X 482 X 220 mm) contain, in addition to the processor, an interface block and also internal storage blocks, display block, power supply block and control console. The maximum capacity of ~ the internal storage is 32,040 words and the time required to fulfill an addition operation is 3.5 microseconds. The number of input-output devices connected to the microcomputer may reach 5~. The consi3ered multiprocessor system can be realized either as a concentrated sy~- tem (all universal computers are located on a central control console) or as a distributed system (the universal computers are installed at each station while a central universal computer is installed on the central control console). The num- ber of channels between the central control console and the stations is increased in the first version, but the following advantages appear: the number of micro- computers decreases, the capability of simple redundancy upon failure of one of the machines becomes possible, it becomes possible to organize a common memory for the multisystem using magnetic disks, which is very important during power out- ages and failures of the universal computer, the volume of peripheral equipment for the system as a whole is reduced considerably, the problem af documentation and monitoring of its operation is facilitated, the system servicing conditions are ir?proved and the operational nature of introducing changes to the program and operating algorithm is enhanced. With the second version of constructing a distributed computer system, each station central computer can control train traffic on one or several waysides based on in- formation about actual train traffic on the wayside and information on the traffic schedule transmitted �rom the central universal computer. The volume of informa- tion transmitted between the central control console and the stations to cantrol train traffic is reduced in this version and it becomes possible to use the central computer to determine deviations in train traffic by stations and to display these deviations for the engineers on a display board and also to solve other local con- trol problems. The second ve~sion of designing a computer system achieves addi- tional advantages when microcomputers of different capacity are used, including small computers, which may be used effectively both for control purposes and to process and transmit information, i.e., as specialized programmable microdispatchers. Selecting a specific version for designing a multiprocessor system depends on the characteristics of the lines to be automated, their length, the scope of ~raffic, prospects for development and so ~n. BIBLIOGRAPHY l. Shilovskaya, R. V., "Algorithm for Traction Calculation to Select the Param- eters of a Subway Energy Supply System," TsNIITEI [Central Scientific Research 50 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Institute of Information and Technical and Economic Research], MPS [Ministry of Railways] ,"Zheleznodorozhnyy transport. Seriya metropolitena. Eksplua- tatsiya i tekhnicheskiye sredstva" [Railway Transport. Subway Series. Opera- tion and Hardware], No 1, Moscow, 1979. 2. Berezenko, A. I., V. I. Berezin, S. Ye. Kalinin and L. N. IC~ryagin, "Micro- computers in the Microprocessor Set of Series K589," ELEKTRONNAYA PROMYSHLEN- - NOST', No 6 (66), 1978. COPYRIGHT; Vsesoyuznyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut zheleznodorozhnogo transporta (4'NIIZhT) , 1981 6521 CSG: 1863/1.7 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420042-8 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLV SEARCHING FOR FRAGMENTS OF SECTION MNEMONIC CIRCUIT USING A MICROCALCULATOR Moscow TRUDY VSESOYUZI30G0 ORDENA TRUDOVOGO KRASNOGO ZNAM~i~TI NAUCHNO-ISSLEDOVATEL'- SKOGO INSTITUTA ZHELEZNODOROZHNOGO TRAIISPORTA: MIKRG~'gtOTSESSORY V SISTc,MAKH UPRAVLENIYA ~LEKTROTYAGOVYKH USTROYSTV in Russian No 643, 1981 (signed co press 19 Mar 81) pp 45-49 [Article by Doctor of Technical Sciences N. D. Sukhoprudskiy and Candidate of Technical Sciences V. P. Molchanov from the collection "Transactions of All-Union Order of Red Banner of Labor Scientific Research Institute of Railway Transport: Microprocessors in Control Systems for Electric Traction Devices", edited by Candidate of Technical Sciences G. V. Faminskiy, Izdatel'stvo "Transport", 820 ~ copies, 80 pages~ (Text] The mnemonic circuit of energy sections on mosaic panels is usually ful- filled in a very simplified manner. .At the same time the energy dispatch~r must have the power supply circuit, number of tracks and semaphores in front of him when _ organizing work at stations with extensive branching of tracks. A device was de- veloped for this purpose that reproduces in detail as needed one