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SOTIN, B.S.,; BUTOMO, N-N-, red.izd-va; NIKIFGROVSEIY, V.A., red-.Izd-va; KASHINA, P.S., [Outline of the history of radio engineering] Ocherki istorii radiotekhniki. Koskva, 1960. 446 p. (MMA 13:11) 1. AkDdemiya nauk S=. Inotitut istorii yeatestvoznaniya i tekhniki. (Radio) SOTIN, B.S. (Moskva) Henry Cavendish; on the 150th anniversary of his death. Fiz. v shkole 20 no.2:17-18 Mr-Ap 160. (MIRA 14:5) (Cavendish, Henry) SOTINI bl!~. Work of G.V.Rikhman on electricity. Trudy Inst. i8t. est. i tekh. 44:3-42 162. (MJRA ISO) SOTIINp V.A. 35474. Perforatsiya aorty. Vracheb. delop 1949j, No. 11, stb. 1035-38 Letopis' Zhurnallnykh Stateyl Vol. 48, Moskva, 19,49 MVAY A.D.;_SOTINA,- L.V. Studies 6n lipid concentration in various regions of the lumber enlargement of the spinal cord. BiolcbiTniia 25 no.2:285-287 Mr-Ap '60. (MM 14:5) 1. Kafedra fiziologii i biokbimii Dnapropetrovokop univeroitota. (SPINAL CORD) (LIPID MABOLISM) L 25942-66 ACC NRs AP6015703 threshold element. The reliability of the circuit connecting the OR gate output to the threshold transformer primary w:Ln ng. winding di 'One secondary of this transformer is connected in a series (in the direction of 'flux opposiiion) 5- with the series connection of three secondaries of the input transformers which drive the base of a transistor amplifier, The other secondary winding of the threshm. old transformer is connected in a series~(in the direction of~fluk opposition) with the paYaUel combination of three secondary windings of the input transformers6~, Each of thege thr e windings supp1ies,,.tbk,injp ,!t to a transistor OR gate as shown. Orig. art, hast I figure. JBDJ~': SUB CODE: 091 SUBM DATE:, 28jun62/- ATD PRESS: ~j Card 2/2 Yen N Country .Ium,k,ja Aoodeftle J),"Oss &,gin g, 'loop n _7 Duah Dst., 'A It 0 PP ov G. the 'I,- t, -r4tl., . ~of Co-authorsl '-he so 3, YZAI[U P of the llonUbs DsIt, aheorgh Oheor =0 in 96r. FLftfrU&tlc& off. 44 Rinser & P .. - IarrWatle, 91 SJ_'L'U:3('U' N. Sotirescu, N. Electricitatea industriala (de) IN. Sotirescu (si) V.Ciocionica. !-!,d. 2. (ducuresti) il;ditura Zehnica, 1952. (Electricity and electkic measurements. Vol. 1. Electritity in industry. Vol. 2. Electrical machines, transformers, and baLteries. Vol. 3. Electrical distribution, lighting, ary-i electirity in automobiles) ~T SO: Monthly List of ~;ast ~Iuropean Accessions, LC, Vol. 3, -to. 1, Jan. 1954, Uncl. KREYNDUR, A.; KRIGEL', E.; STOYKA, E.; SOTITU,SKU, N. [Sotirescii, N.] Investigation of short-latency responses evoked by acoustic stimuli from somesthetic or visual zone of unanesthetized cats. Fiziol. zhur. 49 no.12:1391-1399 D 163. (KIRA 17:12) 1. institut nevrologii im. I.P. Pavlova Akademii Rumynskoy Narodnoy Respubliki, Bukharest. DIKENSHTEYN, G.Kh.; ZIIUKOVSKIY, L.G.; ILIIq, V.D.; KAYESH, Yu.V.; GRACHEV, G.I.; SOTIRIADI, K.A. Basic features of the geology of the Bukhara-Khiva oil- and gas- bearing area. Trudy VNIGNI no-30:3-22 161. (MIRA 14:9) (Uzbekistan--Petroleum geology) (Uzbekistan--Gas, Natural--Geology) DIKENSHTEYN, G.Kh.; ZHUKOVSKIY, L.G.; ILIIN, V.D.; KAYESH, YU.V.; PETROV, I.V.; SOTIRIADI, K.A. Geology and the o-il and gas potentials of the Uazli field. Trudy VNIGNI no.30:38-63 161. (MIRA 14:9) (Gazli region--Petroleum geology) (Gazli region--Gas, Natural--Geolcgj) ALIYEV, I.M.; BELYAKOVA, G.M.; DIKENSHTEYN, G.Kh.; ZHUKOVSKIY, L.G.; WIN, V.D.; KAYESH, Yu.V.; LEVINA, Ye.Ye.; SOTIRIMIp X.-A.; KHON, A.V. Some results of the study of the geology of the Neogene and Qua- ternary movements of closed areas of western Uzbekistan using the method of geological mapping of the Pre-Neogene surface. Trudy VNIGNI no-30:64-72 161. MRA 14:9) (Uzbekistan--Geology, Structural) SOTIRIADI,,..K.A.; ORTAYEV, S.N. Jurassic carbonate formations in southwestern spurs of the Gissar Range and Bukhara-Karshi area. Trudy GNIGNI no.35127-35 161. (MM 16'-7) (Gissar Range--Rocks, Carbonate) (Uzbekistan--Rocks, Carbonate) 1L.-_I r-I C L A=.U~ttcn: InntItuto of ratholor-r and Animal Hyrieno (Inatitutul do Pctolo,7ie 31 Icl,nr. inImla) r E-icm ro. t , I'mbl^n- ?AoWnn'cg ~! Vntertnt, n , 'To 8 , im 1 61 -, 41 r ? 1 -52 'Irnvom-11ration. oll Certain Foci of Lontospl-rosis in Sh-p." Co-vuthors: /NlCJI=CU, Al., Veterinarian, Inatittite or i~ut~ziory Pne ~ni=a icna C - , -Dr.-, In ticuto of Pat?-,olop7 and Anlr~l '~rrjcno . P-L*:!=.U , 011. , VOtGrlnL,-Ian q institute of Prtholory an~ Anlzma t_m=Aiuj-u., zwtituto or I'rtholory cnd ;,nl=l Kyglona. V Wc""X, V., Veterinarian, State Arricultural Vanmqcospodwia da Stat) , Itimnicu Urat , 1'2nuesti llce-.lune. i6i"Icu D V t ii2rlcn, Circurcription. of Copoloac (Circum- j %./ ~ A phenomenon -)f "physiological induction" produced in tomatoes by means of an increased concentration of C02. Studii cerc biol veget 12 no.2.197-216 160. (EEAI 9:11) (Tomatoes) (Carbon dioxide) BRADJV I.; LASZLO, Iulia; VALUTA, G,; SOTIRIU, V. Contributions for establishing some biochemical and physiological Indexes of the frost resistance of fall cereals. Studii cerc biol veget 13 no.2:233-241 161, (EUI 10:11/12) 1. Comunicare prezentata de N. Sa-lageanu. membru corespondent al Academici R.P.R. (Punts) ~- FD!, , - - : - 4 : ., , , ; ~ : I . y :1~:o , , -".~ , I -- . - :i C : - f- V e 5 -,:. -J I "I -z f . -~ 771~, -' -' Ve C 7 -- I C a - f ~.: :-E! 1 gr, = i '~ be r :-y v a --.1 "- -- - e S , .