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July 18, 1947
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Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 vftilable Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 JULY 25, 1947 , ApproilORGISIESSiONAILODECerThERBIENAltel0R000100020003-2 102 dination of the activities of the National Security Organization with other de- partments and agencies of the Govern- ment concerned with the national se- curity, and I ask unanimous consent that the statement may be read in lieu of the report. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to ? the request of the gentleman from Mich- lean iMr. Hommel? There was no objection. The Clerk read the statement. - (For conference report and statement, see proceedings of the House of July 24, 1947.) Mr. " HOFFMAN (interrupting the reading of the statement). Mr. Speaker, ' ask unanimous consent that further reading of the -statement .be dispensed with. ' The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the =quest eof the gentleman from 4411211.1gau? - - There was no objection. - The Se Etee.WR. The gentleman from ithigan [Mr. HOFFMAN] Is recognized for 1 hour. ? - haps later in the day the Chair may be able to, but not now. Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Speaker, it is my hope that during the time of adjourn- ment the vacation of Congress, so-called, which ie always to the individual Mem- bers a period of extra work and over. time, you all will have a pleasant time with the folks at home. ? Mr. Speaker, this legislation, which is H. R. 4214, under the number S. 758, to my mind, is as important as any that could come before the Congress. There ? is no question but that we need unifi- cation. All admit that in all- prepara- tions for national defense or for war there has been inexcusable duplication and waste. War is waste and destruc- tion. My reluctance to vote for legislation of this kind grows not out of the fact that it is not needed but that for some 25 years certain individuals connected with the Joint Staff have been seeking not only to give the Nation unity in its preparations for defense and for war and greater efficiency, but that some of those pushing it seek to open the door to the establishment of a military dic- tatorship. Not only does the General Staff want to give us greater efficiency but as indicated by the terms of this hill they want the power to plan our domestic as well as our foreign policy. When you read the bill you will discover that that Is the fact. All too often these planners become the ones with authority and carry out their plans as distinguished from the plans of the Congress. . And so there may arise in your minds ? the question as to -why I support it, and I can -only repeat what I said in the be- ginning when this bill was before us for -the first time.- It is the lesser of two Apparently we are aping to pass--; . limey say it is evident we are going' to ' pass?some legislation on this subject, and may 'I respectfully submit to you' and to your judgment that the bill that yourecommittee brought back, the bill' ust.-returned by, the conferees to this, CALL OF THE HOUSE rarr.mr. Mr. Speaker, I make a Of order that a quorum is not The SPEAKER. Obviously no quorum cut. . r. ARENDS. Mr. Speaker, I move a It of the House. call of the House was ordered. ?he Clerk called the roll, and the fol- ng Members failed to answer to their 'Ames; Wm-1811 Edwln4 relater ?Toole Bernees, ' Welter Hart . ? MAIO; Dellftz, Bale - ? z 'Hebert' ? Heffernan la Mei:Wicks 4Mayleal ..Flerter anima Jenkins:Pa.' -.47ohneon.-0113e.?:Eado ?42onee, N. C. ,.,,i,SesimrOler ,Zones, Waelk7"'leartilthoCedO 7,1Cetenlvee,, Kelley ' eeecemsate *7. ? ? original hill, and the best we can get at ' " this time; That is Why the conferees -bring it back for your consideration. ? - .."'t In-this bin MIMI find provisions thatiyi, Will ' be xequireti,' tfutir 'liberty le "to .lier?:1," preserved, to-guard against the planning: of the State Deportment and the mill- tary in this country with reference to. foreign policies, with reference to do- ' mestic economy, with reference to the dissipation' of our resources and car pro- duction, our industrial plants-, because; as we all know, in these days the -plan- ning is more than half the -battle; and when they bring planned or-planning legislation here to Congress?when it re- lates to foreign policy or domestic policy e the Congress has