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APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY J~i~S L/ 10370 4 March 1982 Sub-Saharan Africa Re ort p FOUO No. 765 F'g~$ FOREIGN BROA~~AS~' INFORMATION SERVICE FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , � � APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 \ NOTE JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and ~ other characteristics retained. ' Headlines, editorial reports, an3 material enclosed in brackets are supp.lied by JPRS. Processing indicators such'as [Text] or [Excerpt] in the first line of each item, or following the ~ last line o� a brief, indicate how the original information was , processed. Where no processing indicator is given, the infor- ~ mation was summarized or extractpd. ~ Unfamiliar names rendered phonetically or transliterated are enclosed in parentheses. Words or names preceded by a ques- tion mark and enclosed in parentheses were not clear in the original but have been supplied as appropriate in conte~et. , Other unattributed parenthetical notes within the body of an ; item originate with the source. Times within ~tems are as given by source. The contents of this publication in no way represent the pol{- cies, views or at.titudes of tk?e U.S. Government. �R COPYRIGHT LAWS AI3D REGULATIONS GOVERNING OWNERSHIP OF MATERIALS REPRODUCED HEREIN REQUIRE THAT DISSEMINATION OF THIS PUBLICATION B~ RESZRICTED FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY. APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500044016-5 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY JPRS L/10370 4 lelarch 1982 SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA REPORT FOUO Noo 765 CONTENTS INTER-AF~ICAN AFFAIRS ~ S~riss Foreign Trade With Africa Revie~ried (MARCHES TROPTCAtTX ET MED~TERRANEENS, 8 Jan 82) 1 Italian Trade With Africa Revie~red (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MED~TERRANEENS, 1 Jan 82) 12 Belgian, Luxembourg Trade With Africa Reviewed (MARCI~ TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 25 Dec 81) 25 Wi.seman Hampate Ba on Life in Africa (JEUNE AFRIQUE, 30 Dec 81) 33 Briefs CEAO Repor~ ~ !+1 UMC1A Membership 1~1 BEAC Meeting l~l CHAD . OAU Role in Nation Said To Have Shortcomings (Alem Mezgebe; NEW AFRICAN, Jan 82) 43 No Unilateral~Solution to Present Situa,tion Considered Possible (Fracois Soudan; JEUNE AFRIQUE, 6 Jan 82) ~+7 _ Briefs British, Algerian Aid 50 COMORO TSLANDS Briefs New Single Par�cy ~ 51 ' a' IIII - NE & A- 120 FOUO] ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R004500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ EQUATORIAL GUINEA Briefs 52 Petroleum Exploration - IVORY COAST ~ Briefs 53 ~ Cooperation With India 53 o ~ Palm 53 Northern Pro~ ects 5~ Total. Activities in I~vory Coast 5~ Budget for 1g82 Adopted MADAGASCAR _ Nationel Populax Assembly Adopts New 5-Ye~' P18nDec Sl) 55 (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDTTII~RAIJEF~N'S, � of Ratsiraka's New' Year� s Speech Given 57 (MARCHES TROPICAtTX ET MIDI7'ERRANEENS, 15 Jan 82~ Fianarantsoa Province's Potential Viewed as Great (MARCFiFS TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEEN5, 25 Deo. 81) 58 CCCE Aid To Refloat Companies Reported ~ 2 Dec 81) 59 (MARCIiES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRAP::aENS, 5 Briefs ~ 60 FAO Research Vessel ' 60 Antananarivo Budget NIGER BCEAO Isaues Report on Recent Factors in Economic Situation 61 (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 15 Jan 82) Briefs 63 French Consulate in Arlit NIGERIA New Book on President Shagari Reviewed (NEW AFRICAN, Jan 82) 64 Africa Said Cornerstone of Country's Foreign Policy 65 (Alha~i Shehu Aw'ak Interview; NEW AFRICAN, Jan 82) . Country Warned To Find Alternative Eaergy Sources 67 (NEW AFRICAN, Jan 82) . . - b - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL UBE ONLY Trade Imbalance With France Reduced From 1980 Fig-ares (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITFRRaiQEENS, 1 Jan 82) 69 Contracts Signed for Extensive Mapping Program (MARCHES TROPTCALTX ET MEDTTII~R~TEEPJS, 1 Jan 82) 70 Country as Market for Fxport E~raluated (NEW AFRICAN, Jan 82) 71 Women's Role in Politics, Islam Spelled Out (Alha~i Aminu Kano Tnterview; NEFT AFRICAN, Jan 82) 73 SENEGAMBIA Feasibility Stuc~y Conducted on Iron Ore Deposits (MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS, 15 Jan 82) 75 - c - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040016-5 FOR OFFICTA"L USE ONLY INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS SWISS FOREIGN TRADE WITH AFRICA REVIEWED Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MET~ITERRANEENS in Erench Ho 1887, 8 Jan 82 pp 68-71 [Excerpt] The f low of trade to and from Africa remains madest. But it is cer- tainly improving and expanding since in 1979 the African continent accounted for 3.08 percent of the Swiss Confederation's total foreign trade while in 1980 that percentage had increased to 3.6 percent. During these 2 years, the value of ~ Swiss imports increased at a faetar rate (up by 44.7 percent) than the value of exports (up by 35.7 percent) but, in the view of some observers, the signifi- - cance of that progression is limited and they pc?int aut that it is mainly the - result of Switzerland purchasing energy products from four of fiva African coun- tries. They also note ~hat the trade gap between Switzerland and Africa indi- cates a.big sur~lus in favor of Switzerland (a cover percentage of 154.37 3n 1980). But it must be noted that in 1979 that rate was even higher (164.61 per- cent) . Table CE-SS-B Switzerland's Top 20 Supp].iers in the World (Millions of Swiss francs) ~ ~ 1980 ~ 1979 1978 . 1. FRG ~ :16,766.32 13,946.48 12,233.51 2. France 7,461.85 6,273.34 5,285.61 3. Italy ~ 5,844.62 5,054.87 4,147.71 4. Great Britain 5,072.59 ~ 3,754.94 3,377.62 S. United States 4,104.94 3,048.84 3,170.81 6. UEBL [Belgium-Luxembourg] 2,502.46 ~ 2,003.16 1,629.85 7. Holland 2,469.64 2,089.28 1,544.90 8. Austria 2,184a42 1,830.03 1,649.39 9. Japan 1,989.76 1,338.60 1,220.23 ~ 10.. USSR 1,607.95 1,2~6.70 917.47 11. Sweden 1,229.41 1,041,11 875.40 12. Spain 578.82 490.88 439.97. 13. Hong-Kong 5?2.42 378.86 323.61 14. Libya 516.50 25~3.64 . 190.49 15. Denmark 508.82 417.67 383.71 16. Nigeria 356.51 136.95 118.05 17. Finland 342.~2 273.98 230.49 18. Canada 339.24 220.02 202.86 19. Brazil 263.56 210.35 143.90 20. Saudi Arabia . 257.33 186.46 71.99 1 ' FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE 4NLY ~ Table CE-SS-C Switzerland's Top 20 Clients in the World (Millions of Swiss f ranca) - 1980 1979 1978 1. FRG' 9,749.82 8,642.59 7,537.22 - 2. France 4,547.61 3,845.21 3,612.49 3. Italy 3,898.84 1,298.81 1,063.32 4. United Stat~s 3,552.02 2,992.79 2,974.19 S. Great Britain 3,134.43 3,090.88 2,869.32 6. Austria 2,271.03 2,010.84 1,938.77 7. UEBL [Belgiwn-Luxembourg] 1,565.24 1,255.46 1,185.79 ~ 8. Holland 1,383.65 1,240.95 1,210.21 9. Japan 1,273.31 1,300.41 1,185.02 10. Saudi Arabia 1=042.44 951.61 928.92 11. Swedern 1,024.55 933.11 889.39 ~ 12. Hong~Kong 934.64 800.68 766.08 13. Spain ~ 903.09 840.82 763.32 14. Israel ~ 871.68 972.97 963.40 15. Den~ark 548.41 532.4G 583.46 16. Nigeria 530.46 ~ 263.17 421.41 . 17. South Africa 499.30 382.69 362.37 1S. Brazil . 497.57 483.80 446.69 19. Iran 463.75 368.02 686.17 20. Norway 428.93 373.12 395.70 Table CE-SS-E Distribution of Staiss Foreign Trade in 1980 bv Goods_Categor3es ~ (In millione of Swiss francs) ~ Crude Ma,terials . & Energy Equipment Consumer Semimanufactures Products Goods � Goods Imports Europe 20l965.3 4772.0 8,064.9 1.4,510.7 - Africa 471.9 958.3 2.1 123.1 Asia 1,797.8 695.4 449.5 2,230.3 America 2,57Q.8 69.8 1,596.2 1,455.6 Australia 82.0 3.5 25.2 Total 25,896.8 6,495.5 10,116.1 18,351.0 Exports Europe 14,291.5 55.42 10,604.0 8,374.1 Af rica 683.3 1.2 1,187.8 538.1 Asia 2,818.0 2.8 2,048.5 2,375.9 America 1,790.1 1,G15.6 2,788.3 1,684.9 Australia 103.7 0.2 155.2 103.5 Total 19,686.6 60.7[sic]16,783.8 13,076.0 2 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table CE-SS--D 3wi:.zerlar~d's 10 Maior African Partners (in millions of Swiss francs) Suppliers 1980 1979 1978 1. Libya 516.50 258.64 J.90.49 - 2. Nigeria 356.51 136.95 118.05 3. South Africa 212.16 142.75 109.05 4. Egypt 71.47 33.,51 42.74 5. Algeria 67.38 151.38 34.77 6. Ghana 48.91 42.83 55.84 7. Morocco '+6.12 28.30 27.74 8. Ivory Coast 35.87 37.93 54.62 9. Kenya 33.74 19.62 23.16 10. Zambia 21.91 ~2.39 23.25 Clients 1~980 19~9 1978 1. Nigeria ~ 530.46 263.17 421.41 2. South Africa 499.30 382.69 362.37 3. Egypt . 306.37 280.0 221.23 4. Algeria 276.19 231.40 197.07 5. Libya 143.62 89.70 188.63 - 6. Morocco 66.42 73.70 84.99 7. Angola 52.58 19.02 35.61 8. Kenya 48.12 38.26 31.74 9. Tunisia 46.76 35.79 33.30 10. Cameroon 43.09 30.74 22.67 Swiss Imports From Africa Swiss imports of African products in 1980 (1,561.44 million Swiss francs [SF]) were divided as follows: 61.4 percent were energy products worth 958~.3 million SF; 18.3 percent were meat and vegetable foodstuffs, worth�285.9 million SF; - 8.75 percent were~gems and precious matals, worth 136.6 mia.lion SF; 5.75 percent were crude materials other than foodstuffs, worth 90 million SF; 2.Y percent were semimanufactures, worth 33.3 million SF; 3.7 percent were finished manu- factures and miscellaneous, worth 58.3 million SF. Energy products were imported from the following countries: Toas Million SF Petroleum Crude Oils ~ Libya 1,098,833 516.29 Nigeria 744,276 346.44 Algeria 131,263 60.07 Tunisia ' 1,034 0.33 3 ~ - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Tons Million SF Coal . Soutla Africa 337,096 34.97 Ref ined Oils Morocco 41,316 19.46 South Africa 4 0.03 The three main categories of vegetable foodstuffs imported by Switzerland were: coffee (plus tea and spict~s), 87.57 million SF; cocoa and its by-products, - 74.77 million SF; all kinds of fruits, 46.78 million SF. ~ Switzerland's Foreiga Trade COINMEACE EXTERIEUR QE LA SUISSE -~E_ss_+ _ ( M~ll~ons , de Fr sui~ses 1 EUROPC ~Imp AFA~OUE AMEGIOUE~ITD~ ' ~E~o ~E.v ~Erp. ~ITQ 451E ~ AUSTR4UE ~f~ E~D oeai:,~ ~ 19 8 0 ��o., 1819 ~ . �>~s.- ,~�a ~ :~s~~,e ,n~ ~m~ � ~N~.~ ~m ~au ~ ~~~~a n~t~ ~m.~ im~ _ Distribution by Product CaCegories REPAIITITION PAR CATE60RIES DE PROOUITS ~seo 18'8 ' ENIORTf : ZI~O,4 Key: vaoourts iMroeTS : 1sit,4 ENERGETIOUES 2 1. Crude or semi-finishe c'~= materials ~ ~aoa,~n 2. Energy products :;:;~:{t~;::`:;:::... CCOUiPEnENT � Paoou~rs'~~~ 3. Consumer goods ~'~:~i '[NEfIG[TIOU[S:;}:�... ~ ~u;~ . ~ ~ 4. Equipment goods L~~~ ~~~T p~ ~OW~TSlRU15~. SEM�CRODUliS CO~NSOMM~TIp1 ' _ 'r,. SEni./iNiS '%:^rc 'f'~'~' IN. ~ ~ 611,1' I11,1 . ~.I21,1 aENS OE fONSOMhY.T10N~, ,r. &Eh5 D'[GU~VEMENT !.~l~ ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 _ FOR OFFiCiAL USE ONLY Coffee (12,500 tons; 21.5 million SF) was imparted from 15 countries, in some cases in small amounts: Kenya (3,093 tons), Cameroon (1,984 tons), Angola (1,870 tons), Zaire (1,729 tons), Togo (1,246 tons), Mozambique (568 tons), Ethiopia (465 tons), Ivory Caast (348 tons), Uganda (318 tons), Zimbabwe (300 tons), Tanzania (219 tons), Central African Republic (203 tons), South Africa (129 tons), Madagascar (20 tons), Guinea (7 tons). Tea (less than 40 tons, worth 150,000 SF) was purchased from (ranked in order of importance): Zimbabwa, Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and Cameroon. Madagascar is ttie major supplier of spices (3.66 million SF): 113 tons of pepper and red pimentoes, 1$ tons of vanilla and 26 tons of cloves. Other countries which sold appreciable amounts were the Comoro Islande (0.29 million) and Tanzania (0.13 million). Cocoa and its by-products were only purchased in the following six countries: Ghana (47.66 million SF), Ivory Coast (17.32 million), Nigeria (9.33 million), Sao Tome (0.38 million), Guinea (0.31 million) and Togo (0.25 million). South Africa stands way ahead as a supplier of fruits. The shipments included a great variety: Tons Millions of SF Fruits and tropical nuts 620 2.25 Citrus ~.ruits 8,029 9.66 Grapes ~ 221 0.87 ~ Apples, pears and fresh quinces 11,719 20.60 Fresh stone fruits 60 0.23 Fresh berries 11 0.08 ' Other fresh fruits 215 0.79 - Subtotal 20,875 34.45 Dry fruits � 206 1.70 Overall total 21,081 36.15 Other noteworthy suppliers: Ivory Coast (4.96 mi],lion), Morocco (2.61 million), Kenya (1.29 million), Mozambique (0.65 millian), Tunisia (0.41 million), Egypt , (0:21 million), Mali {0.12 million), Algeria (0.10 million). Besides coffee, tea, spices, cocoa and fruits, Switzerland's purchases of Afri- can foodstuffs involved the following products (figures given in millions of Swiss francs): --Vegetable products: canned vegetables or fruits, worth 20.93 million, from among other countries, South Africa (19.41) and Morocco (0.93); oil-producing seeds and fruits worth 13.46 million, mostly from Gambia (11.87), Nigeria (0.51), Egypt (0.3), Sudan (0.21), Cameroon (0.2), Algeria (0.15); fresh vegetables and pulses worth 11.97 million, mostly from Morocco (7.68), Egypt (2.27), South _ Africa (0.9), Kenya (0.7), Senegal (0.2) and Upper Volta (0.1). 5 FOIt OFFICI~L USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY --Animal products: meats and offal worth 7.05 million, mostly from South Africa - (3.8), Zimbabwe (2.08), and Namibia (1.12); fresh or dried fish worth 4.5 million, mostly from South Africa (1.99), Morocco (1.86), Senegal (0.31), Tunisia (0.28); canned meat or canned fish worth 1.66 million, mostly from Morocco (1.02), Kenya (0.28), Senegal (0.19), South Africa (0.08); live animals worth 0.09 million; eggs worth 0.08 million (South Africa). --Livestock feed: milling by-products, oil-cakes, molasses-based fodder, f ish meal for a total of 1.59 million, chiefly from Mauritius (1.29), Mauritania (0.2), Egypt (0.1). . ~ --Beverages and tobacco: beverages (wine and wine alcohol) worth 8.56 million, mostly from Algeria (6.53, wine), Morocco (0.4, wine), Tunisia (0.3, wine), 9outh Africa (0.32 for wine and 0.72 for wine spirits); tobacco and by-products worth 6.53 million, mostly from Zimbabwe (1.81), Malawi (1.62), Cameroon (0.55), Tunisia (0.26). Other f ood~tuffs--grains and by-products, sugar and sweets, sauces, soups, oils and so on--only amounted to the negligible sum of 550,000 SF. Gems and preciou~ metals (imports worth 136.6 millian SF) were purchased in variable amounts from 23 countries. The biggest purchases were made in South Africa (75.58 million), Zambia (21.13), Morocco (21.12), Kenya (5.67), ~ameroon (z.68), Mali (2.12), Zaire (2.08), Zimbabwe (1.85), L~beria (0.93), Tanzania (0.72), Senegal (0.59), Togo (0.47), Egypt (0.4) and Sierra Leone (0.32). Here are details of imports fram the three ma~or suppliers: --South Africa: 75.58 million, including 36.27 million worth of precious stones; 0.02 million of gem dust; 0.02 million of silver; 2.91 million worth of gold; 35.93 million worth of platinum; 0.43 million worth of ~ewelry and goldsmith articles. --Zambia: 21.13 million, including 21.12 million worth of precious stones; O.Ol million worth of gold and silver. --Morocco : 21.12 million (silver and alloys) . Crude Materials Other Than Foodstuffs The leading Swiss imports of Af rican crude materials other than foodstuffs (representing 90 million SF) are animal or plant f ibers. These are followed by sawmill products, nonmetallic ores, metal ores and various products. Among imports of textile fibers, cotton ranks f irst with 10,765 tons (46.1 million SF) imported f rom Egypt (5,313 tons), South Africa (2,808 tons), Sudan (742 tons), the Central African Republic (391 tons), the Ivory Coast (388 tons), Uganda (358 tons), Cameroon (318), Tanzania (208 tons), Kenya (198 tons), Ethiopia (81 tons) and Chad (60 tons). Wool (490 tons worth 3.4 million) was purchased in South Africa (329 tons), Kenya (142 tons) and Egypt (19 tons). Mozambique was Swit~erland's sole supplier of ~isal (65 tons worth 83.8 million). 6 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Crude lumber (40,735 tons for a total of 23.4 million SF) was supplied by the Ivory Coast (16.117 tons), Gabon (8,395 tons), Zaire (4,910 tons), Cameroon (4,410 tons), Congo (3,694 tons), Liberia (1,694 tons), Ghana (1,288 tons) and the Central African Republic (227 tons). Crude rork (400 tons worth 120,000 SF) and paper pulp (200 tons worth 220,000 SF) were imported exclusively from Tunisia. Crude natural rubber was or_ly purchased from Zaire (96 tons worth 220,000 SF) and from Nigeria (30 tons worth 70,000 SF). Minerals Nonmetallic and metallic ores were imported in small amounts and only from Morocco, Rwanda and South Africa. Morocco supplied 10,652 tons (1.47 million SF) of calcium phosphate and 40 tons (20,000 SF) of barium sulfate or caxbonate. Rwanda and South Africa sold to Switzerland almost equal amounts o� pyrite ashes for a total volume of 10,250 tons worth 1.77 million SF. South Africa's main sales were of asbestos (3,752 tons worth 5.12 million SF) and small amounta of ~ quartz, f eldspar, clays, granite and various other ores. Mention must be made of imports of ivory, shell, harns, various by-products of animal source (1 million SF) and live plants or cut flower$ (3.95 million). Plants and flowers came mainly from South Africa (2.12 million), Kenya (0.96 million), Ivory Coast (0.47 million) and Morocco (0.35 million). Purchases of materials for braiding or carving work were negligible. On the other hand, gums and other forest products accounted for purchases ~~ezth 900,000 SF (mainly for Sudan: 282 tons worth 770,000 SF). ~ Semi-Processed Products, Chiefly Metallic Ones African semi-processed products imported by Switzerland (those categories which are unquestionably semi-processed) accounted for around 30 million SF'and most - of this sum represents metal products (23.5 million). These metal products were chiefly: aluminum (17.23 milli~n SF) most of which came from Egypt (6,238 tons; 17.2 million SF); copper (626 tons; 2.41 tons million SF) from South Africa (500 tons) and Zambia (126 tons); nickel (77 ton~; 800,000 9F) from South Africa and zinc (253 tons; 300,000 SF) from South Africa and Algeria. There were also purchases of unspecified nonferrous metals totalling 1.9 million SF. South Afri~.a and Zambia were the only suppliers of ferrous metal products: 565 tons (730,000 SF) of iron alloys from Zambia and 3,192 tons (2.05 million SF) of various products from South Africa including 1,126 tons of pig iron, 685 tons of iron alloys, 1,300 tone of rods, 50 tons of sheets, 23 tons of thin _ carbon steel. Other semimanufactured products imparted from Africa by Switzerland were: sawed lumber or veneer woods (5.25 million SF) supplied by Zaire (1.54 million), the Congo (1.41 million), the Ivory Coast .(1.07 million), Ghana (0.41 million), Liberia (0.35 million), Uganda (0.28 million), and Kenya (0.14 million); tex- tile thread, worth 2.05 million SF, almost all of which was cotton thread fram Egypt (1.27 million), Tunisia (0.37 million), Morocco (0.15) and others; essen- tial oils, worth 2.07 million SF, bought in Morocco (0.43 million), I~vory Coast (0.43 million), Madagascar (0.34 million), Egypt (0.31 million), South Africa (0.28 million) and Tunisia (0.27 million). 