~ -a 12 1",,) 3 ',,,1 p r.. -~ 1; ka 2 : a . 1r, -, 1 --5 '(,3. . SOTIROV, Ap. I-- - Prognosis of the rising of waters in spring. Khidro i meteorolog no.1:59-68 160. (EEAI 10:1) (Water) (Spring) SOTIROV, Apostol Sow reiults from the latest experizental. study abroad on the hydrologic role of forestso Xhidro I. meteorolog no.l.-60-&' 161. (= .10: 7 (Forests and forestry) (Hydrology) 0 ;;-'..I- , STAVEV, Sv.; SOTIROV, Ap., inzh. Snow accumdation in the Rils, Mountains.. and the spring influx in the Iskur reservoir. Khidrotekh i melior 6 no.10:311-313 ,61. SOTIROV, Ap. Hydrologic role of th& turf of the Vitosha Mountains. Khidro i meteorolog no.2:23-26 160. (EEAI 10:1) (Bulgaria--Water) (Bulgaria--Soils) (Bulgarla-_Mountains) SOTIROV, A. An attempt to calculate the water supply in the snow covering the water-collecting basin of Beli Iskur Dam and for forecasting the probable flow into the dam for 1960. Khidro i meteorolog no.6:34-40 ,6o. (EEAI 10:6) (Bulgaria--Water) SOTIROV., Ap., inzh. Use of the data supplied by the rain-gauge stations, and of those on snow reserves for forecasting the water inflow into Alpine reservoirs. I'Aroda Bulg 10 no.5:59-62 S-0 161. STANEV., Sv.;,SOTIROV., A#* 4 Scientific communication of an expedition for the study of snow reserves in the catchment vasin of the Beli Iskur Dam, March 30-Jume 6., 1962. Khidro i meteorolog no-4:56-58 162. STANEV, Sv.; SOTIROV, Ap. Forecast regarding the spring inflow into the reservoir Iskur. Trud Inst khidro meteor no.12:17-44 162. SOTUM., Ap. Prognonin of the opring influx of the lakur River into the Iskur gam, Kh1dre i mateorolog no,3136.4j 162, SOTIROV, Ap. Role of snowdrifts in feeding the rivers springing from VIO RUA 14011ntUina- Khidro i mateorolog no.6:53-55 162. STAITEV, SV-; SOTIROV, A-PA- ------- Khidrotekh i melior Forecastin~ the inflow of the Iskur reservoir. 7 no.8:254-255 .62- BLUSKOVA, D.; SOTIROV, Ap. International Symposium on Humidity and 11-foisture. Ehidro i meteorplog 13 no. 1:40-41 164. -D" SOT i Al, r ie reeds sho-'~' hydrologi-c fcrecasts. -Kirildro i netecrolog 13 no.50F-62 164. I- 'OTIROV, B. So'k-lirov, B. Uchebnik ro telrhnologiia na kovachestvoto za V kurs na tekhniku,7.ite Fo ~,ekhanotekh-nika 7-a-shinostro-itelen otd-el. Sofiya (Narodna prosveta) 1952. 280 p. (Technology of forging: A textbook for the 5th course in the technical schbols of mechanics) SO: Yonthly List of -East Eurorean Accessions, L. C. Vol. 3 No. 1 Jam 154 Uncl. SO-Ll..Rov, B. A case of nsteopoikilosis. Suvrem. med., Sofia 8 no.8:100-103 1957. 1. 1% rentgenovoto otdelenie na, Okruzhnata boluitsa - gr. Burgas. G1. lelcar: Zh. Sinkolov. (OSMSCLIROSIS, case reports osteopoikilosis) SOTIROV, B. Incidence of diaphragmatic hernia and its roentgenodlagnovis. StLyren. =44., Sofia 9 uo.5:63-68 1958. 1. 1z Rentgenovoto otdolenia na Okruzhnata bolzitsa v gr. Burgas (G. lelmr: Zh. Siakolov). (ORNIA, DIAPHRAGMTIG, diagnosis, x-ray (Bul)) SOTIROV,B.; BORLDZHIEY.Z. Ghservations on fluorine ostaosis resulting from drinking fluorine water. Suvrem. med., Sofia W:0.0~4f-3197T;3:05~~60. I 1. Iz rentgenovoto otdelenie na Okpuzhnata bolnitsa - gr. Burgas, Gl. a0cart Zh. Slakolov. (FLUORINS toxtool. ) KMILAIAMPIEV, G., inzh.; SOTIROV, B., inzh.; IZ14IRLILV, G., inzh.; I'Lathematical statistical studies of electric-furnace slag in the Georgi Dimitrov Copper-Producing Combine. Hin dalo 18 no.8:20.-2"I Ag 163. 1. IIIITsVE2,TT. U I A fir- VI G, , inzh; SOTIACV, D., inzh 3tudy of *,IIF3 s,rF3,ns and deformat ions 1.9 '.he :-.,.ci'n cob~olestcne u . 1 .1 r0ad riodi.shrilk [ri",h strolt in.,it, -.16 no.!-141-154 '64. SOTIROV,,Piaitur, inzh. Selection of minimal horizontal radii for high-speed automobile roads. Stroitelstvo ?0 no. 6: 25-28 11-D 163. SOTIROV, Diftiturr, inzh. Centering of carriing poles at the mounting of rope lines. Tekhrika Bulg 13 no. 3:33-34 164. ISOTIROV, G. Plvnning short-term loanS on coopwative farms. P. 18. Vol. 11, no. 5, I-lay 1956 k, 0 UP.,_R;'0IV I'* 2E.K& DAII , L,~j A,,Yh1 MjLTU-, Sofiia, Bulgaria SO: -Ka~;t '_~4tlope~_n z-ccecsion, Vol. 6, No. 3, Warch 1957 SOTIROV, G. SOTIROV, G. 110ney advancing nust be guaranteed. p.8-. Vol. 11, no. 8, Aug. 1956 KOOPERATIVNO ZEISDELIE AGRICnTURE Sofiia, Bulgaria SO- East European Accession, Vol. 6, No. 3, March 1957 SOTIROV, G. Correct preservation of the resources of some funds P. 13. (KOOPER.ATIVN,O ZE~TI,0FL-TEJT No. 7 July 1957, Sofia, Bul;aria.) SO: Monthly List of East European Accessions (EEAL) LCI VOL. 6, no. 12, December 1957 Uncl, SOTIROV, G. "Concerning installment for loans for production needs" Otchetnost I Kontrol V Selskoto Stopanstvo. Sofiia, Bulgaria. Vol. 3, no. 8, 1958 Monthly list of East European Accessions (EEAi), IC, Vol. 8, No. 6, Jun 59, Unclas NIKHAILOV, Konstantin;, inzh.; VKLKOV, Asen; SOTIROV, Ivan Indexea of power economy and tariffs with respect to electric and heat energy. Izv Inst energ BAN 1:109-154 '61a 1. Ghlen na Redaktsionnata koleglias, *Izvestiia na Instituta po energetikam (for Mikhailov)o RASHEEV, Georgi, dots. inzh.; NIKHAILOV, K.; DOBREV, V.; SOTIROV, Iv.; STATEV, II.; GUGOV, P.; TSVETKOV, V. - . Conditions for the economic distribution of electric and thermal loads in the power system of Bulgaria. Izv Inst energ BAN 2:227-303 162. 