or another frag- ment of the mnemonic circuit. It includes a slide projector with line mechanism of fragment feed and control unit made on integra~ed circuits and transistors. Because the contz^ol unit to provide faster search for the fragment should have a memory device, data input and output davice and resolving wnit (that determines the difference of the numbers o� tne fragments and its sign), the devices was rather complex and cumbersome. It is more effective to use a microcalculator as the basis of the control unit. It is suFficiently compact and has a built-in resolving device with microprogram control and memory registers. There should be special input-output devices to supplement it. In this case the microcalculator can be used by the dispatcher by direct designation as well (any calculations can be made if needed). Microcalcu- lators of various typ~s can easentially be used in the device under consideration. A description of the device (Figure 1) is given below, based on the Elektronika B7,-26 microcalculator. The difference and its sign are displayed on a fluorescent display of type P252V in the Elektronika BZ-26 microcalculator and the "minus" sign is fixed by coinci- dence of the nine-digit pulses of the output register of the microprocessor and - the anode M of the display. The outputs of the microprocessor to the display anodes are high-resistance; therefore, taking signals from them to avoid shunting 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - IBB NnBuxamop (1) . H 9p 8p 7p 6p 5p 0p 3p Zp Ip M f. f D~C 8 A R ISB ' J 1 4 6 B JO ll l3 /5 7 3 7 9!W /6 /B !2 ---i . r---- -=7 r---- - p----- --a - ~r-_----- ~-0-- ~ 6nnK~a,ftdyuu ) HuKponpoyeccop, ycmpoucmEo SEoda-derCoDa ~NUxa . ( 3 ) u ynpaBnenua unduKVyuerl 6neKpea~uaauuu ~ynK~uu ) _ _ ocmanoQKV Mexai~uaNa � 5) nynem ynpaEn~nu,~ � } 6noK ynpaSnrNU~ ( ) M~XONLJM . . M~1fOMUJMOM ~6 cmam~wecKOU vn~opMayuu ' Figure 1. Energy Dispatcher Information Display Device (a) and I~ocation of Display Anodes (b) Key: l. Display 2. "Mi.nus" sign fixation u.*~it 3. Microprocessor, input-output device and display control 4. Mecl~anism stopping unit 5. Control console 6. Mechanism control unit 7. Static infoxmation mechanism of the anodes is possible only if high-resistance logic components are usede K1LB781 and K1LI781 microcircuits of aeriea 178 were used in the given device. A coincidence circuit of the signal from anode M artd display and from the output of the ninth digit of the microprocessor register (output 9p) based on microcir- cuit K1LI781 is used to tap the sign "minus" (Figure 2). Since the corresponding signals of anode M and output 9p have a positive potential, they are first inverted by means of microcircuit K1LB781. Positive pulses with length of 0.2 milliseconds appear periodically in sequence at intervals of 1.9 milliseconds at the outputs of the microprocessor register 9p-lp (see Figure 1). If segments (anodes) of the numbers at the inputs are exti.nguished, , there are no positive pulses and a zero potential appears at output 7 of microcir- cuit K1LB781. The AND circuit on microcircuit 1 of K1LI781 emits a signal that authorizes movement of the "Forward" mechanism. If a positive signal appears on anode M and i the corresponding "minus" sign appears on the display screen, the coincidence circuit is triggered, issuing instructions to the mechanism control uni.t to move the "Backward" mechanism. _ As noted above, the difference of the numbers of previously established and sum- moried positions must be determined to find the required fragment. This difference determines the number of steps of moving the mechanism. A one is read at each 53 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR ON'FICIAI. USE ONLY ~ ~ r2 ~ f MB o~ J o~~Ji HE ~ 6a E p~ KV167g~ 7 9 6 ~ 9 0 0 6~ I0~ OJ O 6� 10 R Ki116781 Rl116781 RIlIN7B1 Rf/16781 ?345 If11fJ14 45 J45 It121J14 00 000 000 ~ ' ,HE ~o /(f 0 - a ~ I(1/16781 a (l 171J14 2 d o00 7 ~9 9 !0 . � . ~ 6� ~ ~QO Q ~ run6~d; ~n6~ei ~r~n6~8r ;~nN~a> >3 ~ , 10~o IllooJol l/o1Oe4 t2ll ~o ' ~ ( y � . b . ~ ' . E O10 O N p ~�~'Z~ , r ~ _ . 2+u atl , . ~ 60 4 J ~ i . ~ ~ K!