been all too willing, for what reason I know not, to accept, adopt, and carry it out. ? ' - Now to touch the provisions of this bill, the points on which your -confereeg could not carry out your wishes to the ' extent which they desired. -DLstin- guished gentlemen from the other end of the Capitol had somethen. to about it. They had quite a e to about it. You will recall that when ti Ho Passed on this legislation it nine eied r bill H. R. 4214. which the! come- ittee ported, with reference to the Ce tral telligence Agency. The comm. tee I e written into the bill a provision -;.hat head of that agency might be e or a man from the armed serve es. House amended the bill to pro % .de te: he shall be a civilian. During Ue deb ? the . gentleman from Minnest a Di JUDD] offered an amendment eve ich p vided that if a man from the an .ed se ices was appointed he should be eequi 4 to relinquish his rank and his attire in the Army. The SPEAKER. The time Or he g- tleman from Michigar has exp 'ed. Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Speake . r - myself five additional minutes. Mr. Speaker, when we went ?Ito ference, the conferees tor the of ter b ? flatly refused to accept that am They had made certain cence .sions which your attention will be ca ed is on, but on that one they stood p t refused to accept the House an- endine to the committee bill so your enter - compromised by accepting the 'angle of thebill, 4214, as reported by cce mittee to the House, thus disca iing amendment written into the le 1 by f House which would have reque.ed the head of that agency be a civt ian. own choice, and I think the eh() fee of s: of the seven members of the ShJse ti , committee who were conferees, was VII the head of that agency should be a lc ?, vilian, but we _could not get it, at we_wei ? along with that compromise. If seeke 7, divorce the head of the.agency from et armed services if a man in the -terviec appointed. Itwill be recalled also, if youl aye ree the bearings that there wasa teliberv. .peffort on the part of the Army Peet of /1 -Joint Staff to reduce the merle es to a r status of a police force. Your serantitte andthe Boum 'abstained its dic4t)ivarra into the hill certain provisions irletichje tectethe'enseheas. 'eYou may JUst all Nat 1 talk --.*blillt'"-stOPPing zth.e. -gungite. or ouse, is a great improvement over the4, Make ltuettessary that future Congresses ' Welch McDowell -2 Wood -Macy Worley Idarcantordo 1 owagblood -lemma ; Elnazoeunsiz Morrell = e SPEAKER. On this roll call 840 hers have answered to their names; _ uotum is present. Y unanimous consent, further pro- late gs under the coil were dispensed stanurr AO? OF 1947 Mr. Speaker, / yield and ask unanimous - asent to revise ud extend my remarks. The `SPEAKEIt.', fls?hair cannot . entertain that request-?t this time Per- 802614 41(44h 4114 1140 pe* atlas couligsre the lengress to-vote to get kid of -?he 1 Marines. The marines have fought t way into the hearts of all the Pe-Vie. -ar the conferees who, were oppose to provisions which protected th( at co ,t get . In my humble dgm7: this bill protects to the fullest Ettent marines, their activities, their r 4e, te e missions, their rights to develoe the k of warfare and weapons they 'link s necessary or of advantage to country. There was fear on the part of use lb had been in the Navy as to oertitin tort stone In the original bill as sent 43 by administration. You will recall that - men who fought as admirals, vice minds, rear admirals, men who ,ought the laskwar as captains and t" Meer'. lower rank, some of them he 41ng APproved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP9N0060R000100020003-2 10272 Approved For RalecalS/133A5Al2?. /66i1rIgAg-OROTI their ships blown out from under- them, did not get an opportunity to appear before the committee to express their. thoughts. and their ideas as to what the legislation should be. -You' will recall that 4 or- $ days before the hearings were ended, and,they,werenlosed in spite of my protest, there were? two orders ot the ? Navy, 94;:and. 95, which prevented...the fighting :men and officers in the Navy, ex- cent as.:3heir vieWowere channeled through the Secretarynf the Navy from _ expretsink their opinions.' That ant was only removed a few days before the hear- ing ended.. It was then impossible to call those witnesses. So there was a Justifi- able fear, on part of the enlisted men In the Nary and on the part of the officers f the Navy that an attempt was babag made to take from them naval aviation. The gentleman ?from New York 1 Mr.. Cotatl, ?end - an ?