1. Chlen na Redaktsionnata kolegiia i otgovoren redaktor, "Izvestiia na Instituta, po energetikall (for Rasheev). MIKHAILOV, Kongtantin, inzh.; MIKHAIIEV, Kolloj SOTIROV, Ivan The power and economic effectiveness of the accelerated electrification of railroads and everyday needs. Tzv Inst energ BAN 3:143-178 162, 1. Chlen na Redaktsionnata kolegiiat QIzvestiia na Instituta po energetika" (for Mikhailov). SOTIROV, Ivan, inzh. Prospective determination of the annual wiability of electrio-power stations. aektroonergiia 13 no.7:2-5 n 162. 1. Institut po energetika pri Bulgarskata akademiia na naulcite. MIKHAILOV, K., inzh.; VELCHEV, St., inzh.; STANEV, St., arkh.; TSVETKOV, V., inzh.; VELKOV, As., ikon.; GUDEVA, Zh., inzh.; SOTIROV,-Iv., inzh.; TSONEV, D., inzh.; KHRISTOVA, S., inzh.; RAIKOV, Il., inih.; KOSTADINOV, V., inzh. - Current problems of urban electrical engineering. Elektroenergiia 16 no.1:3-7 Ja 165. Foreign body in the esophagus simulating esophageal carcey. Khirurgiia (Sofiia) 18 no.4:494-497 165. 1. Katedra po ushni, nosni i gurleni bolesti, Vissh med-11- tsinski institut, Softia, (rukovoditel - prof. G. Iankov). MENTESHEV., M.; S(YEIROV, St. , - Nonlinear-resistance of silicon carbide. Mat i fiz Bulg 6 no.2:10-20 Mr-Ap 163. SOTIROV.,.-S.t., inzh.; ICTITESHEV, M., inzh; Semiconductor resistances with nonlinear voltampere characteristics. Mashinostroene 12 no.8:28-31 Ag 163. 1. WIIEP (for Sotirov). 2. MGI (for Menteshev). MITEVA, V., inzh.; SO~.MV Tinzh. The Hall effect and its application in modern measurement techniques. Mashinostroene n no.5:24,-28 My 162. I.. NIIEP. S07iII"Ovi V. D. S021"LOY, V. D. Swelling.-, of mine rocks and stkoljorting then bolts. 1). J9. Vol. 10, (i. 11) 11956 :!P0,110 DFITO T'ECEN,01-0(~~` Sof iia, ~3ulgaria So: ~jqpt Ehirn-nqan Acc,~assion, Vol. 6, No. 3, March 1957. u3pecial rothods for ralkin.7 shafts In mines and tl:eir applicrtion In T 1, LIMNO DELO, Sofiia, Bui~--aria, Vol. 14, "o. 1, Jan./Peb. 1950 Yonthly list of EAST EUROPEAN ACCESS1017S (EF-,Al), Library of Congresg, Vol. 8, lio. 3, August, 1950, Unclassified. IANAKIEV, A., inzh.; DOBREV, D.; SOTIROV, Vl. Economic impprtance of fast heading for the development of the Gorbuso State Mining Enterprise. Min delo 17 no.8:3-1+ Ag 162. 1. Durzhavno minno predgriia'tie ".Gorbuso". PESIC, Radoslav; SOT1TqVIC, Rista, Cervical rib. Srpski arh. celok. lek. 88 no.12:1259-1264 D 160. 1. 1 hirurska klinika. Medicinskog fakulteta Univerziteta u Beogradu. Upravnik: prof. dr Bogdan Kosanovic. (RIBS abnorm) GLIDZIC, V.; SOTIROVIC R. A case of giant hydronephrosis. Acta 6hir. iugosl. 9 no.3/1+:283- 287 ?62. 1. 1 hirurska klinika Madicinskog fakulteta u Beogradu (Upravnik prof. dr B. Kosanovic). (NO SUBJECTAADINGS) SOTIFDVSK13 S. Contribution to the knowledge of mountain pastures in Galicnik. p. 13. (Socijalisticko Zemjodelstvo, Vol. 8, no. 12., Dec. 1956.) SO: Monthly List of East European Accessions (ZEAL) LC, Vol. 6, no. 7, July 1957. unci. . I--- --- I., ~ - A~-p I ~ -. I 1-0~ - , _ -f n - , I . --.- BOTMWICZA-.A. Protection of mining machine parts by enameling. Wiadom . . gorn 1.2 no.V//~:253 JI-Ag 0161., SOTKIEWICZ, Adam, mgr. Inz. A contribution to the history of Polish metallurgy. Wiad hut 17 no. 10:305-308 0161. L 23087-66 EWT(1)/EWA(h) GG ACC NRI AP6011204 SOURCE CODE: UR/0413/66/000/006/0038/0038 iINVENTOR: Vaulin, A. M.; Kholodilov, N. N Sotkov, V. Ya.; Putchkov, Ye. Vo ORG: none TITLE: Coaxial shf switch., Class 21,,14o. 179804. SdURCEi Izobreteniya, p.romyshlennyye obraztsy, tovarnyye znaki, no. 6, 1966., 38 TOPIC TAGS: electronic switch, switching circuitj' high power switch* SHF ABSTRACT: An Author Certificate has been issued for a coaxial shf switch..-To increas the decoupling between the channels the switch is provided with a rotating metal shield in the form ofan open cylinder. The shield screens the side channels and is actuated by a r-shaped conductor. The shield. is spring -mounted, and its external surface is polished and coated with a highly wear-resistant metal, e.g., palladium.. Orig. art. has: I figure. SUB CODE: 09/ SUBM DATE: l3jul641 ATD PRESS: Card 5CTLAR, M. Photometric ana3,vsis of steel; from laboratory practice in the Jesenice Ironworks. P. 1274 TEHNIKA, Beograd, Vol 10,, No. 9, 1955 SO: EEAL,, Vo15,, No. 7,, july 1956 3 G T L ZJR, Thctc.-~e Lr4C jam Vc 'f0 - 3 1354. Ljeb~ List .-'nst ~~hrcp,,:~;an ,.cc-ssions, 4, r 1, -1:z ) IT, L 34918-66-._ T/EWP(t)/ETI Ijp(c) WE/JD ACC NRt AP6026580 SOURCE CODE: CZ/00~V[63/000/6-08-16-31-5/6-31-9 AUTHOI: Sotkovslrj, Hilan (],',nginaer); ~apicova, Svatava (Engineer); Tatak, Vaclav 6 0IM: �aPicovja 11otallurgical Proioct-,-. Ostrava (Hutni projokt); fT`atakLVZKGj Ostrava TITIS',: Use of various kinds of additive fuels in blast furnac s SOURL CE: Hutnik, no. 8, 1965, 315-319 TOPIC TAGS: fuel oil, coal, fuel additive, blast furnace, coke, industrial rranagoment, gas fuel A13SMACT: Fuels introduced with blast air into the furnace allow savings of coke which is in short supply. The authors studied uhe use of fuel oil, coal, oill/and oxygen, and coal and oxygen in quantities of 20 - 60 kj-~-f oil per ton of pig iron, 60 to 100 of oil with oxygen, 50 to 250 of coal, and 100 to 250 of coal with. oxygen. The best results were obtained with 40 lcg of oil .