/l6781 ~ ~ ~ d ~ ?J45 . , y . . ~ Figure 2. Diagrams of Units for Fixing "minus" Sign and Realizing Mechanism Stopping Function Key : 1. From output 9p (ninth digit, class 2) 2. To mechanism control unl.t 3. Authorization for stopping mechanism step of the ~~erived difference during motion. T'h~ mechanism should be stopped when a zero is obtained as a result of subtracting the ones. All the display segments, witii the exception of segment M(see Figure 1) which lights up when the number 8 appears, light up in the least digit. However, the appearance of the number 0 in the least digit is not a suff~.cient feature to deliver instructions for stopping - the mechanism. It is also necessary tha~ none of the segments be lit up (no in- formation was reproduced) in the top digits. Thus, a pmhibition to stop the mechanism should be provided both when the number 8 is displayed only in the least - digit and when the number 0 is displayed together with numbers in the top digits. Components with high input impedance--microcircuits of series 178 that perform ~ logic functions at negative potentials--are also used in the circui.ts for realiz- ing the function of stopping the mechanism (see Figure 2). - The si.x display anodes (with the exception of anode M) ar~ connected to two micro- circuits 3(7) and 3(9) that realize the OR-NOT function. The outputs of these microcircuits are connected to the inputs of microcircuit 1(6) that perform the AND-NOT function. . 54 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020042-8 I~OR nFFI('IA1. U~iN: ONLY when a number besides the number 0 is lit up in the least digit at the inputs of microcircuits 3(7) and 3(9) connected to unlit anodes, there is one or several negative potentials. Accordingly, positive potentials that prohibit the operation of microcircuit 1(6) appear on their outputs 7 and 9. The negative potential on the output is retained in this case. An authorizing positive potential appears at output 6 of microcircuit 1 only if the two negative potentials at its input coin- - cide. A positive potential froan its output is fed through inverter 4(7) to one of four inputs of the AND-NOT circuit 5(7). The second input of this circuit is con- nected to the input of the first digit of the display. Consequently, the forbid potenti.als are taken from the corresponding two inputs of microcircuit 5(7) only at the moment the pulses at the output of the first digit and at the output of microcirc uit 4(7) that fixes the zero display in this digit coincide. Instructions to stop the mechanism can be issued only if none of the numbers from 1 to 9 do not light up in the second digit. Authorization for stopping is issued by two groups of compo~ents acting on inputs .4 and 5 of microcircuit 5(7). Z'he first group of components is microcircuits 6(7) and 6(9); they are connected to the anodes of segments B and C of the display since some of them must be lit up if any of the numbers from 1 to 9 is lit up. The outputs of microcircuits 6(7) ar~d 6(9) are connected thzough uncoupling diodes D1 and D2 that perform the OR operation to the input of microcircuit 1(10) that performs the AND-NOT operation. _ Numbers are reproduced on the display by the dynamic principle. Pulse signals al- ternately detour the outputs of digits of 9 through 1. Simultaneously with them, ~ signals also come into the anodes cf the segments according to the number which should be reproduced in the given digit. Although the all the segment-displays of the same type in all the digits are connected in parallel, only those of them which correspond to the digit having a signal at the input coinciding with the signals at the outputs of the segments begin to light up. Therefore, a second group of components--microcircuits 5(9) and 1(10) and delay line TZ--is provided to forbid stopping of the mechanism ~f there is a number in the second digit. The output of the second digit of the display is connected to the second input of microcircuit 1(10) through inverter 5(9). Thus, a signal appears at the output of circuit 1(10) only if the signals on segments B and C and at the output of the second digit coincide. ~acti signal arrives alternately at the inputs of the display within 0.2 millisec- ond. A signal initially appears at the output of the top digit and only then ap- pears in the least digit~. Therefore, to record the presence of a zero in the first digit in the absence of a number in the second digit, these two events must be combined in time, which is accomplished by means of component TZ that delays the signal �rom circuit 1(10) by 0.2 millisecond. An authorizing signal comes �rom component TZ to input 4 of microcircuit 5(7). The authorizing signal is fed thrauqh inverter 2(7) to its input 5 only if no segment of anode M lights up in the least digit (i.e., a 0 rather than an 8 is reproduced). If the signals on all four inputs of microcircuit 5(7) coincide, a signal to stop the mechanism appears at its output, i.e., a positive pulse from the output of the ur.;_t fo.r stopping the mechanism (see Figure 1) is fed through the control unit to 55 FOR OFFICIAL L1SE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY the static information mechanism. The mechanism is stopped and this completes the total cycle of switching it for finding the object. Both the keyboard of the microcalculator