-amendment In .the House, .8, it was adopted, which fRfini opinion, 'apparent in the 01400jet the Me of Navy naval a_ - We -h ta,iikake empe thanes 'phrased of 'thatamendment 'as writtenia4b* the loi. But.Segatt*:/nE,. my judgment; there -team change. liable/ .,;_bill?and I'..'agree'???mi:Ezthat W1th? myrE., basic thanght;there is no change in the,.,;" friend the gentleman fro Michigan - language that will prevent the Navy horn .? Borsmarti-?--ahanniall. nt.? the bills ca,rryinitAut to the fullest extent itide-'4 that were considered by the committees `sire to Widequately'Protected arialme - of both branches and an improvement of war by naval aviation . and tta, de.;" upon, the bill that passed the Senate. "It velop beare war comas naval aviation.? is now a bill that probably expresses in ? Those were the three More impertant:.:. the most effective way possible the col- Points inutile legislation as it went to , ? lective action to a satisfied extent of the membership of the. Epuse,? and the. conferen4V,IPirst was the appointment , of the head of the Central Intelligence. .,13eneie- - ; ? - We had to guard against a gestapo, and E This-bill is one: or the most contro-: :we wrote in there a prevision which we verstal problems that came up in Con- think now will do that. Then there was gross at the outset of this session, and ' the protection to be given to the marines we _have seen it go through the House and there was the protection to be given practically without any opposition. The to naval aviation. We have both in the }louse is now ready to accept the confer- eine report. I think this is .a strong in- bill.as it comes back from conference. &cation of the confidence the House has So, on the whole, if we must have a bill? and we must?it is here.. We do most in the considerations of the House corn- humbly and respectfully submit this bill for your consideration and action. My only purpose in calling attention to the. dangers the bill carries is this: It opens the door to military dictatorship and renders more burdensome the duty of future Congresses to adequately protect us from government by the armed serv- ices. ? All in all, inasmuch as the Con- gress is determined to pass a bill, this is the best we can get, and it is if the powers granted are not extended, and if the organizations set up by it are content to remain within the written provisions of the bill, not too bad. Mr. Speaker, I yield 7 minutes to the gentleman from Massachusetts [Mr. McCoinsacxl. Mr. McCORMACK. Mr. Speaker, I am overwhelmed by the continued gen- erosity of? my distinguished chairman. My friend the gentleman from Michigan has referred to the DiFettor of Central Intelligence, and I think I might advise the House that that was the last ques- tion that we passed upon in conference. The Senate accepted the House provi- sion of the bill as reported out of the House committee. You will remember when the bill was on the floor we fralikly advised the Com- mittee of the Whole at- that time that the House Committee on Expenditures in j. the Executive Departments was strongly,'" Inclined toward, if not favorable to,,, a civilian director, but in view of the ? -mediate situation that confronted put in the provision that in case tary man, a career officer ? of or the Navy, was appointed- that he.. would, have to occupy what would be.-- In effect,- a 'civilian position-- We tried - to protect him so that he would be free from,. a dual influence. / recognize, If, one were to argue or say it did not com- pletely eliminate a dual influence, that I could not challenge that .statement. But we did the best we could from a- human angle. _. We felt-since, enabling- ? legislation was going to: come in lateit-?:is from another standing corginittee of the Nouse?and we know that; we. were.adiEE:' viaed and. saw a, copy of the-proposed. thaCqueltiori,:-With the.other- questions that-would arise in connection -,With;ihit-CentraVantellitiertee,EMency,- tioultialti tiktliestindirittebinraitteW ?andE that Tounnotteet?slunild'atar to'f, E"1- meetlhe'imn -iediatanroblem.;', The bill as., ,comes : back is substantially the; .;BousbjIL.I think it? at a 'ranch better ? - WS mill- Army ' 0003-2 JULY 25 a;Ay manner whi, h wm p ?? vent the in- r`creaseci economi ,s am L, ahanced ef- ficiency which t te pet the United States have a ri lit to --"prr t. Further, nothing in this tet sho .;(1 -e construed' ? as infringing upon ti a ational and constitutional at thorn t f t ie President.