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March 28, 1983
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Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Iq Next 1 Page(s) In Document Denied Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 00 40,00 & ace Techn SP A McGraw-Hill Publication $4.00 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 0 Aerospace Calendar Apr. 4-8-SPIE's Technical Symposium East '83 and Instrument Exhibit, International So- ciety for Optical Engineering, Hyatt Regency Crystal City Hotel, Arlington, Va. Apr. 5-7-1983 International Reliability Phys- ics Symposium, Hyatt Regency Phoenix, Phoenix, Ariz. Sponsors: IEEE Reliability and Electron Devices Societies. Apr. 5-8-Intermag '83, 21st International Magnetics Conference, Franklin Plaza Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. Sponsor: IEEE Magnetics Society. Apr. 11-12-International Operators Seminar, National Business Aircraft Assn., Crystal City Marriott, Arlington, Va. Apr. 10-14-National News Conference, Avia- tion Space Writers Assn., Stouffer's National Aviation Week & Space Technology (ISSN 0005-2175) March 28, 1983 Vol. 118, No. 13 Member of Audit Bureau of Circulation and American ABP Business Press- sees ~ Published weekly by McGraw-Hill, Inc. Founder: James H. McGraw (1860-1948). See panel below for directionsregarding subscription or change of address. Subscriptions: Only paid subscriptions available. Aviation Week & Space Technology is edited for persons with active, professional, functional responsibility in aviation, air transpor- tation, aerospace, advanced and related technologies. 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ISSN 0005-2175/79$2.35 Publications combined with AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY are AVIATION, AVIATION NEWS, AIR TRANS- PORT, AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING and AIRCRAFT JOUR- NAL. All rights to these names are reserved by McGraw-Hill, Inc. Officers of the McGraw-Hill Publications Company: John G. Wrede, President; Executive Vice Presidents: Paul F. McPher- son; Walter D. Serwatka, Finance & Services; Senior Vice President-Editorial: Ralph R. Schulz; Vice President-Publisher of Business Week: James R. Pierce; Vice Presidents: Kemp Anderson, Business Systems Development; She] F. Asen, Man- ufacturing; Harry L. Brown, Special Markets; Eric B. Herr, Planning and Development; H. John Sweger, Jr., Marketing. Officers of the Corporation: Harold W. McGraw, Jr., Chair- man and Chief Executive Officer, Joseph L. Dionne, President and Chief Operating Officer, Robert N. Landes, Senior Vice President and Secretary; Ralph J. Webb, Treasurer. Unconditional Guarantee: The publisher, upon written request, agrees to refund the part of the subscription price applying to the remaining unfilled portion of the subscription if service is unsatisfactory. Our primary aim is to provide subscribers with a useful and valuable publication. Your comments and sugges- tions for improvement are encouraged and will be most wel- come. Subscription Correspondence: Address all inquiries and requests to Fulfillment Manager, Aviation Week & Space Technology, P. O. Box 432, Hightstown, N. J. 08520. Please include address label from a recent issue with all correspondence. Please allow three to six weeks for address change. Include both old and new address and Zip or postal codes. Postmaster. Please send form 3579 to Fulfillment Manager, Aviation Week & Space Technology, P. O. Box 430, Hightatown, N. J. 08520. Center Hotel, Arlington, Va. Contact: Mar- vin Klemow, (703) 243-2227. Apr. 11-13-Air Cargo '83, European Exhibi- tion and Conference, RAI Halls and Con- gress Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Apr. 11-13-Southeastcon '83, IEEE Southeast- ern Conference, Sheraton Twin Towers Con- vention Center, Orlando, Fla. Apr. 12-14-28th National Symposium and Ex- hibition, Society for the Advancement of Ma- terial and Process Engineering, Disneyland Hotel, Anaheim, Calif. Theme: Materials and Processes-Continuing Innovations. Apr. 12-15-SAE Business Aircraft Meeting and Exposition, Century 21, Wichita, Kan. Contact: Jim Brahney, (412) 776-4841, ext. 257. Apr. 12-15-AIRMEC '83, Third International Aircraft Maintenance Engineering Exhibit and Conference, Dusseldorf, West Germany. Apr. 15-16-13th Mini-Symposium, Society of Experimental Test Pilots, San Diego Hilton, San Diego, Calif. Apr. 15-20-38th Annual Conference, Interna- tional Federation of Air Line Pilots' Assns., Dublin, Ireland. Apr. 17-19-28th Annual Flight Safety Foun- dation Corporate Aviation Safety Seminar, Fairmont Hotel, New Orleans, La. Apr. 17-19-Joint Western-Mountain Region EW Technical Symposium, Assn. of Old Crows, Hilton Palacio del Rio, San Antonio, Tex. Contact: P. K. Weir, (512) 494-9336. Apr. 18-20-National Medevac Helicopter Conference, Crystal City, Va. Cosponsors: Helicopter Assn. International, Maryland In- stitute for Emergency Medical Services Sys- tems. For information: Susan Danker or Richard Saker, (202) 466-2420. Apr. 18-20-Industry/FAA Regional Air Car- rier Symposium, North Park Inn, Dallas, Tex. Contact: Max Young, (817) 877-2088 Apr. 18-21-29th Annual Technical Meeting and Equipment Exposition, Institute of Envi- ronmental Sciences, Marriott Hotel, Los An- geles, Calif. Theme: Environmental Technology-A Key to Product Acceptability. Apr. 18-21-13th International Symposium on Industrial Robots and Robots 7 Conference and Exposition, Conrad Hilton Hotel and McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. Theme: Ro- botics-The Emerging Challenge. Sponsors: Robotics International/Society of Manufac turing Engineers; Robot Institute of Amer- ica. Apr. 18-22-1983 SPIE International Technical Conference/Europe, International Confer- ence Center, Geneva, Switzerland. Sponsor: International Society for Optical Engineer- ing. Apr. 19-21-National Symposium on the DOD FY '84 Research and Development Program, Electronic Industries Assn., Hyatt Regency Crystal City, Arlington, Va. Contact: Frank A. Mitchell, (202) 457-4944. Apr. 20-Spring Symposium, Huntsville Chap- ter of National Contract Management Assn., Hotel Hilton, Huntsville, Ala. Title: Profes- sional Integrity in Contracting. Contact: Wil- liam S. Taylor, (205) 876-1233. Apr. 20-22-Symposium on Computer-Aided Geometry Modeling, Hampton, Va. Contact: John Shoosmith, (804) 827-3466. ^ Make a note now: Four important days in Dusseldorfal2-15 April 1983 3rd International Trade Fair and Congress for Aircraft Maintenance Engineering The International Trade Fair for general aircraft engineering, for all those who have specialised in aviation servicing, maintenance, repair, equip- ment, re-equipment and conversion. For technical aviation firms, sub-con- tractors and service enterprises of all types and sizes. For documentation and information services, for ground service support; hall, hangar and workshop equipment, as well as check-in and security equipment, and training systems. Every two years in future in Dusseldorf. Request from us the information impor- tant to you! International Congress The focal point of AIRMEC 83 is the technical Congress, the subjects of which not only satisfy today's require- ments for aircraft rfiaintenance, but also stress its future development. Congress and Trade Fair, therefore, ideally complement each other. Request the Congress programme! AIRMEC 83 AIRMEC83 Info Voucher Please send me comprehensive informative matter on AIRMEC 83 and the Congress programme. A NOWEA Dusseldorter Messegesellschaft mbH -NOWEA-, Postbox 320203, D-4000 Dusseldorf 30, Telephone: 0211/45 6015 44, Telex: 8584853 mes d Information: Dusseldorf Trade Shows, Inc. 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110 Telephone: (001212) 840 77 44, Telex: 4 28 652 dts ui Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 5 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 1P IT Aviation Week & -Space Technology March 28, 1983 Volume 118, Number 13 ~,l? Editor-in-Chief: William H. Gregory Managing Editor Bureaus: Managing Editor Technical: Herbert J. Coleman Donald E. Fink Bureau Chiefs: Los Angeles: Robert R. Ropelewski Dallas: Erwin J. Bulban San Francisco: Richard G. O'Lone London: David A. Brown Brussels: Michael Feazel Paris: Jeffrey M. Lenorovitz Senior Editor Southeast U. S.: Edward H. Kolcum Senior Avionics Editor: Philip J. Klass Avionics Editors: Kenneth J. Stein, Benjamin M. Elson, William B. Scott Senior Military Editor: Clarence A. Robinson, Jr. Military Editor: J. Michael Hoeferlin Transport Editors: James Ott, Eugene Kozicharow, Anne Randolph Space Technology Editor: Craig Covault Business Flying Editor: David M. North Congressional Editors: Alton K. Marsh, Paul Mann Engineering Editors: Bruce A. Smith, Jay C. Lowndes, Keith F. Mordoff Management Editor: Susan Castledine Editorial Production Chief: David Quast News Editors: Woods Hansen, Martha H. Peak, Cletus J. Mooney, Nora Titterington, Philip Barbara, Christopher Fotos Art Editor: Lawrence J. Herb Assistant Art Editor: Valerie L. Pelick Assistant Editor: Marjorie Todd Librarian: Mark Padnos Editorial Offices: New York: 1221 Avenue of the Americas 10020 Phone: (212) 997-4117; TWX: 710 581-4879 Washington, D.C.: Suite 710, 1777 North Kent St., Arlington, Va. 22209 Phones: (202) 463-1770 RCA Int.'l Telex: 248437 Los Angeles: 3333 Wilshire Blvd., 90010 Phone: (213) 487-1160 Dallas: Suite 907, 5151 Belt Line Rd., 75240 Phone: (214) 458-2400 San Francisco: 425 Battery St. 94111 Phone: (415) 362-4600 Southeast U.S.: Box H, Cocoa Beach, Fla. 32931 Phone: (305) 783-7997 European Offices: London: 34 Dover St., London W1X 4BR, England Phone: 01-493-1451; Telex: 892191 Paris: 17 rue-Georges Bizet 75116 Phone: 720-08-50; Telex: 611969F Brussels: 23 Galerie de la Porte de Namur Chaussee de Wavre B-1050 Phone 513-45-16; Telex: 22137 Publisher: John W. Patten Dir. North American Marketing & Sales: Frank A. Dube Dir. International Marketing & Sales: Robert Rottmeier Dir. European Marketing: Fulvio Piovano Dir. U. K. Marketing: Charles Stoot All material copyrighted by McGraw-Hill, Inc. 145,721 copies of this issue printed Cover Command post for North American Aerospace Defense Com- mand/Space Command buried in Cheyenne Mountain, Colo., has Soviet missile warning attack data boards near the ceil- ing. Soviet Salyut 7 space station ground track is on the left screen while a North American projection is at right. The facility recently was renovated with new Raytheon consoles and Hughes liquid crystal display boards. USAF photo by TSgt. Wesley G. Anderson. Air Transport Page 26 ' Carrier traffic continues climb 27 Air Florida continues debt restructuring 27 Swissair will continue two-class passenger service 28 More carriers adopt mileage-based fares 28 People Express agrees to buy Braniff 727s 29 Airline antitrust actions increase at Justice Dept. 29 Pan American signs contracts with five unions 31 Airline Observer 32 NTSB cites wind shear in New Orleans accident 35 Piedmont expanding hubs to Baltimore/Washington 36 NTSB chief warns on pace in restoring ATC capabilities 37 World shifts to one class in scheduled service 38 FAA cancels VOR weather program Space Technology 14 NASA sets medical privacy rule 16 Shuttle payloads to be protected on pad 18 Farsighted planning urged for study of solar system 19 Test clears new shuttle solid motor for use 20 NASA/Ames to fly QSRA to Paris air show 24 Shuttle biological unit cleared for mission 56 Center set for Soviet space monitoring 56 IRAS spacecraft providing high-quality data 57 USAF selects shuttle ice deterrent Aeronautical Engineering 19 Navy evaluating French transmitters 21 B-1B flight tests begin at Edwards 22 Air Force receives first Lockheed TR-1B 43 PW4000 uses JT9D, new technology 46 Helicopter plan's success keyed to cost control 50 CASA/Nurtanio CN-235 nears completion Management 16 Administration plans boost in aid to Greece 20 Boeing will not display 757, 767 at Paris show 23 Soviets extending power in Caribbean, Central America 24 House panel given Defense plan for funding research 58 Bill would relax overseas bribery law Business Flying 59 FAA certificates Challenger 601 61 Business, utility aircraft shipments-January, 1983 Missile Engineering 22 Inert MX in canister falls at pad 22 Protesters arrested at Vandenberg AFB Avionics 24 Rivalries intensify for NATO radar contracts 62 Systems Command probes C3 potential 66 New traffic control system being built in Berlin 67 Filter Center Departmental 11 Industry Observer 11 Who's Where 13 Washington Roundup 5 Aerospace Calendar 25 News Digest 76 Letters to the Editor Editorial 9 Opportunities lost Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 7 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Editorial Opportunities Lost With Congress threatening to trim his defense budget drastically and military spending and nuclear weap- ons at the focus of an economic and moral controver- sy, President Ronald Reagan went on national television last week with his case for the affirmative. Most of his speech, in the best traditions of Reagan earnestness and sincerity, went over ground that is fundamental to drafting of a U. S. defense budget but which has been ploughed before. His comparisons of U. S. and Soviet relative strength were sobering, as always, but did not really get to the heart of why he is asking for double digit increases in defense for Fiscal 1984 as opposed to 5% or 6% or 7% as some have proposed. In trying to simplify the technical and budgetary complexities for a broad audience, the President faced a formidable task, and a lot had to be lost in the process. His one new element, a commitment to push the technology for a defense against nuclear weapons, is a significant shift in concept, but the President did not get into much in the way of specifics before the television cameras. The commitment is symbolic, in the sense that his space policy two years ago was symbolic. There is nothing like a development pro- gram for a new antiballistic missile system in the mill.What is in the mill is a Phase 1 program to select a technology path to pursue, under direction of the Secretary of Defense. In effect, it is a manage- ment initiative to put some top-level direction and priority among the $1 billion in research efforts now under way as the Army's ballistic missile defense work or the Defense Advanced Projects Agency's laser and particle-beam programs. The President's use of reconnaissance photographs to document his description of Soviet tentacles reach- ing into the Western Hemisphere was a good idea whose time should have come a long time ago. When the house lights dimmed and the spotlight hit the center of the stage, the sad fact is that the veteran trouper had left his most convincing props in the closet. Not the Best Evidence His documentary evidence was not the latest or the best he could have produced in the way of aircraft or space imagery. It dealt with the Caribbean and Cen- tral America, where reconnaissance photography has already been used in public briefings to support the Administration's case there for the rising threat. As important as Soviet listening post and force proximity are in the political wars, it is a sideshow in U. S./Soviet strategic superiority jockeying. It has lit- tle bearing on nuclear weapons, and the rationale for U. S. development and deployment of a new land- based intercontinental missile, the MX, or the B-1B bomber, the submarine-launched Trident ballistic mis- sile, or deployment of cruise missiles and Pershing 2s in Europe. The Defense Dept. pulled its punches in the same way in the just-released second edition of its booklet, Soviet Military Power. Its contents are arresting, even though much is repeated from the first edition. It includes a drawing of the new Soviet bomber Black- jack. Another drawing sketches, in a general way, the deployment of three Soviet mobile SS-20 ballistic mis- siles in a forest. Still another shows a Kiev-class carrier in a Japanese-built floating drydock. Critics' Attack Critics of the Administration's Defense budgeting were hardly open-minded about the presentation. They simply turned around to attack the Defense Dept. for using taxpayer money to try to sell that same taxpayer on higher military spending. In their own small way, the drawings, with a sales brochure flavor, aided and abetted the hypercritical reaction of the skeptics whose opposition the Administration will have to overcome to preserve its program. The hard photography is there to add the last inch of verifica- tion. Yet the spook mentality of the Administration keeps it locked in the safe to satisfy the bureaucracy while it increasingly risks losing the more important contest in Congress and in the public arena. The same mentality cost the President the initiative in his television speech. Even worse, in the book's comparison drawing of the U. S. space shuttle in planform with new Soviet space vehicles, the planform of the Soviet counterpart to the shuttle was depicted with a delta wing instead of the double delta it actually has. Another drawing, of the Soviet antisatellite spacecraft, was even less accurate technically. This is harmless and perhaps even justified fakery, but in the intensely unbelieving context of the battle over the defense budget and its necessity to meet the Soviet threat, any loss of credi- bility ought to be avoided. Microscopic flaws will be turned into catastrophic cracks in the structure. Yet one more example of missed opportunity was that of the National Capital Section of the American Institute of Astronautics and Aeronautics and its classified briefing on the Soviet threat. The rationale was that only if the meeting was classified as secret could a meaningful briefing be given to the section, whose sessions are normally open to all. As a result, only about half the section's members could come to the meeting. The Administration is using the same logic in tell- ing the public about the Soviet threat. As a result it is preaching more fervently to a smaller choir, and the defense consensus that existed when the Adminis- tration took office is slowly, but surely, drifting apart. -William H. Gregory Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Who's Wher? Anthony M. Corrado named vice president of operations for Litton Industries' Amecom Div., College Park, Md.; formerly, he was vice president of Hazeltine Corp.'s Industrial Prod- ucts Div. Robert W. Truxell has joined General Dy- namics Corp. as vice president and general manager of the Land Systems Div., Detroit, Mich., and also has been elected a corporate vice president. Truxell was corporate vice presi- dent and general manager of the Truck and Bus Manufacturing Div. of General Motors, prior to his recent retirement. John E. Heaney elected vice president of corporate communications, a newly created po- sition, of Fairchild Industries, Inc., German- town, Md. John F. Fedak Jr. appointed vice president of engineering and system operations for Ford Aerospace Satellite Services Corp., Washing- ton, D. C.; Fedak was assistant vice president and transmission engineer for Western Union, responsible for engineering of satellite and ter- restrial communications systems. Douglas Aircraft Co., Long Beach, Calif., division of McDonnell Douglas Corp., has named the following as marketing directors for commercial aircraft activities: William C. Mes- secar, Northern Europe; David E. Moore, Mid- dle East; James B. Mackenzie, North Pacific-Asia region; Robert J. Olivas, South Pacific-Asia region; John J. McHale, Canada and U. S. W. John Denson appointed executive vice president of Lockheed Space Operations Co., Titusville, Fla.; he was program manager of Lockheed's Shuttle Avionics Integration Lab- oratory activities in Houston, Tex. H. Bard Allison named executive director of the C-5/C- 141 programs at Lockheed-Georgia Co., Mari- etta, Ga.; Carroll Dallas succeeds Allison as director of engineering. Also: James A. Neilson appointed director of the C-5B program, and C. P. Settlemyer appointed director of the C- 5A program. R. A. Meadows succeeds Settle- myer as the C-141 program director. Raymond P. LeCann elected vice president of Europe/Middle East region for Grumman International, Inc., a subsidiary of Grumman Corp., based in Paris. James M. Burns named program marketing director-Data Link 700 system for Collins Air Transport, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, a division of Rockwell International Corp., and George A. Cobley named technical director for Data Link. Honors and Elections Frederick R. Einsidler, president and chief executive officer of Butler International, Inc., has been elected president of the Wings Club, New York, N. Y., succeeding Harry B. Combs, vice chairman of Gates Learjet Corp. Einsidler is vice chairman and chief executive officer of Butler Aviation International and chairman and chief executive officer of Butler Service Group, and of International Transport. Robert J. Schliekelmann, head of Fokker's Technological Center, has received the annual Certificate of Honor Award from the Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering for his contributions to advances in nondestructive testing of metal bonding and for work in composite components in aerospace. Soviet heavy space shuttle orbiter sighted by U. S. reconnaissance space- craft closely resembles the double delta winged NASA orbiter and not the sharply swept wing configuration presented by Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger's report on Soviet military power (AW&ST Mar. 14, p. 257). The main engines for the Soviet heavy shuttle will be mounted on the vehicle's external tank, not in the orbiter tail as in the U. S. design. All of the Soviet heavy shuttle's engines are expected to be liquid fueled, with none of the engines reusable since both the strap-on boosters and external tank are expendable. Update program for the French navy/Dassault-Breguet Alize maritime patrol/antisubmarine warfare aircraft will be completed this year. The turboprop-powered aircraft is being fitted with Thomson-CSF's Iguane radar to improve its search capabilities and enhance its ability to locate small targets and semisubmerged submarines (Aw&ST Sept. 1, 1980, p. 223). French navy Alizes are operated from land bases and from France's two aircraft carriers (AW&ST Oct. 13, 1980, p. 67). Westland Helicopters plans to test-fire several Rockwell International Hellfire antitank missiles from a Lynx helicopter later this year. The helicopter is a company-owned demonstrator with civil registration that is being used in the development of the Lynx 3 helicopter gunship (AW&ST Aug. 2; 1982, p. 21; July 12, 1982, p. 56). Hellfire will be one of three antiarmor weapons offered with the Lynx 3, in addition to the Hughes TOW and Euromissile HOT. U. S. Air Force in Europe is recommending that in-shelter refueling sys- tems be made the NATO-wide standard. Such a system uses a buried pipeline loop to each shelter to replace trucks refueling combat aircraft, reducing exposure to attack and dependence on an aging truck fleet. A prototype system is in operation in four shelters at Spandahlem AB, Germany. Japan is planning to purchase from the U. S. a $17.5-million block of replacement parts for the McDonnell Douglas/Mitsubishi Nike-J surface- to-air missile. That nation's Air Self-Defense Force has received notification from the U. S. Army that orders received this year will be filled in 1985, and no requests will be accepted after 1986. The Japanese service predicts the replacement parts will keep its six Nike-J groups in service for 10 more years. Naval Training Equipment Center is expected to move from the Naval Training Center in Orlando either to the Herndon Airport or to the Central Florida Research Park, a 1,400-acre facility affiliated with the University of Central Florida. Orange County has offered to give the Navy 40 acres of research park land if it locates at the park. A decision is expected before summer. U. S. Air Force will handle qualification for the Norwegian air force of the Kongsberg Vaapenfabrikk Penguin Mk. 3 antishipping missile on a General Dynamics F-16 at Edwards AFB, Calif., starting Apr. 1, and at Eglin AFB, Fla., next month. The Norwegian government will compensate the U. S. for test costs. International Trade Commission is studying the effects of increasing appli- cation of robotics in aircraft production on product competitiveness in domestic and international markets. Industry contributions to the study are due Aug. 12. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 19 R TP Missile Defense Shuttle Cost Pact Defense Sharing Three-Star Critic Washington Roundup President Ronald Reagan's call for a research and development effort in directed energy and other ballistic missile defense technologies is identical to one by Presidential Science Adviser George A. Keyworth in 1981 for a national task force to coordinate laser research (Aw&sT July 27, 1981, p. 26). White House officials said the new effort, which will take several months and has no new funding at the moment, will be conducted on a multiagency level to "define" the. directed energy program for lasers, microwave devices, particle beams and projectiles. Keyworth said in 1981 that the Reagan Administration must bring in various parties and perspectives to a national task force effort. Directed-energy weapons programs, Keyworth said at the time, are excessively diverse, lack desirable cross communications between programs and are too oriented toward systems development at the expense of basic research. U. S. Air Force and National Aeronautics and Space Administration have negotiated a $13.8-million increase to the price Defense Dept. will pay for the use of shuttle on dedicated military space flights. The previous USAF dedicated shuttle flight price was $16 million in Fiscal 1975 dollars and the new charge will be $29.8 million. Under the new formula going into effect after 1985, Defense Dept. will pay the same price for a shuttle launch as commercial users for equivalent service, excluding manpower charges that will be traded between NASA and USAF. Final request for proposals in the Air Force's program to lease more than 120 corporate type aircraft for operational support missions will have few changes from the draft request (Aw&sT Feb. 28, p. 16). However, a snag was introduced into the program to replace the Rockwell International CT-39 by Senate Appropriations defense subcom- mittee chairman Sen. Ted Stevens (R.-Alaska). Stevens is concerned over leasing costs and wants to delay the RFP for more details. Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens, lately Israel's ambassador to the United States, has moved quickly to eliminate one trouble spot left by Ariel Sharon-sharing with the U. S. Israeli techniques used against Soviet missiles in the Bekaa Valley. This followed shortly after Arens huddled with Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger (Aw&ST Feb. 21, p. 13). Weinberger last week sent to Congress a notification of a proposal to sell Israel 200 Raytheon/Ford Aerospace AIM-9L air-to-air missiles. Meetings on technology transfer problems involving the Israel Aircraft Industries Lavi fighter also have started in the Pentagon. The President's Commission on Strategic Forces tentatively has decided to recommend deploying 100 MX intercontinental missiles in reinforced Minuteman silos and building a small, 30,000-lb. single-warhead ICBM with mobile capability (Aw&sT Jan. 31, p. 15). The Commission has written a draft report that will contain no radical proposals, a senior Administration official said. It also will recommend no change in strategic aircraft programs, the official said, "sticking with the whole package of B-1, Stealth and so on." U. S. arms negotiator Ambassador Edward L. Rowney may have retired as an Army three-star general, but his memos in his new diplomatic role are undiplomatically crusty. In a "talking points" memo to Kenneth Adelman, the much embattled presidential nominee to head State Dept.'s Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Rowney said: "ACDA needs serious redirection-is drifting, ... the personnel system has degenerated ... ACDA needlessly top-heavy-extra deputy directors in bureaus, deadwood near the top . . . ACDA could get hopelessly embroiled in Soviet compliance issues, detracting from active negotiations President wants ... ACDA an ill-managed agency with many dubious expenditures and wrong personnel." As for people, Rowney was equally blunt such as "fire or send back to State many of the problems"; or "the Cadillac of the bureaus"; or "knowledgeable, smart but never produces on requests or promises"; or "questionable, nit-picker"; or "smart, fast, left- leaning, watch him carefully"; or "the best, want him as my permanent [job title deleted] in Geneva." Not even the secretaries escaped ("incompetent, lazy ..."). Row- ney suggested using the State secretarial pool. -Washington Staff Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 13 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 1? IR ule NASA Sets Medical Privacy R New policy would prevent disclosure of symptoms shown by astronauts unless they alter conduct of the mission By Craig Covault Washington-The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is instituting a new astronaut medical privacy policy un- der which symptoms such as motion sick- ness will not be disclosed publicly unless they force changes in mission milestones or objectives. The policy will be effective with shuttle Mission 6. In the event symptoms, such as motion sickness caused by adaption to zero-g, do affect the mission plan and are disclosed, NASA will not discuss the symptoms in detail so as to retain some medical privacy for the crewman involved. Following detailed public discussion of the motion sickness symptoms experi- enced by two Mission 5 astronauts last November, NASA legal personnel ques- tioned whether the agency had violated the Federal Privacy Act by such discus- sion of crew symptoms (Aw&ST Dec. 6, 1982, p. 27). No formal judgment was made whether the Mission 5 motion sickness discussions violated the act, but the new policy has been written to fulfill Federal Privacy Act provisions in the 'future. Mission Planning NASA believes any crew symptoms such as vomiting, headaches or a feeling of malaise that occur but are not severe enough to alter mission planning should remain private on grounds of medical eth- ics and the Privacy Act. Symptoms that do result in changes to mission perfor- mance, however, can be covered by the Freedom of Information Act and will be summarized by NASA management. The names of crewmen whose symp- toms are involved in mission planning changes will probably be discussed. The plan is for NASA to treat the oc- currence of symptoms not affecting mis- sion operations as scientific data that will be totaled and made public every five or six flights as statistical information. The new medical privacy policy was carried in the Federal Register, and NASA encountered no opposition to it following its publication, according to Dr. Arnauld Nicogossian, chief of Medical Operations for NASA's Life Sciences Div. Dr. Sam L. Pool, chief of the Medical Sciences Div. of Johnson Space Center, said, "Clearly the way the new standard was written and published, it says those matters which do not affect the mission are private unless there is a fairly high probability that whatever we saw would affect the flight." The detailed public discussion of mo- tion sickness symptoms has angered many astronauts, who believe if they become motion sick their chances for future crew assignments are reduced, even though most symptoms experienced by shuttle crews have not seriously reduced crew performance. Detailed public discussion of symptoms during Mission 5 also caused concern among U. S. Air Force reconnaissance sat- ellite managers, who feared symptoms could affect crew performance in deploy- ing reconnaissance spacecraft during the first orbit after launch from Vandenberg AFB, Calif. That quick deployment op- tion, if ever exercised, would avoid the orbiter's overflight of the Soviet Union prior to landing after one orbit. NASA management had to explain to USAF managers that motion sickness nor- mally does not affect crewmen that early in flight and, when it does occur, is mild One privacy policy option raised by Johnson Space Center but later rejected would have assigned essentially a single descriptive term to increasingly severe symptoms. A crewman having such symp- toms would have been characterized as falling under a particular class of symp- Satcom 3 Debris Colorado Springs, Colo.