and ~he control console with buttons, each of which corresponds to a specific object, can be used as the control console in the device. COPYRIGHT: Vsesoyuznyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut zheleznodorozhnogo . transporta (VI3IIZhT? , 1981 6521 CSO: 1863/17 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500020042-8 1~(11t ()H'1~1('IA1, l1tiF. ONLY RECONSTRUCTING HEXAPOD GAITS - Moscow MODELIRQVANIYE I OPTIMIZATSIYA SLOZHNYKH SYSTEM TTPRAVLENIYA in Russian 1981 (si~ned to press 8 Jun 81) pp 205-216 [Article by D. N. Zhikharev and I. G. Zhestkov from collection "Modeling and Optimiz- ing Complex Control Systems" edited by Ya. Z. Tsypkin, USSR Academy of Sciences, Izda- tel'stvo "Nauka", 2350 copies, 265 pages] [Text] 1. Brief description of hexapod. In this article the authors examine a number - of the locomotive modes of a hexapod which has been developed at Moscow State Universi- ty's Institute of Mechanics. The model of this walking machine comprises a body f itted witti six legs. The legs of this machine constitute a kinematic loop with six degrees of freedom, a diagram of which is presented in Figure 1. A leg's first three degrees of _ Ereedom, angles of rotation relative to axes 1-3, are controlled. Orthogonal and non- intersecting, angles 1 and 2 form the "hip ~oint" of a leg, segments 4 and S its "femur" and "tibia." Axis 3 is parallel to axis 2. An electromechanical servosystem produces _ movement through each of the controlled degrees of freedom. A three-degree Cardan foot suspension fitted with a surface-contact sensor is mounted on the tibia. ~ The motion-control system generates control signals producing the machine's movement with automatic adap- P~ B tation to small surface irregularities upon command ~ ~7,~'~ ~ from the operator (or a higher level of the control system) determining the motion of the body of the ma- 1 Q, ~ chine and the basic characteristics of its locomotion. f~ Figure 2 is a functional block diagram oi the control system. s It consists of the following major components: ~ - the set of controlled stepping-cycle generators (GS) comprises six identical generators forming closed space-time curves of the stepping cycle (i.e., the _ trajectory traced by the end of the leg) of each leg in the plane of the several auxiliary Cartesian co- ordinates. The generators are interconnecrnd such Figure 1. that the desired relationships are maintai�. :d between the phases of the stepping cycles, which iisures the required form of movement. Signals from the foot sur- [ace-contact sensors constitute the inputs into this component. Component parameters are assigned by the operator (or a higher level of the control system); component out- puts are fed to the input of the linear converter; 57 - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500024442-8 t~(!R (11~1~1('IAI. I~til~: 1)NI.Y lli~~ I In~�:ir ~�~,~,r~l lu;il~� ~�~~uv~~rt~~r (I~t:) ~~ui~vurlr~ ll~c i?ut~~ut l rum tli~r ~encralur uiitt lur };~ruwetric~al cuur~lln.i~lun ~~l Ui~~ 5~e~~~~ln~ cycles with the body and extremities of the machine as well as their scaling. Converter parameters are assigned by the operator _ (or a higher level of the control system); component outputs are fed to the input of the maneuvering unit; - in accordance.with commands from the operator (or a higher le.vel of ~he control system), the maneuvering unit (MU) modifies i.,;,~o~n ~~c~~.~.z:,~J the stepping cycles of the legs so as to produce the required ~1~ spatial position and motion of the body of the machine. Outputs frnm the linear coordinate converter and the sensor signals con- 6~ (2) stitute the inputs into this unit. Its outputs are fed to the input of a component set of converters of Cartesian into angular coordinates; 6~n (3) - the component c~nverting the Cartesian coordinates (CCC) of 6M the ends of the l~~k;s into the angular coordinates of the segments of the legs consists of six identical three-dimensional nonlinear (4) servosystems which convert the outputs of the maneuvering and signal-generation unit into inputs into the servosystem amplifier 6~~K unit (SSA) and take into account the limits of the working ranges of the legs. ycc In this article the authors study five-legged modes of machine i`lmrem locomotion and the possibility of designing a control system ~ ~ ~ ~uu~�urowe~o realizing these modes . annapama 2. The probZem formulated. We will be looking at the machine in only uniform rectilinear forward motion such that throughout Figure 2: 1- the period of movement AC II 0102 and BD II 0306 (Figure 3). We - operator panel; will assume that the rectangular body 2- GS; 3- LC; of the machine ABNDCM (Figure 4) lies 4- MU; 5- CCC; in a plane parallel to horizontal 6- SSA; 