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December 31, 1967
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SERGSYEV, F.V,, inzh.; SIMLENEO, inzh. Elec'ric-arc furnace wi-.h an electrode in tI,e molten :.etal. Vest, (-I e'r- -LrOprOrr,. 3 1r., ) . I C, : 4' ' 4 t90' CO. ( M., ?, 1 ~ - " ) (Eloctric furnaces) (Electroae J1 SERGEYEV, P.V,; PLATONOV, G.F. Interconnection of electric and geometric parameters of electrode furnaces and their industrial purpose. Trudy Alt. CMII AN Kazakh,SSR 9:181-188 ?60. (MRA 14:6) 1. Altavskiy gornometallurgicheskiy nauchno-issledovatellskiy Institui AN Kazakhskoy SSR. (Electric furnaces) (Lead--Electrometallurgy) S/110/60/000/010/009/014 E073/E435 AUTHORS: r-wo-m- P-V., Engineer and Sidorenkot G.A., Engineer TITLE- Electric Are Furnace with the Electrode Submerged in the Molten Metal PERIODICAL: Vestnik elektropromyshlennosti, 1960, No.10, PP-45-48 TEXT: The furnace was developed in the Laboratoriya promyshlennoy energetiki, Akademiya nauk Kazakhakoy SSR (Industrial Power Laboratory of the AS KazSSR). In contrast to current types of arc furnaces, the arc burns under a layer of molten metal, the thickness of which can be varied as desired. Therefore, the heat is generated directly in the metal and the efficiency is considerably higher; the metal vapours which form in the arc zone condense agi"In without rising to the surface and, therefore, very little metal is burned away. Air oxygen is not present, so that there is practically no burning-off of the graphite electrodes. Irrespective of the metal that is molten, the furnace has a high power-factor, The graphite electrode is a protective tube of a material thermally and chemically resistant Card 1/ 5 s/no/6o/ooo/ol.o/oo9/oi4 E073/E435 Electric Arc Furnace with the Electrode Submerged in the Molten Metal. to the particular melt; the tube is electrically insulated from the electrode and there is an appropriate gap between the two, This is filled with asbestos which, in addition to serving as electric insulation, also provides a hermetic "seal betweei.. the electrode and the tube. The asbestos lining is discontinted at a distance of about 2 to 3 electrode diameters from the end of the electrode and the electrode is shorter than the protective tube by about 0,5 to 0.6 diameters. It is make 'the lower end of.the tube in the form of an inverted funnel, to prote,-~t the edges from over-heating and to prevent shiftifig of the arc -'rom the electrode to the walls and also to improve heat removal. In smelting lead, tubes of heat-resistant steel shoul4 be used; for low heating temperatures the tubes can be of ordinary steel. In smelting aluminium and its alloys, the protective tubes should be made of high-temperature cast iron, In smelting zinc, particular types of cast iron with alloying additions are also suitable, For all metals and alloys, tubes made of non-porous, high quality, Card 2/5 s/no/6o/ooo/oio/oo9/oi4 E073/E435 Electric Arc Fijrjiace with the Electrode Submerged in the Molten Meta I graphite are fully satisfactory, For initial starting of the furnace, a shallow liquid-metal bath has to be available. (This is not necessary for subsequent starts, since the electrode design is such that the furnace can be periodically stopped and during these stoppages the electrode is "frozen" into the bath.) On immersing the electrode into the molten metal the air in the cavity gets compressed, thus preventing penetration of liquid metal to the electrode, After the electrode has reached the necessary depth, a second electrode is introduced manually below the cavity for the purpose of igniting the arc; this igniting electrode can be removed after 3 to 5 min and from then onwards the arc will burn inside the gas space. The best results were obtained when the second electrode was at the same level as the metal A furnace was tested in the laboratory (10 kW unit) and then in a larger version for smelting zinc (100 W. The main facEors which determine the satisfactory operation of such a furnace are.- air-tightness of the electvode; suitable depth of the rard 3/5 S/110/60/000/oio/oo9/014 E073/E435 Floctric. Arc Ftii-nace with the Electrode Submerged in the Molten M e t a. I etectrode ta,;ide the protective tube, so that a satisfactory gas ,~pa-_e Ls formed. shape of the end of the protective tube, a funnel dtvergent toward:~! the bottom being the most favourable; and the etectrode as near to vertical as possibl-, since excessive iii..-lination can Lead to an undesirable shortening of the arc and also to short-circuits In smelting lead, the electrode consumption was uniform at the rate of I mm/h in laboratory operation and 2 to 3 mm/h in industrial units. Particular attention was paid to the design of the equipment for continuous feeding of the electrode, which is so made that air leaks through 'he bottom of the protective tube are prevented. In a specific In-stallaLion the power factor was 0.84 to 0.88, increasing with increasing loading to 0-85 to 0,95; the voltage across the are was 23 to 28 v. Tn the case of lead'smelting, the voltage drop at the near-cathode Laver was about 12 T, at the near-anode layer about 3V asid iLn Ithe arc column 11 to 14V, Taking into consideration that the 1-~~ngfh 11 5 to 10 mm, the voltage gradient across the I u 2 0 V/mm Therefore, the maximum possible v o I v afzE-: t -4 j 0 t o 6 01r, or Card 4/9 Card 5/5 20159 S/031/6o/ooo/o12/002/'003 4. 