~nd with 145 kg of coal. The price structure was that applying in OzechoslovWcia in 1964. (Oil at 0-30 Kcs/ kg, coal 0,2833 Kos per kg). Changes in the price structure would cause changes in. .the found optimum quantities. Orig. art. has: 8 figures and 2 tables. .5FRZ7 SUB CODE: 21, 13. 05 / SUBM DATE: none / ORIG REF: 001 / OINA REF: 006 PRAVDIC, Velimir; SOTMAN, S. Electrokinetic studies in disperse systems. Pt.8. Groat chem acta 35 no.3:247-254 163. 1. Institute "Ruder Boskovic", Zagreb, Croatia, Yugoslavia. sov/180-59-3-27/43 AUTHORS., osipov, K.A. and Sotnichenko* A.L. (Moscow) TITLE: Values of the Activation Eil-e-r-g-y--0-1-treep and Fracture for Aluminium DuTing Tension FERIODICAL:Izvestiya Akademli nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye tekhnicheskikh nauk, Yietallurgiya i toplivo, 1959, Nr 3, PP 139-141(USSR) ABSTRACT: Previous work is briefly discussed. The present work was carried out on 99.99% Al after rolling at-room temperature. Testing took place in vacuo (10 4 aim f1g) and at temperatures of up to 5500C. The specimen was 80 mni long with a gauge length of 22 mm and diameter 3 Mm- The results confirm the relationship: 'r = Toexp(AHI/RT) where T is time to fracture, io is a constant, J%11,1 is the activation energy of the process, and R and T have the usual meanings. Fig I shows the straight line graphs obtained for log time against inverse temperature for different stresses. Fig 2 shows the relationship between 4H1 and the applied stress. The curve is not 1-inear and 4H1 approaches a limiting value, Card 1/2 believed to be 7.2 k cal/g atom (the theoretically SOV/180-59-3-27/43 Values of the Activation Energy of Creep and Fracture for Aluminium Wx-Lng Tensio:;, calculated value). The facts support of Osipov (Ref 9 to 12). There are 2 13 references, 6 of which are Soviets I German. ".5SOCIATIONt Institut metallurgii AN SSSR (MetalLurgical Academy of Sciences, USSR) SUBMITTED: December 4, 1958 the theories figures and 6 English and Institute, Card 2/2 SOTNIC1111,11KO, 1,.L. Multiple specimen vacuum apparatus for tenting metals for creep and durability. Isal.po zharopr.Hplav.- 4:367-371 '59. (MIU 13:5) (Metals--Testing) (Vacuum apparatus) W62, jg~azoo ILI %~' 104 S~ 14 STY S/180/60/000/005/003/033 I 6-C) 116 Elll/E1351 AUTHOR,- Sotnichenko, A.L. (Moscow) TITLE- Testing Metals for Creep and Long-Time Strength in a Vacuum at Constant Stress'0,0 -~~P PERIODICAL- Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR, Otdeleniye tekhnicheskikh nauk, Metallurgiya i toplivo, 1960, No. 5, pp.47-51 TEXT.- The author recalls that the atmosphere in which creep and long-time strength tests are carried out can affect the results, and also that such tests are more fruitful if constant MISS', rather than constant load is applied. He describes his new machine, type C,711'-C2 (VPN-S25 (Fig. 1), with a vacuum of 10-4 mm Hg in the working chamber. Each of six specimens is loaded separately and is automatically kept at constant stress by a mechanical device (Ref. 4) which suitably reduces the load as elongation proceeds. Fig, 2 shows elongation as a function of time for 99,96% Fe iron, type Y 8 ~U8) s eel and 99.97% Ti titanium (middle, bottom and top graphs',~respectively).'-7-Th-e-21 respective tempergtures are 580, 700 and 600 oc I and stresses 10, 8 and 6 kg/mm . Curves I relate to tests with constant load in air, 2 in vacuum, and 3 in vacuum and with constant stress. Card 1/2 86o62 S/180/60/000/005/003/033 Elll/E135 Testing Metals for Creep and Long-Time Strength in a Vacuum at Constant Stress The great creep-increasing influence of atmosphere is further V~ illustrated in curves 1 and 3 (air and vacuum, respectively) of Fig,, 3 for titanium at 600 OC and constant stress of lo kg/mm2; (,urve 2 is for a stress of 6 kg/mm2. In all the experiments only vacuum results show a well-developed region of stable creep. The work was carried out under the direction of K.A. Osipo There are 3 figures and 4 Soviet references. SUBMITTED., April 5, 1960 Card 212 AUTHORS: TITLE: 86075 lttLj, 104v' S/180/60/000/005/016/033 E193/E183 Osipovi K.A., and Sotnichenko, A.L. (Moscow) The Stress-Dependence of the Activation Energy for Creep of a-Titanium -0 PERIODICAL: Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR,Otdeleniye tekhaicheskikh nauk, Metallur6iya i toplivo, 1960, No.5, pp.146-148 TEXT: Activation energy for creep appears in all basic equations describing the kinetics of this process. However, these equations could be used only if the activation energy within a given temperature interval were independent of other parameters, or if the laws governing its variation were known. The applied stress is one of the factors which may affect the magnitude of the activation energy for creep, and since contradictory conclusions have been reached by various workers regarding the relationship between these two variables, the present investigation was under- taken to obtain more experimental evidence. Creep curves were constructed for (x-titanium (99.97% purity), tested in vacuum at various temperatures between 18 and 600 00, under the applied stress in the 10-35 kg/mm2 range, The test pieces Card 1/3 86075 S/180/60/000/005/016/033 E193/E183 The Stress-Dependence of the Activation Energy for Creep of (x-Titanium (gauge length 22 mm, diameter 3 mm), prepared from cast and forged