7- mod- plane o1020304 and at a distance S el of walking ma- from it. The six legs of the machine chine. are attached according to the numera- tion in Figure 3 at points A1B1M1N1C1 D~ "j P. As the machine moves, the projec- G~ A 6~ tions of the ends of the legs fall along parallel curves O10z ~ 1 and 030,,, relative to the body ttie ends of the legs in the c, support phase moving along su~~port segments blal, b2a2, s b6aE. The support segments are symmetrical with respect to n I ,y ~ the footholds. i~ p y - The machine is 0.705 m long (AC = 0.705 m), 0.21 m wide cp and weighs 18 kg. The mass of a single leg is 1.9 kg. This ~s mass is distributed as follows: concentrated at point Q is a ~a ~ 0 G, mass of 0.75 kg and at points P and R 1 kg and 0.15 kg re- 6 spectively (AP = 0.047 m, BQ = 0.08 m, CR = 0.175 m(see Fig- oJ ~i ure 1); mass values are measured with an accuracy to within ~ ~ - 10 per cent) . ~1 ' ~~r The projections of the ends of the legs in the support phase onto horizontal plane 0102030q form a polygon, which we will refer to as the support polygon. Figure 3. 58 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 FOR OFFI('IA1. USE ON1.Y 'CIutcr for Ar?alysis of Regular Nets by the Method of Fragmentary Simulation." This ~~apcr examines a new approach to organizing a specialized computer intended for analysis of reyular nets in fragments, based on multiple use of a reprogramQnable fragment model. 5 tables. 10 figs. Refs: 4 titles. 85 FOR OF'FICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 MVK vrrll,lP1L UJC. VIVLY UDC 681.306 Polyakov, A. K., and Lyashko, M. M., "Languages for Simulation of Computer System S~ructures." This paper examines some specialized languages and simulation systeias oriented on problems associated with analyzing the structure of computer systems and their software (with evaluating productivity, time delays, bottlenecks and queues; debugging control algorithms; analyzing interaction of program modules, etc.). 1 fig. Refs: 10 titles. UDC 621.3.01 Demirchyan, K. S., and Butyrin, P. A., "Solution of the Problems of Parametric Synthesis by the Methods of Electric Circuit Analysis." A relationship is established between the problems of parametric synthesis and electric circuit analysis. This relationship is used as the basis for proving a number of theorems making it ~ossible to use, in solving problems of the first ty~c, a more-profoundly developed and well tested apparatus for solving problems of the second type. 2 figs. Refs: 4 titles. UDC 621.382.3 Korolev, Yu. V., and Yushchenko; I. A., "An Algebraic Method for Synthesis of Macro- models of Complex Electric Circuits." A formalized method is prese.nted for synthesis of macromodels of complex electronic ci~cuits within the framwc~rk of the algebraic systems provided by the theory of electric circuits. The pr,~cess of constructing macromodels at different levels of complexity is examined with an analog-digital converter as an example. 7 figs. Refs: 4 titles. UDC 621.39:681.3 Norenkov, I. P., and Zinov'yev, P. A., "Multilevel Optimization of Complex Technical Systems." This paper examines the statement of problems associated with optimizing complex technical systems and the solution mathods using, as the example, large integrated circuits subjected to descending design in automatic programmed design systems. The end result of optimization is the serviceability conditions for the element para.,~eters. 4 tables. 2 figs. Refs: 5 titles. UDC 681.5:621,372.5 Takhvanov, G. I., Belyanina, N. V., and Tupitsyn, D. D., "Str~ica.:urally Compensated Smoothing Devices." The basic premises pertaining to structurally compensated s*,ioothing devices are - established, and typical circuits are presented. It is d::monstrated that the principle of structural compensation o~ systematic output errors extends to many other devices used to process noisy signals. 6 figs. Refs: 11 titles. 86 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2407/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500420042-8 FOR OfFICIAL USE ONLY UDC 681.326.75 K.~~izhnyak, V. Ya., Serdyuk, G. B., and Bazutkin, V. V., "A Mathematical Model of Detection of Failures and Errors in Automatic Process Control System Transducers Using a General-Purpose Computer." The authors propose a mathematical model inter.~aed for control, in real time, of a general-purpose computer's information channel (transducer--communication line-- matching unit--communication line--unit converting transducer signals into computer code)--that is, controlling the read~ngs of transducers at the in~ut of the processor of the general-purpose compucC~. i fig. Refs: 11 titles. UDC 621.316.71:621.3.013.8 Gorskiy, Yu. M., Popov, V. M., and Ushakov, V. A., "Approaches to Applying Adaptation Principles to Problems Associated Witl~ Controlling Synchronous Machine Excitations." 