-U. S. Air Force Space Command's ground-based electro- optical deep space surveillance system (GEODSS) station at Socorro, N. M., has found debris in deep space that may be the RCA Satcom 3 lost during apogee kick motor firing Dec. 10, 1979. The spacecraft's loss has been attribut- ed to a likely apogee kick motor explosion or other apogee motor malfunction (Aw&sT Dec. 17, 1979, p. 23). The GEODSS debris discovery data were passed to the MIT Lincoln Laborato- ry's Millstone Hill deep space tracking cen- ter, Westford, Mass., for correlation, and it was able to acquire the debris via radar. Space Command managers have not yet been able to confirm that the debris is from Satcom 3, but they believe that is the most likely explanation. Following loss of Satcom 3, RCA's insur- ance brokers, Marsh & McLennan, se- cured a $77-million settlement from aerospace insurance underwriters. Dis- covery of the debris will not affect the settlement. tom, but no specific details would have been given out other than those explaining in general the type of symptoms that could be present under each class. In addition to the new policy, NASA has decided not to schedule private medi- cal conferences in the flight plan. The crews in space or the flight control team will now use a private medical conference only if one side or the other requests it. If a crewman is experiencing mild symptoms related to zero-g adaptation that are not affecting performance, the astronaut need not discuss them with the ground over the air-to-ground loop and can wait to discuss them with medical personnel after the mission ends. NASA also will stress use of physicians being carried on some flights for medical re- search purposes. Medical doctors in the astronaut office have joked for some time the way to do away with private medical conferences on the air-to-ground loop is to fly more doctors in space. Hands-On Research Physicians assigned to flights, as is the case on Missions 6-8, have been selected for hands-on research, but NASA is now stressing their value for offering on-the- spot medical advice as a space-based house call. Following the public discussion of the Mission 5 crew symptoms, Mission 6 com- mander Paul J. Weitz and other members of his crew said they did not want their medical condition in flight discussed pub- licly. NASA physicians agree from a med- ical ethics standpoint this should be the case, but they also recognize the mission performance aspects of the issue. "I hope what we have now will satisfy the require- ment for privacy and the need for knowl- edge on crew condition," Pool said. NASA recently received Reagan Ad- ministration approval to initiate a five- year, $51.4-million program to research space motion sickness factors, now char- acterized as "space adaptation syndrome" by the agency. NASA received $2 million in its Fiscal 1984 budget request to initiate the effort (AW&ST Dec. 13, 1982, p. 16). "A solution to this problem is essen- tial," NASA told Office of Management and Budget in seeking the $51.4-million program. "The effort will be constructed with goals and milestones leading to im- plementation in the late 1980s of definitive techniques that will mitigate the effects of space motion sickness." A more focused in-flight research pro- gram for such studies will begin with Mis- sions 7 and 8, to which mission specialist astronaut physicians recently were added. Mission 6 next week also carries simple 14 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Soviets Recover Spaceplane in Indian Ocean Soviet winged spacecraft designed as a subscale version of a future manned spaceplane floats in the Indian Ocean Mar. 15 as two Russians in a raft assist in recovery operations. The vehicle has lifting body/blended wing characteristics with the wings (A) slanted sharply upward. A small vertical stabilizer (B) rises from the aft mid fuselage. A large cone (C) about 8 ft. tall rises from the forward fuselage. This cone is reported to be a recovery aid to assist Soviet forces in locating the spacecraft, which rides low in the water following a parachute landing. The brightly polished nose cap (D) could be a Q-ball that sensed dynamic pressure as the vehicle flew a wingborne reentry. The vehicle is identical to a similar spacecraft launched June 3, 1982 (Aw&sT June 21, 1982, p. 16). Both vehicles were launched from experiments, some carried earlier on Mis- sion 5, to research the body's adaptation to zero-g and to study factors associated with multiple crewman living in the orbit- er for several days. Activities to be carried out in space next week include: ^ Predictive test validation-The re- sults of ground-based tests to help deter- mine motion sickness susceptibility will be compared with each crewman's reaction once in zero-g. ^ Head and' eye motion studies-One crewman will wear electrodes to record eye movements during both launch and reentry to acquire data on some nervous system responses occurring immediately at the onset of zero-g and their dissipation during reentry into the gravity field. Kapustin Yar on SL-8 boosters derived from the SS-5 intermediate- range ballistic missile. Also during both tests the 2,000-lb. spacecraft flew 1.5 Earth revolutions before using a retrorocket system to achieve a reentry into an Indian Ocean recovery area about 300 naut. mi. south of the Cocos Islands. The photograph was taken by the crew of a Royal Australian Air Force aircraft shadowing the seven-ship Soviet recovery fleet. In the spaceplane's larger manned configura- tion, the vehicle is expected to be launched on an expendable booster for space station resupply or quick response manned military mis- sions. The spaceplane development is different from Soviet develop- ment of a heavy space shuttle vehicle similar to the U. S. space shuttle (Aw&sT Mar. 14, p. 255). (Wide World) ^ Head and eye tracking tasks- Elec- trodes will be used to record how the eyes track a small ball suspended from the head. The objective is to see how zero-g shifts the threshold of such capability by each subject. ^ Body fluid shift-Photography of the faces of the crew in orbit will be com- pared with those made on Earth to assess the amount of extra fluid moving to the upper portion of the body. The fluid shift tends to make the face puffy in zero-g conditions. ^ Near vision studies-Eye tests to read fine print up close will help assess how much the fluid shift may affect vision. ^ Hearing tests-Crewmen wearing a headset will indicate when they can hear tones at different frequencies so this can be compared with similar tests made on earth when zero-gravity was not a factor. ^ Cardiovascular deconditioning coun- termeasures-Four hours prior to reentry, each crewman will consume liquids and salts in order to reestablish a more Earth- like cardiovascular chemical condition. The human body typically expels about 10% of bodily water after several hours in zero-g. In addition to these life sciences tests, a medical restraint system that could secure a person on whom cardiopulmonary resus- citation had to be performed in zero-g will be demonstrated. Noise measurements and cabin atmo- sphere samples also will be taken to obtain baselines on the new orbiter Challenger in flight. ^ Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 111 . 10 Shuttle Payloads ~aSe Protected on Pad By Edward H. Kolcum Kennedy Space Center-National Aero- nautics and Space Administration has de- vised a new set of procedures and hardware modifications designed to keep shuttle payloads clean while they are on the launch pad to prevent a recurrence of the contamination of the Mission 6 pay- load that caused a delay in its launch. Some of the corrective actions have been taken, 'and several hardware modifi- cations will be made after the next flight is launched, which is scheduled for 1:30 p. m. EST Apr. 4. The launch will be preceded by a 93-hr. countdown with an additional 26 hr. 30 min. of built-in holds. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) payload for this mission has been vacuumed and brushed to the same level of cleanliness it had before it was dusted with contamination during a storm Feb. 27-28, according to John Love- lace of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Lovelace is TDRSS mission-inte- gration manager. Alfred D. O'Hara, director of launch and landing operations, said he feels com- fortable with the Apr. 4 launch date. The schedule will enable most workmen here to be given a holiday Easter Sunday be- cause a 24-hr. 10-min. hold will go into effect at midnight Saturday, Apr. 2. James A. Kelley, chairman of the shut- tle countdown working group, said that because of the brief launch window, only one launch attempt can be made each day. He and Robert B. Sieck, shuttle chief en- gineer, said the vehicle could be recycled for a daily launch, but if the launch does not take place by Apr. 6, a delay of about three days would result. "The inertial upper stage would become the driver at that point," Sieck said. It would be necessary to reopen the payload bay doors to recharge the battery in the Boeing IUS and realign the inertial mea- surement unit in this stage. Administration Plans Boost in Aid to Greece Washington-The Reagan Administration last week changed its position on military aid to Greece, saying it would allocate an additional $220 million in guaranteed loans to the Greek government if the two nations reach "a satisfactory agreement" in current negotiations on preserving U. S. military bases in Greece. In its original Fiscal 1984 foreign military aid request, the Administration recommend- ed no Greek aid increase above the Fiscal 1983 level of $280 million in Foreign Military Sales (FMS) guaranteed loans. At the same time, the President proposed sizable aid increases to Turkey, rekindling congressional concerns about the long-standing conflict between Greece and Turkey over Turkish occupation of the island of Cyprus (Aw&sT Mar. 21, P. 86). Members of Congress feared the Administration's actions might be interpreted by Greek leaders as a political insult and might prompt them to break off military base talks begun last October. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee's ranking member, Sen. Claiborne Pell (D.-R. I.), criticized the Administration for imprudent timing and bad judgment. In a letter last week to congressional leaders, the State Dept. said the aid boost to Greece would be allocated "only after the United States has achieved a satisfactory agreement with Greece in the current negotiations with respect to access to and use of military facilities in that country by United States forces. "To make this intention clear to all parties," the letter continued, the Administration wants the condition made a requirement of law. To that end, the State Dept. set forth amendment language stating that the extra aid could be made available "only if the President certifies and reports to Congress" that a base agreement is achieved. According to the Defense Dept., Greece's planned military purchases include: ^ Attack helicopters. ^ Combat and maritime patrol aircraft. ^ Portable and guided missile systems. ^ Tank and armored personnel carrier conversion kits and antitank weapons. ^ Land and sea communications and radar equipment. A House Foreign Affairs Committee staff aide said last week the committee probably will draft a two-year foreign aid bill this year, as it tried to do two years ago over Administration objections. "This time the Administration is a little more prepared for it and I think reconciled to it," she said. Congress failed to adopt a foreign aid bill for Fiscal 1983 and funded the program through a catch-all continuing resolution. The aide enumerated several advantages to a two-year bill. It permits more continuity in foreign policy and easier planning, she said. "Frankly, members would rather take a foreign aid bill to the floor in a nonelection year," she said, because the program is traditionally politically unpopular. Annual foreign aid bills are time consuming. "There's some feeling that we could do our oversight better if we weren't so caught up in marking up the foreign aid bill for the first half of every year." Countdown Changes Kelley said these are the other changes in the coming countdown from the one used for the fifth shuttle mission that was launched Nov. 11 (AW&sT Nov. 15, 1982, p. 18): ^ Launch window. The window was open 40 min. for Mission 5 and will be open 17 min. 30 sec. for Mission 6 if it is launched Apr. 4. It increases by about 6 sec. daily after that date. Astronaut USAF Maj. Ronald J. Graybe will go to Dakar, Senegal, to fly approaches at the runway there to assess lighting conditions after sunset. Dakar is the transatlantic abort site, and a determination will be made if visibility is such that the window could remain open longer so that a land- ing could be made there after sunset. Kel- ley said the formal countdown will not include a longer window opening, but a decision on extending it could be made on launch day, if necessary. O'Hara said there is a possibility that the window could be extended by as much as 15 min. ^ Hold duration. It was decided to combine and extend all but the terminal count holds to reduce the size of the sta- tion-keeping crew on Easter Sunday. ^ Payload bay doors. They were closed prior to the call to stations, which signi- fies the start of the launch countdown, in Mission 5. They will remain open until after cargo closeout in Mission 6 because it is necessary to have access to, the TDRSS battery to apply a trickle charge until about 83 hr. before launch. ^ Liquid oxygen hold time after drain back has been increased to 10 min. from 6 min. and is an operation that is performed after replenishment has stabilized. The in- crease was made after evaluating the flight mission margin. There was concern before Mission 5 over the temperature of the liquid oxygen because of the removal of the anti-geyser line in the external tank (Aw&sT Nov. 1, 1982, p.. 19). However, Sieck said the concern now is more over the proper propellant mixture and deter- mining the minimum excess hydrogen that will be carried. Kelley said that be- tween 1,000 and 1,100 lb. of liquid oxygen is drained back each minute. 16 Aviation Week & Space Technoloqy, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 R ^ IUS hold time, which was not a con- sideration in Mission 5, is 13 min. after the redundant inertial measurement unit is put into its flight mode at T -5 min. 30 sec. The final countdown documentation was completed Mar. 23 when it was decid- ed to include an extra hour of hold in the terminal countdown. This period, which begins at 1:10 a. in. Apr. 4, will have 2 hr. 20 min. of holds. Edwin C. Johnson, Jr., O'Hara's techni- cal assistant, said NASA and its contrac- tors have developed these near-term anticontamination corrective actions: ^ Holes around seals at the orbiter and payload changeout room interface and around doors have been closed. ^ Access has been restricted to the pay- load ground handling mechanism levels above the spacecraft. , ^ A cover was installed under the plat- form above the spacecraft. ^ The payload changeout room was wiped down and vacuumed. ^ A daily cleaning routine was estab- lished in the payload changeout room. ^ Tacky mats were installed at highly traveled locations. ^ Workmen must wear booties. ^ The most aft orbiter bulkhead will be used as a control area and monitor to measure contamination in the payload bay. ^ White room rules are reinforced by newly posted signs. ^ Hypergol spill fan switches, which were inadvertently activated pouring out- side air into the payload changeout room, have been modified. Alarms and lights will be installed to detect activation of these fans. ^ A debris shield has been installed be- German Pilot Training Training program for West German pilots at Luke AFB, Ariz., under the mutual de- fense assistance agreement with the Fed- eral Republic of Germany, has been concluded after more than 25 years of operation. German air force and navy pilots have been trained in German-owned Lockheed F-104 Starfighters for the past 19 years of the program, with peak activity during 1968 when the training activities included a fleet of more than 100 F-104s. The Starfighters were maintained under con- tract by civilian employees of Lockheed Aircraft Service Co. The company's services included flight- line activities, airframe inspections and re- pair, avionics maintenance and update, and engine inspection and replacement. Nearly 2,000 pilots, instructor pilots, fighter weapons instructors and advanced fighter pilots have been trained in the pro- gram during its F-104 operations. Comsat Nomination Washington-Shareholders of Communi- cations Satellite Corp. will elect Joseph V. Charyk chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the corporation at its annual meeting May 20. John D. Harper, Comsat's current chair- man, nominated Charyk at the corpora- tion's Mar. 18 board meeting. He will retire as chairman following the annual meeting. Irving Goldstein will succeed Charyk as president. Goldstein now is executive vice presi- dent of Comsat and formerly was presi- dent of Satellite Television Corp., Comsat's satellite direct-broadcast sub- sidiary. Harper will remain a member of the Comsat board. F weather, the seal between the payload changeout room and orbiter, lack of daily cleaning, heavy traffic, activation of the hypergol spill fans and inadequate sensi- tivity to clean room operations. Johnson said that after Mission 6 is launched, Kennedy plans a number of modifications that will insure payloads are clean. Among these modifications are the evaluation of payload debris shields- blankets or covers-that will be used on the pad. Other changes in hardware or procedures are: ^ The payload changeout room door seal pressure will be increased and the seal design will be analyzed. Winds during the February storm reached a peak velocity of 57 kt., and the orbiter moved an estimated 9 in., allowing the contaminants to penen- trate the seal between the payload bay and changeout room. ^ The forward reaction control system room will be protected from weather. r Paint chip producing surfaces and particle traps will be eliminated. ^ Room static pressure will be in- creased. ^ Covers will be installed under all ex- tendable platforms. ^ A cleanliness management system will go into effect. It will include laser particle counters for remote readout in the launch control center. ^ Pad flow time and payload stay time in the payload changeout room will be decreased. ^ A contamination control plan will be developed io see how the facility is main- tained and verified clean. It will provide the user with cleanliness-level data. ^ tween. the spacecraft and orbiter during use of a work platform for payload bay cleaning. is The upper payload changeout room seal for the orbiter window can no longer be moved until payload bay doors are shut. ^ Technicians and other operational personnel have been sensitized to the con- tamination problem. Johnson said the initial sample from the TDRSS indicated that the contamination consisted primarily of hydrated silica, typical of the products from the white thermal protection system tile and Ludox tile densification material. Particle Sources Among the possible sources are materi- al from tile repair work in the forward reaction control system area directly above the payload changeout room. Parti- cles also could come from under the pay- load bay liner from orbiter processing facility tile work when a fuel cell was replaced. A third potential source was tiles along the side of the orbiter that came in con- Other types of contamination found, Johnson said, were metal chips, mostly aluminum and some steel, salt, sand, rust, man-made fibers, steel weld beads, zinc- rich paint and titanium-rich spheres of, acrylic spray paint. Johnson said that prior to the TDRSS cleaning, the orbiter radiators were wiped and contamination did not include hydrat- ed silica. Substances found were calcium- rich particles, sand, a talc-like substance, zinc-rich paint, steel weld beads and alu- minum-rich corrosion products, which was residue from previous solid rocket motor firings. Factors that contributed to the TDRSS contamination problem, Johnson said, in- cluded the long duration of the spacecraft ig the payload changeout room, severe AW&ST Telephones Washington-New telephone numbers as- signed to the Washington Bureau of AVIA- TION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY will become effective Monday, Mar. 28, replacing the present (202) 624-7575 main number and individual editor extensions. New main number is (202) 463-1770. Individual extensions are preceded by (202) 463 and are assigned as follows: William H. Gregory, editor-in-chief, 1776; Herbert J. Coleman, managing edi- tor-bureaus, 1775; Philip J. Klass, senior avionics editor, 1786; Clarence A. Robin- son, Jr., senior military editor,. 1787; James Ott, transport editor, 1781; Eu- gene Kozicharow, transport editor, 1785; J. Michael Hoeferlin, military editor, 1789; Craig Covault, space technology editor, 1782; David M. North, business flying editor, 1784; J. Woods Hansen, news editor, 1779; Jay C. Lowndes, engi- neering editor, 1783; Alton K. Marsh, con- gressional editor, 1780; Paul Mann, congressional editor, 1788. Telex number remains RCA Internation- al 248437. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 4 'A~ r Y l 8'4 MILL1.UN S Ut- UULLAKS 1400 00 Comet HMP Rendezvous - 90 Mariner Mk II Missions Overall Core Program Funding Resiliency Venus 1200 Radar. M M lier ars G/ C 0rhiter International Missio ortunity ns of Op - 90 p ~p 'I Planetary Observer Missions Line Item "100 A al d D i M O ?a s , ata tio1 an n ys ission lel s s 90.s 92 'ISCAL YEAR' Solar System Exploration Committee's recommended planetary science program strategy would utilize low-cost spacecraft at $300-million annual funding level to attain a stabilized series of missions, rather than the abrupt peaks and valleys of previous funding, as illustrated above. Farsighted Planning Urged For Study of Solar System Houston-Current satellite technology could accommodate a large segment of scientific exploration requirements at rela- tively low cost, easing budget pressures on National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- tration, according to David Morrison, chairman of the Solar System Exploration Committee. The committee was formed by NASA in 1980 with a panel of personnel from U. S. universities, NASA centers and sev- eral aerospace companies to devise a new approach to implementation of a 20-year space science program. Morrison described a "core program" for a long-term mission strategy for solar system exploration, aimed at identifying an affordable approach, to a lunar and planetary science conference here at NASA's Johnson Space Center. This core planetary exploration pro- gram has been studied by NASA, briefed to members of Congress and received fa- vorable response, Morrison said. He said previous approaches to plane- tary science space programs have demon- strated that because of the multiple objectives they sought to achieve on each mission, they pushed the technical state of the art and became too expensive, strain- ing NASA's ability to obtain funding. As a result, planetary. science programs have suffered heavily from "peaks and valleys funding," resulting in erratic space exploration that has frustrated NASA and the science community, he said. The study by the Solar System Explora- tion Committee has recommended an ap- proach cognizant of the agency's funding problems and aimed at providing stability to planetary missions. "We must break our goals into smaller pieces that are more efficient to operate," Morrison said. "Let's try to focus science on particular objectives and not do every- thing at once. There are some things we know how to do well-flybys, orbiters, entry probes. With shuttle and the Cen- taur upper stage we have a fine vehicle, so let's exploit them and not worry about new technology." To translate this philosophy into mis- sions, the Solar System Exploration Com- mittee has developed a core program utilizing "planetary observers," which would entail a series of missions using derivatives of existing Earth orbital space- craft. This program could sustain a series of high-priority science missions at a sus- tained level of about $300 million annual- ly in 1984 dollars, the committee estimates. The group is proposing a series of rela- tively inexpensive missions using this tech- nology: ^ Mars orbiter, using a derivative of a commercial Earth satellite, placed in low circular polar orbit to carry out two pri- mary mission objectives-map the surface composition of the planet with infrared, gamma ray and X-ray instruments, and study the Mars climate, in particular the exchange of volatiles, primarily water and carbon dioxide between the polar caps. Launch date would be in 1990, with antic- ipated operation to 1993. ^ Comet rendezvous, using a so-called Mariner Mk. 2 spacecraft to match orbits with a short-period comet and do a de- tailed study of the nucleus and, by con- tinuing to fly along with it on its way to and beyond the Sun, continuing to study its evolution. The spacecraft would return with plasmatized dust samples. ^ Titan flyby with probe to follow up Voyager discoveries. One of the most exciting Voyager discoveries was the complexity of the. Titan atmosphere, dom- inated by nitrogen, with organic processes taking place that are believed to be an 18 - Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 analog of the prebiotic state of Earth, Morrison said. Other planetary observer missions con- sidered in the committee's recommenda- tions to NASA include first visits to near-Earth asteroids and initial character- ization of main belt asteroids. . The missions would include several fly- bys of varied types and detailed orbital studies of two large asteroids, in-depth exploration of the Jovian and Saturnian systems of satellites, rings and magneto- spheres to permit comparative studies, probes to do direct analyses of the atmos- pheres of. Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus and a flyby of Uranus, its rings and satellites, according to the committee. Global mapping of the lunar geochemis- try, including a search for polar reservoirs of ice, also would be included in this se- ries, which could be accomplished by the year 2000 under a core program, the com- mittee said. For observation of the outer planets, some comets and asteroids, it would be necessary to build specialized spacecraft, but the philosophy would be to utilize a modular approach, emphasize simplified, lightweight construction and ground sup- port systems readily configured to meet new mission requirements. These would be the task of the Mariner Mk. 2 spacecraft, which would implement the recommended initial series of missions .Utilizing modified Earth orbital configura- tions. Jet Propulsion Laboratory is con- ducting pre-Phase A studies of the simplified modular spacecraft, Morrison said. The committee's recommendations in- clude the Venus radar mapper spacecraft, included in NASA's Fiscal 1984 budget as a new start, as a high-priority project in the core program. The committee's support of the Venus radar mapper was a key factor in NASA's decision to include it as a new start in its Navy Evaluating French Transmitters Paris-U. S. Navy is considering purchase of French-built infrared transmitter/receiver units for use in alignment of inertial navigation systems on carrier-based aircraft prior to launch. A Navy decision on trial acquisition and test of Telemir infrared units from France's Societe Anonyme de Telecommunications (SAT) could be made during the first half of the year. Grumman Aerospace Corp. would team with SAT to handle repackaging of the French .company's off-the-shelf equipment for the Navy application. This work would be coordi- nated through Grumman's Great River Operations in New York state. The equipment would be used in a Navy test and evaluation program. Successful operation of the Telemir could lead to a Navy purchase of systems for its carrier-based aircraft that are equipped with the service's Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System. These include the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18, Grumman F-14 and Grumman E-6. Telemir would perform the functions now done by the Navy's electromagnetic inertial navigation alignment systems on board the carriers. The alignment process is carried out to, update positioning information in the aircraft's computer before takeoff. An advantage of Telemir is its ability to limit coverage area to the carrier's immediate vicinity. This makes it difficult for hostile receivers to detect the data transmissions and locate the vessel. Signals from the Navy's current transmitters can be detected over the The Telemir receiver is a small device resembling an anticollision light. It contains an optical head that receives the infrared optical carrier from one of several Telemir transmitters positioned on the vessel. The alignment data are transmitted in encoded form over noncoherent directional infrared channels. Telemir has been operational on French navy aircraft carriers since 1978. The receivers are carried by Dassault-Breguet Super Etendard fighters, which are assigned nuclear and conventional attack duties in the French navy. Complete coverage of the deck area on French carriers is provided by four Telemir transmitters. U. S. carriers are larger than French vessels, and additional transmitters are expected to be required to provide total deck coverage. Fiscal 1984 budget, according to Dr. Geoffrey A. Briggs, deputy director, Earth and Planetary Div., NASA head- quarters. Briggs also is executive director of the Solar System Exploration Commit- tee. "The science community, through the Solar System Exploration Committee, has put together the planetary exploration pri- orities in a very clear way and has made the whole program ' credible to NASA, whereas a few years ago there was doubt Test Clears New Shuttle Solid Motor for Use Washington-Morton Thiokol, Inc., space shuttle high-performance solid rocket motor successfully completed a qualification firing at Wasatch, Utah, Mar. 21, clearing the design for use starting on shuttle Mission 8. An additional 3,000 lb. of shuttle payload can be carried with the increased performance of the motor. A key aspect of the test was the ability of Morton Thiokol to predict precisely the motor's burn rate prior to the test, an issue, in planning individual shuttle ascent trajectories. The company predicted the motor fired Mar. 21 would have a burn rate of 0.368 in./sec., and early test data show the actual burn rate was precisely as predicted. Greater motor performance was achieved by increasing the length of the nozzle exit cone by 10 in., which in. turn increased nozzle diameter by 4 in. Other factors increasing performance were use of additional iron oxide in the propellant compared with standard motors, increasing propellant surface available for burning by removal of inhibitor material and slightly increasing propellant load as a result of thinner case walls used in the lightweight cases for the high-performance motor. Nozzle throat diameter at the nozzle/motor interface also was sightly less than the standard motor, Total motor impulse achieved was 298.4 million lb.-sec. With a specific impulse of 268 sec. compared with standard shuttle motors that provide 294 million lb.-sec. of total impulse and 265.5 sec. of specific impulse. that the community had thought through its priorities and considered NASA bud- get constraints," the space agency official said. The agency has given high priority to developing a series of low-cost planetary missions, utilizing simple modular space- craft, which will require some technology development toward the end of the de- cade, he said. Another issue the space agency will have to consider in the next year is a proposal to take a modified version of the Galileo mission spacecraft and send it to Saturn as an orbiter with a probe, Briggs said. NASA has come to the conclusion that the agency cannot undertake this program in the near term because the cost would preclude the beginning of other high-pri- ority missions. There is an opportunity to take care of the Galileo program, and the Solar Sys- tem Exploration Committee has recom- mended that NASA maintain such an option. This would involve acquiring more spare parts for the Galileo orbiter and building another orbiter, but not a probe. The agency is attempting to collaborate with European partners on such a project, whereby they would build the probe, Briggs said. NASA plans to include such a project in its next budget, he said. ^ Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Boeing Converts Former Airline 707-320 Transport to Tanker Former Trans World Airlines Boeing 707-320, converted by Boeing Military Airplane Co., Wichita, Kan., to a tanker, is shown during initial flight tests to evaluate centerline hose and drogue refueling system. It is being fitted with wingtip-mounted hose and drogue pods for three- point refueling. This is a company-funded program to evaluate the 0 world market for conversion of surplus 707-320 transports to mili- tary tanker-transports (Aw&sT Dec. 13, 1982, p. 87). This demon- strator, which has been given a red, white and blue paint scheme following initial flights, will be displayed at the Paris air show May 26- June 5 and subsequently will be demonstrated on a sales tour. NASA/Ames Plans 16-Leg Trip To Fly OSRA to Paris Air Show Moffett Field, Calif.-An 18-leg, 5,218- naut.-mi. flight by a two-man crew will be necessary to get the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's quiet short- haul research aircraft (QSRA) to the 1983 Paris air show for display. Officials at NASA's Ames Research Center here, where the four-engine QSRA is based, are seeking a Lockheed C-130 transport that could serve as a companion aircraft-the only obstacle remaining to the research vehicle's Paris appearance. "We are getting the spares packaged and ready to go," an Ames official said, "We are working at this end as if we are going." In other preparations, the aircraft is being flown through various air show routines, and modifications aimed at im- proving its cruise performance for the flight to Paris are being tested. Officials here, who have scoured the nation for an available C-130, said they are 90-95% certain the research aircraft will make it to the show. They believe its appearance there repre- sents a turnabout in the thinking of NASA headquarters officials that began with the display of the Bell/NASA/Army XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft at the Paris show in 1981 (Aw&ST June 15, 1981, p. 19). Prior to that, NASA management be- lieved NASA aircraft are "strictly re- search aircraft; keep them in our own backyard," an Ames official said. Largely due to the efforts of the late John Coch- rane, then QSRA program manager, NASA's management changed its think- ing for the 1981 show, but decided it could afford to send only one aircraft, and the XV-15 was chosen, he said. Boeing Will Not Display 757, 767 at Paris Boeing Co. will not display its new aircraft at the 1983 Paris air show, leaving the European Airbus Industrie consortium's pres- ence unchallenged by any U. S. large commercial air transport manufacturer despite the intense competition in the marketplace The only Boeing aircraft at the show will be a 707-320C that the Boeing Military Airplane Co. has modified as a demonstrator for a tanker/transport conversion (see photo above) the company is attempting to sell (Aw&sT Dec. 13, 1982, p. 87). It will be on static display only. Boeing's decision against displaying its new 757 and 767 transports will prevent a repeat of the confrontation with the Airbus A310 that took place at the Farnborough air show last fall (Aw&sT Sept. 13, 1982, p. 19). At that event, potential customers were given their first opportunity for what amounted to a side-by- side comparison of the A310 and the 767, which were head-to- head competitors in sales contests throughout the world. Boeing Commercial Airplane Co. officials cited budget pres- sures for the decision and because each of the new transports have been demonstrated extensively to potential customers on lengthy tours throughout the world. Boeing Commercial Airplane Co. does not plan even to be represented in the exhibition hall. However, Boeing Commercial Airplane Co. officials will be pre- sent at the corporate chalet, prepared to outline the company's response if Airbus chooses the show as a forum to announce a go- ahead on the A320 150-passenger transport. McDonnell Douglas has elected not to participate in the show, as has Lockheed, which has withdrawn from the commercial air transport market (Aw&sr Oct. 18, 1982, p. 20). Boeing Aerospace will concentrate on pushing the E-3A airborne warning and control system aircraft, which it is trying to sell to France, and the modular experimental platform for science and applications, a cooperative program with Europe's Arianespace. 20 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 In view of the boost the XV- N--has given to the joint services' advanced verti- cal lift aircraft (JVX) program, NASA management "finds it hard to ignore" that sending the XV-15 to Paris "was the best thing they could have done," he said. This new attitude was demonstrated when NASA headquarters this time initiated the plan to send the QSRA to Paris. Ames officials had wanted to send the aircraft to the 1979 show, and plans had proceeded to the point where transporta- tion on aircraft carriers had been arranged when NASA headquarters changed its mind, he said. Transportation by carrier also had been explored for the 1983 show, but the scheduling could not be arranged. The QSRA is a de Havilland of Canada C-8A Buffalo that was modified by Boeing to serve as a NASA research air- craft for demonstration of advanced high- lift technology (AW&ST Sept. 8, 1982, p. 44). It is powered by four shoulder- mounted 7,500-lb.-thrust Lycoming YF102 engines and utilizes the upper sur- face blowing (USB) concept to achieve high lift. The flight to Paris, which will roughly follow the Great Circle route, is well with- in the aircraft's capability, according to Ames' QSRA group leader, Dennis W. Riddle. "The longest stage length is 390 naut. mi., which we can achieve with plenty of reserves," he said. The QSRA is expected to cruise at 170 kt. TAS and will require a total flight time from Ames to Paris' Le. Bourget of 30.8 hr. This might be improved if current flight tests show that no unfavorable char- acteristics result from temporary removal of the outboard leading edge slat, which is fixed in the down position, Riddle said. The aircraft, which has accumulated about 400 flight hours, will be flown by Robert C. Innis and James L. Martin. The route will take it from Moffett Field to Reno, Nev., Boise, Idaho, Great Falls, Mont., and into Canada to Moose Jaw air base. From there, it would pro- ceed to The Pas, Churchill, Rankin Inlet, Coral Harbor, Frobisher and Cape Dyer before leaving Canada for Sondrestrom and Kulusuk Island, Greenland. The next stops are Keflavik and Hornafjordur, Ice- land, Vagar in the Faeroe Islands and Glasgow, Scotland. From there it will fly to Mildenhall AFB in the U. K., where it will be prepared for the show, and then flown to Le Bourget. The longest leg-390 naut. mi.