7 1FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Manufactured and other products imported from Afrina (not counting foodstuffs which are listed separately) consist of cotton fabrics, a few items of clothing, wood articles, jewelry articles, rubber articles, handicraft items and collec- tor's items. Swiss Exports to Africa Regarding exports, we will not review Switzerland's trade with its 54 African clients. We shall examine only exports to the 25 ma3or clients, pointing out that the purchases made by tt-.ese countries amount to 2,352.7 million SF and represent 97.6 percent of the Swiss sales to the Black Continent. The figures given are, therefore, highly significant. We could have almost restricted our survey to the f ive top African clients of Switzerland--Nigeria, South Africa, Egypt, Algeria and Libya--which, in 1980, accounted for 1,766 million SF worth of goods representing 72.85 percent of all Swiss exports to that part of the world. Swiss sales to Af rica can be classified under 15 or so categories (in paren- theses, chapters of the NdB [Brussels listJ; figures rounded up in millions of Swiss francs): 1. Nonelectrical machinery and devices (84) 798 2. Chemical products (28 to 38) 575 3. Electrical machines and electrical material (85) 295 4. Watches and clocks (91) 134.5 5. Metals and metal goods (73 to 83) 118.5 6. Foodstuffs and related products (O1 to 04, 0.7 to 12, 15 to 24) 103.5 7. Textiles, clothing articles and accessories (50 to 67) 95 _ 8. Optical, phot~graphic, measuring and precision instruments (90) 85.5 9. Resins and plastic goods (39) 26 10. Paper and paper goods (47 to 49) 22 11. Precious metals, gems, jewelry, goldsmith articles (71) 20 12. Means of transportatinn (86 to 89) L9 13. Construction materials (68 to 70) 14. Musical instruments and sound equipment (92) 8 15. Rubber and rubber goods (40) 4 16. Wood and wooden goods (44 to 46) 3.6 17. Miscellaneous and unspecified 35.2 Outstanding Position of Textile Industry Machinery One can see the outstanding position occupied by nonelectrical machines and instruments (33.1 percent of all exports) and by chemical products (23.85 per- cent). Under the category of nonelectrical machines and instruments, there are two or three main types of goods. A detailed study of the purchases made by the six major African clients of Switzerland (for these machines)--South Africa, Nigeria, Algeria, Egypt, Libya and Cameroon--shows that their aggregated imr~~rts totaled 667.3 million SF distributed as follows: textile macY:inery, 347.18 million (52 percent); turbines and motors, 70.5 million (10.6 percent); machine tools, 8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040016-5 FOR OFF'ICIAL USE ONLY 38.95 million (5.84 percent); ptunps and powerdriven pumps, 29.21 million; packaging machines,~7.08 million; lifting and handling TP [expansion unknown] machines, mechanical diggers, 26.61 million; food industry machinery, 22.47 million; furnaces, air conditioning units, refrigerators, 16.67 million; machines for the pager and printing industry, 16.21 million; plumbing supplies, ~oints, braces, 15.44 million; office machines, 11.52 million; quarry machinery, 4.9 million; rolling mills, converters, 3.3 million; other unspecif ied equipment, 37.26 million. Textile machinery occupies a very strong position with 122.32 million SF worth of exports to Algeria; 102.43 million to Nigeria; 67.97 million to South Africa; 52.7 million to Egypt, and so on. These purchases cover a wide range of equip- ment. For instance, the following export orders went to Algeria (in millions - of Swiss francs) : Weaving looms, knitting and embroidery machines 57.40 Spinning machines 39.50 Washing, cleaning, drying, dyeing machines 20.87 Auxi].iary machines required by weaving looms, embroidery machines, etc 4.13 Sewing machines 0.02 Machines to work on leather 0.10 Besides the f our major buyers already mentioned, the best African buyers of Swiss textile machinery were Morocco (11.25 million), Tanzania (9.26 million), Zimbabwe (7.72 million), Kenya (6.08 million), Madagascar (5.52 million) and Cameroon (1.51 million). Turbines and motors were tnostly bought by Cameroon (18.12 million), Egypt (13.85 million), Nigeria (13.42 million), South Africa (12.17 mi113on), Libya (11.24 million), Sierra Leone (10.08 million), Liberia (2.72 million) and Ma.dagascar (1.66 million). . - Most a� ~he exports of machine tools went to South Africa (26.46 mill.ion), Egypt (~.26 million), and Nigeria (4.10 million). Chemical Products Chemical products (chapters 28 to 38 of the Brussels~ List [NdB]) were exported to many African countries (see Table CE-SS-F) but more particularly to Nigeria (116.45 million), South Africa (111.03 million)~ Egypt (75.5 million), Angola (40.44 million), Sudan (32.02 million) and Libya (24.61 million). Four categories of chemical products occupy a very strong position:.basic or- ganic compounds, coloring substances and disinfectants. Practically every country bought drugs but the biggest buyers were Nigeria (32.74 million), Angola (26.09 million), South Africa (24.4 million), Sudan (18.37 million), Libya (15.70 million) and Egypt (15.1 million). The organic compounds, ~for the most part diazine, azide, azoxid~ compounds, com- pounds with amide, amine and oxygenated functions, heterocyclic compounds, sul- fonamides, and others were purchased in large amounts by South Africa (34.28 million), Nigeria (33.99 million), Egypt (26.02 million), the Ivory Coast (8.05 million) and Morocco (6.66 million). g , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 FUR OFFICIAL USE ONI.Y Table CE-SS-F Purchases Made by the Top 25 African Clients of Switzerland of a Few Noteworthy Products (in millions of Swiss francs) Nonelec- Electrical Watches, Metals & Foodstuffs trical Chemicals Machinery & Clocks Goods and Re- Machinery (chapters Equipment . (chapter (chapter lated (chapter 84) 28-38 (chapter 85) 9.1) 73 to 83) Products South 181.6 111.03 95.05 28.86 19.84 2.54 - Nigeria 166.68 116.45 42.82 58.26 43.64 62.44 Algiera 152.53 18.32 21.73 2.24 15.35 0.96 Egypt 120.20 75.70 51.95 12.23 11.85 5.15 ~ Libya 26.17 24.61 40.17 9.29 11.33 9.31 Cameroon 20.15 16.44 1.61 0.64 1.31 1.88 Morocco 20.05 16.50 4.10 8.27 2.04 0.90 Kenya 17.35 16.51 3.96 2.77 2.01 0.35 Tunisia 13.29 7.29 2.79 0.98 2.02 1.14 Zimbabwe 11.21 1 0.22 0.62 0.58 0.02 Sierra Leone 11.07 .0.70 2.74 0.30 0.31 4.14 Tanzania 10.67 15.13 1.15 0.74 0.48 0.11 Madagascar 8.37 3.36 U.16 0.06 0.03 0.16 Ivory Coast 6.32 17.71 1.67 2.76 0.52 2.23 Liberia ~ 6.23 0.51 0.15 0.30 1.21 5.44 Zaire 4.85 10.04 0.96 0.48 1.06 1.47 Zambia 3.94 7.69 0.35 0.54 O.IO 0.03 Togo 3.78 0.30 20.56 0.08 . 0.27 0.05 Sudan 3.58 32.02 0.64 0.86 1.36 0.11 ~ Mozambique 2.24 16.80 0.12 0.05 0..40 0.02 Angola 2.14 40.44 0.43 1.01 0.38 4.98 - Ghana 1.67 16.59 0.39 0.23 0.69 0.07 Benin 1.50 2.46 0.41 Senegal 1.02 2.22 0.11 1.05 0.08 0.05 Guinea 0.74 3.23 0.58 1.01 2.33 Coloring substances went mainly to Nigeria (27.40 million), South Africa ~(27.2 million), Egypt (15.16 million), Algeria (5.67 million), Kenya (5.66 million), Morocco (5.27 million), the Ivory Coast (4.14 million). Finally, disinfectants were sold to Egypt (13.09 million), Angola (12.16 mi'.iion), Sudan (11.45 million), Nigeria (5.7 million), Libya (5.2 million) and South Africa (4.09 million). Some countries purchased significan,t quantities of perfumes or aromatic sub- stances: South Africa (10.37 million), Nigeria (9.42 million), Egypt (2.55 million). 10 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY � - Table CE-SS-F indicates the composition of African imports under the chapters of electrical equipment, watches, metals and metal goods, foodstuffs. Of the Swiss machinery and electrical equipment imported by Africa, the greatest de- mand was for two types of equipment--current generators and transfozmers, and circuit breakers. Here are a few examples (in millions of Swiss francs); Generators, etc. Circuit Breakers (85-01) (85-19) _ Countries South Africa 28.76 45.57 Nigeria 13.13 11.24 Egypt 11.83 23.18 Libya 14.51 7.83 Algeria 0.92 6.27 Radio equipment,partly for professional purposea, was also purchased chiefly by Libya (13.5 million SF). It should be noted that most of the f oodstuffs which Africa imported from Switzerland fall under Chapter 21 of the Brussels List (concentrated coffee and tea, beef broth, condiments, sauces and so on). Nigeria, for instance, - made purchases amounting to 51.21 mi113on SF, Liberia bought 5.32 million, Sierra Leone 4.04 million and Egypt 3.61 million. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982. 8796 CSO: 4719/466 11 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAG USE ONLY INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS ITALIAN TRADE WITH AFRICA REVIEWED Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS in French No 1886, 1 Jan 82 pp 11-14 [Excerpt] The following observations may be made with regard to Africa (Table COM-IT-E and Chart COM-IT-1): Italy's overall trade with this continent increased in total value by 36.06 percent over 1979; as a percentage of Italy's total foreign trade, it has gone from 9.57 to 10.66; the trade 3alance, however, which is still generally in Africa's favor, lost 3.7 points from 1979, with the percent of Italian imports covered by African exports to Italy fa113ng from 140.39 to 136,66 , Italian Imparts From Africa Crude Oil: 62.8 Perc:snt of Total Purchases Italian imports from Africa in 1980 can be broken down as follows (in billion lire) : 1. Fuel products 5,885 2. Nonfood and nonfuel raw materials 974 3. Food products, raw or processed 643 4. Semifinished or f inished manufactured - products (not~including food products), including: 1,771 Metallurgical products (1,110) Refined petroleum products (370) Chemical products (115) Textile and related products (81) Leather and hide products (38) Wood products (37) Construction materials (12) Paper proclucts 5. Imported or reimported mechanical products 43 Transport equipment (36) Machines and equipment (7) 6. Miscellaneous and indeterminate 44 12 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 _ FOR OFFICIAL US~ ONLY Table COM-IT-F gives the details of petroletun and coal purchases which repre- sent, in value, close to two-thirds of Italy's total imports from Africa (62,9 percent). Th e leading position of Libya, a former Italian colony which covers practically half of the peninsula's purchases of African petroleum, will be noted. The largest supplier of coal is South Africa, of course. COM-I T-D Italy's Principal Wor1d Customers in 1980 (and 1979) (Billion lire) Country 1980 1979 1. Wes t Germany 12,211.40 11,336.09 2. France 10,101.49 8~873.20 3. Great Britain 4,064.25 3,916,10 4. United States 3,544 3,876.84 5, Switzerland 2,939.35 2,561.81 6. Netherlands 2~461.63 2~746.68 7. Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union 2,219.26 2~d46.81 8. Libya 2,195.17 1,597.88 9. Austria 1,787.81 1,506.53 10. Saudi Arabia 1,781.82 1,563.27 11. Spain 1,270.84 1,107.08 12. Algeria 1,109.06 888,7g 13. USSR 1,091.99 1,014.63 14. Yugoslavia 1,046.24 1,037.69 15. Greece 1,021.87 1,009.96 16. Iraq 813.58 558,39 17. Sweden 711.46 572.61 18. Japan 605.84 650.11 19, Nigeria 589.71 381.83 20. Egypt 565.23 431.38 21, Argentina 543.52 395.10 22. South Africa 507.76 268.28 23. Venezuela 498.15 354.86 24, Iran 490.72 342.37 25. Denmark 462.29 446.84 13 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R004500044016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY , COM-IT-E ~ Italy's Principal African Trade Partners in 1980 (and 1979) ~ Billion lire) Ct~stomers (Billion lire) ' Suppliers ( 1980 1979 .1980 1979 - Libya 2,981.79 2,144.45 Libya 2,195.17 1,597.88 Egypt. 1,350.76 894.54 Al.geria 1,109.06 888�~$ South Africa 1,261.62 1,393.52 Nigeria 589.71 381.83 Nigeria 822.95 380.41 Egypt 565.23 431.38 Algeria 608.58 439.74 South Africa 450.98 288�38 Tunisia 530.21 342.56 Tunisia 2p2,11 216.20 Ivory Coast 389.68 308.40 Morocco 153.31 112.37 Congo 218.75 110.68 Somalia Zambia 151.87 107.38 Ivory Coast 96.59 75.17 Morocco 138,09 107.05 Kenya ~4.10 57.99 Zaire 130.27 98.81 Ethiopia 71.18 53.50 Gabon 109.95 18.03 Canary Islands 65.68 59.86 Cameroon 106.57 76.57 Cameroon 61.67 52.55 Liberia 97.53 71.53 Zaire 61.03 34.38 Sudan 86.61. 85.73 Angola 56.71 37.13 361 Billion Lire in Coffee and Cocoa Purchases Second, we will examine~raw or processed f ood products (643 billion lire), although' they are normally found only in third position after nonfood raw materials (974 billion). This will enable us to free the "raw materials" sector of any items for human or animal consumption, including manufactured products. Three categories of food products must be distinguished: 1) raw agricultural products, 442 billion lire; 2) procesaed agricultural products, 143 billion; - and 3) raw or processed animal products, 58 billion. Among the raw agricultural products, two categor3es are conspicuous, coffee and cocoa: coffee (275 billion lire); cocoa (86); tropical fruits (29); grain (13.2); dried vegetables (10.4); oil seeds (6.3); fresh vegetables (5.8); citrus fruit (5.1); tea, spices (1.9); temperate zone fruit (1.6); and oth er miscellaneous products (7.7). The principal African suppliers of coffee and cocoa to Italy are shown in Table COM-IT-G. The Ivory Coast is the leader by far for both products. After the Ivory Coast, the countries which supplied the most unroasted coffee to Italy in 1980 were: Zaire, Cameroon, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia and Uganda. The principal suppliers of cocoa, besidea the Ivory Coast, were: Nigeria, Benin, Cameroon, Ghana and Togo. 1~+ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COM-IT-F Italian Imports of African Energy Products in 1980 Billion Crude Oil ' Tons lire Libya 11,689,788 2,690.95 ~ Egypt 6,069,086 1,196.03 Nigeria 3,335,305 766.25 Algeria 2,212,353 480.78 Tunisia 1,422,950 321.96 = Congo 1,077,569 202.04 Gabon '408,884 84.98 Cameroon 54,498 8.23 Total 26,270,433 5,758.22 Coal Tons Billion Iire South Africa 3,058,495 120,05 Liberia 52, 025 5. 76 Morocco 8,140 A.80 Total 3,118,660 I26.61 ~ropical fruits (53,300 metric tons) basically came from Somalia (26,331 metric tons of bananas) and the Ivory Coast (24,312 metr3c tons of miscellaneous fruit: pineapple, coconuts, cashews). Other signif icant suppliers: Tunisia (1,121 metric tons of dates), Madagascar (675 metric tons), Cameroon (310 metric tons), Mozambique~(175 metric tons),,Algeria (156 metric tons), etco Grain mostly came from South Africa (buckwheat: 98,267 metric tona); dried vegetables (27,650 metric tons) from Morocco (16,855 metric tons) and from Tunisia (9,763 metric tons); oil seeds (1I,890 metric tons) from Sudan (5,890 metric tons),from Gambia (4,199 metric tons) and from Egypt (1,349 metric tons); fresh vegetables (8,220 metric tons),from Morocco (5,715 metric tons), from Egypt (1,812 metric tons) and from Tunisia (626 metric tons); citrus fruit (10,280 metric tons), from South Africa (7,562 metric tons) and Swaziland (2,717 metric tons); tea and spices (1,827 million lire) from Madagascar (1,383), from Tunisia (232), from Morocco (146), and from Egypt (65); temperate zone fruit (1,500 metric tons) from Egypt (738 metric tons), South Africa (502 metric tons) and Morocco (260 metric tons). Italian purchases of African processed food products amounted to approximately 150 billion lire, including lll~billion lire in vegetable o ils, 15 in sugar and sugar proc~ucts, and 9 in canned fruits and vegetables. ~ 15 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CO:~i-IT-G Principal African Suppliers of Cof�ee and Cocoa to Italy in 1980 Coffee Cocoa Metric Millinn Metric Million Country tons lire tons lire Ivory Coast 23,712 81,201.4 12,195 `36,013.7 Zaire 17,400 53,760.9 340 717.2 Cameroon 16,653 52,830.1 1,979 5,419.2 Kenya 6,232 21,436.2 Tanzania 5,056 18,051.3 Ethiopia 5,189 17,454.8 � Uganda 4,409 13,721 Madagascar 1,611 5,017.5 74 212.1 CAR 1,347 4,185.9 Burundi 633 2,002.9 Congo 607 1,868.4 228 624.5 . Rwanda ~~59 1,355.1 Togo 230 743.6 1,306 3,653 Sao Tome 115 293.4 Gabon 78 231.4 513 1,353.3 Angola 24 68.9 Liberia 23 68.8 50 154,7 Nig,eria 8,188 25,450.3 B~ ~ 1,984 6,188.7 Ghana 1,936 5,259.4 Olive oil came from Tunisia (.79.3 biil:Lon l.ire), Morocco (12.65) and Algeria; other oils ~(peanut, palm, etc.) came from the I~�ory Coast (9.9), Senegal (3.6), Benin (2), Cameroon (1.4), Zaire (1), Gambia and Mali. Sugar or sugar products were purchased from Reunion (6.6 b:l.llion lire of sugar), Cameraon (4.6 billion lire of sugar products) and the Ivory :.oast (3.7 billion lire of sugar products). Canned fruit or ~uices came from ~he Ivory Coast (4.1 billion) and Kenya (1.8). ~gypt sold Italy 6,774 metr~c tons of long grain husked rice for 2,058.7 mi113on lire. There were no imports of wheat flour (grown in North Africa), miscellaneous grains or related prodt:cts. In the area of animal products, the largest purchases involved canned fish, (8.5 billion lire) supplied by Morocco (6.2), Ivory Coast (1.9) and Cape Verde (0.4). There were no imports of canned meat or dairy products. ~ Imports of Nonfood Raw Materiala Nonfood and nonfuel raw materials (974 bi113on lire) include f ive categories in particular: 1) timber and cork, 246 billion lire; 2) nonmetal minerals, 244 billion; 3) metal-bearing orea, I89, billion; 4) natura]. textile fibers, 132 billion; 5) leather and hides, 110 billion. ~6 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-04850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY _ The principal African suppliers of counnon and rare timber in 1980 were: ~ Ivory Coast (199,065 million lire), Congo (11,431), Cameroon (11,277), - South Africa (8,119), Gabon (6,261), Ghana (3,000), Equatorial Guinea (8~'), ' and Liberia (563) . In the nonmetal mineral category are found phosphates, sulfur, sea salt, clay, pumice, abrasives, asbestos~ mica, fluorspar, etc. The principal suppliers of these vari.ous mater3als were: Libya (139.2 billion lire) for 1,102,831 metric tons of inethane gas, South Africa (43.4 bil'.ion), Morocco (43.3), Togo (6.7), Liber3a (5.8), and Tunisia (2.7). ' _ Metal-bearing ores prima.rily included iron ore (125.6 billion lire) from: Liberia (71.64 billion for 3,116,336 metric tons); Mauritania (36.74 billi~n; - 1,957,997 metric tons); South Africa (14.04 billion; 699,971 metric tona); Algeria (2.88 billion; 243,673 ~netric tone). The other most imported metal-bearing ores were aluminum, c~~per, manganese, zinc and tin (63.5 billion) primarily from South.Africa (17.8 billion), Guinea (15.9)~ Gabon (10.8), ?~t~orocco (9.5), Algeria (6.3), Tunisia (2.2), etc. Leath er and hides came from a large group of countries (29 different auppliers), but particularly from South Africa (40.9 billion lire), Nigeria (17.9), Ethiopia (13.6), Kenya (6.1) and Somalia (4.4). Cotton, Sisal and Flax The other nonfuel, nonfood raw materials imported from Africa were natural textile fibers: cotton, sisal 3nd flax. Purchases of cotton (128.7 billion lire) primarily involved Sudan (43.6 billion; 21,212 metric tons), Egypt (35,94; 14,636), South Africa (26.36; 14,450), Zambia (3.86; 2,376), Tanzania (1.52; 1,256), Cameroon (1.43; 914), Ivory Coast (1.33; 825), Upper Volta (1.08; 749), Zimbabwe, Burundi, Ethiopia, the Congo, the CAR, Botswana, Senegal, Zaire and Nigeria. (A total of 60,275 metric tons). Purchases of sisal (3.34 b311ion) had only two origins: Kenya: 2,646 metric tons, 1,240.7 million lire and Tanzania: 2.572 metr3c tons, 1,598.9 million lire. The flax came from Egypt (1,398 metric tons; 1,444.7 million lire). South Africa is the largest suppl.ier of raw wool (10,052 metric tons; 29.65 billion lire). Tunisia contributed a small amount (20 metric tons; 89.7 million lire). Rubber (15,120 metric tons; 12.7 billion lire) was supplied by the Ivory Coast (4,941 metric tons), Liberia (4,830 metric tons), Zaire (3,891 met~ic tons), Cameroon (1,290 metric tons) and Nigeria (168 metric tons). Almost all gum (2,340 million lire) came from Sudan (2,235 million) and Senegal (98 million). 1,771 Billion Lire in Industrial Products Semt-finished or finished industrial products constituted a significant share of Italy's imports from Africa (18.9 percent or 1,771 billion lire). However, it must be noted that most of the purchases were in common or precious metals and refined petroleinn products. 17 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-44850R000500040016-5 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY Purchases of gold, silver and platinum from South ~~frica (practically the only ' supplier) amounted to 712.37 billion lire. Import~ of copper and alloys (230 billion lire) came Zambia (143.6), Zaire (59.5), South Africa (24.1) and various other countries (Tanzania, Burundi, Uganda). Lead (39.9) purchased by Italy was of South African (15.5)~ Moroccan (14.5), Tunisian (6.5), ~ Zambian (2.6), or Libyan (0.7) or igin. Nic kel (23.8) came from South Africa (22.5) and Zimbabwe (1.2). Other nonfexrous metals represented 16 billion . lire in purchases. As for ferrous metals (pig iron, 3ron and steel in billets~ bars and sections~ and their alloys, Italian imports amounted to 82.5 billion 13re. ~ Ref ined petroleum products (light, gas, oil and fuel products) represented 370 billion lire in imports. The ma~or sources of the purchases were the following: Libya (134.7 billion), Algeria (96,7), Egypt (80.2), Kenya (17.7), Tanzania (7), I~~ory Coast (5.8), Gabon (5.2), Zaire (4.9), Liber3a (3.6), Mozambique (3.6), Somalia (3), etc. Chemical Products Imports of ~hemical products (171 b illion lire) principally involved: miscellaneous inorganic products (50.6 billion lire) from Tunisia (phosphoric acid: 116,808 metric tons, 25.3 billion; and altuninum flouride: 6,210 metric tons; 4.73 billion lire), from Morocco (59,479 metric tons, 12.28 billion lire of phosphoric acid), from Guinea (4.06 bi~lion), from Libya (1.76), and from South Africa (1.28); fertilizers (33.3 billion) imported from Tun3sia in particular (162,445 metric tons; 32.68 billion); miscellaneous organic products (19.9 billion) from Egypt (10.21), Algeria (8.8) and South Africa (0.85); dyes - and tanning liquors (5.02 billion), South Africa; insecticides, disinfectants, etc. (1.5 billion), Kenya (1.4); and plastics (1.3 billion) from South Africa. As for textile industry products (81 billion lire), most were purchased from South Af rica, thread and cloth (28.3); Egypt, cotton cloth (7.4); Tunisia, cotton, wool or synthetic articles (20.5); and Mauritius, hosiery (6.4). Other industrial products imported from africa involved particularly: the leather and hide industry, 38 billion lire; the lumber industry, 37 billion; construction materials, 12 billion; and the paper industry, 8 billion. ~ Transactions between Africa and Italy amounting to 36 billion lire involving . transport equipment (including 9.25 b illion in shipping equipment from Liber3a ; and 7.95 billion in road equipment from South Africa), and 7 billion lire in . I purchases of machines and equipment, are noted, but a certain amount of these transactions seem to be r~imports. ~ i I ~ . I ~ ~ ~ . 18 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ . APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Italian Exports to Africa 98 Percent Industrial Products A1~*.~st all of the Italian exports to Africa consis.ted of industrial products: 98 percent of the total value. Agricultural and mineral raw materials did not exceed 66.2 billion lire and were distributed as follows: agricultural praducts, 36; animal husbandry, 6.4; forestry, 0.4; f ishing and hunting, 0.2; mezal bearing ores, 0.5; nonmetal minerals, 21.9. For agricultural products, the 36.8 billion lire included grain (13.03), fruit (9.9), vegetables (6.94), spices (1.1), miacellaneous products (5.83). _ Nonmetal materials, especially marble, moatly went to Libya (7.22), Algeria (5.68) and Egypt (2.4). The breakdown of exports of industrial products is ae follows (in bi113on lire); Machinery 3, 3(13 .5 Chemical products 1,035.5 ~ - Metallurgical products 629 Food industry products 392 Textiles and related products 379.2 Construction materials 281.4 Lumber products 187~g Paper industry products 56.1 Animal or vegetable processed waste 42.g . , Printing. industry products 20.6 Alcohol and tobacco 9.3 ' � Leather and hides g Miscellaneous and indeterminate 375.6 Under machinery the~e are four categories: machines and equipment, 1,407.5 billion ' lire; optical, watchmaking, precision and measuring instrimments, 128.2 billion; ~ transport equipment, 1,079.3 billion; other products such as hardware, tools, nails, screws and bolts, etc., 688.5 billion. Machines and Equipment Nonelectric machines and equipment (1,088.12 billion lire) were exported much more than electrical equipment (319.36 billion). Table COM-IT-H shows the purchases of Italy's top 20 African customers in these categories. . As far as nonelectric machines and equipment are concerned, the breakdown of sales by type of equipment: is rather d3fficult to establish, since almost ~9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 50 percent of the equipment exported is not spec3ficaliy c:?.assified. Here is the classification supplied by Italian statistics (in billion 13re): --Machines for mineral mining and processing (107'l: Libya (25.91), Algeria (17.76), Nigeria (12.91), Angola (9.4), Ethiopia (6.46), South Africa (6.34). --Machines for the textile and clothing ind~~stries (63.94): Algeria (20.81), South Africa (9.94), Egypt (8.67), Morocco (7.91). --Machine tools for metalworking (47.34): South Africa (20.89), Libya (5.63), Algeria (5.05), Tunisia (4.14), Nigeria (3.29). --Nonelectric motors (39.91): Algeria (12.65), Morocco (9.01), Tunisia (7.09), _ Libya (6.43). --M[achine tools, oth er than for metal (35.99): S~uth Africa (5.28), Egypt (5.12), t~.tgeria (4.24), Tunisia (4.2), Nigeria (3.8). --Agrlcultural machines and equipment (26.29): ~.ibya (9.22), Algeria (3.45), Nigeria (3.23), Egypt (3.O:i) . --Ma.chines and equipment for the food industry (17.5): Algeria (7.56), Tunisia (4.08), Libya (1.32). --Machines for paper and cardboard product3on (9.17): Libya (2.6), Kenya (2.13), ' Algeria (1.85j. --Ball bearings (5.76): South Africa (2.39). --Machines for the printing industry (4.91): South Africa (1.39), Egypt (0.83). --Other nonelectrical machines and equipment (501.32): Libya (126.39), Algeria (90.69), Nigeria (51.83), South Africa (51.12), Egypt (50), Tunisia (27.06), Morocco (20.78), Iv~ry Coast (14.87). --Pieces and spare parts for nonelectrical machines and equipment (228.94): Libya (51.43), Algeria (31.99), Nigeria (31.11), South Africa (24.65), Egypt (22.86), Morocco (17.41), Tunisia (14.26). 