material, were subjected to preliminary vacuum annealing at 800 OC for 100 h. Tests, in which the applied stress of 20-35 kg/MM2 had been used, were carried out in a narrow temperature range U^ (18-190 OC) so. as to minimize the risk of the activation energy being affected by temperature. From the experimental creep curves the rate, e (%/~min) of steady creep was determined and graphs ln s versus 1/T, where T is the absolute temperature, were plotted, All these graphs were straight lines, those obtained for stresses of 25, 30 and 35 kg/MM2 being practically parallel to each other. Contrary to the findings of some other workers, the extrapolated 1n e versus I/T graphs did not intersect at one point, The relationship between ln e and the applied stress, o, was hyperbolic for the test temperature of 50 OC (e = Asftya), and tended to become linear (e ~ Ceya) at 250 OC~ The activation energy, aH, for creep at each of the Card 2/3 86075 S/180/60/000/005/016/033 E193/E183 The Stress-Dependence of the Activation Energy for Creep of a-Titanium applied stresses used in the present investigation, was calculated from the slope of the In e versus 1/T graphs. With a increasing from 10 to 25 kg/mih2 5 INH decreased at a gradually diminishing rate and reached constant value of 11.55 kcal/g-atom at the stress of 25 kg/mm2. Acknowledgements are made to V.A. Tverezovskly., who participated in this work. There are 3 figures, 1 table and 5 Soviet references. SUBMITTED: April 5, 1960 Card 3/3 5/032/6o/o26/o6/30/044 18-OLOO B010/BO16 AUTHOR: Sotnichenko, A. L. TITLE: Device for Testing the Creep Strength of Metals in Vacuo PERIODICAL: Zavodskaya laboratoriya, 1960, Vol. 26, No. 6, PP. 760-762 TEXT: A device of the _Bnq-C2 (YEE-S2 ibed which permits Y'type is descr the testing of the creep strength in vacuo (lo-5 torr), or inert gas atmosphere up to 16000C simultaneously on 6 samples. The tests can be performed with constant load and with tension automatically kept constant at the cross-sectional area of the sample. Experiments on the device described were carried out under the supervision of K. A. Osipov, Doctor of Technical Sciences. The samples are vertically fixed in the holders of the device (Fig. 1) and may be loaded one by one. The maximum load is 600 kg. The deformation of the sample is automatically recorded. It may be seen from the circuit diagram (Fig. 2) that an electronic 9r1A(EPD)-1 potentiometer is provided to maintain the voltage for heating the sample, a P.BH (RVN)-20 rotary pump for the water cooling, a 1.4&A(TsVL)-100~~ Card 112 OSIPOV, K.A.;-POTNICHINKO, A.L. 1 -1-111 1--- Limiting activation energy values of the steady creep of at-ye and I ~(-Ti under tensile stress in vacu. Dokl.AY SSSR 134 no.2: 333-336 s 16o. - (MnIA 13:9) 1. Institut metallurgii Im. A.A. Baykova Akademii nauk SSSR. Predstavleno ak-ad. G.F. Kurdyumovym. (Creep of metals) (iron) (Titanium) 30902 10,11,00 t4 18 s/i8o/61/000/005/012/ol8 E193/E383 AUTHORS.- Osipov, K.A. and Sotnichenko, A.L. (Moscolr) TITLE: Creep of iodide zirconium in vacuum under a constant stress PERIODICAL: A17-ademiya nauk SSSR. Izvestiya. Otdeleniye tekhnicheskikh nauli. Metallurgiya i toplivo. no. 5, 1961, pp. 83 -85 TEXT: In continuation of their earlier work (Ref. 1 - DAN SSSR, 196o, v. 134, no. 2; Ref. 2 - Filial VINITI AN SSSR - Peredo-voy proizvodstvennyy i nauchno-teklinicheskiy opyt, 1959, No. P-59-68/6 and Ref. 3 - Problems of the theory of high- temperature strength of metals and alloys. Pub. by AN SSSR, 196o) the present authors studied creep of zirconium tested in vacuum (10-5 nun Hg) at temperatures between 18 and 500 0C (i.e. in the a-Zr range) under a constant stress ranging from 10 - 30 kg/mm 2. Typical creep curves are,shown in Fig. 1, where the strain (e, 0%) is plotted against time CC, hours), graphs a, r~, B anVL relating, respectively, to tests carried out Card 1/0 30902 s/18o/61/000/005/012/018 Creep of iodide zirconium .... E193/E383 under a stress of 1.0, 20, 30 and 25 kg/mm the test temperature being indicated by each curve. The rate, , of steady-state creep was calculated from these curves and it was found that the En t versus I/T relationship was linear for any stress within the range employed in the present investigation and that, contrary to some published reports, extrapolated tn E* Versus l/T graphs did not intersect at one point. In Fig. 3., Pn E* is plotted against the applied stress (or-, kg/mm 2), Curves 1 0 (circles) and 2(triangles) relating to tests at 100 and 500 C, respectively. Finally, in Fig. 4, the activation energy (a H, kcal/g.atom) for steady-state creep of iodide zirconium is plotted against the applied stress (a-, kg/mm 2), the broken line indicatinl- the calculated limiting value of aH . It will 2 be seen that, starting from a/= 25 kg/mm IAH remains constant at a level almost identical with the theoretical value obtained in the previous work (Ref. 3). The close agreement between the experimental and theoretical na.rrnitude of AH was taken to Card 2/if -->' 3P902 s/18o/6 1/006/005/012/018 Creep of iodide zirconium .... E193/E383 indicate t:iat the structure of Zr is changed during plastic deformation from close-packed he;:amonal to a body-centwed cubic. It. was postulated also that this transformation might be preceded by the formation of stackin.r.