-is Va- gar to Glasgow, and the longest overwater segment-385 naut. mi.-is between Ku- lusuk Island and Keflavik. The C-130, carrying ground support personnel, spares and equipment, is ex- pected to cruise at 260 kt. It will fly ahead of the QSRA, supplying weather informa- tion and landing ahead of the research aircraft to prepare for its arrival and ready it for the next leg. B-1 B Flight Tests Begin at Edwards Edwards AFB, Calif.-USAF/Rockwell International B-1 B flight test program began here last week when the second B-lA prototype, modified with several B-1B design changes, completed a 3-hr. 20-min. test mission. Among the B-1B features incorporated in the prototype aircraft were a modified flight control system, spoilers near the aircraft's new composite bomb bay doors and fixed- geometry engine air inlets. The flight was devoted to systems functional checks, handling qualities evaluations, vibration and acoustic measurements of the forward bomb bay and a simulated aerial refueling. Several test points were deleted and the flight was shortened from a planned 4-hr. mission when an engine caution light illuminated early in the mission, indicating possible high vibration levels on the No. 1 engine. As a precaution, the thrust on that engine was reduced to idle and left there for the remainder of the flight. Post-flight investigations determined the cause to be a loose wiring connection on a vibration sensor. The forward bomb bay doors were opened during the flight to measure vibration levels in the bay. New guillotine-type spoilers forward of the bomb bays are expected to improve the interior acoustic vibration levels at high-subsonic, low-altitude flight condi- tions. Aircraft handling qualities following flight control system modifications were checked during "dry" refueling contacts with a USAF/Boeing KC-135 aerial tanker and were found good, according to Lt. Col. Leroy B. Schroeder, B-1B combined test force director and copilot for the initial test flight. The evaluations included 15- and 30-deg. banks while connected to the tanker refueling boom. T. D. Benefield, senior engineering test pilot for Rockwell International's North Ameri- can Aircraft Operations, piloted the aircraft, and James A. Leasure, Rockwell flight test engineer, served as the third crewmember. The aircraft is scheduled to fly its next test flight in about two weeks, to continue handling qualities evaluations. Primary function of this aircraft will be to perform handling qualities investigations, conduct weapons carriage and separation tests, and examine several airframe flutter points. Weapon tests will include drops of Mk. 82 high-drag conventional bombs, Mk. 86 maritime warfare versions of the Mk. 82, B-61 and B-83 nuclear bombs and the short- range attack missile (SRAM). Drop tests of these weapons are expected to begin within the next three months. Target departure date is May 6, but this could slip a day or two. The show is scheduled to run May 26 through June 5. Although the QSRA is a NASA dis- play, Boeing is assisting, Riddle said. Boeing officials are helping with coordina- tion in Paris, and the QSRA will be parked next to the Boeing 707-320C tan- ker/transport demonstration aircraft, al- lowing NASA personnel to utilize Boeing support facilities. In addition, Boeing will pay the QSRA show entry fee. The QSRA has performed flying rou- tines on only two occasions and never has participated in a major air show. Ames officials are putting together a 6-min. fly- ing demonstration "that has the best visu- al impact," Riddle said. ^ Europeans Form New Satellite Organization Paris-Europe has agreed on a multinational management organization as the frame- work for a European weather satellite network, called Eumetsat. It will be responsible for overseeing the space- and ground-based elements of the satellite system during a 12- year program. Plans are being made for procurement of three new meteorological satellites and one complete set of spares. The spacecraft will be improved versions of the Meteosat satellites built by a European consortium, headed by France's Aerospatiale, and orbited in 1977 and 1981. The two satellites now in orbit are managed by the European Space Agency under its pre-operational Meteosat program. ESA will perform similar duties for the three new satellites. Cost of the European weather satellite program is estimated at $400 million. Launch of the three new Meteosats is planned for May, 1987; August, 1988, and November, 1990, on Ariane launchers. Agreement on Eumetsat as the framework for a satellite network was reached during an intergovernmental conference held last week. The meeting was attended by delega- tions of ESA's 11 member states plus Austria, Finland, Greece, Norway, Portugal and Turkey. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 a Air Force Receives First Lockheed TR-1B Los Angeles-Initial two-place trainer version of the USAF/Lock- heed TR-1 high-altitude battlefield reconnaissance aircraft-des- ignated TR-1B-has been delivered to the Air Force by Lockheed-California Co. The Air Force plans to purchase a total of 35 TR-1 aircraft, including the two trainers, which will be based with the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing at Beale AFB, Calif. The second trainer is scheduled for delivery in May. The TR-1 is built on production tooling used for the U-2R, although its primary mission will be providing reconnaissance information to tactical commanders. Two of the aircraft have been deployed to RAF Alconbury, England. The TR-1 has a second cockpit for an instructor pilot located in an elevated position in a payload section designated the Q-bay, just aft of the standard single-place cockpit. Both versions of the TR-1 aircraft have a Pratt & Whitney J75-P-13B engine, which provides a range in excess of 3,000 mi. Sensors in the aircraft's interchangeable nose, instrument wing pods and mission bay hatches enable the TR-1 to provide all- weather, day or night surveillance in support of U. S. and allied ground and air forces, according to Air Force officials. Lockheed is evaluating use of composite materials on some TR- 1 parts. Lockheed officials said testing using composite elevators appears promising, and composite elevator structures could be . introduced into the program, possibly 10 aircraft into the produc- tion run-with Air Force concurrence and funding for additional tooling. Weight savings through use of composites would be about 25% for each part, according to officials, and the reduced weight would result in added range and altitude capabilities for the aircraft. Lockheed also is evaluating composite material for use on TR-1 speed brakes, flaps and ailerons. The trainer aircraft delivered this month is the.sixth TR-1 to be built. The first TR-1, delivered to the Air Force in September, 1981, made a total of 2,980 landings and accumulated about 1,186 hr. of operation through February of this year. The 35th TR-1 is scheduled to be delivered to the Air Force in 1989 at the current rate of production. Average TR-1 unit flyaway cost is about $17.1 million, accord- ing to Air Force officials. Lockheed also built a single ER-2 Earth resources aircraft, which has the same airframe and engine as the TR-1, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The ER-2 was delivered to NASA's Ames Research Center in June, 1981. The TR-1 and ER-2 airframe is about 40% larger than the initial U-2 built by Lockheed during the 1950s. Inert MXin Canister Falls at Pad Los Angeles-A canister containing an in- ert MX missile designed to evaluate mis- sile processing systems at Vandenberg AFB, Calif., was dropped at the MX test pad while attached to its launch support stand and hit the ground, according to Air Force officials. Program officials last week were assess- ing possible damage to the canister and pathfinder missile, which were moved from the test pad area to the MX missile assembly building at the base. An investi- gation team was formed to determine the cause of the Mar. 16 incident. The missile is transported inside its cy- lindrical canister in a horizontal position to the test pad area, where the base of the canister is attached to a pivoting launch support stand. The missile and canister, which extend horizontally from the stand without supporting structural members underneath the canister, are raised to a near-vertical position by the pivoting stand in preparation for launch. The pathfinder missile and its protec- tive canister were being lowered from a near-vertical to horizontal position when a structural failure in the support stand re- sulted in the canister's falling beyond the horizontal position and striking the ground, according to Air Force officials. No injuries to personnel were reported. Air Force officials last week said the possible impact on preparations for the Protesters Arrested at Vandenberg AFB Los Angeles-Authorities arrested or detained more than 700 protesters at Vanden- berg AFB, Calif., through the middle of last week in the second demonstration at the sprawling southern California base during the past two months. The key thrust of the latest demonstration was at-the base's main gate on Mar. 21-22, although six protesters were detained outside a perimeter fence at Vandenberg's MX missile assembly building. Air Force officials said the six were monitored by helicopters while on the 100,000- acre base until they reached an area in which they could easily be taken into custody. They did not penetrate the perimeter fence of the missile assembly facility, the officials added. During a similar demonstration at the base Jan. 23-24, more than 200 persons were detained or arrested. A group of 27 protesters penetrated the north portion of the base and moved to within one mile of a Minuteman ICBM test launch facility. Both demonstra- tions were staged primarily by antinuclear weapons protesters. Vandenberg, located about 150 mi. northwest of Los Angeles, is the site for the proposed MX intercontinental ballistic missile system flight test series. planned MX flight test series at Vanden- berg had not been determined. Program officials were attempting to evaluate the extent of possible damage to the missile and canister and determine the cause of the accident. The launch support stand had been used previously to raise and lower a struc- ture. designed to simulate the weight of a missile and canister at the site. The pathfinder missile was being low- ered to a horizontal position on Mar. 16 due to bad weather when the incident occurred. The pathfinder is equipped with MX electrical interfaces so it can go through various stage processing and prelaunch ac- tivities to check ground support systems. The pathfinder process at Vandenberg is considered an important aspect of the mis- sile program because the inert stages are processed through all MX prelaunch ac- tivities ranging from receipt of the stages and components at the base to delivery of the integrated missile to the pad. The checkout process enables program officials to verify handling procedures and systems prior to the processing of a flight vehicle. Technical problems encountered last year during the pathfinder process occurred during integrated testing when missile and ground systems were connect- ed for the first time, officials said (Aw&sT Dec. 13, 1982, p. 22). The Vandenberg test pad and MX launch support stand were intended for use during the initial launches of the planned flight test series, with later test flights being conducted from a launch area representative of the basing mode for the missile system. ^ Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 ki Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R0001 00210025-3 Soviets Extending Power in Caribbean 71s and declassified by President Reagan show Soviet military power influence in the Caribbean Basin and Central America. A Sovi- et intelligence collection facility in Lourdes, Cuba, is manned by 1,500 Soviet technicians and includes a satellite ground station for communications with Moscow (above). Rea- gan said it has grown 60% in the last decade. A military airport shows MiG-23 aircraft in western Cuba (below). The President said two Soviet antisubmarine aircraft, not identified, began operating from the airport this month. tion, with Soviet financing and backing, of a 10,000-ft. runway in Grenada. The President also showed photographs of Soviet/Cuban ac- tivities in Nicaragua, published last year in AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY (Mar. 15, 1982, p. 23). (Wide World) Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 W Shu s Biological Unit Cleared For Mission After Inspection Washington-McDonnell Douglas has given its shuttle Mission 6 biological separation unit approval for flight following disassembly and inspection of the system in the orbiter Chal- lenger because of concern that lengthy launch delays may have allowed growth of harmful fungus or bacteria in the device. McDonnell Douglas technicians will begin electrophoresis-system activation this week to support the Apr. 4, 1:30 p. m. EST Mission 6 liftoff. The technicians will also begin tests of processor fluids important to manufacture of unique medicines in zero-g. National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- tration safety managers also have been as- sessing the effect of the delay on the batteries used to activate the U. S. Air Force Academy and Japanese Getaway Special payloads on Mission 6. The delays have reduced battery power in payload initiation units to only 25% of charge, a level expected to be strong enough to turn the payloads on but not neces- sarily strong enough to turn them off once activated. The batteries inside the USAF and Japa- nese Getaway special payloads are consid- ered operational for flight; it is the orbiter batteries that initiate the payloads that are being assessed. The analysis is centering on whether any flight safety problems would arise if the payloads were activated but could not be shut down with the weak batteries. If launch were to slip beyond Apr. 18, bat- tery power would drop to a point where it is possible activation commands would not be strong enough to start the payloads. Kennedy Rivalries Intensify For NA TO Air Defense Radar Contracts Addlestone, England-Competition for more than 30 additional long-range air defense radar units for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization over the next six to eight years is under way with four of the competitors having already won one large order each. Twenty radar units have been sold so far. Plessey Radar's selection as prime con- tractor for six AR320 air defense radars for the British Ministry of Defense offset the selection of the Hughes radar for the Norwegian air defense sector of the NATO air defense network and earlier selections of General Electric and Marco- ni radar for other buys (AW&ST Jan. 10, p. 107). Since portions of the competition have involved the four companies that won an order each as well as Thomson-CSF of France, the next segment-the so-called southern tier of Italy, Greece and Tur- key-may be the most highly contested. Up to seven radar units are to be pur- chased, and the winner may gain an ad- vantage in future NATO competitions by virtue of a large production base. Request for proposals for the southern tier radars is expected to be issued by midsummer, which should permit the fi- nal contract to be awarded in early 1984. Beyond that competition is one for air defense radars in Portugal and possibly for additional radar units in Germany and Norway. Recent NATO air defense radar competitions have had these results: ^ General Electric was selected to pro- vide two S-band radars for Britain under NATO auspices. ^ Marconi was chosen to provide six Martello radar units for Britain, of which three were selected under the NATO in- frastructure competition rules and three more were purchased by Britain directly. ^ Hughes was winner in the NATO competition for three air defense radars for Norway. Additional units are re- quired, and there may be a follow-on com- petition at a later date. ^ Hughes also was selected to provide four radar units for West Germany. This was a national buy, not one conducted under NATO auspices. There may be a Space Center personnel earlier replaced the battery in the Japanese snow-making Get- away special, but the capability of this internal battery would also reach a critical level if launch were delayed into mid-April. McDonnell Douglas personnel are sched- uled to load their large middeck electrophore- sis system with the highly distilled water buffer solution about Mar. 31. Electrophore- sis unit objectives for Mission 6 are to' assess the processing of biological material under higher electrical field strengths, enabling a greater purity in the separated material. This is a critical factor in the manufacture of new medicines in zero-g. , During shuttle Mission 4, the processing unit demonstrated that it could provide 500 times the output volume in zero-g that is possible on Earth. Use of the new orbiter Challenger for the second flight of the system has allowed a water-cooling loop to be installed around the electrophoresis system, enabling it to reject NATO competition for Germany at a lat- er time. ^ Plessey Radar and ITT Gilfillan's joint AR320 radar was selected in a NATO competition for Britain. NATO funded purchase of three and the British Defense Ministry purchased three more for a total of six. The forthcoming southern tier competi- tion will give the winner a significant edge in pursuing further segments of the NATO air defense reequipment program. Estimates indicate that 30-40 new long- range air defense radars are likely to be purchased by NATO and member nations between now and the early 1990s. There also are sales possibilities outside the alliance. In Europe, likely purchasers are seen as Sweden and Switzerland, both House Panel Given Defense Plan For Funding Research Washington-An alternative to a House com- mittee plan to control more closely defense contractors' expenses for independent 're- search and development, bid and proposal, has been offered to Congress by Richard D. DeLauer, under secretary of Defense for re- search and engineering. Early reactions from members of the House Appropriations defense subcommittee show the alternative may be an acceptable substi- tute to the subcommittee's plan announced last year to force these expenses to appear in the Defense budget as a separate line item beginning in Fiscal 1985. The expenses cover independent research, directed as a company sees fit, and the cost of preparing bids and proposals to the gov- ernment. If they were to appear as a line item, Hughes Aircraft Co. Chief Executive Allen E. Puckett warned the subcommittee last week, the word independent would disappear from the term. Companies would lose control of which research to perform. Puckett appeared on behalf of members of the Aerospace Industries Assn., the Electronic Industries Assn., the National Security Indus- trial Assn. and the American Electronics Assn. The defense subcommittee said last year there is no visibility and accountability of in- dependent research and development, bid and proposal. The total cost is unknown. It is an expense that can be charged against gov- ernment contracts that the Defense Contract Audit Agency is not allowed to audit. "I see it Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 more heat and operate at higher power levels, officials said. On Mission 4 the highest power level possi- ble was 10 v./cm., but on Challenger the rate will be 25 v./cm., a level expected to be used once commercial biological processing is be- gu n. The high power level should create a more precise separation of the biological materials fed into the buffer liquid. Six sample trays will be processed. McDonnell Douglas will process three trays of proprietary biological material thatare can- didates for use as medicines once commercial space processing begins. The company also will process an albumin protein sample as a standard against which the commercial mate- rials will be compared. Two NASA Marshall Space Flight Center hemoglobin samples also will be processed to provide NASA data on the continuous-flow electrophoresis process under its joint ven- ture agreement with McDonnell Douglas. of which have extensive, advanced air de- fense systems, and possibly Austria. The Austrians do not have a major air defense capability but are believed to need a de- graded system for neutrality enforcement in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Yugoslavia also is a possible customer, but political considerations may prevent the country from obtaining a Western mil- itary unit. In the most recent NATO com- petition, the radar selected was based on both British and U. S. technology. The AR320 radar combines the receiv- er, signal processing equipment, software, displays, communications and simulator from the Plessey Radar AR-3D with the planar array antenna and high-power, wide-band transmitter of the ITT Gilfillan Series 320 radar. ^ as the most important issue currently before us," DeLauer told the subcommittee, chaired by Rep. Joseph P. Addabbo (D.-N. Y.). "It is not appropriate for IR&D, where in- dustry pursues those areas which they deem most important for their competitive position in future markets. Nor is it suitable for B&P, which is a cost incurred by contractors when competing for Defense Dept. work," DeLauer said. The subcommittee directed last year that not more than $2.1 billion of the Fiscal 1983 Defense budget authority be obligated or spent to pay independent research and devel- opment and bid and proposal costs. De Lauer said that requirement by the subcommittee is not relevant to the way the Defense Dept. does business. "In order to more directly address the con- cerns of the committee and what I believe to be your intent relative to advance visibility and control of IR&D and B&P costs," he said, News Digest w Collier Trophy Washington-T. A. Wilson, chairman of the Boeing Co., has been awarded the Na- tional Aeronautic Assn. Collier Trophy. The award, to be presented at a May 14 dinner at the Sheraton Washington Hotel, cites Wilson "for private development of the Boeing 757 and Boeing 767 advanced technology jet transports, with the support of the Federal Aviation Administration, in- dustry and the airlines." The Collier Trophy is awarded annually for the greatest achievement in aeronau- tics or astronautics in America, demon- strated by actual use in the previous year. General Electric Co. Aircraft Engine Busi- ness Group has delivered to the Army the first production T700-GE-701 turboshaft engine for the AH-64A Apache attack he- licopter. The uprated version of the T700 develops 10% more power than the T700- GE-700 used in the Army/Sikorsky UH- 60A Blackhawk utility helicopter. Racal Recorders, Ltd., Southampton, En- gland, will deliver $3 million worth of multichannel recorders to the British Roy- al Air Force. The equipment will be used to log ground/air communications. British Defense Ministry has ordered four British Aerospoace 125 Series 700 aircraft for government communications flights. The aircraft will be based at Royal Air Force Northolt. Contract includes retrofit of six earlier Rolls-Royce Viper-powered 125s with Garrett TFE731-3 turbofans. Air Florida will introduce a twice-weekly service between Miami and Madrid, Zu- rich and Frankfurt on May 4, and on May 6, a weekly flight between Miami and Dusseldorf. Routes will be operated by McDonnell Douglas DC-10 aircraft, and on the London-Frankfurt sector by British Aerospace BAC Ills operated by British Island Airways. Flight testing of the Pratt & Whitney PW2037 engine on the No. 1 Boeing 747 passed the halfway point last week with 25 hr. of a planned 39-hr. program and five of eight flights completed by Mar. 23 (AW&ST Jan. 17, p. 29). Testing of the powerplant, which is scheduled to power some Boeing 757 transports starting in October, 1984, was being conducted on "I have established total ceiling amounts for the services for our 1983 advance agree- ments. Based on what I consider to be reason- able assumptions regarding the.economy and the commercial business mix, these ceilings will result in less than $2.1 billion allocated to DOD contracts. "In order to give proper consideration to our. inability to control economic. factors which influence the annual Defense Dept. allo- cation of IR&D and B&P, I request that the Fiscal 1984 Appropriations Act provide some degree of flexibility with regard to the 1983 ceiling. I do not make this request in order to get relief from my responsibility to strictly manage and control IR&D and B&P costs, but simply to recognize the uncertainties inherent in the economy." It will be several weeks before the subcom- mittee takes action on DeLauer's proposal. Ultimately Congress must regard these costs as a legitimate part of doing business, the Boeing-owned 747 out of Seattle's Boeing Field. Modified Soviet planetary spacecraft car- rying a mixed Soviet-French ultraviolet spectroscopy payload was launched from the Soviet Union on Mar. 23. The Astron spacecraft was placed into an orbit of 200,000 X 2,000 km. (124,200 X 1,242 mi.) inclined 51.5 deg. Astron is a Soviet Venera-class satellite that is modified for use in Earth orbital missions. Venera-class spacecraft previously have been used for Soviet missions to Venus. The payload carried by the Astron includes a Soviet telescope and French spectrometer (Aw&sT Aug. 9, 1982, p. 58). Observations with the spacecraft are expected to be con- ducted during a period of eight months to one year. Gates Learjet plans to raise the price of its Series 30 and 50 corporate aircraft by as much as 19% Oct. 1 due to increased cost of vendor-supplied components, including engines, and escalating labor costs. Series 25D prices will not rise. ^ rather than an item that is purchased, De- Lauer told the subcommittee. He listed sever- al advances that have resulted from such outlays: ^ Aircraft engine improvements. It is ex- pected that by 1990 the thrust-to-weight ratio will increase from 8:1 to 10:1 and that specific fuel consumption will decrease anoth- er 10%. ^ Submarine navigation system. ^ Portable secure military communica- tions. is Manned multiple aircraft air-combat simulator, which will allow 12 pilots to fly simultaneously in simulated air combat. ^ Lasers, including the world's first ruby laser. ^ Advanced composites. ^ Factory of the future, utilizing new tech- nology that will help in production of cheap composite structures for current and future aircraft. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Air Transport 40 Crier Traffic Continues Climb February results show gains of 13% for major;, and 30% or more for three regionals in spite of storm problems Washington-U. S. airline traffic contin- ued its rebound through February, rising 13% over the same month a year ago for 11 majors and 30% or higher for at least three regional carriers. The increase came in spite of last month's storms that canceled flights for several days along the East Coast (Aw&sT Feb. 21, p. 26). Capacity for the 11 majors rose 4% over a year ago, and load factor climbed from an average of 56% last year to 60%. Traffic for the month rose under the stimulus of discount fares and various pro- motions, which reduced the average reve- nue per passenger mile from last year's levels, according to airline officials. North Atlantic operations by Trans World Airlines and Pan American World Airways were affected by the weather can- cellations and lower demand. Trans World reduced capacity in inter- Eastern Strike. Averted Washington-A strike against Eastern Air- lines was averted Mar. 24 after the carrier offered a three-year contract with a 21 % pay increase this year to District Lodge 100, International Assn. of Machinists and Aerospace Workers. Dwain C. Andrews, Eastern's vice presi- dent for labor relations, said the contract represented "a compromise" by the air- line and the union. But carrier officials said Eastern made no substantial gains in work rules. "We are completely satisfied," Charles Bryan, District Lodge 100 president, said. "The contract contains all the elements of positive labor relations." Bryan said he would recommend highly the ratification of the contract, which may take place Apr. 7 or 8. Airline and union leaders praised the work of Robert Harris, chairman of the National Mediation Board, who directed the mediation effort last week after the union rejected by a 72.4% margin an Eastern proposal for a three-year contract calling for 32.2% in pay raises and an improved pension and medical and dental plans (Aw&sT Mar. 21, p. 29). Eastern said the three-year contract of- fered the same 32% pay increase except that the majority of the increase would go into effect this year, including retroactive pay to Jan. 1, 1983. The contract would expire Dec. 31, 1984. national services by 7.6% and revenue passenger miles dropped by 0.6%. Pan American's capacity in the Atlantic was down 13.7% and revenue passenger miles were down 15.8%. In U. S. domestic markets, Pan Ameri- can's scheduled revenue passenger miles increased 5%, capacity was down 6.9% and load factor was up to 62.8%. In other international services, Pan American recorded a 13.5% increase in Latin American traffic and a 5.3% in- crease in Pacific traffic. Highest load factor among majors re- porting was recorded by American Air- lines. American had a 67.8% system-wide load factor, 68.3% in domestic services. Western Airlines recorded a 24% growth in revenue passenger miles, fol- lowed by Delta Air Lines with 20%, American at 18.8%, Trans World at 17.4%, Republic at 1.6%, Northwest at 14.9%, USAir at 13.8% and United at 11.4%. Trans World said its traffic was stimu- lated by its Kids Fly Free promotion, plus the $99 discount fares still available in certain markets. Eastern Airlines' traffic rose 8.7%. "There is some obvious stirring in the national economy, which is generating air traffic," Russell L. Ray Jr., senior vice president-marketing, said. Eastern's operations were disrupted se- verely by the mid-February snows. Nationals and regionals recording high rates of traffic growth for February: Southwest Airlines, up 37.1% in reve- nue passenger miles; :Piedmont Airlines, up 32%; Midway Airlines, up 30%, and Frontier Airlines, up 23.1%. Muse Air Corp.'s 32.5 million revenue passenger miles were up 275% over a year ago. People Express' 197.1 million revenue passenger miles were up 114%. Individual carrier reports of primarily scheduled service include: e American-2.554 billion revenue pas- senger miles, up 18.8%; 3.768 billion available seat miles, up 3.7%; a 67.8% load factor, up from 59.2%. ^ Continental-830.4 million revenue passenger miles, up 5%; 1.38 billion avail- able seat miles, down 2.2%; a 60% load factor, up from 55.8%. ^ Delta-2.218 billion revenue passen- ger miles, up 20%; 3.662 billion available seat miles, up 4.1%; a 61% load factor, up from 53%. ^ Eastern-2.22 billion revenue passen- ger miles, up 8.7%; 3.58 billion available seat miles, up 4%; a 62% load factor, up from 59.3%. ^ Northwest-1.064 billion revenue passenger miles, up 14.9%; 2.031 billion available seat miles, up 15.9%; a 52.4% load factor, down from 52.9%. ^ Pan American-1.904 billion system revenue passenger miles, up 0.2%; 3.351 billion system available seat miles, down 2.4%; a 55.9% load factor, up from 54.7%. ^ Republic-779.4 million revenue pas- senger miles, up 16%; 1.358 billion avail- able seat miles, up 5.8%; a 57% load factor, up from 52%. ^ Trans World-1.623 billion revenue miles, up 17.4%; 2.608 billion available seat miles, down 3.1%; a 62.2% load fac- tor, up from 51.3%. ^ USAir-465.3 million revenue pas- senger miles, up 13.8%; 860 million avail- able seat miles, up 9.3%; a 54.1% load factor, up from 52%. ^ United-2.9 billion revenue passenger miles, up 1.1.4%; 4.74 billion available seat miles, up 2.3%; a 61.9% load factor, up from 57.6%. ^ Western-752 million revenue pas- senger miles, up 24%; 1.27 billion avail- able seat miles, up 33%; a 58.9% load factor, down from 63%. ^ Southwest-254.6 million revenue passenger miles, up 37.1%; 443 million available seat miles, up 30.9%; a 57.4% TWA Employee Suit A Trans World Airlines employee since 1947 has filed a class action suit against the airline, charging that she was denied an opportunity to compete for the position of director of customer services programs and was not selected because of her sex or her age. The suit, filed in U. S. District Court, Southern District of New York; asked for $1 million in damages for Rosemary T. Aurichio, 56, manager of customer rela- tions at the airline. She charged the airline management created the new position and named Bahir Browsh to the post on Jan. 9, 1981, without announcing the job's avail- ability according to carrier rules of em- ployment. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, New York City, gave notice to the plaintiff of her right to sue but has taken no other action in the case she brought to the commission. 26 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 1 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 IF Air Florida Continues Debt Restructuring Washington-Air Florida is continuing to restructure its existing debt arrangements and to tailor equipment to its route structure by cutting back on the number of aircraft it operates, according to Donald Lloyd-Jones, president and chief executive officer. Lloyd-Jones said the airline is attempting to dispose of its more expensive leased aircraft and replace them with lower cost aircraft to trim operating expenses. He added that the carrier also is conducting debt talks with InterFirst Bank Dallas, N. A.,. Air Florida's principal bank lender and the holder of the security interest in most of Air Florida's assets. Proposals under discussion include deferrals, of payments of interest and principal and the release by InterFirst of a second lien on four Boeing 737-200 aircraft owned by the airline. Air Florida is discussing a proposal to sell or lease the four aircraft with other airlines, together with sale of a large number of authorized but unissued Air Florida shares for cash, Lloyd-Jones said. The sold aircraft would continue to be secured by the Federal Aviation Administration and holders of certain FAA-guaranteed indebtedness. The Air Florida official said the guaranteed indebtedness would in effect be assumed by any new user of the aircraft, although Air Florida would remain secondarily liable. The proposed deal requires the consent of the Federal Aviation Administration as well as the holders of the guaranteed indebted- ness. load factor, up from a level of 54.88%. ^ Muse Air Corp.