0 C> 1 ri A16l/AO33 AUTHOR' Sergeyev, P.V., Caandidate of Technical Sciences TIT-LC- Considera-ion on t~ie Hydrogen Separation Overtension PERIODICAL~., Vestnik Akademit nauk Kazakhskoy SSR, 1960, No. 12, pp. 26 35 Tbe theoretical conception of the overtension of the hydrogen sepa-a- tion In the electrolytic separation of metals from acid electrolytes is inter- pret-ed from the physical point of view under consideration of the possible practi - ral u~iliza'ion. The overrension theory of delayed discharge suggested by Pol Imer a-rid Erdey-Gnuts ~Ruszian transliceration) had been developed by Academician A.N. Frum,kin whose mathematioal overtension expressions had been verified in many ex- perlments. Fnamkint- formula for overtension for the case of acid electrolytes (Ref. 1) is a + ' lnD + 1 RT ln[f~' (1). By,,mion 1Z I rX F F j of conl~tants the forapila -zan be reduced to the Tafel t formuld qj = a+ b , IgD (2). TTie 140T,:Pjla '2) reflests -he phenomenon showing that overtersion consists of two components, one of which, CL, Is independent of the current. density and can only be explained ty the electrochemical interaction of the electrolyte and the cathode material (e.g. zinc and the format-ion of a Stationary electrical field Card 3/3 20159 3/031/60/C,30/012/002/003 Consideratlon on the Kydrogen Separation Overtension A161/AO33 with -Iwo layers already before the eletric current is switched on. a and b mus be knowr. P.V. Sergeyeils formula (Ref. 3M for electrolyzer3 with insoluble anode and aqueous sulfuric acid -,olutlon is used for this purpose; U6 = U + b -a +1Z 0 a J.gDa+ bk " IgDk + D3 (5) where U0 a k - Ua + U k ~ U of) deoomposition tenston +,qg ; for Q Nase of the electrolysis of zinc U 0,:.-- 2.36v 1.67 - decomposition tension of H SO and 0.69 - overtension of hydrogen, CLa .- tensio .0 j Ua - tension jump at the anode; 0, 4 n jump at the cathode- D Dk current' densitl-s at the anode Q at-Ae cathode. A ba and bk - Ta?el for~rjla coefftoientz, pa- specific resistance of the electrolyte, in ohm 'Am; 21 - space between electrodes in cm. For -Ghe case of a denzi-!~y of I Alm the reFistance drop in the electrolyte may be ignored, and the fornP.11a (5) reduced to the form U., = IJOC- U decomp.-II-ens. + a k' hence ak U LT de,~omp.tens (6 The formula (6) has been verified in experiments by +-he author. for cathodes from zino, cadmium, cobalt, Iron, aluminum, copper and antimony. fhe obtained values are (Table 1) Cathode materiall VC1 1. 1; 2F - Ca;a 21160 0 3 11-IjIl 31 AUTHOR: s/ 14 1/6k)/(-)o 19 /*j E 19;~/E362 Sergeyev, P. V. TlTLE: Detailed. Dia.,rrams of I. A. Vyshne.-radskiy and the Clhoice of Optimum. Parameters for an 'lidirect Control System witli Correcting Differentiator I-EUIOD1CAL: Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniv., Radiofizika, 1961, Vol. 3, No. 6, up. 1077-14.)92 T 11,'XT The method of analysis adopted in this work is based on the discriminant curve ii-troduced by Hulgakov (Ref. 1) -I nd tqe D a- operation proposed*by Neymark (Refs. 2, 3). A typical indirect control system is illustrated diagrammatically ; n Fig. 1. This compriges a differentiating circuit and ar, a i,; 1.) 1 i f y i n- stac~e. The transfer function of the system is given i)y: Y(P) - Z (rp2 + kp + 1) (S~D + 1) (.:, p + 1) p(rp2 + kp 1)(Sp + 1)(-ip 4 1) + ck, (-p 1) Card 1/~'*7 2118Q s/141/6o/oO3/000/019/025 Detailed Diagrams E192/E382 %,rhere a normalised time t/6T a was introduced; the other parameters in Eq. (1.1) are defined by Eqs. (1.2). In evaluating the effect of the derivative, it is desirable to preserve the static erroi- which is achieved when ck 0 1 Iri the case of an ideal diffet-entiator for which the characteristic equ.-ition of the system is: D(p) ~ rsP'+ (r + ks)p3 (k s)p2 + I)p + I = 0. (1-3) D-operation leads to the following parametric-equations for the boundary curve: 5-.0)2 + 1 S'W2 + (- + 1) S (1. 10 L S20)1) U)2(j + S211)2) (1.4) which, together with the straight line r = 0 , determine the stability region on the plane of the parameters of the Card 2/A Detailed Diagrams .... 21180 s/ 14 1/60/00 3/Oub/U19/02 5 EI-92VU382 sensor element. Fig. 2 shows the regions of stability depending on the position of the principal point relative to the straight line s = "L- + 1 1 S = L. and -- = 0 . 1t cau be shown that the plane -C , s (such as shown in Fig. 2) can 13e divided into 10 regions which are characterised by dif'fering behaviour of the discrimirant curve in the plane k, r all the basic types of the discriminants are investigated. For the construction of the detailed diagrams of I.A. Vyslinegradskiy it is assmied that p = -a + jw and so Eq. (1-3) can be. written in the paraiiietric form as follows: (2s~'nt+-.s)Z2+j1 --4sa+2(7(-+I)(1-2sct)lz-4a2(1-2sot) k 2sa + S`z) Z` + (I -.2s2) - s1z - 2,j(I 2sm) 0 - 2so: -' s2*2 (1.i4) (I. 14a.) (1.14a) V