- as Commander la Chiei The nin permts broatE 1E1 bility in ad- ministration mut in ovemt---in in all of Its aspects, and should ge onstrued the future from that at ice ? Under no conditions, eithfr direr v indirectly, even if we had tie pow to so, does it Infringe upon r inve r !?3-. f powers of the President. a Pret len:: or as. Com-' mender in Chief This ft any the in- tent of the Cons -ess. ' ? . We have now Dome t.1 un final lative stage in this ver-,r lortant and -- far-reaching place ; EEE islation. It". shoWs what the proeus,;.,1? f legislative action under coastitutioaal koverriment ? ? are. As we look be tarough months We recollect th x Tea s- thttivere; expressed.'": and, iome ot rte?tr. so_ thenakz we recollect-the evidence e= maidereid WA* hearings and tie fearr taken intO count. Then tha bin wtna t.hrough the-..- legislative preelsee, act. has finally come down to th.lifinal Itativestage,..?,,f'" and. we now; iird a le3, it s of abiding satisfaction that the ET, re 'resents the best that can ba done at his time in connection witt legt14..n n alone the- lines outlined trerein. Mr..JUDD., ./E4it Spes s vIll the gen- tleman yield? ' rnittee and in the bill the House com- mittee reported. 1-gratulated. One of the most controversial prob- Mr. McCORM CH. alt the seat- leans and consequently one of the last to tleman. I thini, the r LI` f- can accept be resolved was the question of providing the statement of the e t. rr ,n_ in which- in legislation a reasonable assurance I concur, that V con on the part that the Marine Corps and naval avia- of the House ar3 able ) on back to tion would continue to perform their the Nouse that the , rice of the proper functions in the National Military changer, made I- the I ' , committee are contained in the h 3 It ha: been a yleas3 a- ? ) trie to work with all of the an mber I committee on this bill. Ey ry Ma e approached this problem wit!. an al tr 1 nd no mat- ter what party ht beim r The mem- bers of the cont -renci yr i littee, both ' of the House anc of th te. did like- wise._ There we e no 3 I a ties at any time. We went ito ti a t"a r very care- fully. -t is a It II wi-a rough able and courageous dmin - in will pro- duce efficiency and ray in our armed r.ervices, -rid -cc stronger our future natio" al se( Mr. FrOFFMAT M. 4er, / move the previous qua tiara. The previous riestir ordered. ' The riPEAKEI ? ;bon is on the conference 'port a cased to. tad on the . ? Mr. BacCOM ACK, eld to the gentleman from Mirme .014 Mr. JUDD. con a what the gentleman has taid. A .1 gentleman knows, I personally th a mistake not to require U- at thE It a- tor of Cen- tral Intelligence be a ir e 1, but I am sure that on thE whole all is in ex- cellent shape at 1 the t the provisions fo whiE t mittee voted an' whic r right have been ariat r think ,-,he corn nittet It majority of I Elouse corn- . I a Heves to be the bill. I - - o be con- . Establishment after unification. Pears were expressed, and honest fears, that an attempt to describe in detail the compo- sition of forces, and their functions and missions might introduce an inflexibility which would impair the effectiveness of the armed forces. , Your committee recognized these fears, and while they considered it desir- able to provide in general terms for the continued functioning of these two ele- ments of the armed services, it was not their intent to create a statutory rigidity which would be a bar to future progress. By the same token, it is not their intent by this act to freeze the organization of the armed forces, or the concept of mili- tary operations, since a major purpose of the act is to assure that scientific prog- ress shall be reflected in a progressive and dynamic organization. It is in no . The ionfereni rem - way the intent of the committee to tie A ma' ion to re onsio the hands of the Secretary of Defense in \ table. Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R0001\30020003-2 ' 1947 Approved ForeFigiMigi/g4)11161.1.