20 FOR OFFIC'?'AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COM-IT-H - The Top 2~ ~rican Purchasers of Italian Machines and Equipment in 1980 (in billion lire) Precision and Measuring, Nonelectrical Electrical Watchmaking, ~ Machines and Equip~ment and Office Country Ec;uipment and Mach3nes Equipment Libya 237.29 99.~6 45,80 Algeria 196.39 38.38 11.50 South Africa 126.49 31.39 25.43 _ N~geria 110.04 38.46 7.95 Egypt ~ 103.19 39.74 9.02 Tunisia 67.80 21.11 4.03 Morocco 63.02 14.11 ~ 3.20 Ivory Coast ~20.90 3.82 0.43 Angola. 19.48 1.71 4.61 Ethiopia 15.52 2.45 0.46 Kenya 14.49 1.98 1.82 Cameroon 13.35 1.35 0.47 Tanzania 1%13?, 1.27 0.95 Somalia 11.83 7.55 1.01 Canary Islands 10.30 3.63 0.82 Zaire 5.71 10.26 3.14 Sudan 5.I4 0.63 . 0.72 Sen egal 4.72 0.76 2.46 Reunion 4.47 0.75 0.26 . Gabon 4.40 0.13 0.06 - In the category of electr ical equipment,. exports of telecommunications equipment and parts dominate (70.57 b illion lire): Libya (22.45), Nigeria (13.01), ~ South Africa (6.71), Egypt (6.28), Tunisia (6.19). They are followed by motors and generators (63.19 billion lire): Libya (20.46)~, Algeria (11:24), Nigeria (10.85), Morocco (6.65), Egypt (6,53). Also noted are 185.60 billion lire of exports of other electrical equipment, parts and pieces: Libya (56.45), Egypt (26.93), Algeria (25.84), South Africa (20.68), Nigeria (14.60), Tunisia (12.10). In the group of equipment whose exports are tabulated in the last column of Table COM-IT-H, precision and measuring instruments occupy the first place (89.64 bil.lion lire). This equipment was sold primarily to Libya (44.01). ~ Office equipment, in second place (37.25 billion), was supplied to 29 African countries, but in large quantities to South Africa (17.09). Sales of watchmaking equipment were weak: 1.33 billion (purchased by eight countries). 21 FOR OP'F[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044416-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLI' Transport Equipment The 20 top African purchasers of Italia.n transport equipment are shown in Table COM-IT-I, along with the amount of the purchases. Total exports of this equipment in 1980 represented 1,079.25 billion lire: 83.5 percent road equipment, 16.5 percent other. Sales of road equipment (902.72 billion lire) are distributed as follows (in billion lire): --Automobiles (private cars and conunercial vehicles), 415.20, including: Libya (114.53), Algeria (52.67), Somalia. (44.95), South Africa (37.53), Egypt (35.26), Nigeria (23.99). --Tractors, 166.43, including: South Africa (60,86) and Nigeria (58.79). --Motorcycles and parts, 20.18, including: Nigeria (7.68) and South Africa ~ (4.19) . --Bicycles and parts, 6.86. --Spare parts for automobiles, 294.05, Algeria (80.74), Libya (55.42), Nigeria (~:5.91), South Africa (19.35). Exports of transport equipment other than road equipment were as follows (in billion lire): ~ --Railway equipment, 8.02. Only Algeria imported a significant quantity (4.90). --Aeronautical equipment, 91.54, including: Libya (39.48), Somalia (19.12), Tunisia (12.32), Zaire (10.78). --Shipping equipment, 76.97,.including: Liberia (26.91), Libya (22.48), Ghana (14.66). Italy exported 688.5 billion lire of other "metal-mechanical" equipment (in billion lire): Pig iron 5.42 Tools & instruments for handicrafts and agriculture 28.41 Bolts, screws, small hardware 15.78 Miscellaneous 638.84 . to Libya (295.03), Algeria (84.46), Nigeria (59.48), Egypt (43.51). 22 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 ~OR OFFIClAL USE ONLY COM-IT-I The Top 20 African Purchasersof Italian Transport Equipment in 1980 (Ranked according to automob ile imports) (in billion lir~e) Two- Rail- Wheel Autos way Aero. Shipping Country Vehicles Tractors & Parts Equip� EQuiP� Equip. Libya 1.48 10.02 169.95 39.48 22.48 ~ Algeria 2.13 11.05 133.41 4.90 0.21 1.77 Nigeria 7.88 58.79 69.90 0.12 2.57 Egypt 2..55 0.49 56.88 0.06 5.02 South Africa 5.64 60.86 56.88 3.44 0.12 Somal.ia 0.30 1.77 53.33 0.04 19.12 0.38 Tunisia 0.94 4.49 34.07 1.02 12.32 0.66 Ethiopia 0.09 1 21.71 Morocco 0.68 4.18 19.98 0.14 4.97~ 0.31 Zambia 0.69 13.76 0.29 Tanzania 0.04~ 0,75 12.66 0.16 Canary Islands 0.57 0.25 12.64 0.07 0.05 Angola 0.03 0.16 9.77 0.05 0.07 Kenya 0.21 5.77 9.64 0.22 Zaire 0.53 0.56 6.32 10.78 Uganda 0.12 4.11 Ivory Coast 1.05 2.56 3.09 0.91 Sudan 0.09 3.09 0.17 Rwanda 0.06 2.69 0.10 Reunion 0,33 2.47 Sales to Africa of Italian nonmachine, nonf ood manufactured products were mentioned above, but several details must be clarified here,~although not stressed: --Products of the chemical industry in general, 1,035.5 billion lire, including: petroleum derivatives, 610.3; plastics, 90.71; pharmaceuticals, 56.55; dyes, 27.24; soaps, detergents, etc.,.23.33; chemical fertilizers, 21.02; chemical products for agricultural use, 14.88; synthetic rubber, 12.38; perfume products, 8.23; ink, adhesives, etc., 7.39; explosives, matches, 3.84;.other organic chem3cal products, 20.86; ~ther inorganic products, 45.66; miscellaneous chemical products, 78.71. --Metallurgical products: 629 billion.lire, including: f errous metals, 517.95; Libya (221.67), Algeria (104.48), Tunisia (51.69), Nigeria (50.27); aluminum and aluminum alloys, 16.27; copper, 23.18; other nonferrous metals, 71.54. 23 . FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFF[C1AL USE ONLY --Textiles and related products: 379.2 billion lire, including: thread, 55.05; cloth, 51.10; hosiery, 34.73; fabric other than for clothing, 24.02; clo*hing and accessories, 213.37. Products of miscellaneous manufacturing industries (375.4 billion lire) do not all fall under specif ic categories, but 108.76 billion included electric cable and wire, electric bulbs and musical instruments. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982. 9693 CSO: 4719/444 , ~ 2~+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 FOR ~FFICIAL USE ONLY INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS BELGIAN, LUXII~IBOURG TRADE WITH AFRICA REVIEWED Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS in French No 1885, 25 Dec 81 pp 3415-3418 [Excerpts] The table below allows one to determine the distribution of the UEBL [ Economic Union] foreign trade among the various continents (figures given in billions of Belgian francs): Imports Exports ~ 1978 1979 1980 1978 1979 1980 Total 1,526.04 1,769.5 2,096.12 1,410.26 1,648.13 1,886.14 Europe 1,172.10 1,336.1 1,518.45 1,145.11 1,374.38 1,530.25 Africa 60.71 83.79 94.77 60.11 65.43 87.42 America 127.4 165.97 218.12 82.80 90.0 95.86 Asia i~7.37 173.61 253.22 106.69 103.93 114.93 Oceania 7.45 8.83 10.1 4.62 4.24 ~�2 Various 1.01 1.19 1.47 10.93 10.15 14.21 Trade exchanges between the UEBL and continents other than Europe represent the ~ following percentages of the total transactions: Imports Exports 1978 1979 1980 1978 1979. 1980 America 8.35 9.38 10.4 5.9 ~ 5.5 5.1 Asia 10.31 9.81 12.1 7.8 6.3 6.1 Africa 3.98 4.74 4.5 4.3 3.97 4.6 Oceania and various 0.49 0.57 0.5 0�.3 0.9 0.3 25 - FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY The 12 Maior Partners of the ~JEBL in 1979 (figures in billions of Belgian francs) Suppliers Clients 1) FRG 350.3 1) FRG 321.9 2) Holland 250 2) France 268.4 3) France 249.7 3) Solland 231.8 4) Great Britain 127.8 4) Great Britain 101.7 5) United States 116.9 5) Italy 64.5 6) Italy . 61.2 6) United States 61.7 7) Saudi Arabia 58.9 7) Switzerland 47.03 8) Switzerland 35.2 8) Sweden 28�2 9) Japan 29.8 9) Denmark 16.6 10) Zaire 28.1 10) Algeria 14.8 11) Sweden 27.1 11) Saudi Arabia 14.2 12) USSR 17.4 12) Spain and Algeria (equal) 17.4 The 12 Maior Partners of the UEBL in 1980 .(figures in billions of Belgian francs) Suppliers Clients 1) FRG 412.1 1) FRG 410.1 2) Holland 343.2 2) France 366.2 3) France 302.8 3) Holland 286.6 4) Great Britain 141.5 4) Great Britain 160. 5) United States 160.6 5) Italy 104.2 6) Saudi Arabia 121.1 6) Switzerland 72�1 7) Italy 75.2 7) United States 63.2 8) Switzerland 57.6 8) Sweden 30.7 9) Japan 41.9 9) Denmark 22�5 10) Zaire 36.2 10) USSR 18.1 11) Sweden 30.5 11) Nigeria 17.5 12) USSR 32.3 12) Spain and Algeria 17.4 Although steadily growing,~the volume of trade between the UEBL ar.d the African con- tinent is still low--4.5 percent of the union's purchases all over the world, and 4.6 percent of its sales. One notices that the total value of the UEBL's trans- actions with its top partner is 4.5 times higher than its transactions with the entire African continent (South Africa included). Trade Between the UEBL and Africa The policy followed by Belgium and Luxembourg in their trade with Africa countries is the result of two basic features. First, there is the legacy of the colonial period; because of it, Belgium has large interests in Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi despite nationalization measures, particularly in the mining companies of Shaba Province. This channeling of foreign trade toward former colonies is now curtailed by Zaire's financial difficulties. 26 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAI. USE ONLY - Second, there is the fact that, af:ter making several attempts to penetrate the African market--some more successful than others--Belgium has considerably increased its activities in the three countries that have the best development potential or the most prosperous financial situation, meaning Nigeria, Libya, and Algeria. Algeria and Nigeria were among the world's 12 top clients of the UEBL in 1980. In these countries, Belgian companies conduct their operations mainly in the sectors of public works and construction, engineering, and transportation. On the other hand, these three countries provide a good part of the UEBL's supplies of oil and natural gas. Overall, the UEBL's imports from Africa are marked by the predominance of a si~gle indus~rial sector. It is the nonferrous industry in the case of Zaire, phosphates for Morocco, and textiles for Tunisia. Liberia sells diamonds and nonferrous metals to the UEBL. A large portion of the UEBL's sales to Africa consists of prodacts from its metal- transfor.ming industry (such as automobiles and other transport vehicles, and the iron and steel industry) and of products from its chemical industry. Imports From Africa Over SO percent of the UEBL's imports from Africa fall under three large categories of commodities: mineral products, including petroleum products, worth 28,297,760,000 Belgian francs and representing 29.9 percent of all imports from Africa; common metals and goods made of these metals, worth 18,656,470,000 and representing 19.7 percent; gems and precious metals, worth 5,896,000,000 or 6.2 percent. Other groups of some importance are: textile materials and goods, worth 3,144.18 million (3.3 percent of the imports); products from the plant kingdom, mostly food products worth 2,515.34 million (2.7 percent); processed food products, beverages, tobacco worrh 2,096.12 million (~.2 nercent). These products make up 64 percent of all of the purchases in Africa by the UEBL. The Top 20 African Suppliers of the UEBL (figures in millions of Belgian francs) 1980 1979 1978 1977 1) Zaire 36,155.4 28,072.8 24,134.3 22,684.8 2) South Africa 12,967 12,498.8 10,894.7 10,584.7 3) Nigeria 12,715.5 15,472 7,218.8 6,470.8 4) Algeria 6,070.2 3,972.1 2,282.1 2,533.4 5) Morocco 4,087.8 3,080.9 2,827.3 3,312.2 6) Liberia 2,172.7 2,272.3 1,855.3 985 7) Tunisia 2,067.3 1,645.0 1,270.5 1,324.6 8) Ivory Coast 1,750.3 1,521.6 1,157.4 1,197.9 9) Libya 1,735.6 2,859.6 366.3 678.5 10) Zambia 1,681.7 1,647. 782.2 1,744.4 11) Egypt 1,611.2 929.4 1,562.8 1,537. 27 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Table continued 1980 1979 1978 1977 12) Congo 1,367.3 523.3 286.2 242.6 13) Cameroon 1,072.9 1,523.3 855.7 783.9 14) Gabon 990.5 583.7 37.2 246.6 15) Burundi 807.3 529.1 526.9 299.7 16) Mauritania 710.1 721.9 345.0 785.3 17) Ghana 708.4 441.2 340. ~ 578.4 18) Mali 685.8 22.7 11. 11.9 19) Togo 649.3 323.9 250.5 314.4 20) Tanzania 607.2 981.5 416.2 568.1 Mineral products purchased in Africa are mostly energy producing: hydrocarbons, coal, and coke. The main suppi.iers of hydrocarbons are Nigeria, with 1,591,955.6 tons (12.03 billion Belgian francs); Algeria, 623,829 tons (5.5 billion); Libya, 206,261.3 tons (1.7 billion); Gabon, 119,903.1 tons (878.9 million); Angola, 35,597~.3 tons (282.6 million). Coal comes from South Africa, which suppJ.ies 2,092,046 tons (worth 2.6 billion Belgian francs); no coal was imported from Zaire in 1980. Next in the list are the metal ores. Iron ore comes from: Liberia, 1,269,125 tons (832.2 million); Ma.uritania, 882.455 tons (700.2 million); Algeria, 805,253 tons (441.5 million); South Africa, 343.250 tons (254.4 million). In 1980, overall imports of iron ore dropped by 22 percent compared to 1979. This decline applies to all four countries. Manganese ore comes from South Africa, 122,097 tons (214.8 mil'lion); Gabon (trans- , ported through the Congo), 63,467 tons (128.2 million); Ghana, 13,908 tons (28 million); Zaire, 33,634 tons (68.4 million). Lead ore comes from Morocco, 5,528 tons (137.6 million), as does zinc ore, 475 tons (4.1 million). Most of the phosphate comes from Morocco, which accounts for 1,450,073 tons (2.5 billion Belgian francs), but it is also imported from Tunisia, 45,161 tons (47.6 million), and from Togo, 213,815 tons (418.5 million). It should be noted that 1,983.5 tons of ceramic clay were imported from Mozambique, , but this was much less than the amount imported in 1979 (down by 54 percent in terms of tons). Common metals and metal go~ds imported by the UEBL from Africa involve only some specific metals (copper, iron, nickel, aluminum) and the suppliers are few in num- ber. Most of the purchases (over 90 percent) consist of copper from Zaire, 253,546.5 tons (16 billion Belgian francs), South Africa, 43,426.5 tons (3.2 billion), and Zambia, 21,533.2 tons (1.5 billion). Ferrous products come from Egypt, which provides 6,956 tons of sheet metal (71.6 million), and from South Africa, which supplies 8,~39 tons (220.4 million) of inetal bars and sections, and particularly alloys. 28 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY In 1980, the amount of aluminum and aliuninum goods purchased by the UEBL increased sharply. These purchases were ma3e in Ghana, 10,052 tons (512.3 million); in Egypt, 1,271 tons (66 million); and in Zaire (16 tons). Purchases of precious metals, gems, jewels, and coins represent 5,112,820,000 Belgian francs and were ~ostly diamonds. It should be noted that no purchases were made in the Central African Republic in 1980 under this category. These purchases are as follows (in millions of Belgian francs): South Africa, 3,259.3; Congo, 1,001.4; Sierra Leone, 372.3; Tanzania, 234.2; Mauritius Island, 99.1; Tunisia, _ 88.3; Ghana, 38.5; Liberia, 15.4; Burundi, 4.3 (only coins). Let us point out that the products known as tropical and Mediterranean products, which represent, as a rule, the largest part of the purchases made by European countries in Africa, account for less than 10 percent of the UEBL's total purchases in that continent. In the case of the uni~n, Africa is chiefly a supplier of raw materials for its industry--and particularly for its metal industry. Purchases of fruit amount to some 1.4 billion Belgian francs. Purchases made in South Africa totaled 50,150 tons and included 22,361 tons of citrus fruit (346.6 million Belgian francs), 19,512 tons of potatoes (443.5 million), 3,553 tons of pears (93.9 million), and 3,231.2 tons of grapes (151.2 million). Morocco supplied 15,911 tons of citrus and other fruits (238.4 million); the Ivory Coast, 4,660.5 tons of tropical fruits (107.5 million); and Swaziland, 507.8 tons of citrus fruits (8.5 million). ~ The UEBL buys ~its supplies of coffee mainly from six countries, and the total amount purchased was 7,648 tons. The purchases are distributed as follows: Kenya with 2,654 tons (322.9 million Belgian francs); Zaire with 1,652.6 tons (153.8 million); Cameroon with 1,512.5 tons (151.4 million); Uganda with 768.7 tons (72.8 million); Ethiopia with 667.3 tons (74.7 million); Burundi with 392.9 tons (40.1 million). A total of 27 million Belgian francs were spent in purchases of spices from Mada- gascar (24.7 million) and Rwanda. Imports of cocoa and cocoa-flavored products are rather low. They are worth 780.5 million Belgian francs and come from the Ivory Coast, with 3,813.4 tons; Nigeria, with 1,886.4 tons; Zaire; with 1,137.3 tons; Ghana, with 590.6 tons; Togo, with 465.1 tons. Grain imports worth 152.3 million Belgian francs come from Tanzania (15,654.4 tons), Sudan (5,980.3 tons), Morocco (2,401.4 tons); 766.7 tons of rice come from Egypt (6.2 million). ~ Imports of pulses from Tanzania, which were particularly high in 1979 (34,739 tons), - amounted to only 8,301 tons in 1980. The amount purchased in Morocco also dropped sharply--from 3,133 tons in 1979 to 1,673.3 tons in 1980. On the other hand, 2,945.8 tons of pulses were purchased from Ethiopia, 3,575.2 tons from the Canary Islands, 927.6 tons from Kenya, and 287.4 tons from Egypt. 29 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLY - Overall, purchases of pulses accounted for 252.9 million Belgian francs, compared to 414 million in 1979. Vegetable oils (worth 156 million Belgian francs) were purchased from South Africa, 1,690.9 tons; the Ivory Coast, 2,029.2 tons; Senegal, 1,812.3 tons; Zaire, 1,771 tons; Morocco, 40.8 tons. It should be noted that 270.7 million Belgian francs were spent to purchase pharmaceutical plants and cinchona bark. They were purchased in the following countries: Cameroon, Zaire, Rwanda, and Burundi. Several sugar-producing countries sold molasses. These countries are: Mauritius Islar.i (3,823.2 tons), Madagascar (8,862.7 tons), Kenya (5,390.2 tons), and Sudan (1,v97.9 tons). ~ Qilcake was bought from Sudan (3,158.9 tons), Zaire (1,489.8 tons), and Ghana (180 tons). The North African countries seTl wine to the UEBL. The value of these sales is divided as follows: 136.4 million Belgian francs for Tunisia, 50.8 million for Morocco, and 21..1 million for Algeria. lhere are six major suppliers of raw or manufactured tobacc:o: South Africa, 12,084.1 tons; Cameroon, 1,060.2 tons; Malawi, 893.3 tons; Mozambique, 236.6 tons; Tanzania, 130.3 tons; Madagascar, 38.4 tons. This represents purchases.with a total value of 653 million Belgian francs. Under the heading of textiles, the raw materials purchased by the UEBL in Africa ~ consist, for the most part, of cotton, wool and sisal. In 1980, purchases of raw and unginned cotton, cotton fibers and cotton fabrics basically smounted to 1.21 billion Belgian francs. They are distributed as follows (in tons): Raw and Unginned Cotton: Cotton Fabrics: Egypt 2,631.4 Tunisia 2,446.7 Sudan 1,635.4 Ivory Coast 218.5 Chad 1,437.1 South Africa 192.6 Mali 207.1 EgYPt 27.9 Togo 100 Cotton fibers: South Africa 23.7 Nigeria 3.4 Egypt 3,197.6 Ivory Coast 527.5 South Africa 176.3 Wool was purchased in South Africa: 1,671.1 tons (172.3 million Belgian francs). Sisal imports came from Madagascar, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Kenya and had a total value of 76.3 million. Flax was bought in Egypt for a total value of 78.3 million. 30 FOR OFFIC[AL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Items made of textiles accounted essentially for 1,302.7 million Belgian francs and they were imported from Tunisia (1,157.6 million) and Morocco (145.1 million). They consisted of hosiery items and clothing. In the sphere of timber, for which Africa is a major world exporter, purchasea were made in 10 countries--with particularly large amounts in two--for a total value of 1,868,000,000 Belgian francs. Tons Million Belgian Francs Cameroon 63,451.6 619.9 Ivory Coast 45,327.1 568.8 South Africa 17,759.1 12~�~ Liberia 16,095.9 153.9 Congo 15,138.6 187.9 Zaire 10,038.4 126. Gabon 6,514.2 74.3 Ghana 608.8 6.3 Nigeria 124.5 1.6 Mozambique 85.8 1.6 The UEBL's purchases of raw rubber in Africa came mostly from Zaire (572.4 tons), Cameroon (311.8 tons), the Ivory Coast (148.9 tons), and Liberia (32 tons). They represent a total value of 45.4 million Belgian francs. The UEBL does not import many processed chemical products from Africa, except for phosphate byproducts such as anhydride or phosphoric acid from South Africa (19,993.6 tons, worth 106.3 million Belgian francs) and from Tunisia (7,251.6 tons, worth 53.4 million). Exports to Africa We will not give the detai_ls of the UEBL'.s exports to Africa. It is sufficient to know that, although they are rather well distributed on the whole, these exports involve mostly machinery and common metal products, meaning capital goods generally intended for the industrial sector. These items represent approximately one-third of the sales. ~ Top 20 African Clients of the UEBL (in millions of Belgian francs) 1980 1979 1978 19/7 1) Nigeria 17,549.2 10,333.6 9,263.2 " 8,405.3 2) Algeria 17,356. 