'I`he principles of organizing adaptive strong-acting excitation regulators for synchronous machines are reviewed. The possibilities of building adaptive analytical and retrieval systems in excitation regulators are discussed. Examples of creating adaptive excitation regulators are presented. 6 figs. R2fs: 13 til:les. UDC 621.107 Ignat'yev, M. B., and Maksimov, M. L., "Commutators in Construction of Microprogram Models." Application of com..~nutators to the co~struction of microprograms is examined in - relation to program motion based on differential equations. Refs: 8 titles. UDC 62-50 Batenko, A. P., "TJse of Linear Models in Terminal Control Systems." The law of terminal control is proposed as a means for accelerating, braking and stopping a vessel at a preset point. The control system contains an electronic model imparting the properties of a linear object to the nonlinear propulsion unit. 7 figs. Refs: 5 titles. UDC 53.072.681.3 Teplov, N. L., Grishin, V. A., and Posokhov, V. P., "Investigation of the Inter- ferencc Resistance of Binary and Multiposition Discrete Information Communication Systems by tYie Method of Statistical Simulation With a Digital Computer." This paper ~resents the results of research cotiducted by the method of statistical - computer simulation of thc interference resistance of some suboptimal algorithms for processing complex signals on the background of nonstationary correlated noise. 2 figs. Refs: 5 ti~les. 87 FOR OFFICIAL USE O;VLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02109: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ON?.Y UDC 51.001.57 Shevchenko, Yu. T., Korobetskiy, V. N., Yakubovich, Yu. V., Lyashchenko, V. K., and Bus'ko, Ye. S., "Some Problems in Simulating Effective Cutting of Blanks." A procedure is suggested for planning the cutting of blanks of ineasured length, based on the methods af numerical solution of mathematical programming problems. A se~ of cutting optimizatior. models and information on the develoQed software are presented. Refs: 11 titles. UDC 681.325 Shcherbina, A. A., "Use of Redundant Numbering Systems to Accelerate So'_�-}~on of Linear Algebraic Equation Systems." Application of redundant homogenoUS n+`unbering systems with integral, rational and irrationa_ bases to accelerate solution of linear algebraic equation systems by a:nodified simple iteration method is examined. Refs: 2 titles. UDC 681.325.6 Kirsanov, L. Yu., "Selection of the Structure of One Class of Threshol~ Element biemories. " h Su~eroperational memories emiloying grouped serial recordings are interpreted as systems consisting of digit recoqnition systems. Som~ characteristir.s of the structural organization of superoperational memories based on threshold elements are examined, and their design features are explained. A block diagram of such a superoi~erational memory is presented. 2 figs. Refs: 3 titles. UDC 621.376.56+612+577.3 Dets', G. D., "Delta-Modulator Model of Reception." The possibility of simulating a biological sensor by a known technical device-- a delta-modulator--is demonstrated. 3 figs. Refs: 4 titles. UDC 621.372.54 - Gurenko, V. N., "Estimation of the Extreme Values of Approximation Parameters in the Design of Some Classes of Frequency-Range Filters." A procedure is described for preliminary estimation of approximation parameters, obtained as a result of calculating the extreme values, for three basic classes of filters (Butterwort':>, Chebyshev's an~3 elliptic) permitting design of the opti~um filter of the given class, and an example of the calculations is pres~nted. 1 fig. Refs: 7 titles. UDC 681.325.5 ~ Simak, L. A., "Construction of D.igital-Analog Cathode-Ray Displays." The method and circuit engineering are shown for display of digital-an�log informa- ti~n, obtained by ~lectron~.c simulation, on the screen of a cathode-ray tube. 1 fig. Fefs: 2 titles. ~ 88 FOR OFFICIAL U~~E ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/42/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500020042-8 UDC 681.142-523.8 Gum~t~, N. B., "A Modification Method for Solution of Piecewise-Linear Equations." A new method is examined for calculating the solutions of piecewise-linear equations based on solution correction and calculated at previous iterations. The effective- ness of the method is evaluated, and it is compared with other approaches oriented at solving problems of this type. 2 tables. 1 fig. Refs: 6 titles. COPYRIGHT: Izdatel'stvo "Naukova dumka", Elektronnoye modelirov~..iiye, 1981 110U4 CSO: 1863/49 END 89 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500020042-8