-32.5 million reve- nue passenger miles, up 275%; 88:32 mil- lion available seat miles, up 273%; a 36.8% load factor, up from 36.6%. ^ Frontier-307.3 million revenue pas- senger miles, up 23.1%; 467.7 million available seat miles, up 5.5%; a 65.7% load factor, up from 56.3%. ^ Midway-44.6 million revenue pas- senger miles, up 30%; 105.8 million avail- able seat miles, up 44.1%; a 42.2% load factor, down from 46.8%. ^ Piedmont-309.7 million revenue pas- senger miles, up 32.3%; 632.4 million available seat miles, up 34.9%; a 48.97% load factor, down from 49.94%. ^ People Express-197.1 million reve- nue passenger miles, up 104.8%; 257.5 million available seat miles, up 56%; a 76.5% load factor, up from 56%. ^ Air Florida-110.8 million revenue passenger miles, down 43%; 177 million available seat miles, down 47%; a 62.6% load factor, up from 57.9%. ^ New York Air-39 million revenue passenger miles, down 23%; 72.4 million available seat miles, down 31.3%; a 53.9% load factor, up from 51.2%. ^ Jet America-35 million revenue pas- senger miles, up 87%; 63.1 million avail- able seat miles, up 66%; a 55.4% load factor, up from 49.4%. ^ Scheduled Skyways-3.3 million rev- enue passenger miles, up from a level of 10.1%; 7.43 million available seat miles, up 9.5%. ^ Air Florida has returned to InterFirst a 737-200 that the bank originally leased to the airline. The termination agreement calls for about $3.3 million to be added to Air Florida's debt to InterFirst, ending Air Florida's obligations under the financing lease. Air Florida also has returned a second 737-200 to another lessor, terminating the lease, although the airline will be required to make payments .on rental arrears. The airline will realize a gain on disposal of approximately $1.1 million in the first quarter of 1983 as a result of the termination of the capital lease. A third 737-200 was returned to its lessor recently, following Air Florida's default on a semiannual rent payment in January. The airline estimates a gain on disposal of about $900,000 in the first quarter of 1983 as a result of the return of the aircraft and termination of the lease. Lloyd-Jones said Air Florida expects to replace the 737 aircraft with less expensive aircraft, including other 737-200s. A McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30, which was used on the airline's Miami-London route, was returned to its lessor with Air Florida agreeing to pay a negotiated termination penalty. The lessor has, in turn, agreed to pay for maintenance reserves and other credits to others who owed maintenance charges for the aircraft, Lloyd- Jones said. The DC-10-30 has been substituted with a Boeing 707 on the Miami-London route. Air Florida plans to return to using a DC-10-30 this month on the route under an operating lease arrangement. Swissair Planning to Maintain Two-Class Passenger Service Swissair has decided to maintain its exist- ing two-class passenger service structure but will adopt a new policy to improve the treatment of its full-fare paying passen- gers. The decision was made after Swissair reevaluated its current first-class/economy service structure against the three-class ar- rangements offered by some competing Continental Stock Offering Los Angeles-Continental Airlines has re- quested authorization from the Securities and Exchange Commission to issue an ini- tial public stock offering of two million units. An estimated $40 million in equity capi- tal generated by the sale of the units would be used for "general corporate purposes," according to Continental. The units will be offered for sale at $20 each. Each unit will include one share of common and one share of convertible pre- ferred stock. The airline's 20 million common shares are now held by Texas Air Corp., which bought Continental in 1982 (AW&ST Nov. 15, 1982 p. 34). After the public offer- ing, Texas Air Corp. will hold about a 91 % interest in Continental. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 airlines. Its decision to retain a two-class service structure reflects Swissair's belief that three-class systems generally do not provide tailored responses to fluctuating demands in individual tariff categories. The new policy for improved handling of full-fare passengers will begin this sum- mer. Preferential check-in facilities for these passengers will be included at the first- class counters of airports at most of Swis- sair's destinations. Full-fare travelers will receive special boarding cards that enable them to to board the aircraft ahead of other passen- gers. They also will receive a certain degree of preferential treatment once on board the aircraft, according to Swissair. Swissair recorded a net profit of $19.2 million in 1982, of which $16.5 million came from the sale of aircraft and spares. The Swiss flag carrier's results last year enabled it to pay a dividend of $12.50 per share. Swissair is projecting marginal improve- ments in its operating results for 1983. The year's traffic may be higher than ini- tial expectations, however. The 1982 net profit of $19.2 million is down from a net of $27.15 million the year before. ^ Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 p More Carriers Adopt Mileage-Based Fares Washington-More U. S. major airlines and a regional carrier, Frontier Airlines, joined other majors last week in returning to a pre-deregulation, mileage-based system to set airline coach fares effective Apr. 2. Eastern Airlines' mileage-based plan will reduce fares in about half its markets (Aw&sT Mar. 21, p. 29). Its Air-Shuttle fares will remain at the same levels, and special discounts to Florida will remain. One-way Super Coach fares will be offered at 75% of the economy level. USAir was preparing a mileage-based cost taper that it said will eliminate some anomalies in the mileage-based plan first offered by American Airlines, a carrier official said. Under American's plan, a 249-mi. flight, based on 53 cents/mi., would cost $131.97, while a 251-mi. flight, based on 34 cents/mi., would cost $85.34, a differential that USAir pricing officials wanted to address. American's fare plan, however, will not change, according to that carrier. Northwest Airlines said it was adopting a fare simplification program that would reduce fares to four basic types, first-class, coach, Super Coach and Super Saver, effective Apr. 15, which was one step in the American fare plan. Frontier's matching of a simplified fare system and a pricing-by- distance system was a significant step, airline officials said, be- cause competition between majors and regionals is expected to be more keen this year. Frontier's plan will go into effect Apr. 15 with three basic fare levels, coach, an unrestricted discount and a restricted discount. Coach rates will be priced in 10 mileage brackets, starting at 34 cents/mi. for flights of 251-500 mi. and decreasing to 15 cents/mi. for flights more than 2,500 mi., similar to American's plan. The carrier's discount plans, both of which will be capacity controlled, are: ^ A new unrestricted discount offering savings of 25% off coach rates in all markets. ^ A restricted Super Saver replacing Frontier's current Super Saver on Apr. 2, cutting coach rates by 30-57% depending on distance. As in many other deep discounts offered by carriers in their new plans, restrictions are stronger and include purchase of round-trip tickets at least seven days before departure and return flights beginning 7-14 days after arrival at the destination. Military and children's fare discounts will remain, as they are planned to remain in other carriers' fare programs. Delta Air Lines will apply the mileage formula systemwide ex- cept in a small part of its system, estimated to be less than 25%, where special discounts will remain in effect because of competing low fare levels, a Delta official said. Delta's first-class fares will continue to be 120% of coach fares. Piedmont Airlines officials said they continue to study Ameri- can's mileage-based fare plans, but no changes were expected in the immediate future. Piedmont's fares already have been simpli- fied, an official said. People Express Agrees to Buy Braniff 727s, Lease 747-200 Newark-People Express last week reached an agreement with Braniff Air- ways to acquire 20 Boeing 727-200 air- craft and lease one Boeing 747-200, which would almost double the fleet size of the low-fare, high-frequency airline. The Newark International Airport- based airline also recently signed a letter of intent with McDonnell Douglas Corp. to purchase eight used 727-200s and has an option on an additional nine 727-200s to meet its future aircraft needs. The agreement with McDonnell Douglas can be terminated without penalty before Mar. 29 (Aw&sT Mar. 7, p. 29). People Express officials said the airline is studying both aircraft-acquisition deals and is not precluding one over the other. The final decision on which agreement to put into effect will depend on several fac- tors, including the status of the Braniff aircraft as part of the airline's bankruptcy proceedings. The new, entrant, which started opera- tions in 1981, has a fleet of 21 Boeing 737- 100s and 737-200s and is scheduled to take delivery of an additional 737-200 in May. The officials said the sales agreement between Braniff and People Express calls for a purchase price of $4 million for each 727-200. The agreement for both the sale of the 727-200s and the lease of the 747-200 is subject to the approval of the bankruptcy court having jurisdiction over Braniff, government approval of the application of People Express to provide nonstop New- ark-London service which was granted last week and other conditions. The agreement calls for Braniff to deliv- er the 727-200s to People Express between November, 1983, and March, 1985, with the airline having.the right to accelerate delivery of six of the aircraft for the sum- mer of 1983. The 747-200 aircraft lease is for a peri- Midway DC-9 Lease Midway Airlines has signed an agreement with McDonnell Douglas Corp. to lease two DC-9-80s for 13.5 years with options to buy and including spare parts and one spare Pratt & Whitney JT8D engine. When the aircraft are delivered in the third quarter of this year, Midway will sell three DC-9-31s to the manufacturer. The lease and the sale of aircraft will keep Midway's capacity at the same level. Midway's fleet includes nine DC-9-15s and eight DC-9-31s, including the three to be sold. ' od of five years expiring September, 1988, and gives People Express the right to ter- minate the lease at the end of one year. People Express agreed to pay a lease rate of $50,000 a month from delivery through September, 1983, and $250,000 monthly for the balance of the lease term for the 747. The airline also agreed to purchase from Braniff a Boeing 727-200 simulator, certain ground equipment, technical assis- tance and flight training in connection with the start-up of 727 and 747 opera- tions. The airline originally signed a letter of intent with McDonnell Douglas for the purchase of eight 727-200s that McDon- nel Douglas is acquiring from Alitalia Airlines with an option on nine additional 727-200s, contingent on the aircraft manu- facturer purchasing them from Alitalia. Braniff chairman Howard D. Putnam said the agreement calls for Braniff to provide certain continuing maintenance services for the 727 aircraft to People Ex- press at Braniff's Love Field maintenance facility. "We are extremely pleased with the completion of this transaction with People Express," the chairman of the bankrupt airline said. "The sale of the aircraft, when combined with the continuing main- tenance and training services, provides a significant step in the resolution of Bran- if 's bankruptcy and the development of continuing businesses for our reorganiza- tion." ^ Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 P establishing prima facie evidence and Airline AnfitrustAcbons proving illegal manipulation of reserva- tions systems, other airlines would have a comparatively easy case to prove and Increase. at Justice Dept, many private civil cases could be expect- Private civil antitrust cases have been By James Ott increasing since the advent of deregulation of airlines and other transportation modes Washington-Antitrust activities of the Airline lawyers said the Justice Dept. in the U. S., Calderwood said. He estimat- Justice Dept., including investigations and may be stretching the interpretation of ed that 2,000 antitrust cases are on file in cases involving airlines, have increased in Section 2 of the Sherman Antitrust Act in U. S. courts, 100 of them by the Justice the last year and reflect a more rapid flow its case against American Airlines. Even if Dept. of information on antitrust matters reach- the carrier's alleged attempt is proved, Since deregulation, the Civil Aeronau- ing the department, Elliott M. Seiden, prices in that market were not fixed and tics Board and the Interstate Commerce chief, transportation section, Antitrust would not constitute a violation, the law- Commission no longer serve.as arbiters of Div., said last week. yers said. antitrust problems between carriers. Investigations and cases are started The Justice Dept. has said cases under "Companies facing antitrust problems are "when information comes to our atten- Section 2 are rare because of the reluc- going to the antitrust laws, which are tion" and have resulted in an observable tance of parties, who may be involved in broadly written," Calderwood said. increase in activity, Seiden said, but do an attempt to establish a monopoly, to The precepts that have been established not represent a change of policy or a new disclose that attempt to the government. in the body of common antitrust law, de- direction in antitrust prosecution at the . James A. Calderwood, an antitrust at- veloped from thousands of case decisions agency. torney with Grove, Jaskiewicz, Gilliam since the 1890 Sherman act, are being Antitrust priorities continue to be inves- and Cobert of Washington, D. C., said, applied to transportation cases, he said. tigation and prosecution of cases involving however, that the Justice Dept. case Loss of an antitrust suit can be severe, price-fixing and agreements among com- against American should be of concern as much as three times actual damages panies to divide up the marketplace. Such because the issue could go beyond price- and a jail sentence. The heavy conse- activities restrict the market from operat- fixing if there is "any attempt to exclude quence of loss is the primary reason for ing freely and cause consumer harm, he from the market by manipulation of the nolo contendere pleas in which a defen- said. reservations system." dant does not plead guilty but subjects The priorities have been emphasized in Investigation into computerized reserva- himself or his company to conviction. recent actions, including: tions systems is interesting from a legal In these cases, damages at three times ^ Justice Dept. civil case against Amer- standpoint, Calderwood said, because in the actual damages can be avoided. ican Airlines and its president and chief "no other situation are there opportunities Calderwood said airlines and other executive, Robert L. Crandall, who is for one or two companies in an industry transportation companies should be wary charged with attempting to persuade to control something that's so vital to oth- of -the rules of reason provision, one of the Howard Putnam, president and chief exec- ers in that industry." broadly written provisions in antitrust utive officer, Braniff International Air- Calderwood said if the Justice Dept. law. If a certain practice can be shown to ways, to engage in illegal monopoly would file and win a case against airlines, be unreasonably uncompetitive, airlines practices and a joint 20% increase in fares on competitive routes (AW&ST Feb. 28, p. 32). Pan Am Signs Contracts With Five Unions ^ A Justice Dept. review of allegations by Braniff, which had filed for reorganiza- Washington-Pan American World Airways has signed labor contracts with five of its tion under the bankruptcy act, that Amer- largest unions, extending a wage package agreement negotiated in the fall of 1981 and ican had engaged in "dirty tricks" by the spring of 1982. manipulating Braniff's schedules in Amer- The latest agreement was accepted recently by the Flight Engineers International ican's Sabre computerized reservations Assn., representing 859 flight engineers at Pan American. system. This agency review follows a Other unions that have ratified the new wage contracts are the Air Line Pilots Assn., grand jury investigation into the charges the Air Transport Div. of the Transport Workers Union, the International Brotherhood of at Ft. Worth, which ended with no indict- Teamsters and the Independent Union of Flight Attendants. ments. The contracts cover the period Jan. 1, 1983, to Dec. 31, 1984, and extend wage ^ An agency investigation into pricing reduction agreements negotiated when the last contract expired. The agreements call for practices in the transatlantic market, restoration of 5% of 10% reduction taken from employees in previous contracts and growing out of a suit filed by Laker Air- insures that an additional 5% will be restored in 1984. ways (Aw&ST Dec. 13, 1982, p. 51), which The agreement includes a provision that the various union members will receive has dissolved in bankruptcy. U. S. and for- additional pay increases calculated on airline profits. eign carriers believe a grand jury will be USAir flight attendants, represented by the Assn. of Flight Attendants, AFL-CIO, also impaneled shortly in that investigation. recently reached agreement with the airline. The new 17-month contract will run from ^ A grand jury investigation in Atlanta Apr. 1, 1983, through Aug. 31, 1984. into an aspect of courier service. Airlines, The Assn. of Flight Attendants said the contract raises wages of the 1,680 flight however, are secondary in that investiga- attendants to "among the highest in the industry." tion, which has been under way for more The contract calls for wage increases of 9.27% spread out over 17 months. than a year. AFA President Linda A. Puchala said eight other carriers will conduct negotiations with ^ An investigation, initiated by Con- its AFA flight attendants this year. "AFA-USAir negotiations are proof that agreements gress, into airline computerized reserva- can be reached in direct bargaining without elongated mediation and the confrontation tions systems, a joint effort under way by of a cooling off period." the Civil Aeronautics Board and the Jus- AFA represents about 21,000 flight attendants on 14 carriers. tice Dept. Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 29 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 "",.,?t1,l.ltsi'.~fli .i,#.t1e41.?.;. ....>{1 ,1ga. New St. Louis-Based Airline Will Begin Service Apr. 1 Boeing 727-100 of Air 1, the new St. Louis-based airline, is shown. The airline will start scheduled operations Apr. 1 using aircraft fitted with 80 seats. The carrier will provide first-class service at coach fares (Aw&sT Mar. 21, p. 34). engaging in that practice could be prose- cuted successfully, he added. James E. Landry, senior vice president and general counsel with the Air Trans- port Assn., said greater antitrust activity was anticipated as airlines are more ex- posed to antitrust law under deregulation. The Airline Deregulation Act provides for CAB powers to grant immunity to parties of an agreement, he noted, and those powers would transfer to the Justice Dept. after the CAB closes under the law. Landry said the ATA, congressional aviation subcommittees, the CAB and the Transportation Dept. have supported a change in the law to transfer that power to the Transportation Dept. Landry said much has been written on the roles of associations in matters that could involve antitrust. "But it is the gen- eral perception and consensus that a trade association is a meeting ground for com- petitors and therefore there is antitrust sensitivity," he added. ATA lawyers spend "a fair amount of time monitoring activities to stay out of troubled waters," he added. Airline lawyers generally are concerned with two categories of antitrust law, one dealing with agreements among carriers, the other with capacity and price agree- ments. He said airlines have been particularly careful to avoid capacity and price agree- ments even before airline deregulation. The CAB, he said, never has conferred antitrust immunity on a rate or capacity agreement in the U. S. If there is a question about an agree- ment covering other aspects of airline op- erations, airlines are still free to seek immunity from the Board, he added. The Board denied antitrust immunity to a proposal by the association to permit initial discussions on a spare parts inven- tory (Aw&sT Feb. 21, p. 32). Landry, how- ever, has interpreted the Board's comments to mean that it required a more detailed explanation for the proposal. Landry anticipates that airlines will seek immunity for the talks because they consider a parts inventory to be an effi- cient and effective solution to rising costs of aircraft parts. A larger, more complex question, Landry said, arises over the airlines' use of a scheduling committee to work out landing slot arrangements at high-density airports, including Washington's National Airport, which is operated by the Federal Aviation Administration. The Board has granted immunity to scheduling committee activities since the strike by the Professional Air Traffic Con- trollers Organization in August, 1981. As the ATC system returns to normal, the Board is "trying to get airlines to come up with something different," Susan B. Jollie, the CAB's associate general counsel for antitrust and litigation, said. The CAB has asked airlines to propose a solution in case the airline scheduling committee reaches an impasse, "and the committee is trying to work that out," he said. The CAB foresees a "significant amount" of work ahead to follow the con- gressional, mandate to review periodically airline agreements covering a variety of airline operations. "We're going to do it," Jollie said. "A review is consistent with deregulation and the obligation to keep our house in order for a transfer later." The antitrust investigation at Atlanta into an aspect of courier service has re- sulted in subpoenas, according to Donald A. Kinkaid, chief, Antitrust Div. field of- fice. Kinkaid said a grand jury has been looking into time-critical transportation of nonvaluable items, which he defined as canceled checks or computer print-outs connected with banking activities. Kin- kaid said airlines were secondary in the investigation, and it was not clear how carriers were involved in the case. The joint investigation of computerized reservations systems, primarily Ameri- can's Sabre and United Airlines' Apollo systems, is focusing on lease costs and conditions of a lease that may inhibit com- petition, charges for cohosts and whether charges discriminate against other airlines or are designed to inhibit competition, and display of schedules and fares of cohost airlines and other carriers and whether there is discrimination against either class- es of carriers (Aw&ST Jan. 10, p. 26). Frontier Airlines has charged that Unit- ed Airlines was unfair and uncompetitive in the use of its system at Denver (Aw&ST Feb. 7, p. 31). Justice Dept.'s earlier position on a common automated reservations system, first advocated by the Air Transport Assn., Air Traffic Conference and 11 air- lines in 1969, was negative. The agency said the computer operation by ATAR Computer System, Inc., "calls for a collective boycott of ATAR's com- petitors and presents ATAR with a mo- nopoly of this market. A monopoly of airline reservations systems would sub- stantially restrain trade in connection with air transportation and other lines of com- merce. Competition among airlines in de- veloping better reservation systems would be precluded. The ability of travel agents to choose among reservation service equipment and reservation service sellers would be ended. All suppliers of equip- ment used for reservation services but one would be foreclosed from this market. All operators of reservation service systems but one would be foreclosed from the market. An agreement with these effects would contravene Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act." ^ 30 Aviation Week & Space Technoloav. March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Shorunes Air Florida has rescinded 80 of 104 fur- lough notices to flight attendants as traffic prospects to Europe have improved. The carrier will add two McDonnell Douglas DC-10s to the fleet for new European service in early May (Aw&sT Mar. 21, p. 28). Furloughs went into effect for 24 attendants and 36 pilots on Mar. 13. Continental Airlines will increase its gates at Stapleton Airport, Denver, from 14 to 24. Six gates are being acquired from Western Airlines and four others will be included in new facilities at the airport. Frontier Airlines will suspend temporarily its flights between the U. S. and the Mexi- can cities of Ixtapa, Guadalajara and Manzanillo, effective May 1. The carrier said the three markets had shown low demand. Service will continue to Maza- tlan and Puerto Vallarta from Denver via Albuquerque, N. M., and El Paso, Tex. Midway Airlines will return to two-tier peak and off-peak pricing on Apr. 1 and will revise its schedule with a temporary suspension of flights to Tampa on Apr. 18, reduction of service to Omaha from three to two flights a day and the addition of one round trip per day from Chicago to Minneapolis/St. Paul and to Columbus, Ohio, on Apr. 24. Ozark Air Lines has started two round trips a day between St. Louis and Char- lotte, S. C., via Louisville. Afternoon non- stops to Cleveland, Louisville and New Orleans have been added, with evening return trips from Cleveland and Louisville and a morning return from New Orleans. Pan American World Airways will add a daily flight from Kansas City on Apr. 24 that will connect with Cincinnati and JFK International, New York, where service to 26 international destinations is available. Swissair scheduled replacement of Mc- Donnell Douglas DC-10-30s with Boeing 747s on its Chicago-Boston-Zurich service on Mar. 27. Trans World Airlines will resume daily one-stop service to Vienna under'a service agreement with Austrian Airlines, effective Apr. 24. Trans World will operate Boeing 747s from New York to Frankfurt, and Austrian will operate McDonnell Douglas DC-9-80s from there to Vienna as TWA Flight 740. United Airlines will add three daily round-trip flights between LaGuardia and O'Hare airports on Apr. 24, increasing its seats in the O'Hare-New York market to 3,908 daily, which includes five trips to Newark and three to JFK International. Greater head-to-head competition between U. S. majors and regionals is expected this year. New twin-engine, short-haul aircraft are entering the fleets of American Airlines, Delta Air Lines and Trans World Airlines and will be put into service in selective markets that feed hubs and long-haul flights. In turn, regional airlines are expected to enter selected long-haul markets. Lufthansa German Airlines is scheduled to put into service six of 25 Airbus Industrie A310 short-to-medium-haul transports this year, starting in April. Plans call for the A310, configured with 18 first-class and 193 economy- class seats, to be used on routes from Frankfurt to London, Vienna, Paris, Madrid, Athens, Istanbul and Cairo. The airline estimates that operations with a two-man cockpit crew instead of a three-man crew will save about $240,000 annually for each aircraft. Lufthansa will receive its final A310 in 1990. U. S. airlines are offering special SuperSaver fares with no minimum stay restrictions to persons who qualify to attend conventions. Information on fares and special services are included in convention brochures. Those who qualify must give a code number to identify themselves with the airlines. American Airlines has established a Meeting Services Desk and a toll-free telephone number, where passengers may reserve a seat, obtain tickets, select a seat and order a meal. Republic Airlines offers 30% off regular coach fare levels, or lower fares if available, as does American. .Japan's Ministry of Transport is looking favorably at the application by Japan Cargo Airlines to provide cargo service between Japan and the U. S., but approval is being withheld until the market improves. The ministry foresees steady growth in both mid- and long-term forecasts. Japan Air Lines opposes the application and was joined recently by the Federation of Labor of Japan. The labor group, representing employees of subcontractor companies of Japan Air Lines' cargo service, said another cargo carrier in the market would generate excessive competition and cause an employment crisis. The cargo airline was formed in 1978 by All Nippon Airways and four shipping firms. Initial service would link Tokyo, San Francisco and New York. The U. S. has issued 2 million machine-readable passports and is introduc- ing automatic readers as an experiment at O'Hare International Airport, Chicago. Automated equipment has been installed at London's Heathrow and Gatwick airports and at the Dover, England, Harbor, and it is linked to a central computer. Ten nations in the European Economic Community are planning to produce uniform passports under International Civil Avia- tion Organization specifications by Jan. 1, 1985. Massachusetts Port Authority is attempting to get Congress to make Boston's Logan International Airport a foreign trade zone as part of a $200-million Bird Islands Flats development program that includes con- struction of a new $130-million Massachusetts Technology Center and a $70-million air cargo complex. Foreign trade zones are created by Congress to stimulate international trade by exempting products entering the jurisdic- tion from import duties, excise taxes and bonding costs. Frontier Airlines will begin offering free ground transportation between Denver's Stapleton Airport and hotels in Boulder and in Fort Collins, Colo., on May 1 in its own fleet of eight 19-passenger vans. A total of 150 round trips a week are timed with Frontier's connecting banks of flight departures and arrivals. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 , V NTSB Cites Wind Shear In New Or/ears Accident Washington-National Transportation Safety Board last week recommended that the Federal Aviation Administration im- prove its airport weather and wind shear alert systems after an investigation deter- mined the probable cause of the Pan American World Airways Boeing 727-235 crash at New Orleans International Air- port on July 9, 1982, was a wind shear caused by a microburst (Aw&ST July 19, 1982, p. 32). The safety board said the aircraft en- countered the wind shear during liftoff and initial climb on its scheduled flight to Las Vegas. The downdraft and decreasing headwind led to the crash that killed 145 persons on the aircraft, including seven crewmembers and a nonrevenue passenger in the cockpit jump seat. Eight persons on the ground also were killed (Aw&ST Sept. 20, 1982, p. 30). Limited Technology Contributing to the crash, which oc- curred 29 sec. after start of the takeoff roll, was the "limited capability" of exist- ing airport wind shear detection technol- ogy to "provide definitive guidance for controllers and pilots for use in avoiding low-level wind shear encounters," the board ruled. The board said the decision of the 727- 235 captain to take off was "reasonable" given the weather information he had re- ceived and found that the copilot, who was flying the aircraft, "would have had difficulty" recognizing the effects of the wind shear and reacting in time before the aircraft's descent could have been stopped. The safety board incorporated 14 safety recommendations in its report, including: ^ Improvement of airport wind shear alert systems. ^ Better information requirements for pilots' takeoff decisions. ^ Improved wind shear pilot training. ^ Expedited development of airborne wind shear detection equipment. ^ Further research into the effects heavy rain on aircraft performance. The NTSB investigation found that the New Orleans wind shear alert system did not detect the shear that the Pan Ameri- can flight encountered until after it had begun its takeoff. An air traffic controller's advisory, which was based on the shear, was broad- cast to another aircraft 2 sec. after the Pan American 727-235 had already struck trees after its takeoff. A sensor of the New Orleans low-level 40 that Pan American Flight 759 lifted off at 4:08:40 p. m. from Runway 10, climbed to wind shear alert system west of the ap- proach end of Runway 10 had been van- dalized and was inoperative when the New Orleans system was commissioned in December, 1979, and on the day of the accident, the Board's investigation found. The New Orleans alert system was one of 58 then operational in the U. S. Its sensors and computers provided control- lers with airport sector wind velocities and directions to relay to pilots. But the board said the information would have been "more meaningful" to pilots if it were presented as headwind, tailwind or cross- wind shear vectors for the runway being used. Existing systems' computers could be modified to provide the specific informa- tion, according to the board. It added that recent work with airborne wind shear detection systems has demon- strated that the systems can "improve pi- lot performance in wind shear." However, the systems are limited in their ability to predict wind shear soon enough. "Programs must be pressed to develop airborne and ground systems with greater lead time predictive capabilities," the board said. The NTSB investigation determined Wind Shear Study Washington-Federal Aviation Adminis- tration last week awarded a $275,000 contract to the National Academy of Sci- ences to conduct a three-month study of low-level wind shear and its effect on air- craft. The contract calls for the establishment of a joint committee composed of two panels that will study low-level wind vari- ables and aircraft performance and opera- tions. The low-level wind shear panel will re- view current techniques used to determine and track wind shear and will recommend a series of changes to improve the FAA's ability in predicting the weather phenome- non. The aircraft performance panel will re- view the vulnerability of aircraft operating in wind shear conditions and recommend changes when necessary in operational procedures. The study was mandated by Congress last year after the crash of the Pan Ameri- can World Airways Boeing 727-235 air- craft July 9, 1982, at New Orleans International Airport. and then began to descend. The aircraft struck three trees 2,376 ft. beyond the departure end of the runway in a slightly left-wing-low attitude. The impact point in the trees was 50 ft. above ground level. The time at impact was 4:09:01 p. in. The aircraft then struck a second group of trees about 300 ft. farther east in a 6- deg. left bank. The 727-235 continued to roll into a vertical left bank and struck the ground, left wing tip first. The impact swath ended 4,610 ft. from the departure end of the runway and 400 ft. to the left of its extended centerline. The impact, explosion and post-crash fire destroyed the aircraft and six houses. Five other houses were severely damaged. The investigation found that special weather observation at the airport record- ed an overcast at 4,100 ft., with visibility of 2 mi. Heavy rain showers, haze and winds gusting to 20 kt. were reported. The National Weather Service radar was showing weather cells over and be- yond the departure end of the runway when the aircraft took off. Three wind shear advisories radioed by air traffic con- trol shortly before takeoff had been re- ceived by the flight crew, including one in response to their request for wind infor- mation. The takeoff was made in increas- ingly heavy rain, but there was no thunder or lightning before or during liftoff. Decreasing Headwind Between the time of the liftoff and the time the aircraft reached the treeline, the aircraft experienced a decreasing head- wind shear of about 38 kt. and a 7 fps. downdraft at 100 ft. above ground level. "The wind shear was caused by diverging flow from a microburst which occurred on the New Orleans International Airport," the safety board concluded. The 38-kt. wind shear decreased the air- speed of the aircraft by about 18 kt. The safety board estimated that the co- pilot had about 6 sec. to react to the wind shear, raise the aircraft's nose and add all available engine power to prevent de- scending into the trees. An 18-kt. accel- eration and leveling of the aircraft in the last 5-6 sec. before the initial tree impact indicated that the copilot. "had probably reacted and was applying corrective ac- tion," the board said. The copilot's correction of the 727- 235's settling toward the ground "equalled the response which could be expected un- der the prevailing conditions," the board said. "It appeared that all that was occurring at the time was rain showers," the safety board added. "Company [Pan American] directives did not preclude the captain from taking off in these circum- stances." O 32 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Best of all, the sensors are mounted above the rotor to let the OH-58D Aeroscout remain behind tree and ridge lines. Only a steerable, ball-shaped housing over the optical systems is exposed to hostile eyes. The new sight is the result of research started in 197 5. In the years since, the stabili- zation system has passed more than 300 hours of Army laboratory tests and 100 hours of Army evaluation flying. The sensors chosen for the Bell Heli- copter Aeroscout include telescopic TV and FLIR thermal imaging systems. The Mast-Mounted Sight is now being readied for full-scale production as part of the Army Helicopter Improvement Program, and for other projects requiring sensor instal- lations in high vibration environments. Turn the page to see an enemy's eye view of an Aeroscout crew. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 THE KIOWA AEROSCOUT MAST-MOUNTED SIGHT LETS THE ARMY HIDE AND GO SEEK. Army OH-58D Aeroscout crews will soon see without being seen, day or night, through weather or battlefield smoke or haze, thanks to the Mast-Mounted Sight from McDonnell Douglas. And they will see better than they ever could before. New precision optics and aiming systems are "soft-mounted" to minimize jitter and vibration on images viewed in the cockpit. The optics will increase stand-off capability, see more targets and remarkably improve control and distribution of fire. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 46 THE KIOWA AEROSCOUT MAST-MOUNTED SIGHT LETS THE ARMY HIDE AND GO SEEK. Army OH-58D Aeroscout crews will soon see without being seen, day or night, through weather or battlefield smoke or haze, thanks to the Mast-Mounted Sight from McDonnell Douglas. And they will see better than they ever could before. New precision optics and aiming systems are "soft-mounted" to minimize jitter and vibration on images viewed in the cockpit. The optics will increase stand-off capability, see more targets and remarkably improve control and distribution of fire. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Best of all, the sensors are mounted above the rotor to let the OH-58D Aeroscout remain behind tree and ridge lines. Only a steerable, ball-shaped housing over the optical systems is exposed to hostile eyes. The new sight is the result of research started in 197 5. In the years since, the stabili- zation system has passed more than 300 hours of Army laboratory tests and 100 hours of Army evaluation flying. The sensors chosen for the Bell Heli- copter Aeroscout include telescopic TV and FLIR thermal imaging systems. The Mast-Mounted Sight is now being readied for full-scale production as part of the Army Helicopter Improvement Program, and for other projects requiring sensor instal- lations in high vibration environments. Turn back a page to see an Aeroscout crew hide while they seek. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Piedmont Airlines' hub at Dayton International Airport is an example of a connecting bank in operation. The hub serves eight Middle West mar- kets and connects them with East Coast and Florida markets and Dallas/Ft. Worth-. Piedmont Expanding Hubs To Baltimore/Washington Winston-Salem, N. C.-Piedmont Airlines is bringing its regional hub-and-spoke phi- losophy, which emphasizes service to mar- kets deregulation left out, to Bal- timore/Washington International Airport, setting the stage for an expanded route system that will link its three hubs. Baltimore operations should account for much of the 18% capacity gain expect- ed by the end of the. year. Nine Boeing 737-200s and six Boeing 727-200s are coming into the fleet in 1983. William F. Howard, president and chief operating of- ficer, said the aircraft may not be suffi- cient to meet expansion demands. He is reviewing aircraft buys with that in mind. Starting in August, Piedmont plans four connecting banks of seven flights each at Baltimore. The plan calls for 12 flights in each bank by the end of the year. The State of Maryland, the airport op- erator, is financing a $21-million, 12-gate complex for Piedmont and is negotiating with the carrier on a quantity discount on landing fees. From Baltimore, Piedmont will be able to make deeper penetration of Middle At- lantic and northeastern U. S. regions- and eastern Canada if the Canadian gov- ernment permits. The carrier is preparing a-new schedule for the Baltimore hub that should be ready 30-60 days before the August start- up. Details are not complete at this time, but these elements have emerged: ^ Piedmont will link its hubs at Char- lotte, N. C., and Dayton, Ohio, with the new hub at Baltimore to provide connect- ing services to cities served by each hub. ^ Service to Canada from Baltimore is in Piedmont's plans, but U. S. and Cana- dian bilateral discussions have not re- solved the issue. ^ The Middle Atlantic region offers some potential for short-haul service, and there are a number of underserved cities in New York state that could connect with the new hub. Howard said the expansion is trans. forming Piedmont "from a local service carrier to a major regional airline." But the carrier's operating philosophy will not change. "We are providing air transporta- tion for medium-size cities," he said. "We are finding underserved cities and serving them with small jets." Howard calls Piedmont's strategy un- conventional, because the carrier has de- liberately bypassed large, traditional hubs and focused service on underserved com- munities. Many such communities are im- mune from competition since, standing alone, they do not generate sufficient traf- fic to warrant regular jet service. Piedmont has applied its hub-and-spoke system to medium-size markets that in many cases lost service since passage of the Airline Deregulation Act. Larger air- lines withdrew from many losing and mar- ginally profitable routes in the post- deregulation period and focused more on high-density longer hauls between their own hubs. While many U. S. carriers have in- curred losses in this period, Piedmont has thrived, and much credit is given to the carrier's route and pricing strategies. Operating profits rose from $7 million in 1978 to $21.3 million in 1979, $28.6 million in 1980, $57.2 million in 1981, and declined to $23.8 million in 1982 under the influence of discount fare wars. The carrier's first hub at Charlotte will have grown by next month to 122 depar- tures a day, and its hub at Dayton, opened in 1982, is advancing toward 100,000 available seat miles each month. Piedmont's hub operation, character- ized by tight scheduling of flights and quick turnaround of aircraft, enables the carrier to provide a multitude of destina- tions to passengers who may be boarding at the end of any of its routes. The carrier Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 35 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 NTSB Chief Warm on Pac In Restoring A TC C as a~ oloes Washington-National Transportation Safety Board Chairman Jim Burnett has warned that the Federal Aviation Administration pace for reestablishing the nation's air traffic control system in the aftermath of the 1981 air traf- fic controllers strike may be too quick and could lead to accidents. Burnett said the FAA should consider slow- ing down its push to lift all flight restrictions to prestrike levels in April. While the national airspace system is safe, he said, problems could surface if traffic levels rise too fast. He said the FAA's first priority in returning the system to safety levels before the strike should be to get air traffic control supervisors away from filling in for controllers and back into strictly supervisory roles to provide back- up and support for newly trained controllers. A second priority for the FAA would be to cut back on long hours for controllers and get them to work normal 40-hr. weeks, according to Burnett. The NTSB official said, "We're not saying the sky is falling," but traffic levels should be raised to match the pace of controllers' skills. The FAA said earlier this year it was lifting air traffic control restrictions on airline and general aviation traffic in most parts of the country by the fall. FAA Administrator J. Lynn Helms said the air traffic control system is handling slightly more than 90% of the traffic levels registered before the August, 1981, strike and is ex- pected to return to 100% by April (Aw&ST Feb. 7, p. 35). Burnett told the House Public Works and has restricted the schedule for a connect- ing bank of flights at its hubs to 30-40- min. in order to allow passengers to change aircraft and avoid a lengthy ground delay. An advantage for a passen- ger in a Piedmont hub is that all aircraft are parked at the Piedmont complex. Only a short walk is required to board another aircraft. From the airline's standpoint, the con- centration of flights at a particular time serves the carrier's need to build up traffic flow. The traffic is, in effect, funneled from other markets through the hub, which allows the carrier to serve markets that the hub cities alone could not serve. Howard uses the example of Charlotte- Dallas/Ft. Worth, one of Piedmont's first successful long-haul routes from the Char- lotte hub. "Everyone thought we would lose, but the feed from other cities built the traffic flow at Charlotte and now we have four nonstops a day," he said. The pattern of connecting flights at each hub allows passengers involved in the hub-and-spoke system to depart in the morning and return at night from nearly all points on the carrier's system, Howard said. Expanding the hub.-and-spoke concept, particularly in a recessionary economy, had elements of a risk, Howard said, but Piedmont's strong financial position en- abled it to take advantage of other air- lines' reversals. The carrier was in a position to pur- chase facilities, take over leases and trade airport slots from carriers that were ready to do business. Over the last 15-18 months Piedmont has added new facilities at Dallas/Ft. Worth, Boston, Charlotte, Raleigh-Dur- ham, Greensboro, Miami, Orlando, Tam- pa, Dayton, Denver and Houston largely with internally generated funds. J. Leonard Martin, vice president, pas- senger services, said Piedmont favors the Reengined DC-3 Aircraft Ordered Los Angeles-First production United States Aircraft Corp./Douglas DC-3 aircraft equipped with Pratt & Whitney of Canada PT6A-45R turboprop engines has been' ordered by a U. S. regional operator for combined passenger and cargo revenue service. The purchase agreement also includes an option to lease or purchase the company's demonstrator aircraft. The initial production aircraft-to be delivered in July-will accommodate 18 passen- gers in a forward passenger compartment and palletized cargo in the aft two-thirds of the cabin. Supplemental 800-gal. fuel tanks will be installed in the outer wing panels, doubling the aircraft's standard 800-gal. fuel capacity. A DC-3 fitted with the turboprop engines has completed 102 hr. of flight testing since last August (Aw&ST Aug. 2, 1982, p. 32; May 31, 1982, p. 23). It is expected to receive a Federal Aviation Administration supplemental type certificate this spring. Formerly based at Van Nuys Airport, United States Aircraft recently moved to larger facilities at nearby Burbank Airport. Transportation aviation subcommittee re- cently that dealings with the FAA have be- come "tougher" in the last several years. "There are some signs the FAA is not being as responsive to recommendations as it used to be," he said. In contrast with 1981, when the FAA adopted 93% of NTSB recommendations, the FAA only adopted 73% last year, he said, adding that the FAA also has been slow in responding to the Board about whether it accepts or rejects recommendations. "For example, the FAA has delayed a final decision on the Board-recommended changes in the operational procedures used by Boeing 737 flightcrews," he said. "The agency has advised the Board that any action on this recommendation must await completion of further wind tunnel tests on the Boeing 737. We intend to keep pressing on these recom- mendations and several others, all of which the Board considers important." Burnett said the FAA also was dragging its long-term lease for airport properties. At the medium-size airports where Piedmont serves, long-term leases are required be- cause the airports have "no way to raise capital to expand. They need the carriers' backing," he said. Piedmont sought and obtained "risk- sharing" by operators at Dayton and Bal- timore and continues to negotiate for a quantity discount on landing fees. Dayton airport expanded its northeast concourse, added a deck level and pro- duced the 11-gate complex with 11 load- ing bridges. Approximately 450,000 sq. ft. of ramp space was added. The $12-million Dayton project was fi- nanced through general obligation bonds issued by the city, and airport revenue bonds. Piedmont will increase its gates at this complex, from seven to nine Apr. 24. The landing fees issue remains unre- solved, according to J. R. Wood, director of aviation for the City of Dayton. Piedmont has proposed that the quanti- ty discount go into effect when daily land- ings exceed the highest level so far achieved by a carrier to avoid complica- tions with carrier contracts. Wood said the proposal, still being dis- cussed, is stymied because the airport has found "no legal way to do it." Piedmont's presence at Dayton has in- creased operations after enplanements de- clined by 17% in the aftermath of deregulation, the strike by air traffic con- trollers and, lately, recent offering of deep- ly discounted fares by People Express at Columbus, Ohio. Since Piedmont's arrival at Dayton, air- line seats offered by carriers have risen 48% over 1980, and operations are "back up to where they ought to be," he said. The Baltimore hub will be bigger than 36 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 -0 heels on an NTSB recommendation to install digital flight data recorders on all aircraft to monitor new avionics and equipment sys- tems. The new data recorders would measure and monitor 11 parameters compared with only five for current flight recorders. He said the U. S. was falling behind many 'European nations in aircraft accident investi- gative techniques because of slowness in adopting new technological tools such as digi- tal recorders. Lack of the digital recorders in all commer- cial aircraft is "undermining" safety efforts in the U. S., Burnett claimed. Burnett said a series of budget cuts in recent years had restricted NTSB activities because of a lack of manpower. "Like other agencies, the board has taken its share of budget cuts," he said. "In view of our unusual- ly small size, these cuts went beyond any fat that we may have had and cut right into our muscle." The NTSB had 401 employees in February, 1980, according to Burnett. By October, 1982, the board was down to only 292 em- ployees-a reduction in staffing of 27%. "While the Board managed to continue its priority investigations during this period, it was not done without sacrifice," he said. "We were forced to issue less reports, less recom- mendations, and delay the initiation of a fol- low-up study of the air traffic control system since the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization strike." The cutback in personnel led to delays in issuing reports, which climbed from 8.6 months in 1981 to 20.7 months. He said the Board is asking Congress to approve a three-year reauthorization request that would authorize the Board $22.6 million in Fiscal 1984, climb to $24.5 million, in Fiscal 1985 and culminate with an authoriza- tion of $26.1 million in Fiscal 1986. The reauthorization would permit the NTSB to hire an additional 31 persons in Fiscal 1984, including 22 more technical experts. the Dayton hub. There will be one more gate in the complex. Piedmont cites the Baltimore/Washing- ton area's population of 5.2 million as an asset. Traffic at Baltimore/Washington International airport increased 20% in 1982 over 1981. Airport officials antici- pate a positive impact from Piedmont's presence. "We have a fair number of short-haul markets that are poorly served," T. James Truby, state aviation administrator, said. Piedmont's traffic also may increase be- cause of the airport's international connec- tions and the proximity of the Washington suburbs in Maryland to the airport, Truby added. Piedmont expects to hire 140-150 new pilots in 1983 and at least 35-40 pilots in 1984 even if no new aircraft are pur- chased. The earrier has hired 100 pilots who came from Braniff International Airways, which filed for bankruptcy in 1982, and 30 other former Braniff pilots are now in Piedmont classes. Average age of new pi- lots is 40-41 years, with' 11,000-12,000 fly- ing hours. Howard is pleased with the perfor- mance of the Boeing 727-200s that the carrier has acquired from Delta Air Lines. Piedmont paid $4.7 million each for 11 aircraft, which were modified by Delta. The carrier invested $700,000 in new equipment for each aircraft, representing a unit total cost of $5.2 million. "Call them gas-guzzlers if you will," Howard said, but the $5.2-million invest- ment when compared with the cost of new aircraft, is spent wisely as long as fuel prices remain stable, he said. Piedmont's Boeing 727-200s are equipped with digital avionics, color radar and new interiors in a 164-seat configura- tion. The aircraft will remain economical- ly feasible for Piedmont as long as fuel remains below $1.60/gal., Howard said. "I won't say we won't buy new technol- ogy aircraft," the president said, "The 757 is not that much bigger than the 727, and the difference in passenger appeal is essen- tially zero." Howard said senior vice presidents for finance like the new-generation aircraft because they offer lower fuel costs. Carri- _0ers at this stage must "balance fuel sav- ings against ownership costs," he added. Piedmont has discussed the Boeing 737- 200, now priced at $16 million, he said, and has looked into the Boeing 737-300 and 400, priced at $28-30 million. "The price for the derivatives troubles us, particularly at current interest rates," he said. Piedmont is careful about its pricing levels when in competition with other car- riers and also when discounts at certain markets begin to have an effect on other markets. The carrier in early March reduced fares from Wilmington, N. C., to levels charged at Raleigh/Durham. Fare levels had been lower at Raleigh/Durham, which attracted passengers who drove from Wilmington and other Carolinas towns to get the lower fares. Piedmont has common-rated fares at other points as well. Howard said Piedmont at first opposed deregulation and altered its position to pro-deregulation largely because officials believed there was little that could be done against the deregulation tide: "Deregulation can work, though it has been traumatic for many airlines," How- ard said. "We have four years of deregula- tion and four years of deregulation pricing, but only in a downside economy. When the economy turns, there will be a better chance for improved yield. Load factors will go up and much of the urge to use discounts will diminish." ^ World Shifts to One Class in Scheduled Service Washington-World Airways is eliminating its first-class and business sections and focusing on one-class scheduled service at competitive fares that offers a wider scope of coach amenities than before. The one-class service, called Ultra Service, is one step in a 1983 operating plan, formulated by World management after consultations with an employee Forward Look Committee. The carrier plan involves expansion to include nonstop Baltimore-Frankfurt service four days a week starting Apr. 21 and Oakland-Newark-Baltimore service daily that will connect with Frankfurt flights, and a new market in the fall. W. P. Jamieson, vice president, marketing and sales, said the operating plan calls for economic recovery of the carrier by mid-1983. The carrier is seeking yield improvement but will remain competitive in price and service, he said. World has identified its market as "the, leisure passenger, VFR-Visiting Friends and Relatives-the young and old, and the cost-conscious businessman," Jamieson said. Other classes of service, such as Executive 1 for businessmen, were profitable only in the fall season, he said. These classes have been eliminated to provide improved coach service, he added. World is reconfiguring five McDonnell Douglas DC-10s used in scheduled service to carry 350 passengers at 34-in. and in some cases 35-in. pitch seats. New cabin interiors with increased carry-on baggage room are being installed. Other amenities include one-stop airport check-in, choice of three entrees, theme cocktails, free wine, hot towels, baby change facilities, inflight electronic games for children and films on the destination of the aircraft. Jamieson said 100 furloughed flight attendants and cockpit crews worked without pay for a period to promote World's new services with travel agents. Their efforts were a factor in the carrier's meeting its January and February goals in its 1983 profit plan, the vice president said. Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 37 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 FAA By Philip J. Klass r ~ ancels VOA Weather Praaram Washington-Federal Aviation Adminis- tration has canceled a planned demonstra- tion of a technique to transmit ground weather radar imagery to general aviation aircraft via VOR stations, delaying the operational availability of such service by at least 10 years. The technique was first demonstrated in Ohio, and a more extensive demonstra- tion-evaluation had been planned for this summer (Aw&sT Nov. 16, 1981, p. 89). FAA Administrator J. Lynn Helms ter- minated the program despite a recent re- port submitted to him by general aviation and business aircraft operators that rec- ommended efforts to alert pilots more promptly to severe storms. Data Feed In the canceled demonstration, storm data from U. S. Weather Service ground radar would have been fed to several VOR stations, probably in the Washington, D. C., area, and broadcast over the little- used voice channel, together with surface weather observations from airports in the region. Aircraft equipped with a small cockpit printer-adapter connected to the output of the aircraft's VOR receiver would print out a replica of the weather radar imagery showing both severity and location of storms. The pilot can select several different dis- play scale factors ranging from 30 X 30 naut. mi. to 256 X 256 naut. mi. Or the pilot can print out surface weather data. Cost analyses performed earlier by gen- eral aviation avionics companies indicated that the airborne equipment needed to provide the new service could be priced at around $2,000 in production quantities. Mitre Corp., which developed the ex- perimental hardware used in the demon- stration in Ohio, recently informed the FAA that it had enough funds in its exist- ing contract to build a dozen units that could be employed in the planned demon- stration and sought agency approval to do so. The necessary modems required to modify three VOR stations to broadcast the weather radar imagery also were avail- able, having been built for the Ohio dem- onstration. Mitre recently demonstrated a function- ally similar terminal that could be used by fixed-base operators to provide pilots with television-type display and a print-out of weather radar imagery and surface obser- vations. The Mitre terminal, which uses a com- mercially available Osborne personal com- puter and a small printer, would cost about $2,000, according to James P. Kel- ley, Mitre project engineer. Kelley said a pilot with a personal com- puter in his home also could program it to perform the necessary processing of weather radar imagery obtained over con- ventional telephone lines. Helms' decision to terminate the pro- gram was based on a "lack of support from the operational side of the house," one FAA official said. "They felt that such a display might lure general aviation pilots into entering areas that appeared to have less precipita- tion echo than others," the official said. He said the FAA eventually plans to transmit ground weather radar data to aircraft cockpits via its Mode-S data link, if requested by a pilot whose aircraft is appropriately equipped. Northwest Shows Profit, Republic a Loss Northwest Airlines recorded an $8.375-million operating loss and a $5.019-million net profit for 1982, while Republic Airlines recorded a $37.223-million operating profit for the year but a net loss of $39.8-million due in part to $100.7 million in interest expense. The carriers' financial reports increase the net losses for nine U. S. majors to $588 million for the year (AW&ST Feb. 14, p. 29). Comparison of reports of individual carriers by year and by fourth quarter are as follows: ^ Northwest-$1.877-billion revenues, up 1.3%; $1.885-billion expenses, up 1.8%. Loss on interest expense, $7.216 million; gain from disposal of property, $12.425 million, and gain from other income, $3.854 million. For the fourth quarter, $473-million revenues, up 8.2%; $487.9-million expenses, up 8.7%; $14.93-million operating loss and a $2.57-million net loss. ^ Republic-$1.530-billion revenues, up 1%; $1.493-billion expenses, up 4%. Interest expense, less capitalized interest, $100.7 million, down from $108.36 million in 1981, and total expenses of $1.570 billion, up from $1.494 billion in 1981. For the fourth quarter, $348.5-million revenues, up 2%; $378.8-million expenses, up 4%; $30.28-million operating loss and a $27.32-million net loss. He acknowledged that because of the limited amount of data that can be trans- mitted to an aircraft via the Mode-S data link during a single scan of the ground interrogator beam, it would be necessary to transmit only the contours of severe weather areas to provide the information in a timely manner. The FAA expects to be able to obtain such severe-weather contours from its cen- tral weather processor when that system becomes operational "in the late 1980s" the official said. However, Mode-S surveillance and data link coverage down to 6,000 ft. altitude over the continental U. S. is not expected to be achieved before the year 2000, ac- cording to the present FAA schedule, the official said. Nationwide Coverage Those who favor the VOR-broadcast technique for ground weather radar claim the FAA could have nationwide coverage before 1990, and that user equipment could be on the market several years be- fore that date. In response to the FAA view that the new service might have an adverse effect on general aviation safety, proponents point to the results of limited tests con- ducted by Ohio University's Avionics En- gineering Center during the summer of 1982. In a report on those tests, published this past December, Richard H. McFar- land said the cockpit weather dissemina- tion system "was found capable of providing radar reflectivity patterns which were used by pilots to adjust their flight paths and thus avoid turbulent areas. "The synoptic view available from the radar located in Columbus, Ohio, gave the pilots a perspective that is not even avail- able from on-board weather radar," McFarland continued. "This was found to be a significant advantage in maximizing the efficiency of the flights and minimiz- ing the discomfort to the crews and pas- sengers." McFarland added that while the tests had emphasized general aviation-type op- erations, "the results are directly applica- ble to commercial and military oper- ations." Of the 16 pilots who participated in the test, McFarland said, "some were very enthusiastic." "At the very least, the respondents felt it offered a useful service.... there were no negative responses from participants concerning the appropriateness of such a device for improving safety of flight," McFarland continued. ^ 38 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Aeronautical Engineering ? PW4000 Uses /T9D, New. Technology East Hartford, Conn.-Development of the Pratt & Whitney PW4000 family of turbofan engines is based on experience gained from the JT9D series of engines, technologies developed from the PW2037 program and new design improvements to provide a series of new technology engines in the 48,000-60,000-lb.-thrust class. Many detailed component changes were necessary to achieve PW4000 engine econ- omy, maintainability and performance gains over the JT9D large turbofan en- gines. The PW4000 is designed for new versions of the Boeing 747 and 767, for Airbus Industrie A300-600 and A310 air- craft, and for retrofit on current JT9D- 7R4 powered aircraft (Aw&sT Dec. 13, 1982, p. 24). Pratt & Whitney management has de- termined that the demand for large com- mercial engines is the strongest segment of the market and wanted a new technology engine to meet the anticipated need. Man- agers estimate 8,000-10,000 transport air- craft will be ordered over the next 20 7 i ,_~ r Cross sections of the Pratt & Whitney PW4000 turbofan engine (bottom half) and the latest version of the JT9D-7R4G (top half, tinted) are compared. The PW4000 has the same dimensions and attach points as the JT9D to allow use with common installations and support equipment. Simplified construction reduces the number of parts and stiffens the structure in the fan and low-pressure compres- sor support drum (A). The core and bypass air splitter (B) is moved back to reduce particle ingestion. An additional bearing (C) stiffens years and that 60% will be wide-body aircraft requiring large turbofan engines. Design of the PW4000 began more than a year before the program's announce- ment last December, Pratt & Whitney en- gineers were given a clean sheet of paper from the start of engine design, according to Karl M. Thomas, senior vice president, Commercial Products Div. "The PW4000 started with ideas from the energy efficient engine [E3] program that were put into practice on the PW2037 and refined for the PW4000," he said. The design group decided early that a new design and not an improved JT9D- 7R4 was needed to provide an engine with the desired fuel economy and thrust im- provements. "The JT9D could have been made to reach 60,000 lb. of thrust, but we needed increased engine life, reliability and lower operating costs. With all of the changes needed to accomplish this, we decided we might as well make a new engine," Wil- ~ I M m ~ T T 1 Liam Robertson, vice president, JT9D and PW4000 series for Pratt & Whitney, said. Improvements in the PW4000 were de- signed to increase fuel efficiency, reduce maintenance and lower ownership costs over the JT9D-7R4. Fuel efficiency was improved by increasing engine rotational speed by 27%, doubling engine stiffness, improving compressor aerodynamics, re- ducing turbine cooling by 26% and using an electronic engine control. Pratt & Whitney expects maintenance requirements to be reduced 25% in an engine with half as many parts as the JT9D. Fewer parts and larger castings used in the engine cases and diffuser sec- tion also will reduce the engine's assembly time, Robertson said. Pratt & Whitney designed the PW4000 to fit existing JT9D-7R4 installations to further reduce costs. To meet this require- ment, the engine has the same fan case diameter, overall length and mounting points as the JT9D-7R4. This commonal- ity reduces costs by minimizing engine G PW4000 the front of the engine. Intermediate case (D) is strengthened also to stiffen the engine and improve the gearbox mounting. High-pressure compressor improvements (E) include fewer parts, improved airfoils, higher rotor speed and Thermatic rotor expansion system. One-piece cast diffuser, improved fuel nozzle and a ring-rolled burner reduce parts in the diffuser/burner section (F). High-pressure turbine blades (G) have improved aerodynamics and require less cooling air. Low- pressure turbine blades (H) incorporate a new design. Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 43 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Prototype intermediate case for the Pratt & Whitney PW4000 powerplant shows the wide vanes used to separate and stiffen the low- and high-pressure compressor sections of the engine. A one-piece casting of the production intermediate case will replace the welded construction technique of the prototype case. Compressor blades and other components are being assembled for the first high-pressure compressor rig tests, scheduled to begin in July. inventories and allows the use of common handling equipment, test cells and na- celles, according to Jim Bruner, PW4000 engineering manager. "Our objective also is to phase out the JT9D with the PW4000. We perceive 1988 or 1989 as the time for JT9D-7R4 production halt, with spares continuing in production," he said. Detailed improvements over the JT9D- 7R4 are incorporated throughout the en- gine beginning with the fan section. The front fan was redesigned to reduce the number of blades from 40 to 38. The in- creased stiffness of the engine case com- pared with the JT9D allows a tighter fan tip clearance with the fan case rub strip. The bypass area behind the fan also was designed to increase the flowpath conver- gence to reduce the aerodynamic losses across the case vanes, Bruner said. The low-pressure compressor section in- corporates second-generation controlled diffusion airfoils, reducing the number of airfoils in this section by 9%. The new controlled diffusion airfoils are similar to those used in the PW2037, but they in- clude changes defined by PW2037 testing and better computer design modeling, Bruner said. The controlled diffusion airfoils have thicker leading and trailing edges than standard airfoils that increase the blade's resistance to particulate erosion and per- mit them to operate at higher Mach num- bers without blade efficiency loss (Aw&ST Jan. 25, 1982, p. 48). Pratt & Whitney also redesigned the low-pressure compressor section to reduce the amount of dirt particles ingested into the engine. The air splitter separating bypass and core airflow is moved 1.2 in. farther back, compared with the JT9D, and the blades and stators located behind the splitter are swept back at an angle. The extra space allows more particles to pass outside the core, eliminating 12%% of the dirt that en- ters the compressor on JT9D-7R4 engines. Particles still entering the compressor can be removed by a bleed port behind the fourth row of low-pressure compressor blades. The 1-in. port catches dirt as it is thrown to the outside of the case wall by the compressor blades and is routed into the bypass airflow. The port eliminates another 8% of the ingested particles. Pratt & Whitney's effort to increase the stiffness of the PW4000 over the JT9D is evident in the intermediate case area. The vanes separating the low-pressure from the high-pressure compressor were wid- ened and extended as a solid strut to the outer casing. The low-pressure compressor drum is welded into a single piece to add more rigidity and allow tighter blade clearances. An extra bearing, not present on the JT9D, was added to the section to stabi- lize and stiffen the front of the engine, Bruner said. The bearing is located between the No. 1 and 2 bearings on JT9Ds. "People were used to the numbering for the four bearing locations on the JT9D, so we decided to call the new one a 1.5 bearing to retain the same nomenclature. In other words, the No. 4 bearing location ? on the JT9D still coincides with the same bearing on the PW4000." Pratt & Whitney increased the rotor speed 27% over the JT9D-7R4 by de- creasing the diameter of the high-pressure compressor and high-pressure turbine. The increase in rotor speed raised the pressure ratio by 10% and dropped the number of airfoils in the the high-pressure compressor by 31%. The use of the sec- ond-generation , controlled diffusion air- foils also decreased the number of airfoils needed in the compressor, Walter Stahl, PW4000 development engineer, said. Simplified Case The compressor section also is designed for stiffness by simplifying the case struc- ture design and electron beam welding the rotors into a solid drum. This improves the gas path sealing and reduces the num- ber of parts in the section, Stahl said. Within the high-pressure compressor section is a new system to reduce blade clearances during different engine operat- ing conditions. In the past, cool air has been used to shrink the outer compressor case during cruise to improve perfor- mance by allowing less air leakage. The new Thermatic rotor drum distributes -hot air into the rotor cavity, forcing the blades to expand out toward the case wall seals. The increased stiffness of the. engine also allows closer clearance tolerances during takeoff without blade end rubbing prob- lems, Stahl said. Air is taken from the ninth stage of the compressor and is passed into the rotor during takeoff to expand the rotor and tighten clearances. Hotter air from the fifteenth stage is used to retain the tight clearances when the ninth-stage air is cooler during cruise conditions. Develop- ment of hollow ninth-stage stators provid- ed the engineers a way to pass the air from outside of the compressor case into the rotor cavity. All of the compressor improvements re- duce thrust specific fuel consumption by 3.4% from the JT9D-7R4, according to Pratt & Whitney. Cascade Diffuser The diffuser/burner section of the PW4000 borrows heavily from PW2037 design. A cascade diffuser supported by 24 struts distributes air to 24 fuel nozzles. The PW4000 burner uses a double pass liner similar to the PW2037, has 60% fewer parts and is 4 in. shorter than the JT9D-7R4 burner. A simplified fuel noz- zle also cut 10-20% of the PW4000 burn- er parts compared with the PW2037 burner section design, Bruner said. The high-pressure turbine section also gains from the higher rotational speed of the engine. The section contains 43% few- er airfoils and 55% fewer parts than the JT9D-7R4. The high-pressure turbine blades were designed using three-dimen- 44 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 r sional computer modeling to improve air- flow near the blade's base and improve their efficiency. The three-dimensional blades are more complex in shape and are configured to minimize aerodynamic end- wall losses due to clearance leakages (A.w&ST June 28, 1982, p. 121). Pratt & Whitney claims a 3.9% reduc- tion in thrust specific fuel consumption from the diffuser/burner section and the high-pressure turbine section over the JT9D-7R4. The three-dimensional airfoil design also is used in the blades and exhaust case vanes of the low-pressure turbine section. Pratt & Whitney claims a.1.0% reduction in thrust specific fuel consumption mainly from the improved airfoil-design. The sec- tion uses 9% fewer airfoils than the JT9D-7R4. All engine functions are controlled by a digital electronic engine control. The con- trol monitors engine air requirements to the airframe, Thermatic rotor and turbine air control valve scheduling, fuel flow scheduling for idle and transient engine operations, high-pressure compressor vane positioning and oil cooler valve control. 'The electronic engine control also elimi- nates engine trimming after maintenance. The PW4000 will be compatible with mechanical cockpit interfaces as well as the newer electronic cockpits. The engine i mands from a three-man cockpit and drive analog instrumentation in response. The engine also can accept electrical com- mands through the electronic engine con- trol and respond back through digital data links when used with electronic cockpits, George Sevich, PW4000 development en- gineer, said. Designing the engine to accept both types of control inputs did not force any compromises, since this capability was planned early in the engine's development, according to Sevich. The decision to produce an all-new en- gine allowed manufacturing to be included in design integration and in risk versus benefit studies from the beginning of the program, Robert J. Piasecki, manufactur- ing manager for Pratt & Whitney, said. "This early involvement in the program will allow us to build the development engine in the same manner as the produc- tion engine, basically using production tooling," he said. Production of the PW4000 will take ad- vantage of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing, composite technology, ring rolling for the combustor liner and lasers for welding, hard facing, blade cooling hole drilling and marking, Piasecki said. Engine production will be split between Falcon D Tested as Electronic Countermeasures Trainer Flight Systems/Dassault-Breguet Falcon 20D, configured as an elec- tronic countermeasures training aircraft, is shown during a test flight over the California desert. The Flight Systems-initiated development is aimed at providing airborne electronic warfare and countermea- sures training for U. S. and allied naval, ground and air forces under flight service contracts (Aw&ST Feb. 14, p. 13; Oct. 11, 1982, p. 111). The leased Federal Express Falcon 20D carries programma- ble, computer-controlled communications and radar jamming equip- ment. External modifications include ultra and very high frequency radio antennas on the forward and aft lower fuselage for disruptive communications transmissions; D-, G-, I- and J-band radar electronic countermeasures antennas located in the nose radome, and aft- Middletown and Southington, Conn., North Berwick, Maine, and the new facili- ty in Columbus, Ga. (.Aw&sT Aug. 2, 1982, p. 86). "We are working toward. a modular concept with each factory shipping a com- plete module;" Piasecki. said. Final assem- bly of the engine will be done at Middletown. The initial production PW4000s will be certified at 56,000 lb. of thrust with an overall 7% improvement in fuel consump- tion. Subsequent versions will be rated from 48,000-60,000 lb. of thrust with an additional 4% improvement in fuel con- sumption. ."Only modest changes in the high-pres- sure turbine, configuration and electronic engine control are needed to cover the 48,000-60,000-lb.-thrust range," Bruner said. "We do not see any need to go above 60,000 lb. of thrust." Pratt & Whitney plans to complete all design work by June and conduct high- pressure compressor rig tests from July through November. Low-pressure turbine rig tests are scheduled from March through November, 1984, with the first complete engine test to start in April, 1984. FAA certification of the PW4000 is scheduled for July, 1986, to support the first airline deliveries in 19.87. ^ coverage air-to-air radar jamming antennas in the canister-like ra- dome mounted below the vertical stabilizer. An on-board Hewlett Packard 85 microcomputer tailors and controls transmissions of radar and communications electronic warfare signals produced by a company-designed wave function generator, emulating techniques and modes used by Soviet jammers. Following a brief test program, the aircraft will conduct countermeasures training for U. S. and Canadian military exercises scheduled for this summer, attempting to penetrate allied defense networks. Flight Systems plans to upgrade the Falcon's countermeasures capabilities to simulate coherent radar jammers that threaten U. S. Air Force/McDonnell Douglas F-15 and USAF/General Dynamics F-16 fighter aircraft. Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 45 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 RESERVE,POW.ER~Ff RR .H` HOTDAYH lIG H?ALTITtIDE PERFORMANCE SCOU MISSION COMMUNICATION AND NAVIGATION SYSTEMS. Helicopter Plan's Success Keyed to Control of Cost Washington-Cost control may be key to any Army success in completing its Heli- copter Improvement Program (AHIP) to develop the Bell OH-58D Scout. Program costs have gone in less than three years from an initial estimate of $1.3 billion to $2.7 billion with a drop in planned aircraft procurement from 720 to 578. Because aircraft capabilities have not been tested, the General Accounting Of- fice believes additional cost increases can be anticipated. Army officials said they have contained costs within the ceiling price by negotiat- ing a fixed-price incentive contract for the full-scale engineering development phase of the program despite a rise in target costs of almost $3.1 million during the first 13 months of the contract. Ceiling price options for the first two production buys of 16 and 44 aircraft also were negotiated to control costs further, they said. The OH-58D is intended to give the Army a reconnaissance and standoff tar- get acquisition capability in daylight, night and adverse weather conditions. It will have a basic O1-1-58A airframe with modifications to include: ^ A McDonnell Douglas/Northrop mast-mounted sight above the main rotor. ^ A four-bladed glass fiber composite main rotor and composite main rotor hub. ^ An upgraded drive system with a 435-hp. main transmission. ^ An upgraded 110-hp. tail rotor drive system. ^ Vibration isolation pylon mounting system. ^ Two Allison 250-C30P 650-shp. type engines. ^ Provisions for mounting a multipur- pose lightweight missile system. . n Improved nap-of-the-earth flight characteristics and communications and navigation avionics. ^ Survivability equipment, including a radar warning receiver and infrared sup- pressor. Army doctrine calls for using the OH- 58Ds in conjunction with either Hughes AH-64 or Bell AH-1S attack helicopters. The OH-58Ds would seek out and target enemy vehicles and positions with mast- mounted laser designators. Attack heli- copters then would destroy the targets. The Scout helicopters also would be able to "guide" certain missiles to their targets as well as designate targets for fixed-wing aircraft or artillery. "This will be our first true scout heli- copter," one Army officer said. "Most of the aircraft we have so far are really ob- servation helicopters performing scout roles." Unlike the others, he said, the OH-58D has improved communication and target acquisition capability plus the ability to meet performance requirements calling for hovering out of ground effect at 4,000 ft. on a 95F day. The aircraft's endurance is estimated at 2.4 hr. Among uncertainties cited by the GAO report is development and testing of the mast-mounted sight, which incorporates sensors for automatic tracking, rangefind- ing and laser target designation. The sight housing is to be 25 in. in diameter and mounted about 30 in. above the main rotor, giving the helicopter in- creased survivability by allowing it to hide behind terrain features while performing' its mission. The sight will be used as a periscope to see and acquire targets with- 46 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 out the helicopter airframe being exposed to enemy radar or weapons. The Army and GAO differ on financial and safety risks imposed by the sight. The Army said basic sight components are "repackaged proved designs" and are low risk. The GAO cites the mechanical integration of components in the thermal, space and weight restrictions of the sphere as a "major risk contributor." GAO also cites a contractor analysis showing inter- nal bearing isolators as having "inade- quate fatigue life" by failing after only 200 hr. instead of the 4,500 hr. required by the Army. Redesigned Material Since that analysis, isolator material has been redesigned and changed to meet Army requirements, the GAO said. Inte- gration of sights and airframes is to begin in July with operational flight testing scheduled for October. Success in utilizing the sight depends largely upon a pilot's ability to hold a precise hover. According to a 1982 Army study, this hover creates a high pilot workload. As a result, the GAO recom- mends that an altitude hold and hover system be considered. Requirements for a system have not been defined, but Bell officials have pro- posed one that would take inputs from the Doppler and attitude heading and refer- ence systems and feed them to the existing stability control augmentation system to provide heading control. Provisions for al- titude hold are not proposed. The radar. altimeter is not part of the system. A program official said that when the cockpit was designed attention was giver, to reducing crew workloads. "If we find during any development or operational testing.that we need that [alti- tude and hover system], we can go back and retrofit," he said. "It would take money but not that much time." Missile Capability Army officials are interested in equip- ping the OH-58D with air-to-air missile capabilities in the future, although no funds have been requested. An estimated $44 million would be needed to develop a weapon system using a lightweight version of General Dynamics' Stinger missile. Inclusion of a Stinger package, officials believe, would greatly enhance survivabil- ity of both the scout and attack helicop- ters. Soviet Hind attack helicopters have air-to-air capabilities. The Army determined that the 100-lb. infrared night vision system in the AH-64 is too heavy for the OH-58D. Therefore, night vision goggles are to be used by Scout pilots. The GAO said current goggles are light amplification devices and require some ambient light to be effective. This incompatibility of systems, it said, Rolls-Royce Installs Engine Core Testbed Technicians at Rolls-Royce, Ltd., Bristol, England, work on the core of a Turbo-Union RB. 199 turbofan during commissioning of a new test plant. The computer-controlled test facility can record up to 500 core parameters and simulate realistic entry-air conditions. X-ray imaging system permits engineers to observe behavior of internal components while the core is rotating. could preclude certain joint night opera- tions. Army officials disagree. They said exist- ing goggles are adequate. Another area of disagreement between the Army and GAO concerns the Army's 1980 cost estimate of $1.3 billion for 720 aircraft. The GAO considers this estimate "very significant." Defense planners told GAO such esti- mates "should not be given too much cre- dence" because they were made prior to the definition of the AHIP/Scout configu- ration and were for an aircraft with limit- ed capability. That aircraft was to use existing engines, drive trains, avionics, ro- tor systems and minimum range sights. Army officers said such an aircraft sim- ply could not meet mission or perfor- mance requirements. Performance require- ments and program definitions changed in July, 1980, to enable the OH-58D to oper- ate in a nap-of-the-earth environment with full mission payloads in hot or cold weather. Consequently, the engines and power trains were upgraded, and new main and tail rotors were required along with ex- panded testing. As a result, program costs increased about $357 million. In Fiscal 1981, the Army made configu- ration changes and extended the procure- ment program by two years, which increased cost to over $2 billion. The air- craft to be purchased decreased from 720 to 578. By October, 1982, total estimated program costs were $2.7 billion. The GAO said cost growth has de- creased since the Army "fully defined sys- tem requirements." ^ Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 49 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 CA SA/Nurtanlo CN-235 Aircraft Nears Seville, Spain-First of two CASA/Nur- tanio CN-235 commuter transport flight prototype aircraft is in final assembly here as the Spanish/Indonesian cooperative program moves toward initial flight this October. The aircraft manufactured at CASA's Seville-Tablada plant will be joined by a Nurtanio-built prototype in Indonesia for a 12-13-month flight test and certification program. This is expected to lead to start of CN-235 deliveries in late 1984. CASA and Nurtanio also are building one additional preproduction airframe each for use in ground test activities. The Spanish unit will be used mainly for static testing and also may perform some fatigue work. The Indonesian airframe will be dedicated to fatigue tests. The CN-235 is a program shared by the two companies on a 50-50 basis. They have formed an organization called Air- tech Industries to act as the program's central management group. Production tasks for the twin-engine turboprop transport will be divided be- tween the two companies, and final assem- bly lines will be established in Spain and Indonesia. Program plans call for combined pro- duction to reach eight CN-235s a month two and one-half years after first aircraft delivery. Four units a month will be pro- duced at CASA and four at Nurtanio fa- cilities. The CN-235 project follows a separate effort in which Nurtanio is pro- ducing the CASA-designed C-212 trans- port under agreement with the Spanish company. Nurtanio has assumed a greater role in the CN-235 because it is participating with CASA in design and development from program inception. This is part of an Indonesian plan to develop a complete de- sign, development and production capabil- ity for its government-run aerospace industry (Aw&ST Apr. 19, 1982, p. 68). CASA officials said the overall CN-235 program remains on schedule. Simulta- neous rollout ceremonies for the two fly- ing prototype aircraft in Spain and Indonesia are targeted for late August or early September. The ceremonies will be held at CASA's Getaf-- plant near Madrid and Nurtanio's facility at Java's Bandung air force base. Nurtanio's portion of CN-235 develop- ment has had some delays, and the manu- facturer is being supported by a con- centrated CASA assistance program. A review was held recently to evaluate cur- rent program status in both Indonesia and Spain. The Nurtanio effort had fallen about two months behind at one point, program officials said. Despite the delays, CASA management said the young Indo- nesian industry is demonstrating its ability to handle the new aircraft program and has shown technical competence. Orders for the CN-235 stand at 104 firm and 18 options. The majority are booked with customers in the Spanish and Indonesian home markets. Sales price for a fully equipped 39-passenger version was set at approximately $4.6 million in 1982. The 1983 price has not been set, but any increase is expected to be 10% or less from last year's level. CASA officials said they have been sat- isfied with the number of orders booked to date, although sales efforts have been affected by the slowdown in worldwide commuter regional airline markets. The organization is working to establish an identity as a new-generation transport producer in key markets such as Europe and North America. A CN-235 sales operation is being orga- nized in the U. S. that will include estab- lishment of an office in Washington, D. C. CASA exhibited a CN-235 mockup at the Regional Airlines Assn. meeting last De- cember (Aw&sT Dec. 13, 1982, p. 40). This was followed by a briefing in January for airline executives held at General Elec- tric's aircraft engine business group fac- 50 Aviation Week & Space Technoloqy, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Completion tory in Lynn, Mass., where the CN-235's CT7-7 engine is assembled (Aw&sT Feb. 14, p. 123). CASA is stressing that it already has a presence in the U. S. market through the sales of the company's C-212 transport, which is operated by six North American regional operators. Flight test program for the CN-235 is expected to accumulate a total of about 1,000 flight hours on the Spanish and In- donesian prototypes. Flight time will be divided about equally between the two air- craft. The CN-235 will be certified to Fed- eral Aviation Regulations Part 25 standards. At least one CN-235 will be delivered by CASA to an airline customer in late 1984. This will be to Aviaco, a Spanish commuter carrier. Other deliveries will follow in the final weeks of 1984 or in early 1985. No full-scale engineering mockup of the CN-235 is to be built by CASA or Nur- tanio. An engineering mockup of the cockpit section will be developed to study avionics and wiring installation, and the CASA static test airframe also will handle some engineering mockup duties, accord- ing to program officials. A mockup of the engine nacelle also is being produced. Fuselage of CASA's CN-235 flying pro- Fuselage for the CASA/Nurtanio CN-235 turboprop transport takes shape at CASA's Seville plant (above). Two airframes are being built. One will be used for static testing; the second will become the Spanish flying prototype CN-235. Nose section (left) has been mated to the airframe.The outer wings, aft fuselage and tail section are being built by Nurtanio in Indonesia. Standard configuration for the CN-235 transport accommodates.39 passengers in seating with 30-in. pitch. The cabin is to be fitted with overhead luggage bins, and additional baggage can be placed in the compartment aft of the rear cabin bulkhead. CASA is developing a special luggage container to fit in the aircraft's rear baggage compartment. totype is being assembled at the Seville- Tablada plant and will be shipped north to Getafe, where the flight development activity will take place. Mating of the pro- totype's wings and empennage will be done in a new development/test hangar built at Getafe to support the CN-235 program. The full-scale production effort will be centered at Seville. Assembly work will be done at the Seville-Tablada plant, and components will be trucked to the nearby Seville-San Pablo facility for final assem- bly and flight acceptance. Construction work on two new build- ings has begun at Seville-San Pablo for the CN-235. One will house the final assem- bly line, and the other will be for aircraft painting. CASA currently has its C-212 assembly and flight acceptance activities at Seville-San Pablo. Basic flight and performance data for the CN-235 are being verified in the flight test program. Maximum ramp weight for the aircraft is estimated at 28,769 lb., and maximum takeoff weight is targeted at 28,659 lb. Maximum landing weight is set at 28,218 lb., and the estimated zero fuel weight maximum is 26,013 lb. Operating empty weight is 18,132 lb., and maximum payload weight in the passenger configura- tion is 7,881 lb. Program officials said the initial air- frames produced appear to be consistent with these weight projections. Range with maximum payload is set at 430 naut. mi. This calculation is made at maximum cruising power at cruise alti- tude and with instrument flight rules fuel reserves. Maximum cruise speed is esti- mated at 245 kt. The pressurization system is being de- signed at 3.6 psi., giving the aircraft a ceiling limit of 18,000 ft. The cabin will be pressurized to an equivalent altitude of 8,000 ft. Pressurization may be increased to 4-4.5 psi. based on the results of static testing, according to Pedro Martinez, CASA's CN-235 marketing manager. An important factor in the decision to set pressurization at 3.6 psi was the capa- bility to retain the CN-235's large rear Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 51 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 is -0 The smalleconomicalbusiness jet has served its historical purpose. It led to the big, conomical business jet. Cabin Width Cubic Maximum Range (With NBAA/IFR Reserves (Centerline) Feet Payload and 5 Passen gers) 1,150 ft 7,830 lbs. 2,800 NM Challenger 500 8 ft, 2 in. 700 ft 4,130 tbs. 2,225 NM Falcon 200 200 6 ft, 2 in. t 400 ft 2470 tbs. 2,040 NM Learjet 55 5 ft., 11 in. ..: '??, 604 ft 2,050 tbs. 2,220 NM Hawkerslddelay 125/700 5 ft., 11 in. . ? ? t 438 ft 2,072 tbs. 2,100 NM Citation 111 5 ft., 8 in. When you send executives across the country to negotiate a deal, or inspect a property, or han- dle an emergency, or otherwise conduct business on behalf of the stockholders, the purpose of send- ing them via privately owned and operated aircraft is obvious: To move them with maximum speed and a minimum of physical and mental discomfort, so they can function better en route and, more importantly, once they arrive. What has become equally ob- vious over the years is that the very aircraft they are sent in tend to defeat that purpose. The cabins are too small, the engines are too small, the thinking is too small. Conventional transcontinental corporate jets may be woefully inadequate, but not willfully so. Most are simply hostage to the thinking and technology of the sixties, when the original versions of these aircraft were first designed and built. Back then, you could not have a big, comfortable passenger cabin without big, fuel-guzzling engines to go with it. You could not have de- cent transcontinental range without a mailing tube for a fuselage and a good, stiff wind at your back. Since such shortcomings were literally designed into the air- craft of that period, there seems little sense in trying to overcome those shortcomings with what are essentially those same aircraft. Particularly when you consider what modern technology has wrought in the interim. The Canadair Challenger 600. Now you can operate a big transcontinental corporate jet for little more than the cost of a small transcontinental corporate jet. The Canadair Challenger repre- sents nothing less than a decade-and-a-half leap in tech- nology. Resulting not just in an extremely economical aircraft, but one that contains a passenger cabin eight feet, two inches wide at the centerline. Two feet wider than the Falcon 200. Two feet, three inches wider than the Learjet 55 and the Hawker-Siddeley 125/ 700. And two feet, six inches wider than the Citation III. As for range, it is entirely argu- able that the Challenger 600, with its 2,800 nautical mile NBAA/IFR range, is the only real transconti- nental corporatejet in the lot, capa- ble of making NY-LA non-stop with unfailing reliability. Not to mention a full passenger cabin. Or fly New York to Detroit to St. Louisto Pittsburgh and backto New York without having to refuel, and with NBAA/IFR reserves inthetanks. So, you can struggle along in a cramped, limited-range, limited- passenger aircraft that happens to look inexpensive to run. Or enjoy the benefits of a quiet, spacious, long-range, more productive aircraft that actually is inexpensive to run. To find out more about the honestly transcontinental Canadair Challenger 600, just call Mr. James B. Taylor, President of Canadair Inc. His telephone number is (203) 226-1581. Or you can drop him a line at Canadair Inc., 274 Riverside Avenue, Westport, CT 06880. canadair challenger Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 -0 CARGO CONFIGURATION All-cargo configuration of the CN-235 transport can carry four LD-3 containers or two 88 x 125-in. pallets. The aircraft's cabin interior length is 30 ft. 8 in. cargo door. "The cargo door is an impor- tant feature for CN-235 operators, civil and military," Martinez said. "We wanted to make sure the door was part of the basic aircraft design without the weight penalties we might face with higher pres- surization." Martinez said average stage length for the CN-235 is estimated at 200-300 naut. mi., and operators wanting to optimize the aircraft's efficiency would not want to fly higher than 18,000 ft. in their normal operations. CN-235 Suppliers Seville, Spain-Following is a list of major suppliers for the Spanish/Indonesian CN- 235 commuter transport program: General Electric ..............CT7-7 turboprop engines Hamilton Standard ..................... Propellers Hamilton Standard ........... Air-conditioning Garrett .................................. Pressurization Collins ............................Avionics package Fairchild ................Cockpit voice recorder/ flight data recorder Telephonics.....Interphone/public address Lord Corp ............. Engine isolation system Teleflex Aerospace ................... Powerplant control system Dowty. Rotol ............. Flap actuating system Messier-Hispano-Bugatti ...... Landing gear Dunlop ..................... Brakes, antiskid, tires Kratos ..............................Engine indicators Revue Thommen ............... Flight indicators Auxilec .............................Starter generator Grimes ...................................Exterior lights "Even if the average stage length for the aircraft grows after the CN-235 is in service for several years, the 18,000-ft. ceiling still is a good target for optimizing the aircraft's performance," he said. The rear-door configuration is pat- terned from the design used on CASA's unpressurized C-212 transport. The door's bottom portion deploys downward from the CN-235 fuselage, providing a 119.7 X 92.5-in., ramp. The upper door segment activates upward inside the fuse- lage. This arrangement will enable the CN-235 to handle LD-3 containers and 88-in.-wide pallets. Cabin interior length is 30 ft. 8 in., and volume is 1,478 cu. ft. Maximum cabin width is '8 ft. 10.2 in., and floor width is 7 ft. 9.1 in. Maximum cabin loading dimen- sions are for a width of 88 in. and a height of 52 in. In an all-cargo configuration the CN-235 can handle four LD-3 containers or two 88 X 125-in. pallets. .. Standard configuration accommodates 39 passengers at 30-in. seat pitch. The majority of rows in this configuration are arranged 2-2 with a central aisle. A final row of three seats is positioned against the rear cabin bulkhead. Standard CN-235 cockpit instrumenta- tion will include four 5-in. cathode ray tube displays. The pilot and copilot's posi- tion will be fitted with two displays each. One will function as the ADI (attitude director indicator); and the other will be the HSI (horizontal situation indicator). Basic avionics package is with Collins equipment. It includes the APS 65 autopi- lot that CASA hopes to certify for Cate- gory 2 landings on the CN-235. ^ ]e:-Cz1G'11i NBC -01 ,FAR ING ALE t.0Y ifl "r3~- X595 lbr 2~ 16, Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 v o i e ees ? art;rft, y i 1 vet 1{~a10 O =b atd II frtq M t1@ rrtanltcrs .. ARA' lam " . Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 IRAS Detecting Spectral Colors Of Elements in Distant Galaxies London-Infrared telescope and other detec- tion instrumentation on the Infrared Astro- nomical Satellite (IRAS), launched Jan. 26 from Vandenberg AFB, Calif., are demonstrat- ing sufficiently high resolution to enable the satellite's radiation spectrometer to display radiation lines of individual elements clearly. Spectrum lines of both sulphur and neon 3 have been observed in radiation from distant galaxies. One of the concerns of the science team was that the system's resolution would not permit individual traces of elements to be clearly detected. "Spectrum lines of neon 3 are very sharp," Professor Dick Jennings, one of the resident astronomers at Rutherford Appleton Labora- tories, Chilton, England, said. Since it is known how much energy is re- quired to produce neon 3, the gas's detection indicates the temperature of the star radiat- ing it and the amount present in the star's makeup, he said. Although the satellite has so far completed about 16% of its work in surveying the sky, the data have been analyzed only on a sample basis. Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., is processing the data, and techniques are still being developed and tested there. Science team members at Chilton indicated that to prevent costly delays through the use of incompletely developed processing tech- niques, data from a sample area of the sky was being used to refine the techniques be- fore work on the rest of the data was begun. At Chilton, the data acquisition process is being monitored to insure that each scan of the -sky produces the required data, or to rescan an area quickly if the scan is in some way deficient. Several rescans may be neces- sary to obtain the data that would have been obtained in the original scan, Jennings said, since the movement of the satellite would require several passes to cover the same area covered by the first. Space Technology Center Set for Soviet Space' Monitoring By Craig Covault Colorado Springs, Colo.