14,820.7 12,825.4 10,286.4 3) Libya 8,146.5 3,809.7 4,235.3 8,253.4 4) Zaire 7,637. 5,778.4 5,606,2 6,467.5 5) South Africa 7,404.9 5,037. 4,578.2 4,808.6 6) Egypt 6,217.8 4,611.3 2,775.9 2,537.9 7) Morocco 3,098.3 4,283.2 3,290.1 4,410.3 8) Tunisia 3,096.3 2,086.9 2,066.7 83.7 31 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 ~OR OFFICIAL USl: ONLY Table continued 1980 1979 1978 197~7 9) Ivory Coast 1,715.3 1,690.7 1,865.5 1,060.7 10) Sudan 1,056.4 1,289.5 631.8 1,121.4 11) Kenya 828.5 940.6 953.5 594.2 12) Angola 818.2 907.1 1,212.5 838.3 13) Canary Islands 772. 639.1 438.9 17.2 14) Tanzania 768.2 908.9 923.9 1,029.7 ~ 15) Rwanda 727.7 704.1 844.8 618.6 16) Senegal 662.6 655.1 , 478.2 629.9 17) Mauritania 661.4 523.2 729.4 285.1 18) Burundi 616.3 545.6 412.5 ~ 362.2 19) Liberia 585.6 931.7 422:5 718.6 20) Zambia 584.2 484.7� 314.5 362.2 A more detailed survey of each country or group of countries would reveal that a large amount of the purciiases made by OPEC countries involve commodities from the iron and steel industry, the metal-transforming industry, and the food and textile industries. The table above shows the evolution in purchases made by the top 20 African clients of the UEBL during the past 4 years. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981. 8796 ~ CSO: 4719/.437 ~ 32 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS WISEMAN HAMPATE BA ON LIFE IN AFRICA ~ Paris JFUNE AFRIQUE in French No 1095, 30 Dec pp 86-90 ~nterview Kith Prof Amadou Hampate Ba on life in Africa and prospects for 1982~ by JEUN~ AFRIQLT~ correspondent Siradiou Diallo; date and place not give~ ~ex~ From every past of the continent they come to Abid3an to absorb eagerly the words of the "eldest son of the century." For he is the memory of the black people. And one of their :nessengers . of hope. Born at the dawn of 1900~ he is pleased with the title, "eldest son of the century." His eyes still lively and mobile behind the fine glasses of a retired profsssor~ his face round and his chin adorned with a white goatee, Amadou Hampa:e Ba sometimes resembles an elderly wiseman xho has 3ust emerged from an oriental tale and at other times a dervish telling his beads without regard for the passage oi` time. But he is above all a wiseman in the ancient sense of the term, a acholar~ th~~ is~ a man xho has a precise Imowledge of creatures and things. . ~ Descendant of a great Peulvan faanily from Macina ~ this Malian ~ is ~ in fact ~ a~ Yaet . when he so desires, a philosopher~ itriter, imam and talented storyteller. Formt�r member of the Executive Council of UNESCO ~ Hampa.te Ba~ who xas also Modibo Kei':a's amba,ssador to~Ivory Coast~ settled in Abidjan many years ago. More precisely, he settled in the popular sector of the Marcory quarter where his modest villa is both a haven of peace and an extraordinary crossroads of African thought. Visitors of all a~es and conditions come there. Some to request the "Master's" ad- - vice full of wisdom, others eagerly to absorb his words. And thus renew, if only durin~ a moment's escape from the office, friendship with this inexhaustible well of African wisdom. Durin~ the three conversation meetings we had with this elderly scholar with the alert mind and charmin~ observations, we met up Kith top officials~ students~ busi- nessmen and politicians. l+ie even came across the dau~hter of "Wangrin~" the hero of Hampa.te Ba's latest novel. . Sittin~ enthroned on the divan-bed of the living room Khere he receives his visi- tors or seated in front of a desk buried beneath piles of books and documents of all sorts and times, this astoniahing person displays amazing activity despite his 33 , FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL~' ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 rc~k u~~i~ic~i~~i. U~r: ONI.Y age. And without ever losir~~ his pleasant mood or sense of humor. His observations~ studded with African proverbs and maxims, sometimes give way to apt formulas some of xhich have made their xay around the Korld. "In Africa," he wrote some years a~o to UNESCO, "every time an old~man dies, it is a library which burns:" 5ince one never tires of heasing Hampate Ba~ we axe pleased to announce that the eminent "Mawdo" (elderYy wiseman in the Peulvan language) is prepaxin~ an autobiog- raphy in three volumes. This Kork will not only improve the mind but also find its = place in libraries throughout the xorld. While aKaiting this enriching readin~ ma- terial, let us listen to the interview which~ in the form of wishes for 1982~ Hampa.te Ba was kind enough to grant us. ~TEUNE AFRIQUE As 1982 daxns~ most of the African states are 21 years old. What lesson do you draw from these yrears of independence? Amadou Hampa.te Ba ~HB7: In my opinion, this period represents a great school more than anything else~ the school of life. It has permitted all Africans who think to become better acquainted. And also to become better acquainted with the rest of the world where they had little opportunity to go during the colonial period. By discovering our differences, wE~ can understand the causes of our mutual lack of understanding. And -nake the necessary effort not only to overcome our backwardness but also to live ia peace With the other peoples of the World. JA: Are Africans livin,~ better now than 21 yeaxs ago? AHB: I t all depends on what you mean by living better. Does it mean living in more comfortable houses and partaking of tasty foc,ds, or else~ living in peace with one- self? In my opinion~ living well infers t,~,at one has a comfortable material life and a well-rounded spiritual life~ but free of a11 bigotry. JA: Do you think we are better off materially than before? ~ AHB: I am not too sure... (Silence) I believe that a lar~e number of Africans have acquired a certain amount of material comfort they did not even think existed in the past. JA: ~I s it bad to try to acquire material comfort? pHB: Material comfort is necessary, for it repre?~Eai~:�s good support for the body. A nd the bod,y being our vehicle in our passage thro~u~h life~ it is essential that it be well caxed for. But one should not forget that the body ~s not the entire man. Happiness is not confined to material comfort. If this were not so, how do you explain that millionaires commit suicide? Material ~:.:^~nrt provides rest for the body; it does not bring peace to the heart. Multimil~ionaires often need tran- quilizers and sleeping pills to sleep. JA: Are the inhabitants of developed countries less happy because they do not have a tranquil existence? 3~+ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY AIiB: :Jh,y, yes; because sleep is the thermometer af ~ood health a.nd, therefore~ of body peace. The West no lon?er sleeps; it is ill. JA: Africa sleeps but is not in better health. AHB: Africa does not just sleep; it also laughs. I,aughing, you see~ is the ther- mometer of peace in the heart. Africa lau~hs; that is proof that it is in good health. JA: In large African metropolises they have less and less time to laugh. AHB: That is true. However, do not forget that African cities are only Africanized cities~ for tliey ~are pa.tterned after ~uropean or American cities. African wisdom would have us copy the technique of the whites to achieve comfort in our body rrhile preserving peace in our heart. But I recognize that this is difficult. JA: Do you consider yourself a happy man? - AHB: (L ona silence)... Happiness is so relative! One can live with peace in one's heart without peace in one's body and be happy. One can live xithout comfort and be 1 happy~ because one has peace in one's heart. Inasmuch as--despite my age--I have no difficulty digesting my food, sleeping and laughing, I can say that I am a man ap- ~ proaching happiness. JA: There are very few individuals who~ like you~ can aspire to happiness. AHB: For my part, I consider myself a happy man, for I have no political problems~ money matters or concerns a.bout my security. I can even tell you that full of happiness~ for I have the skin of a crocodile~ the stomach.of an ostrich and the heaxt of a turtledove. Yes, I have the skin of a crocodile~ for I can lie down anywhere without any prob- lem; 1 do not need comfort to sleep well. I have the stomach of an ostrich in the sense that I eat anything withaut having any problem in digesting. Lastly, I have . the heaxt of a turtledove, for l do not get angry and do not fight with anyone. JA: All that is also the secret of your longevity~ is it not? AHB; If you wish. In any case~ I consider that the secret of ir~y happiness, which is perhaps that of my lonf;evity, rests as much on my desire and need to serve (God and my fellow man) as on the strang aversion I have to ordering others about~ which I refuse to do. JAs Durinn the past 20 years have Africans done a11 they should have done to get Africa out of the rut? AHB: I believe that the Africans devoted enou;h effort but were lackin~ in means. We had freedom of s~;eech but not freedom of action. ~Ie are still dependent in that respect, for one is always the son of one's instructor. The educator takes prece- dence over the producer. 35 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044016-5 H�ok or�~tctnL usF: oNt.v JA: That is one of the biggest weaknesses of Africans. AHB: It is all the more serious in that we have been conditioned not to be able to do Kithout what we do not produce. JA: 'ale are also reproached with being lazy... AHB: That is only a slogan which has no meaning and, in a word, is said to make our life more complicated. Are not those who reproach us for our alleged laziness the same ones who invented the expression: "to work like a nig~er"? You know~ one does not soK in unplowed land. The W est arrived in Africa with its norms and ideals to try to make a clean sWeep of our customs, ideas and habits. Let the West help us use the tractor or penicillin~ agreed. But~ for goodness' sake~ let it keep its hands o.ff our customs and values: JA: What does time represent for you? AHB: In traditional Africa time did not count. That is why I think that anyone who consta:ntly says he has no time to lose should not come to Axrica. Having said that~ I recognize that bad use of time does not promote development. Africans who have received modern education should take that into consideration in acting and behaving in accordance with the modern norms which imply that "time is money." JA: HoN do you explain the instability of African regimes? pHB; I know that everything is not perfect in those regimes. There are even many weaknesses, injustices and errors. But~ believe me, most of the coups d'etat and other attacks to which the African governments are subject stem~from the passion, longing and desire to ~overn. The famous "Get out of there and leave me some room" has, alas, become a law of contemporary Africa, a product of the times. JA: Nevertheless~ there are certain abuses one cannot accept. Everything must have limits, even the powex of our heads of state. AHB: It is true that excesses axe committed by certain African regimes. I Imow that in a democracy those who axe elected comply with the xishes of the voters, and ~ not the opposite. But, with some exceptions~ it is not this or that head of sta,te . who is a despot or tyrant. It is the regime i~tself which, in essence, is despotic, tyrannical . ~ ~ JA: When the re~ime is tyrannical, it is normal for one to want to chan~e it. even if one has no political ambition. AHB: In any case, people axe always glad to change leaders. It amuses them. Like a little girl who tirelessly beheads her doll so that each time her paxents will bu,y her a new one. If it were up to the people~ the leader would be killed every day�to find them a new replacement. The misfortune of important individuals alwa.,ys gives pleasure to the unimportant. It is the people who are unstable; tha.t is why the leaders mistrust them. 36 . FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500040016-5 FOR OFHICIAI. USF. ONI,Y JA: What, then, is the nature of poxer? AHB: Poxer is~ ala.s, like alcohol. After the first glass, one is as merry as a l~.mb. 'dith the second, it is as though one had eaten the flesh of a lion. One feels so strong tha.t one is no longer willing to be challenged. One wants to lord it over everyone like the lion on the plain. With the third glass~ one is like a pig; one can do only indecent things. JA: Then, there are at least three phases of poxerr? ~ AHB: Yes. The first phase corresponds to the period xhen the leader is as kind and gentle as a lamb. The second is when the leader, oonsidering himself an abso- . lute monarch, becomes formidable. But at that point he is only feared. Finally, when the leader reaches the third phase of his power~ he is not only feased but de- tested by his people. JA: Is it not because they remain in power too long that many African leaders end up being hated? AHB: You know~ there is no good leader but a future one. Despotism is part of being human. t~ihat I resent in the present African leaders is less their despotism than their lies. Every day they lie to their people~ while nothir~g obliges them to do so. As they are despots~ they do not have many accounts to render to their people. They do as they please. Since that is the case~ I do not see why they feel the need to lie. That is both sad and humiliating for us. � JA: In Africa~ all the voices which are ordinarily inclined to be the conscience of the people became silent~ one after the other, for fear of having to ansWer to those in power; this includes the unions, youth~ students and even the elderly. W hat do you think of this submission? AHB: The silence of the elderly is explained by a serious deception. During the colonial period, you remember, aware that they were risking their freedom and some- times their life, the elderly were not afraid to speak~ to criticize the govern- ment's excesses. Now that their children have replaced the colonial administra- tors~ xhat do you expect the elderly to say? The elderly are frankl,y troubled. All the more so, inasmuch as the children are proving to be more violent~ more wicked and more brutal than the colonial adminis- trators. The elderly ase so astonished that they prefer to keep their mouth closed and die of chagrin rather than have to condemn their children. JA: In the traditional Afr3ca.~ did the government systems contain opposition? AHB: Absolutely. .1ith the "sanankoun~" our traditional re~imes had judicious and ~ effective opposition. There were people who were permitted to tell the king a few ; plain truths with no risk whatever. JA: Traditional regimes then admitted the existence of contradictions in society? 37 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USF. ON1.Y AHB: You know, horizontal uniformity and total harmony are.not of this world. Ab- solute equality exists only at the horizon. But the horizon is never reached, for it recedes as one advances. That is xhy movement is mandatory. Our traditional societies were so aware of this that our wisemen said that life is movement and that movement begins with contradiction among the members (feet. legs~ arms...) To say that someone had died~ one said that his feet were equal. Why? Because~ so long as one is alive~ one has unequal feet. It is contradiction Which enables soci- ety. to advance. Noncontradiction is the equivalent of death. Progress results from discussion and criticism~ not to mention contradiction. JA: Do you think communism has a future in Africa? AHB: As soon as someone asks me to prophesy~ I feel ill at ease. I cannot speak of the future~ for~ being a Muslim, I believe that the future belon;s to Allah the All- Powerful. To return to the subject of communism~ I shall say that Africa has. no lesson in collectivism to receive from anyone. At a11 times Africans have basked in a communal world. Even if they Kanted to break loose from tha.t type of arrangeme~nt, they could not do so, for this system is an integral part~of their life~ of their manner of thinkin~, of their entire being. JA: And Khat about capitallsm? . AHB; I am not a capitalist and shall undoubtedly never be one. The old man, which I am, has always had a simple and modest life. But I am not ashamed to admit that between capitallsm and communism my preferences are for the former. I prefer capitalism because it pr.omotes competition. Without considering that con- trolled finance has fa3led everywhere. Is it a risk? I do not believe so. I am convinced that only private ownership can enable a society to prosper, for the owner works first for himself. JA: But capitalism also has its faults. AHB: Of course; and I am not unaware of them. I shall even say that it is desir- able, if not essential, to correct the excesses and faults inherent in ca.pitalism~ particularly the inequalities and injustices. Having said that~ I must say that we must not lose si~ht of the fact that man is the most difficult animal to mana~e, if onl.y because of his desire for change. ~ JAs Is it possible to preserve African culture at a time when television~ video- cassettes and satellites are inva.ding the world? AHB: Yes~ so lont; as Africa becomes sufficiently well organized to be a.ble to use those techniques wisely. Not only will it have nothing to fear from its influence but will even be able to use those techniques to do a better job in gatherin~ and preservin; the values of its thousand-year-old civilization. JA: B ut how shall we prevent the youth, whose heads will be full of imported im- a.~es~ from thinking in terms of norms which foreign to Africa? 38 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040016-5 ~OR OFFI('IAL [ISE nNI.Y ~ AHB: It is up to the leaders of our countries to take measures~ find methods and establish :atudy programs designed to promote contacts betxeen the youn~ and the old, the modernists and the traditionalists. We must leave no stone unturned to see that the former maintain those contacts and are molded in the image of the latter. You know, xhen a sheep is in the fold~ there is no need to bleat in its place. Hav- ing greater Irnoxledge of our traditions than the most qualified foreign Africanists, we axe naturally in better position than they to put the modern techniques to the service of the African civilization. Africa must not be a well which is fed from the outside but, rather~ a Hell xhich is fed by its own inner spring. JA: In terms of civilization~ do you think other countries of the Third World better off than our coun~ry? AHB: Other so-called Third World countries have done a better job preservinp their civilizations because they have been less divided and less ill-treated physically and economically than xe have. And particularly~ they have been less conditioned than the Africans. Conditioning is to the spirit of a people what condiments are to cooking. It determines their tastes~ ideas and aspirations. JA: In Africa the colonizer xas not content With occupying the land= he xent so far as to confiscate our souls. AHB: It is true that we Africans have reached the point of losinr; our traditions. So that if we nok w.ant to develop, we must begin by renexing our traditions~ even if this means prunii~ certain ones. However~ we must reallze that pruning means cut- ting certain branches, not the trunk. JA: If you were asked to define African civilization in a fex words, Khat would you say? AHB: I would define it as being tne common reslity of Africa and not hox it ap- peaxs to be. No one possesses the entire truth. One has only a smatterinQ of truth. JA: Do you sometimes think about death? AHB: At least five times every day, that is~ before and after each of the five pre- scribed prayers. I never travel without my shroud being properly placed at the bot- tom of my suitcase. For I aKait death at any moment. It will not take me b,y sur- prise. JA : Nevertheless, are you of death? AHB: It is uselese to wa,nt to turn one's back on what one cannot avoid. I am not afraid of death. Moreover, at my age a Muslim can hardly fear anything~ except God. In my opinion, death is not an enemy. JA: What does death represent for you? . 39 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - AHB: Death does not exist in African civilization. It is perceived as a simple chan~e of residence. One leaves one dWelling for another. In African philosophy death does not conswne the soul~ even though it conswnes the body. The soul is eternal. Authentic African tradition has it that death is even a form of liberation. That is why, with certain African peoplea~ death is an occasion for singing and dancing, not tears. The fate of the child Kho first sees life is more serious than that of the person who dies. At his first contact with life, a child cries. He is not wrong. After a11, it is more painful to live than to dia. COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 1981. 8568 cso: 4719/501 ko FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INTER-AFRICAN AFFAIRS BRIEFS CEAO REPORT--In Dakar on I3 December, t~!~e Council of Ministers of the West African Economic Community (CEAO) adopted a report which had been presented to the summit of heads of state of the six member countries of the communitj~ (Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal) on 14 December. The report covers, among other things, financing and the implementation of community pro- jects, cooperation in the field of communication and the establishment of multi- national companies. The ministers and heads of state of CEAO also adopted the organization's 1982 budget and the program of activities for the Solidarity and Operations Fund for Community Development (FOSIDEC) relative to both national ~ and communitywide pro~ects. These co~nunity pro;jects include creation of a fishing company, an advanced institute of fishery, advanced schools to teach management skills in mining and the textile industries, a regional solar energy center, and the implementation of a water program. These projects, which are planned for launching in 1982, are receiving 50 billion Fr CFA in external finan- cial support. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRAN~ENS in French No 188~+, 18 Dec 81 p 3362] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 9516 UMOA MEMBERSHIP--The conference of heads of state of the West African Monetary Union (UMOA) announced, in a communique dated 15 December that after considering the issues submitted by the Council of Ministers on~14 December, it had decided to delay any decision on Mali's entry into the UMOA and to consider the matter further. Also, Abdoulaye Fadiga's term as governor of the BCEAO [Central Bank of the West African Statesl was extended to 31 December 1982. [Text] [Par~s MARCHES TROPICAUX ET 1KEDITERRANEENS in French No 188~+, 18 Dec 81 p 3362] [COPY- RIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 9516 ' BEAC MEETIN~-The board of directors of the Bank of Central African States (BEAC) has just finished meeting in Bangui. After reviewing the world economic situa- tion with special attention to developments in the world market for raw materials, which are still grim, t:ie council noted with interest signs confirming a partial upturn in economic activity throughout the states of the currency zone. The net external assets of the Bank, which serves the zone's financial institutions, continued to rise, going from 43.8 billion Fr CFA on 31 August 1980 to 127.7 billion on 31 August 1981. .On 30 September 1981, the coverage rate (foreign exchange commitments) had risen from 46.3 percent to 54.17 percent over the past year. This consolidation of the reserve situation for the currency zone 41 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY coincided with a significant increase in credit to the economy, going over 12 months from 20.2 percent to 31.5 percent. The council also reviewed quarterly activitv reports from the national monetary committees and their implementatior~ of its directives. It accepted proposals from certain committees suggesting establishment of overall cEilings for short- and medium-term cred:~t. The council then approved the final accoun~ings for the 1980-1981 fiscal year, authorized some not fully utilized credits be carried over to 1981-82 and decided to add to the reserves all available funds left over from 1980-81. The ~ouncil decided to hold its next regular meeting at Libreville. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 188~+, 18 Dec 81 p 3372~ [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981~ 9516 CSO: 4719/374 ~t 2 . , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040016-5 FOR f1FFICIAL USE ONLY CHAD OAU ROLE IN NATION SAID TO HAVE SHORTCOMINGS London NEW P,FRICAN in Enqlish No 172, Jan 82 pp 10-12 [Artiale by Alem Mezgebe] ~ [Text] IT IS COMMONPLACE. Aircraft of dif- Unity (GUNT), Goukouni Oueddei. ferent makes rub wing-tips daily at every In an inter~iew with the Zairean radio international airport. But in this case it on November 26~ Oueddei said: "Though - was symbolic. the Libyana completed their withdrawal ~ The two aircraft parked at N'Djamenu from the country about a month ago, we airport in the Chadian capital are leftalone with the Zairean troops." ~ each personified the Super Power pres- Whatever the motive, Mubutu's was a ence in Afizca. One was unloading its unilateral decision and caused a dip- cargo of uaiformed men. The other was lomatic flurry. It angered Nigerian Pres- taking on a cargo of uniformed men. ident Shehu Shagari who had inaiated It was Sunday,. November 15, 1981. that his forces, and not a contingent from Mobutu's 272 paratroopers were spillin~ a Francophone country, should set foot . out of a US-made Air Zaire DC-10. At the first on Chadian soil. same time, Gadaffi's last 150 soldiers in The Zairean leader followed that up Chad were being airlifted home aboard a with an unexpected call for a summit in Russian-made Ilyouchine sircraft. It was Kinshasa on November 20 of the six a curious sight. A scene worth a thousand troop-supplier countries - Nigeria, lectures in international relations. Senegal, Zaire, Togo, Benin and Guinea. The scenario was the beginning of The move was strongly opposed by what is hoped to be a happy ending to the Nigeria which considered a summit Chad drama. redundant. It argued that a meeting of . the foreign ministers of the six a week ~ MO~R~II~s ~@ earlier had thrashed out the basica of the peacekeeping force. Zaire's ~rush to the scene could account The chairman of the OAU, Kenyan for President Mobutu's eccentricity in President Daniel arap Moi, was none too . politics. Some would see it, perhaps, as an happy about Mobutu's impetuous move " encouraging sign of some order coming to assQmble the heads of state. out of the Chadian disorder. In a veiled criticism of his peer, Moi Mobutu, more than any other African said it was untimely to hold a meeting leader, has had close encounters with until a Nigerian-financed team of 14 chaos and "peacekeeping" forces of all officers from the donor countries types, throughout the two decades of despatched to Chad to examine ways of Zairean independence and 17 years of his effectively deploying the peace-keeping reign. force, with recommendations. Mobutu did not explain Y,is haste. Some Nigeria and Kenya seem to have cho- light on his decision to dispatch troops sen a smooth way out to remind Mobutu ahead of all ot!~er contingents was that the peace-keeping mission was an thrown by the President of the so-called OAU scheme. And that Chairman Moi Transitional Government of National was in command. 43 ~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFF7CIAL USE ONLY This was underscored by a meeting on Shagari's peace formula was bound to November 27 in Nairobi of delegations abort in some way. For one thing, the from five of the six participating nations Chadian factions owed allegiance to fore- lGuinea was abaent) to draw up a'three- ign powers, mainly France and Libya. tier plan to complete by December 17 the And, in one case, Nigeria itself. The deployment of the OAU for~e in Chad. Mouvement Populaire r-rour la Lib~ration The meeting was chaired by the Kenyan du Tchad IMPLT) wa~z reportedly the leader. warhorse of the African giant. And the Placed under the command of a African states that showe:i special con- Nigerian general, tiie inter-African force cera for Chad had also their own foreign consists of 5,000 L�roops, all of whom fall godfather - France. under the authority of OAU Secret- There are eerious doubta that the latest ary - General Edem Kodjo. move in Chad was an African initiative. An Ethiopian, Gebregziabher Dawit Only days before Oueddei asked for a will represent the OAU chief Libyan troop withdrawal after a five- in Chad and will preside hour Cabinet meeting on October 29, over an administrative coaamittee com- there were reports of a French proposal prising Benin, Congo, G;iinea and for an African peacekeeping force for Kenya. An observer team hai~ also been Chad. appointed. Chaired by Kenye, ita mem- Repurts said that French' Preaident bers include Algeria, Gabon, Congo, Fran~ois Mittenand, who was then Guinea-Bissau and Zambia. attending the North-South dialogue in The OAU force, the first of its kind in Cancun (Mexico), had instructed his sir Africa, has been received with mixed force chiefs to etand by for an sirlift into feelings in African quarters. Chad of Nigerian and Senegalese troopa. Optimists have welcomed the move. The French leader also aent an urgent They say it is a sign of an organisation, if communication to Moi to authoriee, in his not a continent, coming of age. Chad capacity of OAU Chairman, deployment today, toinorrow who knows? of an inter-African force to the war-torn state. Stillborn A US clierit It appears, however, that Goukouni Oueddei counts himself among the legion Mitterrand had cause for concern. His- of sceptics who heve grave doubts about seine Habre, one of the Frolinat origi- the OAU initiative. nals, was making a striking comeback in On the eve of his departure for the eastern Chad, along the Sudaneae bor- Nairobi meeting, the Chadian leader did der. His Forces Armees du Nord (FAN) not mince his words. were to seize the sizeable town of Achebe He 'said: "1 am not expecting anything and the smaller centres - Iriba, Adre and from the OAU. Since 1979 the OAU has Guerada - only four days after the been dodging the issue of sending troops Libyan withdrawal. By then, the French to Chad. We are henceforth determined had transferred their aegis to Goukouni to count on our own troops." Oueddei in N'Djamena. And for good "I am obliged,"Oueddei went on, "to be reason, too. present in order not to annoy my fellow Habre, who held an ambiguous pro- heads of state." French stance during his days as Defence Goukouni Oueddei, as head of state, is Miniater in GUNT in 1979, had aince his a product of the Lagos accorda of August ' demise in late 1980 allegedly become a 18,1979. That was when Nigeria brought US client. He is believed to be receiving to the conference table all the warring arms and expertise from Washington via factions to devise a rraodus uioendi bet- the Egyptian and Sudanese regimes. ween them that would ultimately lead to Habre's recent statement aeems to con- a modus operandi in the form of a firm this auspicion. In fact, it looks as if national union government. he is doing a"Jonas Savimbi twist." The warring factions formed GUNT. In an interview on November 1, with But on March 21, 1980, when fighting the French news agency AFP in his broke out between them, those factions stronghold in eastern Chad, the rebel went their separate ways. leader said the United Statea "cannot Even if not stillborn, President ignore Moscow's strategy becauae the 44 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFF[CiAL USE ONLY destiny of freedom-loving people in tant secretary-general Peter Onu was Africa is at stake". An active American vague. . intere~t in the stability of this region was "You may interpret the text in any way needed and was welcome, he added. you want," wae all he could say. Press reports said Paris was concemed The text stated that the force would about a posaible anti-Libyan rebellion "asaure the defence and security of the inside ~Chad "financed from outaide" - country (Chad). until the integration of meaaing, perhaps, the United States. the government forcea." Hence, the French leader's preasure on Oueddei himself had a word of warning Moi and the African leadera who were for the OAU after the meeting. ~ preaent at the Cancun meeting in late "If the OAU equivocates," he said, "the October. . Government of Chad will have the right "There is," said French officials, "a to seek help from ita friends.'.' grave deterioration of the civil struggle It is not clear, though, which of his in Chad." friende Oueddei will approach in case of Thie perhaps explains Mobutu's daeh need. In a broadcast on November 28, the to Chad. The French have footed the bill Libyan leader had pledged "to remain for his awift move. Other coste for the neutral if fighta in Chad flare again". remaining five-nation contingent were So the germs of another armed confmn- ' expected to be covered by the United tation are atill there. � ' States and other European powers. Apart fmm Hiaseine Habre's swelling Sudan had already announced that it wae ranks of well-trained, well-equipped prepared to pay for Togolese forces on the forcea - eatimated at more than 6,500 OAU contingent. men - there are these forces: �Goukouni Oueddei's Fonces Arm~ea VQSt g~L1"1'~$O~t Populaires (FAP) 3,000 men; �Ahmat Acyl's Front d'Action Commune The unprecedented OAU force's man- (FAC) 2,000 men; date is rather ambiguous: It is to keep the ~~Former Chief of Gendarmerie Abdel peace, aupervise elections, and to help the Kader Kamougue's Forces Arm~es , various factions in Chad to integrate Tchadiennes (FAT) 2,000 men; their armies, says the ~iirective. ~Others: 2-3,000 men. Although the machinery for the man- date has now been put in place, the fact Deep hostilitay that the OAU has given its full backing to . the Oueddei-Acyl GUNT at the expenae Of these, Libya's man in N'Djamena, of the plethora of other factions operating Foreign Miniater Ahmat Acyl, has the in the Chadian wildernees, defeats its strongest arnaed force of the lot. His own purpose. arsenal is known to include Sam-7 � Chad is a vast garrison with dozens of ground-to-air miseiles and flame throw- armies operating along ethnic or religi- ers. ous grounds. Some are splinter .groups Although forced by circumstances to formed from pereonality clashes among break bread together, there ia no love lost the Chadian elite. As it is, it is easier to between Oueddei and Acyl. Their hoatil- buy a gun in that country than a bowl of ity was violently manifested when their ' rice. trbops clashed on April 19 last year in ~ More significantly, "reconci liation" is Abeche, leaving many dead and wounded being imposed on them when the will to in both campa. This led to an angry do so is lacking in the country itself. ' Cabinet meEting between the GUNT This reality makes the force's task of president and his foreign miniater. maintaining law and order in uranium- Oueddei'shoatilitytowardsHabrewill, rich Chad virtually impossible. Lebanon some observers~ believe, cause problems is a case in point. The UN peace-keeping for the OAU force in Chad. So deep is the Force there has hardly turned Lebanon hostility that Oueddei told a Zairean into a haven of tranquility. inteme.wer shortly before his departure If Oueddei asked for asaistance of the for Nairobi that "Hiesine Habre ia a OAU force to crush Habre's forces, will it criminal with whom the people of Chad comply? can never be reconciled." In his reply to newsmen in Nairobi He went on: "Sooner or later the Cha- after the summit of the six, OAU asais- dian people will catch and condemn him. ~+5 ~ ~ ~ FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007142/09: CIA-RDP82-40854R040500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ Even execute him." In June, a special it to salvage (;had from Russo-Libyan court had condemned in absentia the clutches? Or was it concern for the future rebel for armed rebellion, treason, mur- of a country torn to pieces by ~ever- der, and intelligence with a foreign ending strife? power. It muat be recalled that Libya was This attitude might lead, it is feared, to condemned for sending troops into Chad. the OAU force becoming an instrument But it ia also true that Oueddei had asked for a witch-hunt rather than a contingent for them. What was objectionable in of armed doves. Libya's action, say oheervera, was its ~ As a Jeune Afrique correspondent put unilateral nature. it: "Will the inter-African contingent die The OAU action, some ol>servers main- in Abeche on behalf of Oueddei?" tain, is equally condemi~able because One would have thought that the there is no legally constituted govern- OAU's wisest move would have been to ment in Chad. The rag-tag administra- call for a plebiscite in war�torn Chad tion of Goukouni Oueddei represents rather than elections. only itaelf, they say. It seems the organisation has main- tained ita tradition of excluding the peo- Self-defence ple of Africa from exercising their fun- damental right to determine their own The fact that there are scores of armed destiny. The fact that it elected to endorse groups in that unhappy country ia proof a phantom government whoae precarious that no government can exist or function existence was made poseible only thanka with OAU or Libyan backing without the to a Libyan occupation force of 4,000 men, Chadian people. From the political land- throwa ita latest initiative to the winds. scape~ each armed group representa an Oueddei's complaint that since 1979 opinion that no one, including the OAU, the OAU has been dodging the iasue of should disregard. sending troopa into Chad is justified, Some observere believe the OAU set a perhape, by the fact that the OAU always dangerous precedent when it , accepted seema to need mentora from outaide the requeets by unpopular governments in contine~t to bleas ita actions. In July, Africa to aend in "law-and-order" con- 1979, it was seeking UN finances to aend tingents to maintain thoae regimes in the same number of peacemakera to halt power. the strife in Chad. ~ The likelihood ia that the OAU force Granted, the now fossilised principle of will behave like an occupation force. In ~non-interference in the internal at~'airs of "self-defence", perhaps. member-atates hae always been at the An old shopkeeper in N'Djamena is back of the organisation's mind. But the quoted ae saying: "The last thing we want turn of events surrounding the Chad is to exchange one occupation force for affair bring to mind the sort of contradic- another." Thia view is destined to become tions that have blunted the effectivenees widespread. of the OAU. A call for a revision of the OAU charter must be heeded before the organisation Very little attempt, if any, has so far reaches the age of relative senility. As been made to aesiat Mozambique and thinga stand, it ia reviving the late Presi- Angola - the two Fmntline states whose dent Kwame Nkrumah's plea for an Afri- sovereignty ia repeatedly threatened by can De�ence Force. But for a different South Africa. Nor did the OAU envisage purpoae. - a defence force to reaist mercenary Such a force muat not be used against attacka on member states. Seychelles is Africans, only against the enemiea of a case in point. Comoro fell to mer- Africa. It is high time, too, that the right cenariea and is still ruled by a handful of of self-determination becomes a sac- white adventurers. rosanct p inciple, not a non-interference What was behind the lateat move? Was dogma~ ~ COPYRIGHT: 1981 IC Magazines Limited CSO: 4700/747 ~ k6 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY CHAD NO UNILATERAL SOLUTION TO PRESENT SITUATION CONSIDERED POSSIBLE Paris JEUNE AFRIQUE in French No 1096, 6 Jan 82 pp 56, 57 [Article by Francois Soudan "Goukouni Against Kodjo"] [Text] Where will Hissein Habre stop? In ~ust 2 months; since the withdrawal of Libyan troops frc~~ Chad in early November, seven eastern villages, including the im- portant prefecture of Abeche and the strategic point of Oum Hadjer, have passed under the control of his Northern Armed Forces [FAN]. And with scarcely any fighting. Habre, now in control of more than 300,000 square kilometers of scraggy bush country and sandy trails, is camping at the doorstep of Ati and Mongo, the first line of defense for Ndjamena. It is a sort of playbaci: in reverse of the long march he made just a year ago when Colonel Qadhdhafi's expeditionary force drove his men to the Sudan border. Today, the Libyans have returned to their native Jamahiriya. And Hissein Habre obviously intends to fill the vacuum. ~ Up to now FAN's November campaign has always been the same: a small group of motor- ized battalions (Toyotas equipped with mini Katyushas and Land Rovers armed with 75-mm cannon) comprising the bulk of Habre's "intervention force" have laid siege to each in turn of the eastern villages once the garrisons had departed. The fall of Abeche on 19 November was particularly significant: two mortar shells fired on the airport by the men of "Commandant" Abdel Assoul were enough to take this city of 30,000 inhabitants without a shot fired. Since then, Habre has set up his com- mand post there in a spacious villa, abandoning his general headquarters at Kolbus. The first columns of refugees from E1-Geneina soon arrived in Sudan. Only two major skirmishes marred FAN's westward progress: between Biltine and Amzoer, in early November, and at Kotoro-Falata not far from Oum Hadjer in early December: the FAN offensive, under the command of the new chief of staff, Gouara Lassou (his predecessor, Taer Guenassou, is now a political commissar), has up to now gotten no further than the edges of the lowlands that descend to tl~e capital, no further than the fates of Ati and Mongo, where since 8 December elements of the neutral "Eastern zone" OAU [Organization of African Unity] forces have been stationed. It is true that there is very little to oppose it. The weight of the fighting has been sustain- ed by the troops of foreign affairs minister Acyl Ahmat, which rapidly dispersed be- fore an adversary wiiose training, level of motivation and arms as well (since the fall of Abeche and the impressive arsenal that was strangely left behind by the Lib- yans) were superior. ~7 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040016-5 FOR OFFiCIAL LJSE ON1.Y The Integrated National Army, or ANI, theoretically includes all the Chadian factions opposed to Hissein Habre and should be engaging it on the ground. But militarily it does not yet exist: heterogeneous, poorly armed, it has only one leader, Lieutenant Colonel N'Golobaye Allafi, and a few hundred men. Finally--and this not an unimpor- tai~t detail, though it has been kept from most observers--the FAN has some impressive communications equipment g:iven to it in 1979 by French officers when they departed from Ndjamena. This equipm,ent enabled them, up to last November, to monitor the radio communications of Libyan troops and pass the information to French military intelligence... So it is hard to see why Hissein Habre would quit when he has so much going for him. After all, he had been the leading figure in the enemy coalition throughout 1980 un- til the Libyan contingent came to President Goukouni's aid. And it is no secret that within the Transitional National Unity Goveriiment (GUNT) there is occasional discord, as shown by the November confrontations between supporters of Mamamat Abba Said (min- ister of the interior) and supporters of Acyl Ahmat, not to mention the obvious aver- sion of Colonel Kamougue (who heads Che most disciplined force in the coalition) to participating in the fighting in the east. In reality, the new situ ation created by ~he arrival of the OAU peace force on 15 November and its subsequent deployment has completely dictated Hissein Habre's strat- egy: occupy the most terrain possible, taking advantage of the vacuum left by the - Libyan withdrawal, but avoid any contact with the interafrican contingent. The objec- tive: regain control of the regions formerly under his control, and force the OAU to see that there can be no "solution" to the Chadian problem without him. In carry- ing this out, FAN's force;; have acted