- foults in the 11-le.-ca.-onal lattice, which changes first to face-centered cubic and becomes body- centered cubic durin.-- the subsequent shear. There are 4 figures and 4 references: 3 Soviet-bloc and I non-Soviet-bloc. TIle English-lan-uange r'eference wentioned is: Ref. 4 - E.J. Rapperport - Acta ilictallurr-ica, 1959, 7, no. 4, p. 2511. SUBNITTED: Mavch 3, 1961 Card 5/ 33182 sA8o/6i/ooo/oo6/oi6/02O E193/E383 AUTHORS: Ivanov, V.I., Osipov, K.A. and Sotnichenko A.L.,_ (Moscow) TITLEt A study of the kinetics of the process of creep and recovery PERIODICAL: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Izvestiya. Otdeleniye tekhnicheskikh nauk. Metallurgiya i toplivo, no.6, 1961, 137-143 TEXT: The object of the present investigation was to study the relationship between the activation energy for creep of a-iron and the applied stress as well as the relationship between the activation energy for recovery of this metal and the degree of plastic deformation. Technical purity (99.76%) iron, preliminarily annealed in vacuum (10 hours at 7000C followed by 50 hours at 45~00, was used in creep tests carried out in vacuum (10- mm Hg) at 250 - 5000C under a constant stress ranging from 10-35 kg/mm2. The ln i versus 1/T relationship, where i is the rate of creep and T - temperature, was linear over the entire range of the applied Card 1/40~ 33181 A study of the kinetics ... S/l80/6i/ooo/oo6/oi6/020 E193/E383 stresses studied. The variation of the activation energy for steady creep (A H) is demonstrated in Fig.2, where AH (kcal/g atom) is plotted against the applied stress Cr (kg/mm2). It will be seen that the limiting va Aue of L H = 20 kcal/g.atom was attained at a > Cr 2 , 30 kg nun At .> 35 kg/fnm fracture of the specimens took place in a very VVI short time. Th-e process of recovery was studied on both technical and high-purity iron (99.67 and 99.99%, respectively). The experimental wire specimens, 0.6 and 1.5 mm in diameter, preliminarily annealed in vacuum (3 hours at 800*C) were deformed plastically it room temperature to 80, 84, 94 and 98% reduction in area. The kinetics of recovery were studied by measurements of the thermo-emf of plastically- deformed against annealed material, which were taken immediately after deformation and during subsequent isothermal treatment at various temperatures. The value of (1 - e/e 0). where e0 and e denote the specific thermo-emf (~LV/OC) Card 2/4M 33182 s/l8o/6l/ooo/oo6/ol6/020 A study of the kinetics .... E193/E383 before aiit, .,-'ter isothermal annealing, respectively, was taken as the measure of the degree of recovery attained. The results obtained for high-purity specimens, deformed to 94% reduction, are reproduced in Fig. 3, where U - e/e 0) is plotted against time (-r_j sec) at temperatures indicated by each curved This relationship can be described by e 1 - - = a + b In e 0 where a and b are temperature-dependent constants. In the next series of experiments the temperature dependence of L/Y (1 - e/e was determined. The results are reproduced in 0 0 Fig. 4, where (1 - e/e0 is plotted against temperature ( C) of the isothermal treatment of technical and high-purity iron (graphs a and 6 , respectively); Curves 1 - 4 in graplz a-relate to specimens held at the temperature for Card 3/0 182 s/18o/61/ooo/oo o16/020 A study of the kinetics .... E193/E383 1 8oo, 18o, 30 and 2.5 see, respectively, Curves 1 - 5 in graphs G relating to a holding time of 3 6oo, goo, 18o, 6o and 30 see, respectively. These data were used to determine the activation energy for recovery of the metals studied. To this end, the temperatures T at which various degrees of recovery could be attained after various times 't were determined from curves in Fig. 4. These were used to-construct curves reproduce&'in Figs 5, where ln -L.(~C, see) is plotted against 10 4, the numbers given by each curve indicating the value of (1 - e/e0). graphs a and G relating to technical and high-purity specimens, respectively. Since all the curves reproduced in Fig. 5 were straight lines., it was possible to calculate the activation energy for recovery,from: 1n A exp FdL RTJ (2) U Card 4/*0 313182 s/18o/Wooo/oo6/oiVo2o A study of the kinetics .... E193/F,383 where R is the gas constant, and 0 T is the temperature of the isothermal treatment ( K). The results are reproduced in Fig. 6, where 'P_1H (kcal/g.atom) Is plotted against (I - e/e.) , the circles (1) and triangles (2) relating, respectively, to high-purity and technical-grade iron. It will be seen that the activation energy for recovery is at its minimum at low values of (I e/eo), remaining practically constant up to (l - e/e 0) = 0.3 and then increasing rapidly to reach 6H = 47.6 kcal/g.atom at (I e/e0) = 0,8 . Similar results were obtained for material deformed to 98% reduction, which indicated that Z~H would not decrease even for more heavily deformed material. In the last series of"_xperiments the effect of elastic deformation on the kinetics of recovery was studied. To this end U - e/e 0) was determined for high-purity specimens deformed to 94% reduction, which were stressed in the elastic range during the isothermal annealing. The results are reproduced in Fig. 7, Card 5/4P 3 318 2 s/18o/6i/ooo/oo6/oi6/020 A study of the kinetics oo.