-Space Com- mand's Space Defense Operations Center buried within Cheyenne Mountain here is maturing to a point at which the facility can play a strategic warning role by moni- toring Soviet space activities that may in- dicate possible hostile Soviet activities on Earth. "The strategic warning value of space systems is a primary factor that we need to exploit," USAF Col. Gerald M. May, director of space operations for Space Command, said: "We need to better un- derstand how this would fit into our deci- sion-making process-make a determi- nation of what we see and if we can, make a judgment on Soviet intent. We would then try to marry that with all of the indicators we see in the spectrum of activi- ties we see worldwide. "Space is not all that esoteric, it has tactical and terrestrial value," May said. The Space Defense Operations Center (Spadoc) is a command post with comput- er consoles upon which can be displayed geographic and digital data on the ground track and condition of all spacecraft tracked by North American Aerospace Defense Command. Intelligence officers and their computer displays are also posi- tioned in Spadoc, as is a status board denoting the condition of virtually all U. S. defense and government civil space- craft and key ground stations. The objective is to have one point at which the status of all U. S. space assets and the intent of Soviet systems can be monitored and warnings issued to U. S. space operators if necessary (Aw&sT Feb. 8, 1982, p. 21). In order to have such interaction with the spacecraft operators, Space Defense Operations Center personnel have been negotiating interaction agreements on all U. S. government-operated spacecraft. Six agreements have been signed, five are close to being signed and 11 others are still in negotiation. One other planned agreement process has not yet begun, while two others have some differences that need to be worked out between Space Command and the operator before they can be implemented. Space Defense officers said they have been limited by the amount of manpower assigned to working out these agreements and wish Space Command would place a higher priority on the work. The current number of signed agreements is only two more than last year at this time. The agreements resulting from these ne- gotiations result in procedures on how the Also, some of the instrumentation in the spacecraft and on the ground is still being calibrated. Mapping of the entire sky is expected to take slightly more than six months from the time the first mapping scans were made on Feb.10 (Aw&sT Feb. 28, pp. 21, 59). Chopped photometric channel (CPC) in- strumentation contained in the Dutch Addi- tional Experiment (DAX) package, which also is carried on the IRAS, is producing infrared maps of approximately nine arc-minutes by nine arc-minutes, a greater spatial resolution than is possible with the survey instrumenta- tion used to map the sky. These maps are being made from observa- tions centered on known astronomical ob- jects, which permit the infrared map to be compared to photographs of the same-area-' taken through an optical telescope. Each of the observations being taken by the DAX is presented in two radiation bands-50 microns and 100 microns-to enable further comparison. Initial observations were taken of galaxy NGC 891, which is located about 15 million light years from Earth, and of an area within spacecraft operators and the Space De- fense Operations Center personnel will ex- change data on a day-to-day basis or in circumstances where a spacecraft malfunc- tion or hostile act has occurred. One recent example of this interaction occurred Nov. 25, 1982, when the GOES 4 geosynchronous orbit weather satellite operated by the National Earth Satellite Service had a serious imaging system mal- function (Aw&sT Dec. 6, 1982 p. 26). As soon as spacecraft ground control- lers detected a problem on the spacecraft, positioned over the Pacific Ocean, they went into routine failure analysis proce- dures and informed the Space Defense Operations Center here about the prob- lem. The timing of the failure in relation to the position at that time of low-altitude Soviet spacecraft or other Soviet platforms capable of carrying laser weapons systems was assessed to be sure no hostile act had caused the failure. In reality it provided a good simulation of what would become a more important assessment in a time of international ten- sion. Other spacecraft malfunctions have been reported and assessed in a similar manner. Commercial spacecraft have not yet been included in the process for such in- Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 teraction because the Defense Dept. Jias been unable to determine how commercial spacecraft would interact with the mili- tary in a crisis situation or how to provide spacecraft survivability measures to com- mercial spacecraft without a multimillion dollar federal funding program. The operational Soviet antisatellite sys- tem, using spacecraft launched on SL-11 boosters into co-orbital trajectories with target spacecraft, is a primary concern in the Space Defense Operations Center. Whenever such a mission is launched, even if it appears the Soviets are going after one of their own target spacecraft, the center here alerts all U. S. satellite operators with vehicles in orbits that could be reached by the Soviet Asat as it flies its mission. In this same vein, the maneuvers of all Soviet spacecraft are called to the atten- tion of Space Defense Operations Center personnel so the relative geometry of the Soviet spacecraft making the maneuver can be assessed against the positions of U. S. spacecraft. The Spadoc also will be the primary command center for U. S. antisatellite weapon operations using a Vought miniature vehicle launched on a McDonnell Douglas F-15. The highest priority cross-monitoring of positions between Soviet and U. S. space- craft is done for USAF imaging reconnais- sance satellites on a day-to-day basis and with the space shuttle whenever a manned flight is in progress. It has been only with- in the last year that the management structure at NORAD and more recently Space Command has begun to realize the value of assessing Soviet space actions, USAF Selects Shuttle Ice Deterrent Los Angeles-Air Force has decided to use a ducted hot air system to deter ice buildup on the space shuttle external propellant tank when scheduled shuttle launch operations begin at Vandenberg AFB, Calif., in late 1985. The heated air probably will be provided by jet turbine engine exhaust, program officials said. Air Force officials said icing on the large external tank could pose a problem at Vandenberg prior to shuttle launches because of weather conditions at the West Coast base, located about 140 mi. northwest of Los Angeles. The heater system, as currently envisioned, could include two turbine engines located to the side of the launch pad, with engine exhaust ducts running up through the launch mount to direct the hot air on the bottom of the shuttle propellant tank. The planned system does pose some environmental concerns, however, due to the exhaust products that would be emitted during the approximately 5 hr. of engine operation before launch. A solar heating system had been discussed earlier as a possible alternative to the presently planned unit. Project officials also had considered an electrical system, but it was determined that it would use excessive power. Recent heavy rainstorms along the Southern California coast have not affected construction activities at Vandenberg significantly, although there has been some erosion and runoff from a hill directly east of the shuttle launch pad area. Program officials said the runoff has not been a serious problem and that plans made previous to the recent storms called for stabilization of the hillside following completion of site construction. The 7,000-ft. extension to the north end of the Vandenberg runway in preparation for space shuttle landings has been completed, while construction of the orbiter mainte- nance and checkout facility structure is scheduled to be completed in about two months. The payload preparation room is about 85% complete. A large weather shelter designed to enclose the shuttle on the launch pad when combined with the mobile service tower will be constructed in a.joint venture of Raymond Kaiser Engineers and the Kaiser Steel Corp. The $34-million contract for the project was awarded by the Army Corps of Engineers. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 the Milky Way galaxy, centered on the constel- lation Perseus. NGC 891 is a spiral galaxy but is viewed edge-on from Earth. Optical photographs show black clouds of gas absorbing the light emitted by the stars composing the galaxy. The infrared observations, however, show that the black clouds are actually emitting infrared radiation. The clouds are believed to be molecular hydrogen that is being warmed by stellar radiation from the galaxy and is then emitting the energy absorbed in the in- frared spectrum. Observations of areas in Perseus have found several sources of infrared emissions not previously known. These are thought to be from newly formed stars, which are believed to emit large amounts of infrared energy. The area sur- veyed is believed to be an area in which stars have recently formed and in which they may still be forming. The IRAS science team believes the satellite may be able to discover stars that have es- caped detection by radio astronomy, as well as provide data on the development and be- havior of new stars. especially antisatellite activity, as a possi= ble indicator of Soviet actions on Earth. "The management structure was not fa- miliar with operating under the occasion where you might have something happen to a U. S. satellite," one Space Command officer said. Now NORAD exercises simu- lating an escalation of conflict include ac- tions against U. S. spacecraft as part of the simulations. The importance of the Space Defense Operations Center in shuttle operations also has become apparent to Space Com- mand officers now that the organization has been involved in five shuttle missions. The workload here increases significantly during a shuttle mission to maintain clos- er monitoring of possible accidental colli- sion hazards with orbital debris and also to keep an eye on Soviet spacecraft or ground facilites that could pose a threat to the manned orbiter. "Being totally dedicated to a four-orbit- er fleet is a pretty slim amount of re- sources, and it is something that we have to protect and preserve," May said. "Seeing the kinds of conjunctions that have occurred between space shuttle and other objects in space makes us realize just how fragile it is," he said. The closest such conjunction was a Soviet rocket body that passed within a few miles of the or- biter during shuttle Mission 4. As space traffic increases, Space Defense Opera- tions Center personnel believe they will take on more of a service role in addition to their space defense role. "In order for us to keep everything sep- arated in space, we are going to become the traffic cop," May said. "I don't see any other nation coming forward to do that so it will rest with us. New computa- tional and surveillance capabilities are go- ing to be required on our part to do it." The increased demands on NORAD/ Space Command space tracking and intel- ligence activities have resulted in a more conservative approach now. "There was a time we thought we could do about anything when it came to track- ing vehicles in space," he said. "As the years have gone by, we have become more familiar with the capabilities and limita- tions of our tracking network. We have become very conservative over the past few years to say maybe we are not as good as we used to think we were. Now we say, `Let's be very careful about how we go about calculating satellite positions, let's be sure we know what we are talking about because we are going to be provid- ing some very sensitive data and we are going to be asked to provide some very accurate parameters on the locations of vehicles in space.' "We were very flamboyant when we got into the space business, but not any more. Now we know the Soviets have an antisa- tellite system that can cause a lot of dam- age and trouble." ^ Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 General Electric Wins Fuel Antimisting Contract Federal Aviation Administration's Technical Center has awarded a $2-million contract to General Electric Aircraft Engine Business Group for the design, manufacture and testing of a prototype antimisting fuel degrader. The modified high-speed centrifugal pump would operate ahead of the fuel pump in an aircraft fuel system to retard the action of polymer fuel additives that cause fuel droplets to form instead of a fine mist when fuel tanks are ruptured during a crash and airflow strikes the fuel. Such additives have stopped the propagation of fire within clouds of fuel particles, but would be unsuitable for use in a gas turbine engine without a degradation of properties (Aw&sT Mar. 23, 1981, p. 69). Garrett AiResearch as subcontractor will build and bench-test five prototypes using the General Electric design. Flight tests are scheduled for this year and early next on one engine of a Convair 880 to be provided, converted and flown by General Air Services, which is located in Miami, Fla. The remaining four degraders will be installed on the center's Boeing 720 scheduled for a remotely piloted, full-scale crash test with antimisting fuel in mid-1984 at Edwards AFB, Calif. (Aw&sT Aug. 3, 1981, p. 13). Management Bill Introduced to Relax Overseas Bribery Law Washington-A bill to relax U. S. over- seas bribery law and to make it part of an existing export control statute has been introduced in the House of Representa- tives by Rep. Daniel A. Mica (D.-Fla.), a member of the House Foreign Affairs sub- committee on international economic poli- cy and trade. Mica wants to revise the 1977 Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which prohibits U. S. companies from paying foreign gov- ernment officials to obtain or retain busi- ness, and to consider incorporating it in the Export Administration Act of 1979, which is now up for congressional renewal (Aw&sT Mar. 7, p. 14). The export act empowers the President to control exports for national security and foreign policy reasons through licenses and trade sanc- tions. The Reagan Administration has long sought an amended bribery law, agreeing with business officials that the existing law is poorly defined, difficult for business to understand and interpret, and a detri- ment to trade (Aw&sT May 25, 1981, p. 22). The Senate amended the legislation two years ago, largely in accordance with White House thinking, but the House nev- er acted because Rep. Timothy E. Wirth (D.-Colo.) held the bill in the House Ener- gy and Commerce subcommittee on tele- communications, consumer protection and finance, of which he is chairman (AW&ST June 14, 1982, p. 28; Nov. 30, 1981, p. 29). Wirth opposed the Senate bill because he believes it as ambiguous as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act in defining what constitutes a corrupt payment. Sen. John Heinz (R.-Pa.) reintroduced the Senate bill last Feb. 3. Mica's bill is similar to Heinz's but would take the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act "out of the hands of the Securities and Exchange Commission and would put it in the hands of the secretary of Com- merce as the administering official and the enforcement agency," according to Roger Majak, who is staff director for the House Foreign Affairs subcommittee and who drafted the bill on Mica's behalf. Combining the bribery law with the Ex- port Administration Act would work well technically, Majak said, because the ex- Northrop Executive Posts Los Angeles-Roy P. Jackson, vice presi- dent and general manager of the Northrop Corp.'s Aircraft Div. since 1980, has been appointed to the corporate post of senior vice president-operations. Joseph T. Gallagher, vice president-en- gineering in the Aircraft Div. since 1980, has been named vice president and gener- al manager of the division, succeeding Jackson. Stanley Ebner, vice president and man- ager of Northrop's Washington office since 1979, has been appointed senior vice president-government relations. 0 port statute regulates foreign trade prac- tices in various areas "and of course that's exactly what's involved in the payments to foreign officials." He said the export law furnished all the authority the secretary of Commerce would need to enforce bribery prohibi- tions, except "the authority for injunctive relief in the event there is an apparent violation in progress, and that we have given him in the proposed bill." Energy Subcommittee . Majak disagreed that Mica's bill was intended as a tactical maneuver to spur Wirth's Energy subcommittee into action, but he volunteered that members of the Foreign Affairs subcommittee "obviously are aware that nothing has happened in the Energy and Commerce Committee for over two years, and they obviously are aware of the possibility that this proposal could become an alternative." Majak said he had conferred with Wirth's subcommittee staff about Mica's bill and "they are obviously, I think, skep- tical of it in a number of ways." He attributed this in part to their con- cern that giving the Commerce Dept. en- forcement authority for overseas bribery law would place the department in yet another conflict between promoting trade and restricting it. Commerce Duties This issue figures prominently in the debate over renewing the Export Adminis- tration Act, which expires Sept. 30. Some members of Congress now want to strip Commerce of its enforcement responsibil- ities for export controls, charging that the department's institutional bias for promot- ing trade weakens its enforcement capabil- ity. This sentiment presumably would con- flict with Mica's proposal to add to the department's enforcement functions. Majak said Mica's bill would not delay reauthorization of the Export Administra- tion Act. It was introduced separately, he said, "and no decision has been made at this point as to whether we will or will not try to add it to the Export Administration Act renewal." Majak also cautioned that it was not settled whether the subcommittee would act on Mica's bill, although he insisted it was a serious proposal. "It would work, it's ready to go, it's not just a discussion bill. "I think we probably will do a hearing or two, fairly soon," he added. In drafting the bill, Majak conferred with Commerce Dept. officials, but he said they had taken no formal position on it, nor would he expect them to. He said Heinz's staff was receptive to the propos- al, but "their bill is still, I think, their preferred approach." ^ Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 NTSB Urges Fuel Tank, Procedure Changes Washington-National Transportation Safety Board has made nine recommendations to the Federal Aviation Administration covering general aviation aircraft fuel tanks and fueling proce- dures, citing 396 accidents involving engine failures or malfunc- tions from 1975 to 1981 traced to water in the fuel. The safety board's recommendations included two urgent and seven priority actions ranging from purging the fuel tanks of some Cessna Aircraft to installing wing fuel tank quick drains on some Piper aircraft. The recommendations to the FAA were prompted by recent tests of water contamination in general aviation aircraft fuel tanks. A study of the accident records of older high-wing Piper aircraft and older and new high-wing Cessna aircraft with rubberized bladder-type fuel cells led to the recommendations. Also included in the study were the Piper Pawnee and the Cessna AgWagon Business Flying agricultural aircraft. The safety board found that engine stoppage in these aircraft traced to water in the fuel occurred most often during the takeoff and initial climb phase of flight. In aircraft such as the Cessna 180, 182, 185, 206 and 207 that have flexible rubberized bladder-type fuel cells in their wings, water can be entrapped or dammed up within the cells because of irregular surfaces, wrinkles or ridges in the cells, the board said. Older single-engine aircraft that did not have quick drains in the fuel tanks when manufactured should have them installed now, the NTSB said. Although Piper builds a wing fuel tank quick drain installation kit for these aircraft models, the safety board said that few aircraft operators have installed the kits. The safety board said tests conducted on the Piper's metal fuel tanks showed that water could still be in the fuel tank sumps even after the aircraft's belly drain and fuel strainer ceased to indicate any trace of water. Challenger 601 Certificated by FAA Washington-Canadair Challenger 601 re- ceived its Federal Aviation Administra- tion certification, and deliveries of the aircraft, powered by General Electric CF34 turbofan engines, began earlier this month. Federal Aviation Administration ap- proval of the 19-passenger business flying aircraft was preceded by Canadian Trans- portation Dept. certification in late Febru- ary. The aircraft, which is equipped with winglets, received its U. S. and Canadian approval within a year of its first flight on Apr. 10, 1982: Canadair delivered the first production Challenger 601 to a completion center ear- lier this month, and expects to deliver two or three more during March. A total of 28 Challenger 601s are sched- uled to be delivered to completion centers in 1983. Deliveries of Canadair's Avco Lycoming ALF502L-powered Challenger 600s will drop from the 39 in 1982 to less than 10 in 1983. The Canadian aircraft manufacturer, based in Montreal, holds approximately 50 orders for the Challenger 601. They are a combination of new orders, deposits switched from the canceled stretched Challenger E and other corporate opera- tors choosing the Challenger 601 over the Challenger 600. Canadair has delivered 75 Challenger 600s since deliveries began in 1980. At one time, Canadair held approximately 125 orders for the Challenger 600. Performance goals for the Challenger 601, unlike the Challenger 600, were ei- ther met or exceeded by Canadair (AW&ST Sept. 22, 1980, p. 34). Range of the Chal- lenger 601 with National Business Air- craft Assn. instrument flight fuel reserves at long-range cruise is approximately 3,570 naut. mi. Canadair had guaranteed corporate operators that the IFR range of the 601 would be at least 3,500 naut. mi. while carrying five passengers. The balanced field length of the 601 at its estimated 41,650-lb. maximum takeoff weight had been calculated to be 5,100 ft. by Canadair. The 601 has been certificat- ed to a higher takeoff gross weight of 42,100 lb., and the balanced field length at this increased weight is 5,125 ft. At the 41,650-lb. takeoff gross weight, the bal- anced field length would be 5,050 ft. ^ Gulfstream 4 to Make Its First Flight in 1985 Gulfstream Aerospace's Gulfstream 4 will have an exterior configuration similar to the Gulfstream 3, except for a 2-ft. extension and the addition of a window on each side. The Gulfstream 4 will be powered by the Rolls-Royce Tay engine (AW&ST Mar. 21, p. 59), flat rated to 12,450 lb. of thrust at takeoff. Other changes from the Gulfstream 3 include a flat rear pressure bulkhead, avionics moved from the cabin to the rear baggage area and electronic flight instruments as standard equipment in the Gulfstream 4. First flight is planned for December, 1985, with production deliveries scheduled to begin in the last quarter of 1986. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Business, Utility Aircraft Shipments January, 1983 Make & Model No. of Units Ayres 600 Thrush ......................................... 1200 Thrush ...................................... 0 0 Gates Learjet .... 25D- 0 0 Turbo Thrush ..................................... 2 2 .............................................. 35A 0 0 Ayres Totals ............................................ 2 2 $517,000 ...................................................... 36A ............................. :........................ 2 2 55 ........................................................ 0 0 Gates Learjet Totals .............................. 2 2 $9,911,000 Beech 77 Skipper........................................... 0 C23 Sundowner ................................. C24R Sierra ....................................... 1 0 Gulfstream Aerospace 840 Commander 0 0 F33A/C Bonanza .............................. 1 ............................... . ....... 900 Commander 0 0 V35B Bonanza .................................. 2 ..................... .. . . ........... 980 Commander 0 0 36TC Bonanza ............................. :.... 3 ............... . .. 1000 Commander : ... .................. 0 0 36 Bonanza ............. ..... ................... :. 3 . ..... . Gulfstream 3 2 2 76 Duchess ........................................ 0 ...................................... Gulfstream Aerospace Totals ............. 2 2 $19,700,000 B55 Baron .......................................... 0 E55 Baron .......................................... 0 58 Baron ............................................ 1 58TC Baron ....................................... 0 58P Baron .......................................... B60 Duke ........................................... 2 0 Lake Aircraft 200 EP ................................................ 1 1 C99 ............. ........................................ 0 250 Renegade ................................... 0 0 i F90 King Ar ...................................... 0 Lake Aircraft Totals .............................. 1 1 $106,000 E90 King Air ...................................... 0 C90 King Air ...................................... 1 B100 King Air .................................... 0 200 Super King Air .......................... 2 2 Maule Aircraft Beech Totals .........:.................................. 16 16 $6,652,498 M-5 235C .......................................... 0 0 M-6 235 .............................................. 3 3 Maule Totals ............................................ 3 3 $158,058 Cessna 152 ...................................................... 13 13 F152 .................................................... 2 2 Mooney 152 Aerobat ....................................... 0 0 201 M20J ........................................... 8 8 FRA 152 ............................................. 0 0 231 M20K .......................................... 4 4 172 Skyhawk ..................................... .10 10 Mooney Totals ........................................ 12 12 N.A. F172 .................................................... 0 0 R172 Hawk XP ................................. 0 0 F172 Hawk XP .................... :............. 0 0 180 Skywagon ................................... 0 0 182 Skylane ....................................... 4 4 Piper 182 Turbo Skylane ........................... 1 PA-18-150 Super Cub ...................... 0 0 185 Skywagon ................................... 3 3 PA-28-161 Warrior ............................ 12 12 Stationair 6 ........................................ 7 7 PA-28-181 Archer 2 ......................... 8 8 Turbo Stationair 6 ............................. 8 8 PA-28-236 Dakota ............................ 2 2 Stationair 8 ......................................:. 2 2 PA-32-301 Saratoga ......................... 3 3 Turbo Stationair 8 ............................. 0 0 PA-32-301T Turbo Saratoga........... 1 1 172 Cutlass ........................................ 2 2 PA-38-112 Tomahawk ...................... 6 6 172 Cutlass RG ....................... :........ 4 4 T-35 ..................................................... 0 0 R182 Skylane RG ............................ 3 3 PA-28RT-201 Arrow 4 ..................... 0 0 TR182 Skylane RG .......................... 0 0 PA-28RT-201T Turbo Arrow........... 3 3 210 Centurion .............. ....... ... .. . 1 PA-32-301 Saratoga SP .................. 1 1 . . .. ..... Turbo 210 Centurion ........................ 4 4 PA-32R-301T Turbo Saratoga SP. 1 1 P210 Centurion ................................. . 3 3 PA-36-375 Brave ............................... 10 10 AgTruck .............................................. 1 PA-34-220T Seneca 3 ..................... 10 10 AgH usky .............................................. 3 3 PA-44-180 Seminole ......................... 0 0 303 Crusader ..................................... 5 5 PA-44-180T Turbo Seminole .......... 0 0 310 ...................................................... 0 0 Aerostar 602P ................................... 2 / 2 335 ...................................................... 1 PA-31-310 Navajo ............................. 0 0 340 ....................................................:. 2 2 PA-31-325 Navajo C/R ................... 0 0 402 ...................................................... 3 3 PA-31-350 Chieftain .......................... 2 2 404 Titan ............................................ 0 0 PA-31T-500 Cheyenne 1 ................. . 1 1 414A .................................................... 1 PA-31T-620 Cheyenne 2 ................. 6 6 421 Golden Eagle ............................ 2 2 PA-31T-620 Cheyenne 2XL............ 2 2 425 Conquest 1 ................................. 5 5 PA-44-720 Cheyenne 3 ................... 0 0 441 Conquest 2 ................................ 3 3 T-1020 ................................................. 0 0 Citation 1 ............................................ 2 2 T-1040 ................................................. 1 1 Citation 2 ............................................ 5 5 Piper Totals .............................................. 71 71 $14,911,000 Citation 3 ............................................ 1 Cessna Totals .......................................... 101 101 $37,960,357 Fairchild' Aircraft Totals (January, 1983) .......................... 214 - $92,094,687 SA-227AT Merlin 4C ........................ 0 0 Totals (January, 1982) .......................... 384 - $132,100,000 SA-227AC Metro 3 ........................... 1 Exports (January, 1983) ....................... 59 - $34,800,000 Fairchild Aircraft Totals ....................... 1 1 $1,914,716 Exports (January, 1982) ....................... 92 - $39,700,000 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 A vionics 0 0 Systems Command' Probes c3 Potential By Kenneth J. Stein Hanscom AFB, Mass.-Coordinated up- grade of U. S. strategic warning capabili- ties links a number of complementary command, control and communications (C') programs under way at USAF's Elec- tronic Systems Div. here, designed to modernize and extend existing systems and add some new ones. "Our emphasis is on strategic C' capa- bilities that can survive and endure," Lt. Gen. James W. Stansberry, ESD com- mander, told AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY. Developments focus on im- proved sensors, communications links, data processing capabilities and displays. Strategic command, control and com- munications upgrades represent a major defense investment, with funding on the order of $18 billion over the next few years, Stansberry said. About one-half of that is estimated to involve ESD pro- grams. Emphasis in C' systems has changed from being product oriented to being mis- sion area oriented, Stansberry said. A ma- jor element of its task is that Electronic Systems Div. must closely coordinate the interfaces of many programs that were started individually. Reinforcing the emphasis on this coor- dinated approach, a general officer slot has been established at ESD to oversee strategic warning programs, Stansberry said. Brig. Gen. M. H. Alexander has been appointed deputy for strategic sys- tems and Anthony Salvucci has been named assistant deputy. "We're trying to achieve complemen- tary directions in several air defense pro- grams, taking a total architectural approach to air defense systems," Salvucci said. "We're looking at the mission area as a whole, lumping missile, space and air defense roles together. We're now design- ing from the top down, changing the as- sets at lower levels to fit the total mission. "In the C' area, we are trying to be- come less sensitive to what tactics might be and look at possible enemy actions. Why should an enemy go after a missile if it is easier to knock out the transmission capability for sending orders?" Salvucci said. "Therefore, we try for the best mix, planning on fixing potential `holes' and prioritizing what is perceived as intent," Salvucci said. Major landmarks in strategic upgrade efforts in progress at ESD include these programs: ^ First of eight Region Operations Con- trol Centers, a vital link in the U. S.-Cana- dian Joint Surveillance System, reached initial operational capability at Tyndall AFB, Fla., earlier this month. The air defense system, which displays digitized air traffic data derived from Federal Avia- tion Administration, USAF and joint-use radars, is a successor to the Semi-Auto- matic Ground Environment (SAGE) and Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIC) in- stallations of past years. The initial opera- tions center accepts data from radars ranging from Texas and the Gulf of Mexi- co to Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, the Carolinas and most of Virginia. Prime contractor for the system, expected to be fully operational in 1984, is Hughes Air- craft, Fullerton, Calif., with a firm, fixed- price contract for $156 million. Navy Plans Tests of Airborne EW Simulator San Francisco-Naval Air Rework Facility, Alameda, Calif., expects to begin tests this fall of an airborne electronic warfare (EW) simulator/trainer housed in .a modification of the reconnaissance version of the Douglas A-3 Sky Warrior. The modified aircraft has been designated the ERA-3B. One feature on the ERA-3B will be a 20-ft.-long radome beneath the fuselage, which will house high-power jamming antennas. The radomes are being developed and built by Boeing Military Airplane Co. at Boeing's Wichita, Kan., facility. The broadband radomes embody technology that Boeing developed in antenna system installation programs for the USAF/Boeing B-52, independent research and develop- ment, and the design and production of quiet nacelles. The radome contract is valued at $2.4 million. The first unit is to be delivered in early summer. The ERA-3B payload includes active and passive electronic warfare equipment sup- plied by EM Systems of Sunnyvale, Calif., Hewlett-Packard Co., Lundy Electronics & Systems, Inc., Raytheon Co., Scientific Communications, Inc., of Garland, Tex., and Watkins-Johnson Co. Payload integration is being done by Naval Air Systems Command and Naval Electronic Systems Command. ^ Coverage of the over-the-horizon/ backscatter (OTH-B) radar sites at Maine will be expanded and the sites extended under a contract with General Electric Co. (Aw&sT Aug. 16, 1982, p. 68). ESD expects to have construction completed by this summer on a dedicated building to house the OTH-B operations center at Bangor International Airport. One modifi- cation to the test system will change re- ceive antennas at Columbia Falls, Me., to monopole types, which are "better struc- turally in the wind and ice" of the Maine winter environment, according to'Col. A. Lee Snyder, program manager. ^ Missile Warning Bypass System, now undergoing testing, is designed to speed alert information from Pave Paws, Ballis- tic Missile Early Warning System and oth- er sensors to the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) command post, even if main communica- tions processors experience a failure.' This direct linkup is being built, installed and tested by Ford Aerospace & Communica- tions under a $4.1-million contract. More basically, requests for proposals were re- leased recently for design concepts for Computer System Segment Replacement at NORAD's underground command post. The plan is to "rewire" the entire processing complex at NORAD's under- ground command post with a new distrib- uted architecture system employing arrays of microprocessors, possibly linked by fi- ber optics, to provide increased flexibility and better response time. A $200-million multiyear program, expected also to re- place processing and display and commu- nications segments at "the heart of the mountain," marks the first basic change in the NORAD command post since its in- ception. ^ Pave Paws warning system will be upgraded at the two initial sites, Otis AFB, Mass., and Beale AFB, Calif., with improved data processors and software and activation of some passive array ele- ments (Aw&sT Apr. 9, 1979, p. 60). The new southeastern site, at Robins AFB, Ga., largest of the four, will take on an additional functional task of deep space tracking in addition to its warning role, taking over the tracking functions of the FPS-85 phased array system at Eglin AFB, Fla. Both the Robins location and the southwestern installation near Good- fellow AFB, Tex., will use approximately one-third of the 1,300-1,700 sensors on the array face. The system at Robins also will have a more powerful computer in 62 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 view of its multiple role. Pave P I up- inland Alaskan sites. The FPS-117 is de- evaluation hardware. A single contractor grades extending to 1988-89 are expected signed to provide range, position and will be selected for full-scale development. to be funded at about $250-300 million. A height of targets out to 200 naut. mi. and Also in support of MEECN is develop- sole-source award to Raytheon Co., which up to 100,000 ft. Use of the minimally ment of frequency, time and spatial diver- developed and built the original system, is manned radars at all 13 Alaskan sites sity receiving equipment both for ground expected this summer. would be expected to save more than $30 sites and airborne command posts, and ^ Ground wave emergency network million annually, allowing USAF to re- also a 100-kw. VLF/LF transmitter for (GWEN) is a 'low-frequency system oper- duce personnel at the sites from more USAF/Boeing EC-135 command post air- ating at 160-190 KHz. to provide emer- than 900 to about 150. craft. Westinghouse won a competition for gency communications and to pass crucial ^ WWMCCS (World-Wide Military the transmitter, but subsequent flight tests national messages when other communica- Command/Control System) information were discontinued because of difficulty of tions systems are "highly stressed" within system improvements, in which Electronic interfacing the high-power transmitter an electromagnetic pulse environment. Systems Div. has been given responsibility with trailing-wire antennas. Westinghouse GWEN would be expected to maintain for development and acquisition in a joint is studying transmitter/antenna combina- multiple signal paths across the U. S., pro- program conceived and designed by the tions, and a decision on proceeding is ex- viding flexible packetized communications Defense Communications Agency. Con- pected later this year, Col. William from one node to the next. Two prelimi- tracts for the overall upgrade program for Lewark, who heads the strategic commu- nary design contracts for an operational WWMCCS, encompassing more than 30 nications systems directorate at ESD, said. system have been awarded, $5 million to sites world-wide, were at about the $3- The new Region Operations Control Rockwell-Collins Communications Sys- billion level during the past fiscal year and Center at Tyndall AFB is one of eight tems Div., Richardson, Tex., and $4 mil- may climb to about $5 billion in the next planned facilities, according to Lt. Col. lion to RCA Government Communica- year or two, according to Stansberry. Gordon Drake, Joint Surveillance System tions Systems, Camden, N. J. ^ Providing USAF support of MEECN program manager in ESD's North Ameri- ^ Ballistic Missile Early Warning Sys- (minimum essential emergency communi- can Air Defense Systems Directorate. tem (BMEWS) upgrades encompass both cations network), ESD released two com- Others locations include: radar system and data processing im- petitive validation phase contracts in ^ Griffiss AFB, N. Y. provements. Missile impact predictor January for a miniature airborne VLF/LF ^ McChord AFB, Wash. (MIP) data processing capabilities at all receive terminal for bomber aircraft. ^ March AFB, Calif. three BMEWS sites will be updated with Awards of about $13 million each went to ^ Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Control Data Cyber 170-720 processors Rockwell-Collins and Westinghouse Elec- ^ Wheeler AFB, Hawaii. replacing the aging IBM 7090s. Develop- tric, with each to provide three sets of ^ North Bay, Ontario, Canada. Two ment, test and engineering phase is near completion at the Clear, Alaska, operating site. Initial operational test and evaluation is planned at Thule, Greenland, followed by installation at Fylingdales Moor, Eng- land. For BMEWS basic radar upgrade at Thule, three companies are in source se- lection for a design-to-budget approach: Federal Electric Corp., Norden Systems and Raytheon. This represents a new ap- proach to the Thule job-"What can we do for approximately $80 million to up- grade the radar?" Stansberry said. ^ North Warning System, a replace- ment for the Distant Early Warning (DEW) line, will use a mix of "minimally attended" long-range radars and unattend- ed short-range radars expected to reduce personnel required to operate and main- tain the system. Replacement of aging DEW line radars across Alaska, Canada and Greenland is expected to trim annual operating costs by more than $40 million. The 50 sites in the modified 3,000-mi. network will have an expanded mission, guarding against penetration by low-level air-to-surface missiles, as well as by manned aircraft. Requests for proposals are expected to be released soon. ^ Seek Igloo, a program to replace Alaskan air defense radars more than 20 years old with new, largely automated equipment. has reached a test phase in wnicn a preproaucuon venerai rIceLnc AN/FPS-117 radar is undergoing initial operational evaluation at King Salmon Air Force Station, Alaska. If a production decision follows, the FPS-117 will replace equipment at 12 additional coastal and Joint Surveillance System replaces earlier technology of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environ- ment (SAGE) and Back-Up Interceptor Control (BUIC) systems, reducing operating personnel by more than 6,000, with anticipated savings of $100 million annually. Typical Region Operations Control Center will provide 18 radar scope positions. Hughes Aircraft is prime contractor for the control centers under a $156-million firm fixed-price contract. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Region Operations Control Center (ROCC) for U. S.-Canadian Joint Surveillance System will provide command and control functions covering a geographical area measuring about 2,048 naut. mi. square. The Joint Surveillance System will integrate existing USAF centers will be located at this site, which will be turned over to Canadian Forces after acceptance.. When the new network is fully opera- tional, it is expected to save $100 million annually in operating costs, as older air defense systems and operations centers are closed down. Designed as a peacetime air surveillance and control network, the Joint Surveil- lance System gathers information from USAF, FAA and some dual-use radar sites. Digitized data from the radars will be shared with the FAA, Drake said. A ' typical center employs 18 display scopes in normal configuration and "does a lot of what SAGE did, but with nicer displays and clearer maps that can be used in normal room lighting," Drake said. In implementing the Joint Surveillance System, modifications are being made to some existing radars, and height-finders are being added, Drake said. In the Norad command post Computer System Segment Replacement, first of sev- eral update phases that will involve pro- cessing, display and communications capabilities, a new distributed architecture S surveillance radars, Federal Aviation Administration air traffic control radar system and Canadian radars into a shared radar-data system. Four Region Operations Control Centers will be built in the Continen- tal U. S., two in Canada and one each in Hawaii and Alaska. concept employing microprocessors is ex- pected to replace the present Honeywell 6000 central processors, according to Col. E. A. Mezzapelle, who heads ESD's mis- sile warning systems directorate. The processing program will replace "the heart of the mountain," Mezzapelle said, since all sensor information comes into the communications processors and out to other command posts. Systems Command is charged with development planning and insuring that the system be- ing built will be as error-free as possible, Mezzapelle said. This development planning responsibil- ity will involve end-to-end tests of the new hardware. A contract definition phase is anticipat- ed late this year for a command post pro- cessing and display system designed to provide missile warning information at all command posts. In the essential communications area, the Ground Wave Emergency Network is ,expected to provide low-frequency links that follow the Earth's surface, continuing to function through electromagnetic pulse conditions that could disrupt ionospheric characteristics, according to Lewark. A nine-station unmanned' GWEN net- work is being built in the Midwest to test the feasibility of the concept. The pilot program will link Strategic Air Command headquarters at Offutt AFB, Neb.; North American Aerospace Defense Command at Peterson AFB, Colo.; Buckley Air Na- tional Guard Base, Colo., and several oth- er bases. Initially stations will be located at Pueblo and Aurora, Colo.; Omaha and Ainsworth, Neb.; Manhattan and Colby, Kan.; Fayetteville, Ark.; Canton, Okla., and Clark, S. D. Commercial radio towers will be used at Manhattan, Colby and Canton. Standard GWEN towers will be about 300 ft. high with a suitable ground plane, nominally 1,000 ft. on a side, Lewark said. The low-frequency system, operating at 160-190 KHz., will have some logic at each site and some antijam capability, Lewark said. USAF also is looking anew at adaptive high-frequency radio, which had been dis- counted in the past because of operating difficulties in a disturbed ionosphere, Lewark said. However, operation at extended fre- Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 65 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 0 New radar system at Tempelhof Central Airport, Berlin, will be housed in 53-ft.-dia. radome shown as it was installed atop a 233-ft. tower at the airport. The system will employ an enhanced version of the AN/FPS-1 17(V) radar developed for USAF's Seek Igloo program and an automation/display system with four-color controller consoles. New Traffic Control System Being Built in Berlin Hanscom AFB, Mass.-Enhanced version of the AN/FPS-1.17(V) air defense radar developed by General Electric Co. for USAF's Seek Igloo program will be used in conjunction with Sanders Associates four-color display consoles in a new traffic control system being built at Tempelhof Central Airport in Berlin. The automated system will provide composite video displays of all radar data on Sanders color consoles similar to those employed in the U. S. Navy's Fleet Air Control and Surveillance Facilities (Aw&sT Mar. 7, p. 65). The new Berlin radar system will replace a much-modified FPS-67D radar, which is approaching end of life and is no longer supportable, according to Lt. Col. Gene Box, Berlin radar program manager at USAF's Electronic Systems Div. here. The system, used to help control traffic in the air corridors that link Berlin with Western Europe, will employ new data processing equipment that will track aircraft and display current flight plans. The FPS-117(V) antenna will be housed inside a 53-ft.-dia. radome atop a 233-ft. tower erected at Tempelhof. Sanders Associates was awarded a $24.3-million multiyear contract to install the new equipment at Tempelhof, with an expected operational date in late 1985. . quency ranges in the high end of the band and networking techniques promise more capabilities than had been realized in re- cent years, he said. New modular radios under develop- ment are expected to be capable of moni- toring multiple frequencies and analyzing link qualities, accepting properly ad- dressed messages on a number of usable frequencies. Screen rooms also are being provided at principal Strategic Air Command com- mand posts to provide EMP protection for key communications equipment. EMP event detectors are designed to provide warning of pulse conditions. In the sensor area, the radar upgrade at the Thule, Greenland, BMEWS site is fund-limited, and the three contractors in source selection have had to bid on. a design-to-budget approach of approxi- mately $80 million, Mezzapelle said. The 40-44-month program is targeted to have an upgrade in place in early 1987, Mezzapelle said. Thule, which monitors the "main channel" of approaching ICBMs, was built for one or two single- warhead type missiles, but with the devel- opment of extensive MIRV capabilities, the ability to track the first stage does not provide enough information, he said. Radar Modernization The approach at Thule is to modernize the radar and enable the system to better characterize an attack, Stansberry said. The radar upgrade will complement the missile impact predictor system improve- ments, in which USAF hopes to see the new Control Data Cyber 170-720 proces- sors in place at all three BMEWS sites by later this year. In a third phase, USAF.plans to devel- op the operational requirements for BMEWS Site 3, Fylingdales Moor, En- gland, to improve both missile warning and space tracking capabilities, Mezza- pelle said. The space role could become the primary one at Fylingdales. However, this portion of the development is relegat- ed to future USAF budgets, perhaps 1986. Cyber computers also figure in the planned upgrade of the Pave Paws radar sites at Otis AFB, Mass., and Beale AFB, Calif., Mezzapelle said. A more powerful Cyber model is planned for the new dual function site at Robins AFB, Ga. The total program for radar system growth and added data processing capability at the two original sites, plus the two new Pave Paws sites, is expected to extend through 1988-89. In the Seek Igloo program, developmen- tal hardware has now been through three test phases and is currently completing evaluation by the Alaskan Air Command, testing the radar remoted to King Salmon Air Force Station, Alaska, according to Charles Minor, test director. The highly automated FPS- 117 radar is expected to reduce personnel at each site from the present eight or ten ranging up to 25 to "up to three people at each of the sites for maintenance purposes," accord- ing to system specifications. The test system has been operated in conjunction with USAF aircraft flying out of Elmendorf AFB and has been inter- faced with both the new Region Opera- tions Control Center and with FAA air traffic facilities. The new North Warning system radars will also enable USAF to reduce on-site personnel and trim operating costs. The 66 Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 North Warning concept calls for approxi- mately 37 short-range unmanned radars and 13 long-range "minimally staffed" ra- dars. The, long-range sites will use Seek Igloo radars, according to Lt. Col. Wil- liam Stinson, program manager. A request for proposals for the remain- ing radars is expected to, be issued soon. Modernization of both processors and software that support the World-Wide Military Command/Control System is ex- pected to. enable the system to meet de- mands that outgrew its original 1960-vintage technology. "The, appetite of WWMCCS Informa- tion System users outgrew system capabil- ities and its software also is now considered relatively inefficient," Col. Thad Sandford, WWMCCS program manager at ESD, said. The system, conceived in, the early 1960s and installed in the field in the early 1970s, was built around Honeywell 6000 central processors. Because neither a sud- den cutover nor a system shutdown is permissible, an evolutionary approach with local area networks is being under- taken, Sandford said. WWMCCS is a joint program con- ceived and designed by the Defense Com- munications Agency, and the joint program manager, in Washington, reports to the joint chiefs of staff. ESD has been given the responsibility of development and acquisition of the system. Hardware Competition Expected procedure calls for modern- ization of the software first, followed by a hardware competition. ESD has the task of providing a modern replacement for the Honeywell 6000, which is no longer man- ufactured, Sandford said. Plans call for an integration contractor and two hardware contractors. The hard- ware contractors will provide, respective- ly, joint mission hardware and user interfaces to the WWMCCS information system. Selection of an, integration con- tractor is expected by late summer; a com- mon user contractor selection is expected to follow about four months later, Sand- ford said. ESD also has responsibility for modern- ization of the Space Defense Operations Center in Cheyenne Mountain, consolidat- ing command, control, communications and intelligence capabilities for the space defense role. A program to upgrade the operations center and space cataloging capabilities is just about at completion of definition of incremental acquisitions, according to Col. William F. H. Page, who heads the space defense systems directorate at ESD. Ford Aerospace and Martin Marietta were awarded definition contracts of about $3 million each, and ESD is now in the process of source selection for a devel- opment contractor, Page said. ^ 46 Lockheed-Georgia Co. and Singer's Link Flight Simulation Div. are form- ing a new joint company to build a $12-million training facility equipped with a state-of-the-art flight simulator to provide initial and refresher flight training on both civil and military versions of Lockheed's C-130/L-1,00 Hercules aircraft. Under terms of the agreement, Link will build, install and maintain an advanced simulator system for the turboprop aircraft. Lockheed will acquire land near its plant at Marietta, Ga., construct the 15,000-sq.-ft. building, staff and manage the training facility and market its services. Construction is expected to begin in May. Honeywell-developed dual-mode airborne missile warning system, employ- ing a combination of pulse-Doppler radar and infrared sensors to detect missiles attacking an aircraft, will undergo flight test on a USAF/Lockheed C-130 at the Army's White Sands Missile Range, N. M. By combining two different types of sensors, USAF hopes to reduce false alarms and enhance missile detection. The advanced development system earlier was tested on the Sandia cable car facility near Albuquerque, N. M. McDonnell Douglas Electronics Co. has acquired Polhemus Navigation Sciences from the Austin Co. for $3 million and will operate the new acquisition at its present location in Essex Junction, Vt. Polhemus produces a helmet-mounted sighting system that uses electromagnetic sensors to determine pilot's line of sight. Small, lightweight solid-state flight data recorder that will be developed for the USAF/General Dynamics F-16C/D could become a triservice standard for use on fighter, attack and trainer aircraft. This is the objective of an effort under way by. USAF Aeronautical Systems Div.'s deputy for 'aero- nautical equipment. General Dynamics will handle selection of a contractor to develop the flight recorder later this year. Request for industry proposals for funded six-month studies on megawatt- level nuclear space power systems is scheduled to be issued around mid- April by NASA's Lewis Research Center, Ohio. The studies are to identify viable concepts, estimate their physical and operating characteristics and pinpoint critical technologies needed to develop promising concepts. Inqui- ries can be directed to R. J. Paginton: (216) 443-4000, Ext. 709. Grumman Aerospace will develop Modular Automatic Test Equipment (MATE) for portions of the USAF/Martin Marietta Lantirn (low-altitude navigation targeting infrared for night) radar pod under a $7-million award from Martin Marietta. Grumman projects a market potential of more than $50 million if the Lantirn pods enter full-scale production. Sperry Flight Systems will install an electronic flight instrument system (EFIS) in a Sikorsky S-76 demonstrator helicopter, using 5 X 5-in. cath- ode ray tube displays in the civil helicopter. A Sperry SPZ700 dual digital flight control system and Primus 800 ColoRadar will be certified with the EFIS installation. New interface unit between Texas Instruments' TI 91 Remote Loran-C Navigator and Sperry Flight Systems' Data Nav 3 display system will enable integration of Loran-C navigation data with weather or groundmap radar information on a single CRT screen. The Loran-C unit supplies programmable waypoints, range and bearing to the next waypoint, estimat- ed time en route, ground track angle and cross track data to the Data Nav 3, providing a continuous pictorial display of the aircraft track on any Sperry color radar indicator. Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 28, 1983 67 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Advertisers in This Issue i Aviation Week POSTCARDS will reach 55,000 ENGINEERS, DESIGNERS & MANAGERS in the $63 BILLION AVIATION & AEROSPACE MARKET... 4 TIMES A YEAR! Aviation Week & Space Tech. nology is the recognized authority in aviation/aerospace, with the Who's Who of subscriber lists-all paying customers-and a regular readership that makes up the big- gest, richest, most influential avia- tion/aerospace audience in the world. We've skimmed the cream of the purchasing power-from that huge audience for you, and have created the Aviation Week ActionPack Postcard Program that can deliver your selling message to 55,000 aviation/aerospace buyers-four times a year-for just pennies per sales call. It's your truly cost-effi- cient way to sell the biggest audi- ence in the richest industry. Here's the schedule: Costs 1983 (Agency Mailing Closing Commis- Schedule Dates sionable) March CLOSED 1X-$995 June May 2 2X-$915 ea. September August 1 3X-$875 ea. December November 1 4X-$826 ea. How can we help you start selling in the rich aviation/aerospace in- dustryth is easy, cost-efficient way? For complete information call your AW&ST representative, or contact: Andrea Wepman, Coordinator ActionPack Postcard Program Aviation Week & Space Technology 1221 Avenue of the Americas New York, N.Y. 10020 212/997-2846 ?I II e1. Aerospatiale ..............................................................4 Aviation Week & Space Technology Aerospace Materials Special Advertising Section ....................... 74-75 Boeing Commercial Airplane Co .................. 39-41 Boeing Vertol Co .......................................4th Cover Canadair Inc ........................................................... 52 CFM International, A Joint Co. of Snecma, France and General Electric Co., U.S.A .............................. 42 Eastman Kodak Co ................................................ 48 First Boston Corp., The ........................................ 60 Gates Learjet Corp ................................................ 47 General Electric Co. Aerospace Electronics Systems Dept............ 77 General Electric Co. Space Systems Div ............................................ 12 Logitek, Inc ............................................................ 53 McDonnell Douglas ......................................... 33-34 Northrop Corp ........................................................ 10 NOWEA/AIRMEC 83 ................................................5 Rolls-Royce Ltd ................................................ 54-55 Sperry Corp ............................................................... 8 Sundstrand Corp ................................ 78-3rd Cover United Technologies Pratt & Whitney Aircraft .................. 2nd Cover-3 Vought Corp., The An LTV Co .............................................................. 6 CLASSIFIED & EMPLOYMENT ADVERTISING Blackbird ................................................................72 Dayton-Granger, Inc .............................................. 68 EATON, AIL Div ...................................................... 72 Garrett Turbine Engine Co .................................. 72 GWU-NASA Langley Research Center ............... 68 Hughes Aircraft Co ............................................... 64 Link Flight Simulation Div .................................... 70 Lockheed-California Co ........................................ 69 Saudi Arabian Airlines .......................................... 71 Simuflite Training International Inc ................... 70 United Technologies Pratt & Whitney Aircraft ............................68, 68,70 Williams International ........................................... 68 Aviation Week & Space Technology March 28, 1983 Business Manager: William V. Cockren 212-997-3288 Director of Special Projects: James E. Marquis 202-624-1253 Marketing Communications Manager: William L. Blanchard, 212-997-4631 Advertiser Services Manager: Marilyn J. Zack, 212-997-2285 Circulation Manager: Robert W. DeAngelis, 212-997-3225 Marketing Directory Manager: Lynne E. Kuhle, 212-997-3675 Production Manager: Concepcion D. Macaraeg, 212-997-3489 Customer Services Manager: Deborah A. Arena, 212-997-2123 Advertising Sales Offices Atlanta 30319: Richard R. Robshaw, 4170 Ashford-Dunwoody Road, 404-252-0626 Boston 02116: Merrill J. Hosmer, 607 Boylston St., 617-262-1160 Chicago 60611: Robert L. Kimmerle, 645 N. Michigan Ave., 312-751-3745 Cleveland 44113: Richard H. Jenkins 55 Public Square, 216-781-7000 Costa Mesa 92626: Donald T. Brennan, 3001 Red Hill Ave., Building 1, Suite 222, 714-557-6292 Dallas 75240: Martin D. Masiuk, Prestonwood Tower, 5151 Beltline Road, Suite 907 214-458-2400 Denver 80203: Donald T. Brennan, 655 Broadway, Suite 325, 303-825-6731 Houston 77040: Martin D. Masiuk 7600 Tidwell Road, Suite 500 713-462-0757 Los Angeles 90010: Donald T. Brennan, John S. Costello, 3333 Wilshire Blvd., 213-487-1160 Melbourne Beach 32951: Richard R. Robshaw, 7084 Floridana Ave. 305-724-8454 New York 10020: John D. Warth, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, 212-997-3631 Philadelphia 19102: John D. Warth, Three Parkway, 215-496-3800 Pittsburgh 15222: Richard H. Jenkins Six Gateway Center, 412-227-3640 San Francisco 94111: John S. Costello, 425 Battery St., 415-362-4600 Southfield 48075: Richard H. Jenkins 4000 Town Ctr., Southfield, MI 313-352-9760 Stamford 06901: Paul C. Halas, Jr., 300 Broad St: 7th Floor 203-359-2860 St. Louis 63011: Martin D. Masiuk Manchester Rd., Manchester, 314-227-1600 New York 10020: Director of. Special Advertising Programs: Samuel Perry, Jr., 212-997-6477 1221 Avenue of the Americas International Offices European Advertising Sales Geneva: Fulvio Piovano, Robert Rottmeier, Romaine Meyer, 1 rue du Temple, 32-35-63, Telex: 845-22397 Marcelle J. Moret, European Marketing Assistant London W1X 3RA: Charles Stoot, 34 Dover St., 01-493-1451, Telex: 892191 Adele Leetham, Marketing Services Coordinator Tokyo 100: Hirokazu Morita, Kasumigaseki Bldg., 3-2-5 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-Ku, 581-9811, Telex: 22507 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 AN AVIATION WEEK SPECIAL ADVERTISING SECTION It's a worldwide revolution, as every major industrialized nation in the world competes to stay ahead in the high-technology race. New materials, new alloys and adaptations of old materials are literally creating whole new industries on an international scale. Staying on top means staying ahead, and that means more re- search, more development, more investment. Composites. How far away is the all- composite helicopter body? Specialty Steel. The industry re- tools, and the new alloys are amazing. Aluminum. New techniques mean new fabrications, which mean "new" aluminums. Ceramics. For hotter, more efficient engines than anyone thought possi- ble 5 years ago. And... the wide spectrum of other materials that contribute to the aero- space industry's manufacturing process. AW&ST's April 25 Aerospace Materi- als Special Advertising Section will describe developments from a state- of-the-market point of view interna- tional in scope. The materials, the tools, the products and components, the major companies in the indus- tries, and their important applications throughout the worldwide market- place-all in April 25, AW&ST. And the greatest aviation/ aerospace audience in the world-more than half a million readers of Aviation Week-will read it all, both ads and ANOTHER REASON OUR READERS SAY, WE READ YOU AVIATION WEEK, LOUD AND CLEAR. Aviation Week & Space Technology a McGraw-Hill publication 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 APRIL 25,. 1983 promotional text. An independent study of our 1982 Aerospace Materials Special Ad Section by Harvey Re- search documented and proved our readers study it all -thoroughly! It's an outstanding advertising oppor- tunity, an ideal showcase for mate- rials producers ... fabricators... final-product manufacturers... every marketer involved with the future of aviation and aerospace construction. April 25, 1983 Aviation Week Aero- space Materials Special Advertising Section. Don't miss it. Call your AW&ST representative today, or Sam Perry, Director of Special Advertising Programs, at (212) 997-6477. Issue will include Reader Response Inquiry Cards... and independent studies of ads by Harvey Research. military aircraft, controls and communications, missiles and simulation systems. Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 46 SPECIAL SECTION PREVIEW ELECTRONIC WARFARE - PART 1: AUG.15, 1983/PART II: AUG. 22, 1983 A two-part Special Advertising Section on this $6 billion-plus growth industry is giving increasingly powerful operational leverage to modern weapons systems-and has become a basic element in de- fense planning and weapons-system development. COMPUTERS IN AEROSPACE -DEC. 5, 1983 Spotlight on the aerospace industry's growing need for ever more efficient, more sophisticated computer-based tools, for commercial and , Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Letters to the Editor dit?r Wind Shear The article by Keith F. Mordoff on methods performance can be best optimized during an path control. Furthermore, we have had little ground when the elevator was used to lower the model's nose to gain airspeed in an at- reduction in angle of attack, a significant loss and ground impact. Under such conditions, IAS is an inferior and invalid parameter for adequately deciphering the aerodynamic pic- ture. The indiscriminate chasing of IAS, with-. The combined reduction in IAS (dynamic pres- sure) and AOA (lift coefficient) will severely reduction in AOA toward negative values can occur. This can produce a temporary flight condition where a high-pressure area develops above the airfoil and a low-pressure area below. This reversal has the opposite effect of a posi- tive lift producing wing. Referencing this transitory flight regime of lift generation and classical Newtonian dynam- ics. Simply stated, if the aircraft is not generat- ing enough lift to support its weight, then it's not going anywhere but down. The resultant create an unbalanced force to accelerate the aircraft inertially with an increasing, downward second law of motion. This is apparently what occurred in these tests and in several past definitely supports the stick shaker recovery method originated by Paul Higgins of Boeing. I believe this to be the best procedure to date for transport-category aircraft that have no real When inadvertently confronted with an ex- best be maximized by (1) applying maximum thrust and executing a missed approach while (2) simultaneously rotating to the AOA for maximum lift generation to discontinue or pre- vent a downward inertial velocity and once achieved, then (3) fly out at the AOA for best angle of climb until a positive rate of climb is established and obstacles are cleared, and (4) AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY wel- comes the opinions of its readers on the issues raised in the magazine's editorial columns. Address letters to the Editor, AVIATION WEEK & SPACE TECHNOLOGY, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, N.Y. 10020. Try to keep letters under 500 words and give a genuine identification. We will not print anonymous letters, but names will be withheld. We reserve the right to edit letters. The solution to the wind shear threat can be found in the precision control of the relative wind through AOA and the optimizing of all the physical forces of flight. This assumes, of course, that the given aerodynamic capability of the aircraft can exceed the physical forces of the given shear or microburst. JOSEPH F. TOWERS Lt. Cmdr., Naval Reserve San Diego, Calif. I was pleased to see your article on methods to combat effects of wind shear (Feb. 21, p. 40). Trans World Airlines and other airlines have implemented the wind shear/stall recov- ery technique advocated by the National Aero- nautics and Space Administration workshop at the University of Tennessee you cited. We adopted this technique in 1979 after reviewing wind shear accidents and incidents. This research and others tend to corroborate the optimum performance (maximum lift/drag) theory of recovery technique. Research on wind shear detection devices should make our airways safer. Capt. WENDELL H. RONE Flight Manager-Training Trans World Airlines Kansas City, Mo. In the article on wind shear research, atten- tion was drawn to the possibility that some shear situations may not be penetrated safely. If this is true, it is of the first importance to detect such situations; and this implies that all airports should have the needed equipment. It seems equally important.that this informa- tion be made available to air crews in a form that can be both understood and believed. It is also important to consider the integrity of any method used to combat wind shear, especially with regard to the effects of errors in data sources. For example, the method of opti- cally projecting a symbol at a fixed angle below the true horizon (to show directly the vertical offset from a desired approach path) is sensi- tive to inaccuracy in the attitude reference. Experience has shown that a conventional gyro can be quite inadequate for this purpose because of deceleration error during the ap- proach. An error of only one-third degree when the aircraft is at a height of 1,000 ft. results in an apparent vertical offset of about 120 ft. Other methods of dealing with wind shear need to be examined in the same manner. So it appears necessary to deal with the problems of measuring a real-life shear, of com- municating relevant information to air crews, and of surmounting effects of inaccurate data sources. Simulator experiments can be given due credence when the influence of these fac- tors is allowed. 0 In conclusion, your wind shear article adds weight to a feeling that your space is well used in giving emphasis to research. Perhaps the time has come to include a section devoted to research in your table of contents. We need R&D to keep ahead. J. M. NAISH Los Altos, Calif. CF6 Engine Oil In the third paragraph of the article on the General Electric CF6 engine problem there is a statement that American Airlines "had switched its lubricating oil to that used by Del- Jan. 31, p. 34). A true statement. The penultimate paragraph of the article goes on to say that Delta, using Exxon 2380, has not observed the metal-chip problem. This is not true since Delta had removed two en- gines due to metal on the B sump chip detec- tor, one on Jan. 27 and the other on Jan. 28. In addition to leaving out the above facts, which could leave some readers (including our customers of Mobil Jet Oil 2) with the wrong impression, AVIATION WEEK failed to report that American continued to remove engines due to metal on the chip detectors after having switched to Exxon 2380. Delta, using Exxon 2380, had two removals due to metal on the B sump chip detector, one on Jan. 27 and the second on Jan. 28. Both removals were before the AVIATION WEEK publication date and should have been included in the interest of fairness and accurate reporting. Omission of these facts could, by inference, cause your readers to conclude that Mobil Jet Oil 2 was at fault. This conclusion is not true, and General Electric's subsequent admissions of mechanical causes of the bearing failures attest to the problem being totally unrelated to the lubricant used. I look forward to clarification of this matter in a future issue. J. R. ESSER USD Aviation & Government Sales Mobil Oil Corp. Fairfax, Va. (Both Exxon 2380 and Mobil Jet Oil 2 can be used in the General Electric CF6-80 engine, according to the FAA. While no mention of the two Delta engines was made in the Jan. 31 story, the information was included in the next issue, AW&ST Feb. 7, p. 32-Ed.) F-15C/D Budget Item I was amazed to find the Air Force's F-15C/ D aircraft missing from your box score listing of Fiscal 1984 major weapon systems spending detailed by military service (Aw&ST Feb. 14, p. 92). Ditto for the EF-111A. Did someone's finger slip while reviewing the Defense budget request, or are the pro- grams really terminated? DALE W. BRYANT Softech, Inc. Falls Church, Va. (F-15C/D figures were inadvertently omitted from the Feb. 14 table. They appear in the Mar. 14 issue, p. 10. Defense Dept. did not request funding for the EF-111 in Fiscal 1984-Ed.) Aviation Week A Snares Torhrinlnn,, March 28, 1983 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3 NEW ENGINES. ANEW SUNDSTRAND ELTRICAL SYSTEM. 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Parts, stores or ammo, two H-46s can transfer 180 tons an hour, day or night. Deck to deck in 30 seconds! Just over the horizon, the Navy's H-46 SR&M (Safety, Reliability & Maintainability) Program enters testing later this year. Under the program, NARF-installed Boeing-built modifica- tion kits extend the aircraft's ability to meet current mission requirements and reduce cost of ownership to the year 2000 and beyond. The Boeing VERTREP helicopter: the U. S. Navy's own special delivery system. BO/N" HEL/COPTE/!iS The LeadingEdge Philadelphia, PA 19142 Approved For Release 2008/05/07: CIA-RDP88B00831 R000100210025-3