with considerable skill, going clearly on the offensive while at the same time maintaining from the start that they were prepared to work with the interafrican troops under Nigerian General Geoffrey Ejiga. So one can understand the anxiety and nervousness shown by Goukouni Oueddei who, in the face of the danger Habre increasingly poses, has moved from vague warnings to leveling concrete threats. Aware of the ineffectiveness of the ANI and averse to seeing Acyl Ahmat assume the role of de facto military leader of the GUNT, the Chad- ian president has been�appealing to the OAU with ever greater frequency since early December. His approach has been to mak.e a very subtle and self-serving distinction. According to Goukouni, the peace force is above all a force for preserving order; thus it must combat disorder, i.e. Hissein Habre. On 20 December, in Libreville, Goukouni was even more direct: "The Chadian Government believes it is now pointless to maintain and keep such a force within its borders, since it is doing nothing to safeguard Chad's security and integrity." And one hears muttering within the head of state's camp that their Libyan "big brother" had a less squeamish view of its role and it might unfortunately be necessary to ca?.l on him again... Now it is just this threat of "Libyanization" of the OAU contingent that its leaders, starting with Edem Kodjo, want above all to avoid: they especially want to avoid getting mired in a counter-guerrilla conflict which (according to Colonel Qadhdhafi himself) cost the Libyan army more than 300 lives even though its armament and espe- cially its air cover were infinitely greater than those enjoyed by the Zairians, Nigerians and Senega].ese in the OAU force. In the view of the authorities in the panafrican organization, if a town must be "recaptured"--as is the case, for example, with Abeche--it is solely the ANI's responsibility: Chad's affair, so to speak. The OAU force comes in only later, to keep the peace that has already been establish- ed. ~+8 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR O~FIC'IAI, USF ON1.Y . Th~i.s position is tt~e outcome of a diplomatic balancing act, but it does have the vir- tue of pointing the finger at the real problem in Chad, the problem of reconciliation. It is a balancing act because everyone from Addis to Ndjamena knows that at least for the moment there is no ANI, and so it is incapable of retaking any positions at all. And even if it seems drole to watch Goukouni Oueddei, who not too long ago was claim- ing his men would riddle Habre's with Kalashnikovs, now confessing his military im- potence to obtain the operational participation of the OAU troops, one can well under- stand that he might have some good reasons to be bitter. Perhaps, in fact, he had been promised too much, led to expect too much, in September and October, when pressure was being put on him to demand the complete withdrawal of the Libyan expeditionary corps: "In exchange for this courageous act, Goukouni ob- tained assurances that he would not have to face Habre alone," said one of Goukouni's confidants in Paris recently. "Now look: everyone washes his hands of it and tells him he must himself take full responsibility for that decision; in my opinion, that is an irresponsible attitude." And in private, at the Paris meeting where they were "playing the OAU game," the Chadian president was described as unusually violent. However, the position taken by Edem Kodjo and the OAU contingent which he commands is perfectly logical from a juridical point of view; except for Korea, no international force has actually ever fought on the ground--except to defend itself--against exter- nal aggression, or, consequently, against internal dissidence. This is true in the present case of the United Nations troops in Lebanon who do riot intervene either against the Israeli incursions or against Major Haddad's rebellion. And this is in fact what distinguishes, both formally and practically, an expeditionary type force (for example, the French in Shaba, the Cubans in Angola, or...the Libyans in Chad) from a peace force. In addition, the conflict--perhaps a temporary one--between the OAU and President Goukouni shows, if there were any further need of proof, that no unilateral solution that excludes one of the constituent elements of the political life of the state can be permanently imposed on a country. Today, whether one likes it or not, that element is Hissein Habre, as during the Malloum era it was Goukouni Oueddei...So what is needed is reconciliation. Unless that word has disappeared from the Chadian vocabulary... = COPYRIGHT: Jeune Afrique GRUPJIA 1981. 9516 CSO: 4719/478 ~+9 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USH~ ONLY ~ CHAD BRIEFS BRITISH, ALGERIAN AID--The London-based Overseas Development Administration announced on 8 January that on the following day it would be airlifting to Chad 35 tons of powdered milk to be distributed by the Red Cross to children under the age of 6 suffering from malnutrition. It also offered trucks to distribute that aid valued at $58,000. On the other hand, the Algerian daily EL MOUDJAHID announced on 7 January that large quantities of rolling stock, food and drugs were being transported every day from Algeria to Chad by Algerian military ~ransport planes. According to Chadian officials, quoted by the Algerian newspaper's special corres- ' pondent in Ndjamena, "Algeria was the only country which, in December 1981, had ~ fulfilled all its commitments to Chad." Bo Passiri, Chadian secretary of state for foreign affairs and cooperation--who had presided over the first meeting, held in Algiers, of the Algerian-Chadian Joint Cooperation Commission created by a decision made during President Goukouni Weddei's visit to Algiers in October--came to Algiers recently to ask President Chadli Bendjedid for Algerian help in the reconstruction � of Chad. According to EL MOUDJAHID, many Chadians are currently undergoing train- ing in various Algerian institutions and centers and more trainees are expected in coming months. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1888, 15 Jan 82 p 149] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982.] 8796 CSO: 4719/500 . 5~ FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/49: CIA-RDP82-00850R440500040016-5 FOR OFFIC'I4L USE ONLY - COMORO ISLANDS BRIEFS ~ NEW SINGLE PARTY--On 6 February, the ne~t single party, Comorar~ Union for Progress (UCP, in Comoran Udzima) was.formed, its by-laws officially submitted on 8 FE'~ruary. The UCP, which unites laborera, peasants, farmers, fishermen, cra�tmen, manual workers, and intellectuals, and Comoran cadres, without distinction of origin, sex, is founded on democratic socialism and Islamic values. [Excerpts] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French 12 Feb 82 p 409] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982] CSO: 4719/606 51 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2047102109: CIA-RDP82-00850R400504040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY EQUATORIAL GUINEA BRIEFS PETROLEUM EXPLORATION--The first exploration for petroleum off the coast of Equator- ial Guinea started on 4 January 60 kms north of Biobo Island (formerly Fernando Po), just outside the territorial waters of Cameroon. The exploration is being done by the Guinean-Spanish Petroleum Company (GEPSA), a joint company with its capital equally divided between the Equatorial Guinean state and the Spanish company His- panoil. The exploration area is in the vicinity of the Nigerian and Camerooian oilfields. [Text] [Paris MARCHES.TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1888, 15 Jan 82 p 149] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982.] 8796 CSO: 4719/500 52 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL i1SE ONLY IVORY COAST _ BRIEFS COOPERATION WITH INDIA--In the industrial sphere, the Ivory Coast prefers to seek assistance from countries such as India rather than from Western countries, whose aid is considered to be more costly, said Ivorian Minister of Commerce Amoakon~Thiemele on 17 December, during his official visit to India. A. E. Thiemele, who met with representatives of the Association of Indian Equipment Industry (AIEI), suggested that India build in his country a"pilot village" with c~raft industries to allow all African nations to ~udge the3r potential. He also called on Indian businessmen to build four sugar cane refineries in the Ivory Coast. Finally, the Ivorian min3ster said that talks will soon start . in Abidjan to hammer out the first trade agreement between the two countries. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1885, 25 Dec 81 p 3428] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 8796 OIL PALM--The Ivory Coast wants to prevent a decline in the production of its ~ oil palm plantations, forecast for 1987, by renovating the groves. Oil palm trees now cover 102,000 hectares, of which 64,000 hectares are in industrial plantations and 38,000 hectares are in village plantations. The success of the various "palm" plans up to now has made it possible for the Iyory Coast to become the third largest producer of palm oil in the world, after Malaysia and , Indonesia, and the sec~nd African producer of palm kernels after Nigeria. Since 1974, annual production has reached between 700,000 and 900,000 tons (the 700,000 tons arriving in the plants in 1980 will yield over 150,000 tons of oil). According to the experts, the production figure could be 1 million tons by 1984-1985, after which it could start declining very rapidly because more than 55 percent of the groves will have grown too old. That is why the Ministry of Agriculture has drawn up a timetable to plant new trees in an area of 112,000 hectares, and extend over a 20-year period, with the replanting done at the rate of 5,600 hectares a year. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ~ ~ ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1885,25 Dec 81 p 3428] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 8796 ~ NORTHERN PROJECTS--The steering committee of the Regional Rural Development Fund (FRAR) of the North Region in the Ivory Coast recently adopted its action program for the four departments of that region: 62 pro~ects will be carried out at a total cost of 210 million CFA francs, of which around 137 million will be provided by the Ivorian Government and 83 million by the local rural popula- tion. This government grant of 137 million CFA francs represents over 19 53 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY percent of the 720 million CFA francs assigned to the FRAR program in 1981, and this puts the North Region in third place, after the Center and West regions. Between 1974 and 1980, the state has contributed a total of 603.8 million CFA francs (an annual average of 100.6 million) to the FRAR programs in the North Region for use in 263 projects, with a total cost of 887.8 million CFA francs; the rest of the cost was financed by the rural population. [Text] jParis MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1885~, 25 Dec 81 p 3~+28] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 8796 TOTAL ACTIVITIES IN IVORY COAST--The Total group holds interests in three hydrocarbon exploration concessions in the Ivory Coast through the intermediary of the Total Petroleum Company for Exploration and F~tploitation in the Ivory Coast (TEPCI). In the permit E1 M1: (obtained on 6 June 1981), covering an on- shore and offshore area of 6,020 square kms (75 percent interest), the first drilling operations are scheduled to start in the summer of 1982. For the second permit D1 (obtained on 13 September 1981), which covers 550 square kms offshore, two drillings are scheduled for 1982~and in the last permit A1 (obtained 23 November 1981) of 750 square kms offshore, the first drilling is scheduled for 1983. Total's interest in D1 and A1 is 17.5 percent and 21.5 percent respectively. _ In the maYketing field, Total has been operating in the Ivory Coast since 1947. T'his year, TEPCI had a 12 percent increase in capital with only Ivorian private investors being allowed to buy shares. Other capital increases are"planned to raise to 35 percent the amount of Ivorian held interest. 7~ast year, this subsidiary company sold 198,000 tons of petroleum products, representing 16 per- cent of the sales, through its distribution chain of 8R service stations. The grou8p also holds interests in 3 companies: the Ivorian Lubricants Manufacturing Company (15 percent) with an output of 20,000 ton� a year; the San Pedro Storing C aapany (14 percent) with a storage capacity of 1,000 cubic meters and the Ivorian Petroleum Products Storing Com~any (50 percent) with a storage capacity of 54,000 cubic meters. Finally, the Total group owns 10.1 percent of t~ie Ivorian - Refining Company with installati on in Abidjan. The refinery capacity, which is now 2 million tons a year, will be expanded to 4 million tons. [Text] [Paris ~ MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1887, 6 Jan 82 p 81] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982.] 8796 BiJDGET FOR 1982 ADOPTED--The Ivory.Coast Council of Ministers Meeting, under head of state Felix Houphouet-Boigny on 10 December, adopted the budget for the 1982 f�iscal year, a budget which comes to 712.725 billion Fr CFA. The operating budget was fixed at 420.7 billion Fr CFA, an increase over the 1981 budget, which was 376 billion Fr CFA. The special investment and infrastructure budget (BSIE) is 292.025 billion Fr CFA, which is down from the 1981 BSIE of about - 312 billion Fr CFA. Overall, the 1982 budget is 24 billion Fr CFA hisher than the pre~Pdin~ budget. [Text] [Paris MARG`HES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 188~+, 18 Dec 81 p 33651 [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie 1982.] 9516 CSO: 4719/374 5~+ . , APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MADAGASCAR NATIONAL POPULAR ASSEMBLY ADOPTS NEW 5-YEAR PLAN Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1884, 18 Aec 81 p 3380 [Text] The National Popular Assembly of Madagascar [ANP], after considering and passing the 1982 finance bill on 6 December (see MTM of 11 December, p 3319), began consideration of another essential economic item: the second 5-year plan, ~ covering the years 1982-1987. That plan is supposed to reflect in concrete terms the directions set forth by public law 77-002 on "socialist planning." According to that law, the structural and material foundation for socialist development during the current period is to be built around concrete action in five major sectors: --In the agricultural sector, development of the productive forces that will assure the peasants a higher standing of living, through agrarian revolution, expanding the surface area under cultivation, creation of socialist cooperatives ~ and state farms, and improvement of techniques. ~ ~ --In the industrial sector, this period will see the establishment of basic industry (including mining and energy), which means production of raw materials and intermediate goods, and will also see expansion of the food processing in~. dustries, in the producing regions themselves wherever possible. --In the se~vice sector, socialist control and rationalization of foreign trade must be pursued; socialist control and rationalization of internal collection and distribution should be extended; measures to provide increasing socialist control over internal transport will be taken; the banking system will continue to be extended, as much as possible, all the way to the level of the firaisam- pokontany and access to loans for productive activity will be facilitated. --From the point of view of infrastructure: existing infrastructure will be rehabilitated, better maintained and better utilized; the effort to complete the principal basic networks of intraregional and interregional communications and telecommunications will be given increasing emphasis. --From the point of view of social improvements: an effective policy of fighting unemployment will be pursued; the work of establishing a basic social infra- structure will be completed, especially in basic education, health and culture; 55 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ttie effort to build and rationalize mass communications facilities will be con- tinued; the standard of living of the most disadvantaged strata of the populace will be significantly improved; in particular, state insurance will be extended and an adequate housing policy implemented. The 1982-87 Plan, which the deputies adopted on 10 December in the form of public law no.~ 81-036, has not yet been made public. It is a voluminous work, comprised of 15 chapters dealing with major directions; with agriculture (training, improvement of yields--2.13 tons of rice per hectare, for example, as compared to the current level of 1.9 tons), with industry (creation of inedium-sized indus- tries to process food products at the production site), with mines (mining of the coal at Sakoa), with energ}x (building of dams), social improvements, means of communication, and so on. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981 9516 CSO: 4719/374 56 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MADAGASCAR DETAILS OF RATSIRAKA~S NEW YEAR~S SPEECH GIVEN Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEIJITERRANEENS in French No 1888, 15 Jan 82 p 156 [Text] In our issue of 8 January (page 96), we gave a very brief suromary of President Ratsiraka's de:claration on the occasion of the New Year. Since that time, we have received the text of that important declaration which merits review in greater detail. President Ratsiraka insisted that besides some mistakes and blunders committed . in, the management of the economy, one cannot ignore the fact that the current problems are the result of: 1. the international economic crisis which has brought about constant increases in the cost of imported goods while, paradoxically, the prices of exported com- _ modities fluctuate or decline; 2. the increase of interest rates on loans; 3. the heavy expenditures in the social sector, namely, education, health and higher salaries for civil servants; ' 4. the natural disasters such as drought which have seriously affect the crops; ' S. the problems of ~oreign exchange. In his straightforward and courageous declaration, President Ratsiraka did not conceal the fact that embezzlement of public funds, corruption and the selfish attitude of some people have assumed ser3,ous proportions. The only way to solve the problems, the only trtm~p card for Madagascar, the head of state concluded, is to put into action the "revolutionary slogan" of "all-out production." The government, for its part, will assume its responsibilities in all spheres, be it economic, financial, social or cultural.... Details of the goverriment action will be announced by the president of the Republic at a later date . COPYRIGHT:, Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982. 8796 - CSO: 4719/502 57 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500044016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ MADAGASCAR FIANARANTSOA PROVINCE'S POTENTIAL VIEWED AS GREAT Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1885, 25 Dec 81 p 3~+~+~+ [Text] The faritany (province) of Fianarantsoa is still scarcely developed from the industrial standpoint: coffee merchandising, rice farming, the meat industry at the Vohimasina State Farm (FEV, formerly Rochefortaise), SOFINAC (Partnership Fievet Ramon and Co) and the Lachaise Company in Ambohimahasoa; a tea factory in Sahambavy,with an annual capacity of 200 tons; a rubber- processing plant, the SMTC [Malagasy Rubber Processing Company] and so on. Yet the ind~istrial potential of the region is real, MADAGASCAR-MATIN points out in a supplement devoted to the province of Fianarantsoa. This province has mining resources which have been the subject of preliminary studies: the iron ore deposits of Bekisopa (70 million tons, with 48 percent iron content) and of Fasintsara (105 million tons, with 33 percent iron content); the bauxite deposits in Sandravinany (also 105 million tons, with 40 percent content).... In another sphere, there is the SOPRAEX [expansion unknown] project to build a factory to process medicinal plants, now waiting to be implemented following ratification of a financing agreement between the Malagasy Government and the Italian company Inverni Belfa on 16 December 1980; Madagascar (BNI [National Bank for Industrial Development], Ny Havana) holds 16-percent interest in SOPRAEX, and realization of this project is expected io create 200 jobs. Other pro~ects under planning are: the paper-paste'plant of Haute Matsiatra; a coffee-roasting plant in Mananjary; a tannery in Amb'ysitra. Preliminary feasibility studies have been done oi are in progress !Eor pro~ects involving an oil mill in Ambalavao, a coffee factory in Manakara, a sugar refinery in Vangaindrano, a plant to produce alcohol from cassava in Ifanadiana.... To this list we could add a factory for making electricity poles in Ambalamanakana, and the CODAL (Industrial Agency of Food.Products) fruit 3uice plant. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Parip, 1981 8796 CSO: 4719/436 58 ~Y APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY MADAGASCAR CCCE AID TO REFLOAT COMPANIES REPORTED Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in 3c~rench No 1885, 25 Dec 81 p 34~+4 [Text] According to the terms of two agreements signed in Antananarivo on 11 December, the Central Fund for Economic Cooperation (CCCE, a French agency) will extend to Madagascar a loan of 2.5 billion Malagasq francs as urgent aid. This loan is repayable in 15 years, including a 5-year deferred-payment period, and carries an annual interest rate of 5.5 percent. The first agreement deals with the CCCE loan itself, while the second covers the transfer of the loan to four companies: SOLIMA [Malagasy Petrolewn Company] (petroleum), PAPMAD (Malagasy Paper Compaxiy) and SNBCE (Nossi-Be East Coast Sugar Refineries). The loan will be divided as follows (in Malagasy francs): 880 million for SOLIMA (Toamasina refinery); 320 million for PAPMAD (Ambohimanambola plant); 985 million for SIRAMA [Malagasy Sugar Company]; and 295 million for SNBCE. The money will be used to purchase raw materials and spare parts now in short supply ~n most.Malagasy enterprises due to the lack of foreign exchange. The director of the Central Bank of Madagascar, Mr Bridier, noted that after this new loan, the total amount of aid granted in 1981 by the CCCE to the - Great Island is 11 billion Malagasy francs, compared to 6 billion in 1980. This is in addition to assistance provided by the Aid and Cooperation Func (FAC) in the form of nonrepayable grants, which totaled more than 2 billion Malagasy francs for 1980. To this direct French aid must be added the coverage provided by the COFACE [French Insurance Company for Foreign Trade] for French exports to Madagascar to the tune of about 10 billion Malagasy francs. French-Malagasy cooperation is doing well and, as pointed out by the governor of the Central Bank of Madagascar, Leon Ra3aobelina, when the two agreements were signed, this cooperation increased even more after President Ratsiraka's working visit to Paris last October, Rajaobelina also mentioned another indirect method by which the French Government helps the Maiagas~r economy, which in recent months was illustrated by the easing of thF bur.dzn of Madagascar's debt to France and to the Paris Club. Repayment ~~f part of the public debt to France is spread over a fairly iong period. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981 8796 CSO: 4719/ ~+36 59 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE O~NLY MADAGASCAR BRIEFS FAO RESEARCH VESSEL--The research vessel �~urong which the FAO has put at the disposal of Madagascar for a 2-year period; arrived in Toamasina in December. The Jurong, with it~ hdme port in Nossi-Be, is a 35-meter long vessel outfitted wi=h the most modern equipment to detect fishing banks, to catch, refrigerate - and freeze the catches. Its mission is to pinpoint the fish-bearing areas off the coast of Grande-Ile, to explore the northwes't co$stal waters from Mahajanga to Nossi-Be, t~e Cape d'Ambre area, the Antongil Bay, the Nossi-Be Continental Shelf zone and, finally, the Toamasina area. The studies already made indicate, among other things, that the Antbngil Bay'is rich in sardines and anchovies. When the 2-year contract expires, Madagascar will hatve the choice of eiCher renegotiating the contract, keeping the vessel or returning it to th~ FAO. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ~T 1~DITERRANEENS in French No 1888, 15 Jan 82 p 156] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982.] 8796 ~ AldTANANARIVO BUDGET--The budget of the "fivondroanana" of Antananarivo, adopted by the People's Council on 16 December, amounts to 9,174 million Malagasy francs. Revenues consist of 2,426.5 million from the original budget and 6,747.5 million from the additional budget. Under the heading of expenditures, there is a credit of 50 million Malagasy francs for the creation of a corpora- tion which will be in charge of implementing projects to improve pu~lic trans- port. There is also a 70-million credit to start rebuilding the old Town Ha11. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICaUX ET MEDITERRANEENS in French No 1885, 25 Dec 81 p 3444] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1981] 8796 CSO: 4719/436 FOR OFFICLAL USE ONLY 60 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGER BCEAO I.~SLTES REPORT ON RECENT FACTORS IN ECONOMIC SITUATION Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS in French No 1888, 15 Jan 82 p 140 [Text] One of the most recent economic and monetary statistics reports of the Central Bank of the West African States (BCEAO) was devoted to Niger. During the 1980-81 agricultural year, the main crops produced were: 1,567 tons of shelled peanuts (down by 607 tons compared to the previous year) and 2,852 tons of cottonseed (down by 576 tons). The 1980 harvest of food crops (millet, sorghum and beans) totaled 129,000 ~tons with an overall value of 5.4 billion Cr'A francs. At the beginning of the 1980-81 season, the prices which the farmers received for their millet and sorghum were increased from 40 to 50 CFA francs per kilo. . In the first 6 months of 1981, 2,309 tons of uranium ore were mined (up by 220 tons compared to the same 6-month period of 1980). During the first 5 months of 1981, 2,193 commercial flights and 39,067 passengers arrived and departed.from Niamey International Airport. During that same 5-month period, the Joint Benin-Niger Railroad and Tr.ansport Organization (OCBN) carried, among other goods, 36,520 tons of fuel and 21,805 tons of grain on the way to Niger and 2,977 tons of inerchandise out of Niger. ' By the end of August 1981, the general consumer price index for an African house- hold was 403.9 compared to 283 at the end of June 1980 (on the basis of the figure - 100 established for 1970); the sharp increase registered in the index figure was mainly due to food prices. The budget for the October 1980-September 1981 fiscal period was set, both for revenues and expenditures, at 80.6 billion CFA francs (an 3.5 billion increase compared to the previous budget) and included 8.7 billion for the public debt burden (up by 4.5 billion) and 26 billion for capital expenditures (unchanged). By the end of July 1981, receipts from custom duties and taxes totaled 17.7 billion CFA francs, 84 percent of which came from imports. By the end of December 1980, Niger had an outstanding externaldebt equivalent to 86.4 billion CFA francs (up by 31.6 billion compared to the figure for end of 1979) with an available margin of 90.1 billion not yet withdrawn (up by 37 billion). 61 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY On 30 June 1981, the amount of money in circulation (bills and coins) was 32.7 billion CFA francs (up by 3.5 billion compared to end of June 1980). The value of demand and time deposits in banks and savings accounts was 56.1 billion CFA francs (down by 10.2 billion). On that same date, the total amount of aid to the economy was 91.2 billion CFA francs (up by 1.2 billion compared to June 1980). Almost 66 percent had gone to the private sector (mostly the trade sector) while public enterprises accounted for close to 39 percent of the total. Over the 12-month period, the domestic net balance position of the Nigerien Trea- sury had greatly imporved moving from a deficit of 12.9 billion CFA francs in June to a surplus of 0.1 billion by the end of June 1981. The situation with regard to net external assets (Central Bank and commercial banks) had followed the opposite trend moving from a credit balance for the equi- valent of 3 billion CFA francs in June 1980 to a debit. balance of 1.8 billion CFA francs because the banks were forced to turn to foreig;z credit to finance th~air assistance to the economy. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982. 8796 CSO: 4719/500 62 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONL~' NIGER BRIEFS I'RENCH CONSULATE IN ARLIT--Since 11 January there has been a French Consulate in the town of Arlit (population: around 20,000), a Saharian subprefecture in the department of Agadez and the chief uranium town of Niger. This consulate was opened because there is a large community of French technicians accompanied by their families (around 1,20U people) who work in that mining and industrial "heart" of Niger, said Alain Pierret, the French ambassador to Niger. It is also justified by the number of French tourists who travel down the Algiers-Agadez trans-Sahara highway (which passes through Arlit). For instance, during the Christmas holidays, as many as 50 passenger cars crossed the border between Algeria and Niger every day and more than half of these cars were driven by French nationals. [Text] [Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS in French No 1888, 15 Jan 82 p 140] [COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982.] 8796 ' CSO: 4719/500 . ~ ; i : i 6 ; 3 ! FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ' APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFiCIAL USE ONLY NIGERIA NEW BOOK ON PRESIDENT SI'AGARI REVIEWED London NEW AFRICAN in English Jan 82 p 82 [Book review: "Shehu Shegari: A Man o~ Vision Speaks Out"] [Text ] NIGERIA'S PRESIDENT Shehu Shagari This collection in a single volume makes has already established himself as a it an easy reference book for anyone world statesman. This book is a unique interested in Nigeria or Nigerian affairs. collection of the Nigerian President's What makes this book much more speeches during various stages of his interesting is that, the speeches by Presi- leadership - from the date when power dent Shagari give a unique insight into was transferred from Nigeria's military the character of this teacher-turned- rulers to the civilian government led by President. For instance, notes MrTijjani: Alhaji Shagari, to topics on finance, "Shagari is a man who, though very - IVigeria's role in Africa's unity, industry, serious-minded and serious-looking, has pulitics, the press and religion. the most tantalising sense of humour. In this selection, President Shagari His jokes, which he cracks mostly with a preaches peace and understanding not small group or with individuals, are told only in Nigeria but universally. It also in the most simple but funny way. To becomes clear that the Nigerian leader's those who may be hearing him make a hopes and aspirations concerning joke for the first time it always sounds Nigeria ha~e been established beyond funnier, perhaps because most people doubt through his attitude, his strategy hardly expect such a serious-minded per- and his utterances both in private and son to condescend to do so." ~ public. Although the selection from the Presi- Aminu Tijjani, one of the editors says: dent's speeches and writings covers only "I strongly believe that the 'Shagari vis- the first 18 months of his four-year term ion of Nigeria' will one day develop into of office, they also look far forward - to an international slogan for peace and what has been termed Shagari's viaion prosperity for all mankind." of Nigeria. The two authors should be Tiyani gces on to say: "One of the first encouraged to write a second volume of things J observed about Shehu Shagari is President Shagari's speeches when he that the intimately solemn and serious completes his first four years in office. expression he wears hides a very strong They will have plenty to write about the but flexibl~ mind; a mind full of positive achievements of one of Nigeria's illustri- and honest hopes about mankind gener- ous sons - Alhaji Shehu Shagari. a~~y,^ This book will find a ready market not David Williams, an English journalist, only in Nigeria but also in research is the co-editor of this book. His intimate libraries all over the world where Presi- knowledgP of West Africa, through his dent Shagari's Nigeria is already becom- editorshi~, ~.f West AFrica magazine, fully ing a houaehold name. Anyone interested , qualifies him to join Tijjani in writing in Nigeria shoutd read thia book ~ this l~ook. Many of the speeches in the book have �Shehu Shagari- My Vision ofN:geria; been reproduced by Nigeria's masa media edited by Aminu T~jjani and David Wil- and quoted in many parts of the world. liams; published by Frank Cass, London. COPYRIGHT: 1981 IC Magazines Limited CSO: 4700/772 6~+ ~ F4R OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGERIA AFRICA SAID CORNERSTONE OF COUNTRY'S FOREIGN POLICY London NEW AFRICAN in English Jan 82 p 90 [Interview with Alhaji Shehu Awak, Nigerian High Comm~ssioner in Landon by Esther Ogunmodede; date and place not given] [Text] AFRICA IS THE centrepiece and corner- our of their skin, so long will those of us stone of Nigeria's foreign policy. who share that trait with them suffer Nigerians have seized every opportunity that indignity." around the world to state this, said "But that is not all" added Alhaji Nigeria's new High Commissioner in Shehu, "Our interest in African af~'airs London, Alhaji Shehu Awak, recently. has been guided by the traditional con- Nigerians think that the world, the ceptofprotectingandpromotingourvital West in particular, is either not listening national interests, the most important of or has misunderstood its foreign policy; which are to create conditions at home or at best supposes that 1Vigeria is and abroad and around us conducive to � engaged in a strategy of all talk and no political stability." action. So Alhaji Shehu was at pains to So eag~r have Nigerians been to enumerate instances of action by [Vigeria promote their concept of 'Africa first' in support of what has now become the that they have used economic mu,cle to most important phase of its foreign pol- ram home their points, expecially icy. a~uinst the West, which the Nigerians Why, of all the other pre~~ing matter~ are com�inced, are in collu;ion with that trouble the world - the threat of Suuth Africa to maintain the status yuo. ~ nuclear war f'or instance - is Nigeria lVigerians believe that the West harping on Africa'? Alhaji Shebu gave the w?th it:; massive inve,tmentti in South an~wer: "Nigeria neither has, nor wantti, Africa, has [he economic weapon hy ~lobal respon5ibility, but prefers to play which it can force South Afric:~ to eive uq 'its part in its geographical sphere." That l~Jamibia,renounceapartheidandadoptan iti not to say that Nigeria has ignored the egalitarian society. rest of the world. Indeed says Alhaji Of all the problems i n Africa, the South Shehu, Nigeria is an active member of Africa, has the economic weapons by the Commonwealth, the United Nations the greate~t heartache for Nige?�ians who and the Non-AliKned Movements. hcive become increa~in~l~~ f'rustrated Africa ha, been the main concern of with the West. Nigeria's Foreign Affairs tiuccessive Nigerian kovernments since iblinisteronce,aid to his British counter- the countr,y became independent p,~~�t, Lord Carrington: "Your iBritish~ hecuutie, said Alhaji Shehu, quoting credibility and inte~rity to act as an � Nigeria'~ Vice-Pretiident, Dr Alex ef'fective voice For peace, change and sta- Ekwueme, so long as the blackman 1>ility in Southern Africa will continue to in South Africa is not fi�ee, we could not be 5eriously in question and mistaken for regard ourselves as being free. So long as complicity ~o long as you fail to prove our brothers in South Africa are still your abhorrence of the policy of apar- heinK trampled upon because of the col- theid." h5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY [t i~ believed that Ni~;eria's President lhe We~t. need~ Ni}~eria. tiu, barrink un Shehu Shagari accepted the invitation unfore,eeeible ca~astrophe overtakin~ for his state visit to Britain i n order to use South Africa, the West, due to their mas- thepublicitytofurtherhammerhiscoun- ~ive investment in the area, are quite try's Africa policy. At a Buckingham happy to let matters continue at the Palace banquet an3later when he addres- pi�esent 5nails pace and regard the sed Britis bankers and businessmen and denunciations as no more than harmless yet again at a press confer- nagging. ence, President Shagari fed the Western 5outhern Africa i~ not the only area of world the diet of this policy - total libera- concern to Nigerian5. IVigeria takes cre- tion for all colonised parts of Africa. He dit fo?� bringing into being the Economic repeated that mere condemnation of Commission of West African States apartheid is neither effective nor adequ- ~ ECOWAS? as an expression of the conti- ate and that the racist minority regime in nent'S aspiration to "take into its own South Africa survives only with the col- hands the control of its economic des- , lusion and encouragement of the West- ern powers who supply them arms and tiny . use their veto power at the United Nigeria also justifiably points to the Nations to block the oil embargo. many economic and political measures it Nigeria, he promised will give aid to all has taken to being relief to her neigh- the freedom fighters in Namibia and bauring states: like beinq the chief con- tributor to the African Development South Africa. Bank from which her neighbours draw Although Nigerian~ at, every level of development loans and accepting a large ~iuthorit}~andformorethantwodecades, numberofrefugeesfromandgivingaidto have ~tated and re-5tated their foreign the drought affected Sahelian states. polic~~. they are sure that the West thinks Alhaji Awak stated, "Although we are tilat it is all a lot of' hot aii�. The West not a rich country, and despite our own holds this view becau~e Nigeria, like the socio-economic and political problems, re5t of Af?�ica, i~ only loo awa?�e of its own we realise that we are better placed than ~~eakness. [t cannot stake its national some of our brothers and therefore give ~tabili[~� to fi~ht a physical war so far assistance... financial, material and awav from home. W ith no certaintv of the technical to newly independent African outcome or for how long it would be countries for example, Mozambique, nece~sary to drain ~he country's Angola and Zimbabwe; we transfer re~ource~ in men and money, such an resources to neighbouring countries enterpri~e i~ hound to be ,uicidal. through joint investments in agriculture In ~~ddition, there i~ ~i limit ~o which and industrial projects... and give full Ni~;eria cun u~e its ecr~nomic muscle to support to the Lagos plan of the OAU force the We~t to impo~e em!~argoes Economic Summit because we believe ei~;ainst South Africu. For, Nigerians that political independsnce without a~�e fond of' pointin~; uut, no man is an economic emancipation brings an incom- isl:ind. [Vi~;eri.i dneed~ the We~t as much plete independence."� COPYRIGHT: 1981 IC Magazines Limited CSO: 4700/772 66 FOR OFF[CIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000540040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGERIA ~COUNTRY WARNED TO FIND ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES ~ London NEW AFRICAN in English Jan 82 p 92 [Article: "Oil Slump Warning: The Bubble May Burst"] [Te~ ~ NIGEftIA CONTINUES to be very heav- as a result of oil wealth, so far few of these ily dependent on oil revenues for its have become alternative sources of development needa deapite the recent national revenue upon which the exche- reduced earnings from this commodity. quer can rely and the dependence upon During 1980, the oil price hikzs oil remaina dangerously high. increased the value of oil exports by 33 Oil reserves are expected ta last for per cent yielding N13.5-billion 1$21.2- twenty years at current rates of extrac- billion) in spite of a nine per cent drop in tion. Recoverable oil is now estimated at ~ the volume produced. Oil accounted for 18,000-million barrels. The tendency 96 per cent of export earnings and 80 per is to underestimate both th.e extent to cent of government revenues during that which new finds are likely to be made and calendar year. also - for the longer term - the extent to However, although during the first which improvements in technology will half of 1981, oil revenue was valued at prolong the life of preaent fields. If these N6,760-million ($10,624-million), earn- factors are taken into account, Nigeria's ings dropped drastically in July to a mere future as an oil producer could be N442.2-million 1$695-million) and. still extended considerably. On the other further in August to N387.5-million hand, Nigeria is herself rapidly develop- i$609-million). ing into a cnajor oil consumer. The 1982 budget is to be based on a The demand for petroleum products production of 1.3-million barrels a day ~nside Nigeria has now nearly reached ~bpd) at N22.9 t$36) per barrel. At the 250,000 bpd or one fifth of the current low beginning of November, Nigeria effec- rate of production. Further, one estimate tively reduced its price again by of'fering suggests that Nigeria will be consuming buyers 120 days in which to pay instead 530,000 bpd by 1990 and as much as of 30, equivalent to a credit of $1.50 a 950,000 bpd by the year 2000. barrel. Thus the current price of N21.9 If this pattern does develop without i$34.50) per barrel makes Nigerian oil any further significant finds then, as the competitive with Britain's North Sea oil, stock of the country's oil resources moves i at a time when Libyan and Algerian ~W~'~depletion,thebestpartofhalfthe crudes are stilt being offered at $40 per Production will be consumed locally. barrel. Consequently revenue from overseas The sensiti vity of the Nigerian eales available for development will have economy to the ups and downs of the been greatly reduced much earlier than international oil market was demons- otherwise would have been the case. trated in September wt~,en government Assuming such a pattern will appear, it is expenditure cuts were announced. These imperative that alternative sources of came directly in the wake of the low July revenue are developed as quickly as poss- demand when produ~tion fell to about ible. 770,000 bpd. Despite many developments The Fourth Plan sets aside N6,575- 67 FOR OFFICI ~ 3. USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 F~R OFF'iC1AL USE ONLY milliun for mining tiector developments N14-billion of which Nigeria is expected yet only N360-million ofthis is for non-oil to put up 60 per cent and Shell, Agip, Elf, projects, the rest for oil. Included in this is Phillips and BP the remaining 40 per N3-billion to be spent on the refineries at cent. Nigeria has the potential to become Warri and Kaduna which are to be raised a huge world gas exporter but the vast from a production level of 100,000 bpd to investment required is an unattractive 120,000 bpd with the addition of pet- proposition at the present time of reces- rochemical plants while a fourth refinery sion. The gas is equivalent to 15-billion has been planned to produce 200,000 bpd. barrels of oil. It is hoped that develop-. The military government gave the oil ment of the Bonny LNG plant will get industry a boost in 1977 resulting in a underway in 1984. Meanwhile gas number of developments just coming to flaring continues at an estimated equi- fruition at the present time. Thus in 1981 valent of 400,000 bpd of oil. new fields are about