* E-L93/E383 where (.1 - e/e .) is plotted against the duration of treatment sac) at temperatures indicated by each curve. Comparison of isotherm.-.; reproduced in Figs. 2 and 7 shows that the elastic strain superimposed on plasti.c- deformation brings about a significant increase in the rate of recovery only when (I - e/e 0) exceeds 0,.3. The results of calculation showed that e/e 0.2, 0.3 or o.4, the value of nH was 12-3, 14.0 and 18.2 kcal/g.atom, respectively, the corresponding value for specimens not stressed elast:L4--ally being 12.2, 14.7 and 22.8 kual/g.atom. This indir;ates that elastic deformation does not affect the limiting (minimum) value of ,;:NH . It was inferred from the results obtained that -the activation energy for recovery is a function of several states of the crystal lattice, which vary not only with the degree of preliminary deformation but also with the degree of recovery attained. The dependence of the activation energy on the degree of recovery can be attributed to the following factors. Card 6/46 33182 s/i8o/6i/ooQ/,oo6/oi6/020 A study of the kinetics .... EI-93/E383 1) the presence in a deformed metal of volumes with different density of defects of various types$ 2) variation of the density and distribution of defects during isothermal treatment; 3) different stability of different-types of defects; 4) dependence of the activation energy for recovery on the nature of the defects and-their density in elemental volumes in which they migrate. There are 7 figures, I ta~le-and 11 refe~rences: 7 Soviet-bloc and 4 non-Soviet-b1l.oc.; Thb two English-language references quoted are: Ref. 3: H. Bross and A. Seeger - The Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 1958, v.4, no- 3, 161; Ref. 8: Silcock, J.M., Acta metallurgica, 1959, v.7, no. 5. SUBMITTED: Card 71W January 10, 1961 S/659/61/007/000/004/044 D217/D303 AUTHOR'V; Osipov, K.A., and Sotnichenkot A.L. TITLE: Investigating the dependence of the energy of activa- tion of creep of a-Fe on stress SOURCE: Akademiya nauk SSSR. Institut metallurgjii. Issledova- niya po zharorpchnym splavamp v. 7, 1961t 29 - 33 TEXT: Using K.A. Osipov's hypothesis (Ref. 3: AN SSSR, 121, no. 49 1958) on the limiting and alternating values of energy of activa- tion, two limiting values were calculated for a-Fe: qapl = 11.7 kcal/g atom and q = 22.2 kcal/g atom. The value of q corresponds to the limiting value of the energy of activation of slip in the cry- stal lattice which will bellocally melted' at those points where this energy value is reached. It can also be shown that q corres- ponds to a slip stress of approximately 0.5 1,1, i.e. to a stress the value of which is of the same order as Frenkel's theoretical value. Tests were carried out in a Br)H-C2 (VPN-S2) machine in which the creep and long-term strength could be studied in vacuo under a con- Card 1/3 S/65 61/007/000/004/044 Investigating the dependence of D217%303 stant stress. Specimens of cast and forged iron (99.6 %) were given a preliminary anneal in vacuo (1.1o-4 mm Hg) for 10 hours at 700OC; the temperature was then lowered to 4500C and the specimens were soaked there for 50 hours. The investigations were carried out in the temperature range 250-50000, in which the modulus of normal elasticity changes very littler whereas at temperatures above 5000C it falls abruptly. The specimens had a total length of 60 mm, a working portion length of 22 mm and a diameter of the working por- tion of ~ mm. It was found that on increasing the stress from 10 to 30 kg/mm2, the energy of activation becomes a decreasing curviline- ar function of stress, changing from 66 to 20 kcal/g atom. on in- creasing the stress from 30 to 35 kg/mm, the energy of activation remains constant, i.e. a limit* value of 20 kcal/g atom is obtai- OmM29 the specimens rupture on stres- ned. At stresses of above 35 k9 sing. The constant value obtained for the energy of activation is on the average 20.3 kcal/g atom, and is considerably greater than the theoretical value of q,,Y, this being in good agreement with the second theoretical value of q. The great divergence between the theoretical value of qagy and the experimental value of 20.3 kcal/g Card 2/3 S/659/61/007/000/004/044 Investigating the dependence of ... D217/D303 atom indicates the possibility that the body-centered cubic lattice may transform into a face-centered cubic lattice during plastic ten- sile deformation. The calculated value of q/atom is close to that of the energy of vacancy formation and has the same order of value as the nuclear energy of dislocations per atomic plane. There are 7 figures, 1 table and 7 references: 5 Soviet-bloc and 2 non-Soviet- bloc. The reference to the English-language publication reads as follows: J.M. Silcox, Acta metallurgica, 7, 5t 1959. Card 3/3 L 11291-63 ACCESSION NR: AP3000917 20 to 200C under a stress of 30 to 70 kg/mm k The-activation energy A H of the,,, steady-stage creep, determined from 1n. 6 -I/T, curv*es,( r,,,rate of.the st eady- stage.creep; T, absolute temperature),.was found:to be*constant at:stresses.higheri. 