to come on stream although unfortunately coinciding with Nigeris requires a long-term policy to the present slump; but the longer term develop other energy resources such as prospects are good. Mobil expects that its coal, solar energy and hydro-electric Oso field will produce 100,000 bpd by power. She muat do this so that she may 1983. Shell is increasing production from continuetoexportthemaximumvolumeof its Membe Creek field and a pipeline to long as posaible and not find herself Bonny may also be used to link up with over-dependent upon oil for her own other fields in the area.. Shell has also energy requirements when it really does ordered platforms for its field off Bonny. begin to run out. Other developments mean a rapid boom The recent ILO report for Nigeria - - could take place once the present reces- FirstThingsFirst-arguesthatNigeria's sion ends. oil revenues would be wasted if they are The Nigerian subsidiary of Mobil has not used to alleviate poverty, help recently made a major new find offshore increase food production, meet basic with estimated reserves of 1000-million needs and assist people to develop their barrels. This is equivaient to 12 or 13 abil~ties. It suggests that after ten years years of the company's production. The of oil boom there is no obvious sign of ~ discovery, offshore from the Cross River generally better living conditions. It State in eastern Nigeria, is one of the should not be forgotten that both in largest in the country. ~ absolute terms and still more in relation A huge resource which still remains to her huge population Nigeria has rela- virtually untouched is Nigeria's natural tively small oil reserves. It is imperative gas. There is an estimated 90-trillion that oil be turned into alternative pro- cubic feet of unexploited natural gas. Its ductive sources of wealth at the earliest development will cost an estimated opportunity� COPYRIGHT: 1981 IC Magazines Limited CSO: 4700/772 68 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGERIA TRADE IMBALANCE WITH FRANCE REDUCID FROM 1980 FIGURES Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS in French No 1886 1 Jan 82,p 30 [Text] Trade between Nigeria and France, which was worth 8,903,000,000 francs in the first half of 1981, as opposed to 8.77 billion francs during the first half . of 1980 (MTM 2 Oct p 2505), rose to 12,605,600,000 francs for the first 9 months of 1981, about the same as during the same period in 1980. There was a large gap . between exports and imports in I980 in favor of Nigeria; however, this gap dimin- ished considerably during the first half of 1981 and was reduced sti11 further over the 9-month period. During this time the reserve ratio was 95.4 percent for France, whereas for the same 9-month period in 1980 it was 44.7 percent. Between the two [9-month] periods, France's sales rose from 3,963,300,000 francs to 6,153,500,000 francs (up 55.3 percent), while Nigeria's 8,200,600,000 francs in sales fell to 6,452,100,000 francs (down 27.1 percent). Thus; the deficit in the baZance of trade, which was 4,238,300,000 francs for France during the 9-month period in 1980, fell to only 298.6 million during the same 9-month period in 1981. � This reprzsents a drop of 92 percent. This favorable situation for France is the consequence of the many contracts that France has concluded, increasing its sales of material and equipment. It is also due to a sizable reduction in its purchases of oil. The provisions of the new Nigerian budget, which comes into force on 1 January, are designed to reduce imports into Nigeria and will certainly result in a reduc- tion in France's as well as other countries' sales; for our country, this could lead to a new imbalance in trade to our disadvantage in 1982. In London business circles, the feeling is that Great Britain's sales will be reduced to about 1.2 billion pounds this year because of these provisions. But it is also true that the balance of trade between Nigeria and Great Britain has so far always been con- siderably in favor of Great Britain, and to a.n extent that has often been cause for concern among Nigerians, who are more than ever desirous of establishing balanced relations will all of their trading partners (in this connection, see the recent statement by the minister of foreign trade in MTM of 20 November, p 2949). COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982 9855 CSO: 4719/465 69 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 . MOR OFFdCIAL USE ONLY NIGERIA CONTRACTS SIGNED FOR EXTENSIVE MAPPING PROGRAM Paris MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS in French No 1886, 1 Jan 82 p 30 [Text] The Federal Government of Nigeria has embarked upon a vast mapping program and to this end has signed two series of contracts worth 39,352,480 nairas with specialized firms. The first series of contracts is for the production of 1:25,000 maps to replace the old 1:50,000 maps, which were too small to be useful in economic planning pro- jects. Five firms have been chosen, each for a specific sector. Their contracts add up to 14,028,480 nairas; a surface area of 69,230 square kilometers [will be covered]. Map Data Services: Sokoto region; cost: 2,660,882 nairas; time: 18 months. Ertec West Africa: Kano region; cost: 3,454,416 nairas; time: 24 months. A. A. Lakanu and Co/Gulf Consultants: Ijebu-Ode Epe region; cost: 2,260,612 nairas; time: 18 months. Allied Surveys: Kainji/Borgu region; cost: 3,289,874 nairas; time: 24 months. Pan African Surveys: Abeokuta region; cost: 2,362,694.nairas; time: 18 months. The second series~of contracts is for maps of six state capitals, with a 1:1,000 scale. These contracts amount to 25,324,000 nairas. The cities to be mapped are Akure, Bauchi, Ilorin (zones A and B), Minna, Owerri, and Sokoto. The firms these contracts were awarded to were not named, but we recall that for Owerri--the capital of the state of Imo--the firm Danz Surveys and Coi?sultants of the consor- tium Danz and Setam Associates was designated. Its contract, signed on 4 December, amounts to 4.4 million nairas, and the work is to be carried out over the next 24 months (MTM 18 Dec p 3370). COPYRIGHT: ~.~_ne Moreux et Cie Paris 1982 ~ 9855 CSO: 4719/465 70 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ~ NIGERIA COUNTRY AS MARKEP FOR EXPORT EVALUATED London NEW AFRICAN in English Jan 82 pp 59, 62 [Article: "Big Prizes for Those Who Can Master the Trading Hindrances"] [Text ] NIGERIA'S HUGE market - potentially than was st first imagined. The USA is by 90-million, the size of its development far the largest export partner for plans at both federal and individual state Nigerian oil anil takes nearly half levels, and its oil wealth - make it one of Nigeria's total output. the most attractive trading areas any- Major export partners for oil in 1980 where in the world. The problems to be were as follows: USA 44.3 per cent, overcome when seeking a section of this Netherlands 12.1 per cent, France 11.2 - market - it pre3ents some notorious pit- per cent, Weat Germany 6.6 per cent, falls for the unwary - are worth combat- Italy 2.8 per cent and ECOWAS 2.8 per ing for the possible trading prizes at the cent. � end. During 1980 Nigeria's non-oil exports Despite 21 years of independence, dropped by 1? per cent. Here the trading Nigeria has not really changed her trad- pattern is somewhat different: Britain is ing pattern except in volume and type of the main export market taking 28.6 per goods. The country remains an importer cent of all non-oil exports, followed by the - of manufactured goods and an exporter of Netherlanda - 17.6 per cent, West Ger- raw materials. The aignificant change - many - 17 per cent, the USA - 11.7 per apart from volume - has been in the cent, followed by France, Japan and nature of the raw materials exported: oil Italy. in place of agricultural commodities. Overwhelmingly Nigeria's trade M8~IL ~St~@1"s remains with Europe and North Americs. Despite the formation of Almoat~ all of Nigeria's importa come ECOWAS very little of it is with either from Europe, with Britain still well in the Nigeria's West African neighbours or the lead as a supplier although under continent as a whole. There are one or increasing challenge from West Ger- two signs of possible breaks in this pat- many. Main import categories for 1980 tern: for example India is becoming a were: machinery and transport equip- substantial parnter and there is a grow- ment - valued at N4548-million; man- ing number of joint Indian-Nigerian ven- ufactured goods - N2076.5-million; food tures. Indians are increasingly taking up and live animals - N1091-million; chem- management contracts of the kind which icals - N734-million; miscellaneous formerly went almoat exclusively to manufactures - N666.4-million; and European companies. mineral fuels - N241.5-million. Nigerian trade is far too dominated by The main import partnera were: Bri- oil for comfort. In 1980 oil accounted for tain - 22 per cent; West Germany 15 per 96.1 per cent of all export earnings. With cent; the USA 112 per cent; Japan 10.8 these earnings, Nigeria is trying to cre- per cent; France 7.1 per cent; Italy 6.7 per - ate an induatrial base at speed but the cent and the Netherlands 4.1 per cent. process is proving less atraightforward Oil enables Nigeria to import the 71 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 ' FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY machinery and manufactures she needs Nigeria's non-oil exports to ECOWAS for a process of rapid industrialisation. for 1980 came to only 1.6 per cent of her However, ahe seems to be as dependent as total exporta while her oil exporta to ever upon imports for far too wide a range ECOWAS were only 2.8 per cent. Thus of basic requirements and no change in the ECOWAS market atill has a long way this pattern is in sight on the present to develop and it refisins of only margi- horizon. nal importance at the present time. Exporters to Nigeria face a wide range Nigeria's main trading problem is how of often irkeome controls while contracts to diversify from oil dependence. In 1980, worth N100,000 or more must be regis- for example, while oil exports were worth tered with the Ministry of Commerce. N13.5-billion all other exporta totalled Nigeria uaes the SGS (Societe Generale only N554-million. de Surveillan;.e) to check gooda being One result of the many difficulties imported. While this helps protect which exporters to Nigeria face hae led to Nigeria from malpractices, it also causes the encouragement of direct investment subatantial delays. One result of the in Nigeria as oppoeed to merely viewing various reatrictions which importers it as an export market. This development have to face has been to make major firma is generally favoured in Lagos. look far more.closely at the poeaibility of The main areas for foreign investment local Nigerian companies aupplying their are vehicle components, agriculture and needs before they turn to importers. food rrceeaeing, building materials, ECOWAS should be the obvioue trad- houeehold gooda, cheaucals, telecom- ' ing partner for Nigeria's siowly develop- municatione equipment and electrical ing manufacturing sector whoae producta goode. Over the next two years, for exam- are unlikely to find outlets in Europe for ple, five new vehicle planta will be eatab- a long time to come. Yet ECOWAS must liehed in Nigeria in partnership with first overcome a number of technical Japanese and French intereata. problems such as tarif~'s which so far have Of the many problems facing com- only partially been reduced and the prob- paniee trading with Nigeria smuggling lem of reconciling a series of divergent perhaps hae become the most important. currencies. Nigerian importa from all It affects government tax revenue as well over Africa probably amount to no more as reducing the market for traditional than 6 per cent ofthe total although exact suppliera from abroad. This year Nigeria figures are difficult to determine and are has cut down imports as a result of the reduced by widespread smuggling. huge reduction in oil production. Yet . frustrations apart, Nigeria .remains the largest and moat attractive long-term Erieousaqemerit market in black Africa~ COPYRIGHT: 1981 IC Magazines Limited � CSO: 4700/772 72 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00854R004500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY NIGERIA WOMEN'S RiOLE IN POLITICS, ISLAM SPELLED OUT London NEW AFRICAI~i in English No 172, Jan 82 p 46 [Report on interview with Alhaji Aminu Kano, PRP leader, by Esther Ogunmodede: "A Man Who Isn't Scared of Women"; date and place not given] [Text ] MALE POLITICIANS in Africa who change the course of political hietory." ignore the influence and power of women, When it was, religion-wise, taboo for never make it to the top. That ia why they women in the Moslem north to ahow their pamper and generally make a show of face in public, Aminu Kano etuck hia promoting women's interests, especially neck out and encouraged women to join at election time - or use women to gener- his party, the old NEPU, and they did so ate the tempo of their campaigns. in their thousa~a~. Why did he do it, One would expect that with auch politi- especially in the !'ace of the wrath of the cal power, women would put themselvea ariatocratic ruling party? forward as candidates, and that the men He replied: "People, especially among would field women in elections for par- Moelem communities, tell falsehooda liamentary seats. The way in which about women and the position of women women are relegated to ihe background in Islam. They try to con people into in this regard suggests that either the believing that the Koran directs that men are too frightened of women's politi- women be relegated to the background. cal influence or that they use women as Well, the Koran dcea nothing of the kind. tools to achieve their own ends. And it wae to free Islam from this kind of lie that I decided to come out with the Thep caa declde truth. I recruited women to my party. Neither Islam nor the Koran - nor Sharia A rare man is Alhaji Aminu Kano, a (Islamic law) - advocatea that women highly respected party leader in Nigeria, should be relegated." , and a lifelong campaigner for the eman- In Islamic history there are women cipation and the rights of wome~, espe- who achieved greatness as scholars and cially in the Moslem north of the country in wars. In fact, the Koran specifically from whence he comes. We got together $aYs that men should stand up for the for a discussion on the problem recently. I rights of women and protect them - and put it to him that men seem to be frigh- thia doea not mean only in time of war. It tened of women in politics. means protection from illiteracy, from He said: "I don't thin~s it is a question of poverty and backwardnesa. being afraid. Many men have made up Aminu Kano, unable to recruit their minds and judged women without "respectable" women, who mainly were giving them a chance to prove them- in purdah, had no option once he had selvea. In the future, perhapa, men may committed himself to the emancipation of come to fear women because of their Women but to recruit prostitutes. number. And when women understand "I didn't mind," he recalled, "I was the political implication of this, they can looking for women. 1 couldn't reject the decide the future of our country. They can ones 1 found. And they played, and con- - decide the future of the President and tinue to play an important role in the 73 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY party and in the country. They take courses in child care and community health care and learn to read and write. They play a useful role in helping their sisters who are in purdah by imparting the benefit of their education in family and health welfare. In the 'states where my party is in power, we set examples to the other states in the rest of the region by putting w:,men up for membership of lceal suthorities and government posta." I~abliC life Women in public life would prove par- ticularly useful in our health servicea and housing and sanitation. Why have successive Nigerian governmenta resisted the long-etanding demand of women to set up a Women's National Commisaion to promote the interasta of women? According to Alhaji Aminu Kano the answer lies in the traditional neglect and underrating of women. Women, he said, do not know their own political strength. "Women should aseert themselvea more and, with the help of inen who support them, women should go out to prove that they are not mere objects of decoration. If women wish to be taken serioualy as political contenders they ahould be prepared to make sacrificea."� COPYRIGHT: 1981 IC Magazines Limited ' CSO: 4700/772 ~ i ~ + 714 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY SENEGAMBIA FEASIBILITY STUDY CONDUCTED ON IRON ORE DEPOSITS Paris MAR~HES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS in French No 1888, 15 Jan 82 pp 135, 136 [Excerpts] The Eastern Senegal Iron Ore Mining Company (MIFERSO), created to ex- ploit the mineral deposits discovered near the Faleme River, is a mixed economy company with a capital of 180.6 million CFA francs. According to a recent report, the discovery in 1979 of large quantities of oxidized ores is what has created renewed interest in this project (see MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MIDITERRANEENS of 1 August 1980, page 1915) which until then was based on the mining of magnetic ores which are less interesting because they require the build- ing of a costly treatment plant where the is turned into pig iron before it can be marketed. Ore reserves are estimated to be 216.7 million tons in the Koudekourou location, 55 million tons in the Karakaene location and 40 million tons in the Kouroudiako location, or a total of 311.7 million tons of ore with about 60 percent iron content. The reserves of magnetic ores could be exploited later when the cost of building a port and a railroad has been covered. Reserves of these ores are ~stimated to amount to 126.9 million tons in Farangalia and 59.7 million tons in Goto, or a total of 186.6 million tons. The mines are expected to yield 12 million tons of oxidized ore a year for, at least, 23 years. Mining the magnetic ores will prolong the lifespan of the mine. The existence of all these reserves was established after conducting extensive boring explorations as well as chemical and mineralogical analyses; the deposits have also been the subject of a certification study and the French company SOCOMINE ~expansion unknown] has conducted a preliminary f easibility study on the pro3ect. A fully funded feasibility study on the railroad and port facilities is now being done by a group headed by the Central Office for Overseas Equipment with funding provided by the French Aid and Cooperation Fund (FAC) while the German Krupp Com- pany is conducting the mining engineering studies financed by the Kreditanstalt fur Wiederaufbau [Reconstruction and Credit Bank] (KfW). 75 FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5 FOR OFFICIAL USF ONLI~' Not counting the above-mentioned studies on railroad and port facilities, 2.48 billion CFA francs have been spent so far on topographic and laboratory work, on testing and on pilot plants with funding provided by the state of Senegal, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany and the European Economic Commun- ity (see MARCHES TROPICAUX ET MEDITERRANEENS on 25 December 1981 p 3425). Since the deposits are located several hundred kilometers from the sea, the most difficult problem being f aced is how to transport the mined ore. There are several alternatives. The feasibility study will examine each of them. The total investment required for the project is estimated to be $900 million, at their end of 1979 value, divided into mining costs ($250 million), railroad costs ($500 million) and port costs ($150 million). The personnel required for the mining operations will be 1,670 people of which 30 will be in managerial level positions, 538 as supervisors and 1,102 workers. Several alternatives are being considered for the railroad line: to build a metric and normal-gauge track capable of carrying 18,000-ton trains from the mine to the location selected for the port terminal; to use the existing railroad track of the Senegalese Railroad Administration after renovating it; or to go through the port of Buba in Guinea-Bissau. All these alternaitves.will be examined in the feasi- bility study. The railroad operations of MIFERSO will employ a staff of 1,335 of which 25 will be in managerial positions, 380 as supervisors and 930 workers and laborers. There are three possible locations for the port terminal: in the port of Dakar, in Port Sedar (Mboro) or in Bargny. - The port terminal, where 175,000-ton ore tankers will be ciocking, must be able to accommodate vessels drawing at least 20 meters of water. To draw 20 meters of water, the wharf must be 1.8 kilometers long in Port Sedar and 4 kilometers long in Bargny while in Dakar it will have to be extended to the level of Goree Island. The feasibility study will, therefore, try to determine the factors which will help to make the best selection. Port operations will require 311 people--6 in manager- ial positions, 88 supervisors and 217 workers. The feasiUility study will be ready at the beginning of 1983. Next comes the imple- mentation stage and, if f inancing is obtained, this will last 3 years. The ore should start reaching the market in 5 years' time. In the opinion of the experts, this will be around the time when the world steel industry will start increasing - its demand for iron ore. Consequently, this project is of paramount importance for Senegal since it will create 3,316 jobs directly connected with the project; it will have an annual tL~.rn- over of more than SO billion CFA francs which will greatly improve Senegal's balance of payments, will bring in revenues from duties and taxes and will have side effects the importance of which cannot be fully assessed at this stage. COPYRIGHT: Rene Moreux et Cie Paris 1982. 8796 CSO: 4719/500 E,~ 76 FOR OFFIC'IAL USE ONLY APPROVED FOR RELEASE: 2007/02/09: CIA-RDP82-00850R000500040016-5