2 '-:- b~ -, than 40-50 kg/mm (depending on alloy compositions)-and equal to-8100, 6900,,and 8000 cal/mol for Zr contents of 25 50,.and 75 at%, respectivelyo These values are very close to the limiting values of activation energy calculated under the assumption a-Ti-Zr alloys the creep-induced activated state of atoms or ions corresponds to that of a local allotropictransfarmation. This leads to the conclusion that the creep of ct-Ti-Zr , al lays under high stresses - is af fected by a Creep tests,!,,~--. mechanism directly associated with a local allotropic-transformation. of the A-modification of Ti-Zr-alloys,were,carried out under a constant tensile strength of 0.5 kg/mm2. Analysis of the data obtained shows that the steady-stage~ creep of the :A~-modification of Ti--Zr alloys occurs through'a' mechanism directly. j. associated with melting. Orig. art. has: 2 f ormulas, 6 figures,.and 4 tables. ASSOCIATION: Institut me~ rgii im. A (in ..allu A*jA. BaXk-~va stitute of Mitallurgy) SUBMITTED: 29Nov62 DATE ACQ: '.12Jun63 ENCL., 00': SUB CODE: ML NO REF SOV-.~:.- 612 ..".'OTHER-..~ 002 Card 2/2 lid- ACCESSIONN'R: AT4013923 -S,/-2659/63/010/000/0027/0031 AUTHOR: Osipov, K. A.; Sotnichenko, A. L. TITLE: Investigation of the limiting values of creep activation energy for titanium- zirconium alloys SOURCE: AINT SSSR. Institut metallurgii. Issledovanlya po zharoprochny*m splavam, v. 10, 1963, 27-31 TOPIC TAGS: creep, creep activation, creep activation energy, titanium, zirconium, titanium zirconium alloy ABSTRACT: The author previously proved that for set creep at high loads the actrvation energies of -~ -titanium and c(-zirconium approach a constant limiting value. Thepresent paper includes information on creep of polycrystalline alloys of the titanium-zirconium type. The samples were tested for creep at 25-200C and loads 08 30-70 Iq- ,Iram2 on a VPN-S2 machine after being hardened in a vacuum arc furnace. The set 1.roep rate (% 0 deformation/min.) was calculated from the curves obtained. The logarichm of the set creep rate was found to be inversely proportional to the temperature for all values of stress (see Fig. 1 in the Enclosure). Analysis of the results showed that in alloys of the titanium- zirconium type in the a(-modification, the nature of the activated state during creep at high Card 1/3 ACCESSION NR: AT4013923 loads corresponds to a state of "local polymorphic variation. 11 Orig. art. has: 3 figures and 2 tables. ASSOCIATION: Institut metallurgii AN SSSR (Institute of Metallurgy AN SSSR) SUBDII TTED: 00 DATE ACQ: 27Feb64 ENCL: 01 SUB CODE: Mir NO REF SOV: 005 OTHER: 000 Card 2/3 ACCESSIONIM: AT,1013923 ENCLOSURE: 01 Fio-. 1. Relationship between the lo-arithm of the set creep rate and temperature for the alloy Ti + 25 -to- at L7b 2r. Stress (in kg/mm2): 1-40, 2-45, 3-50, 4-60, 5-65, 6-70. ~..dard 3/3 ACCESSION NR: AT4013935 S/2659/63/010/000/0105/0109 AUTHOR: Osipov, K. A.; Miroshkina, Ye. M.; Sotnichenko, A. L. TITLE: An investigation of the set creep of the "'p-modification of titanium- zirconilum alloyfi so"IRCE: ~,N SS.S1.1. institut i-ztetlailurgii. Issledovaniya po zharoprocliny*irm splava,,-., v, 113, 1963, 105-1 9 'i'OPIC '7A':S 7ircolllu-, cree2.. t;,caL ion, set creep, ~:icanium "~.e occ cl:eup 01;7 `ov~ -c -i- pal) -i: mio d i L~71* czt t: Itanlu"a In tlhc same fhitsii~ al loys are, vcry O;',tinuouS row Of solie Si,Lutions. --odifiCaLiO.13, they tore"'% a C L L -~: -i rog n co;-..poSition or -.C :~11OYS iznv"Ligated was as follo ; a Z: e 0.0067., carlilo-,L 0.03%, oxygen 0.03% and irroi~ up zo 0.031'. The tcscs were performied o-a a machiua c:escribed by Berl.,zov. T,,.~a s1,ci:)1,zs were 20 ;mm lon.c, d,~iving a working parz and a tii=-etar of 14 and 2.5 mm, rez~pectively, and were annealed in a vacuum before testing at lOQ0C for 24 hours. The tensile stress was constant at Card 1/3 ACCESSION NR: AT4013935 0.5 kg/nun2. Data are given on the cree-p rate for various titanium-zirconiuim alloys. Fig. I of the Enclosure shows the creep curves for an alloy of titanium with 25 at.% zirconium at various temperatures. Results of the investigation of the Get creep rate showed that, in titanium-zirconium alloys of the,161-modification 4 Lhe essence of the activated state corresponds to local fusion. Or~g. art. has: 4 figures and 6 tables. ASSOCIATION: institut metallurgii AN SSSR (Institute of Metallurgy AN SSSR) SUB',a-TTED: 00 DATE ACQ: 27Feb64 ENCL: 01 SUB CODE: MY, NO REF SOV: 002 OTHER: 000 Card 2/3 ---ui,j9 5 'S Card 3i3 P-NC. LOS LR.E 01 v, rain. C-,eep ctj.-ves of the alloy Ti4-25 a-,.% Zr, tested vacuum atzi'~0.5 .ACCE'SSION NR: AP4040991 .S/0279/64/000/003/0161/0162! ;iAUTHOR: Osipov, K. A. (Mosco~7);,SotR,t_chjqnho. A.__L. (Moscow)- :TITLE: On the duration of tests for creep and rupture strength of ;metals and alloys SOURCE: AN SSSR. Izvest.i~a. Metallurgiya i gornoye delo, no. 3, 19*64, 161-162 TOPIC TAGS: zirconium creep test, aluminum creeptest, titanium .,zirconium alloy, alloy creep test, creep test duration, creep testf id i'stress rupture test duration,.streas rupture test, zirconium, alumi- rium ABS,TRACT: The effect-of the duration of creep tests on thd-relation- shVp between the rate of secondary stage creep e and rupture life-T ahd the time reciprocal l/T has been studied in th 'e cases of zircdni um iodide vacuum melted alloys of titanium with 50 and 7 6 at% Zr- andi 199.99% pure aluminum.. All te.4tswere conducted in a vacuum of 1.10-4 mmHg under constant stress with a test time from 10 to, 1500 hr. The test time for iodide zirconium vacuum annealed ~t 80OC'' J/2 --------------