-1(31FAElell946104112blieta100020003-2 Mr. nne-HRAY of Wisconsin' sked and Genera: Miles' successor, the late Gen- States, with the full easee the was giv permission to exten his re- era.1 George V. Strong, made the fatal Achninatrateon, are tea neve bee- two instances and in itch to mistake of being an honest, true, patri- Commis-Rion. the Tns Mr. extraneous matter. ? -one American citizen. He gave his or- Anitorg Trading Co.. the teen ? esPECIAL ?Rana --As genieetion its head and told it to go to the 'United! Nations, ertkir s this ,after all subversive elements, either las- -? very powerful and ine rentla oily- - e SPEAlnER Under the pre ? rest or Comnrimist. It was this latter wood, and of course t. -re Er s and der of the Home, the gentleman ns ? 'which resulted inethe failure to keep . diplomatic consuls in 'Wagtail. New teineen felfreDozernaol esrecognized 117" _ General Strong on active duty after his._ YorkeSan.Francisco, a, d eLse s s In 20 minutes. a ? .'"Ok " ,retirement and lost to this Government:: almost all of these there tre R citi- ,? DEADLY PAlatvra'ark. Ina tremendous knowledge of internam-, sans, citizens of satellit s nab s ? tier. Mr DONDERO e Mr ker as the tionai affairs. The chief spearhead of lean Communists. At ler-lea low- ,t4 bet th .. countr Spea, d Russia thie attack on Strong, due solely to his Travelers, deluded and Ingle len- - cween is y an active and aggressive action against can citizens who believe hat r s wen becomes ever more tense, I think that it Communists and his refusal to commis- is nothing more than renth ? ? nee] is d time tor the Congress, the Cabinet, an Mon Communists in the Army and to party and not an orga leans ; on the people as a whale to world t and ake to stock- exclude them from sensitive places was the destruction a tie , of our position in tire be a the then Assistant Secretary of- Wane , We havegr ,aeatparal lei tor vbat - pprised of jUst, whateis, confronting 3ohn .,?McCloy, who used for his PUT- transpired in German., an A t their/. thisseurderstandinte--or .T esti Is - Pose Lt. Gen. Joseph T. McNerney, then transpiring today in liansia-- - sow- mate?there are two iinportant factors Deputy Chief of Staff and now a four- ins table, Also, we see e par t the e which may largely deterinineour fate., star general and American represents-- actions of littler in the fall ence The lint and Most 1m:entente/I these ? Is the state et ear Own intelligence, and, tire on the Military- committee f thets,72 and Stalin in the fall if ; In the secondly eheeheengettee teienaget tlfette_d -Nations- n ? a , 'Eeee. 'ranee, highly imamate ale p were 1-41,7? nveneresenea the dere-ening and antler Innappene in tere name dere - -nets: Whtc - against usa- eavade seise- '04112**General:Sttcann 218. =ebb- Ott:el: which' wasi:deagned *eve L t edea -aganizaticat were ordered to dasizentied eel -could (mill' 11' There Is gocki, ti for the' definite,' - restored ay th s nen ,e ?,frain from aff punitive action against re of what had areviousie oee? -by but .regrettable's-erwroll- Unit more" aCommurdsts. and the fight to prevent due process of law. ID 4WIT me- Is a concerted, -arganliatile of Communists- In thee: respectable people mins w bed e t iced thoUght-out, andefleffnitonlinefatdeattenra l',.lienly was overruled and all men, ar.hy a false interewetathe of s ISn' all setoblanoes or Ametlooa ,ards of subversives- held by the War De- jug of freedom, liberty; eernoe - qdi..?. ' We all realize that' esndonaget D =00P- ? .? pertinent were ordered destroyed. This ,, th7hi.% code eat leee, a. nem ' ,ing on our neighbors is hrtaawswrv ' -??? fetter Int prevented Txran eleventh haue:"Lnanres and int uenee to ward san I ring iaeture anathema urtheArnerjeah.:teoplin 'action on the part of the members of the the very things that have Mat trica but we also realize that, in;42tes hard- ; , smeary Affairs Committee of elea..Seene great. Initially - boiled, modern. realistic--- intent- -ate; wilts. confronted Secretary of Waren In Prance. Faller areeted r geoce Is ecceothdataY vital; tor'!"Yolostiott Stirason and Chief of Staff Marshall and , the Governmerra prale-ae ite which is to corvi've- ' 'demanded the revocation of an order adequately for wan ami mads ots The :history. ofaamerican intelligence, which both of them denied having had ships which need stie be n??s ere and counter Intelligence-up until the be- any knowledge of ite issuance. From that when actual corifint es.ene seee ginning of WorktWer II was nota pretty- day down to the present, intelligence in-. could be used ti secure Piranr ; ear. picture. Only iree.940 did we begin to the United States has been practically In America, Stalin is c eerie ? ? 111( create an -American intelligence and nonexistent. in the Government by hi stom let counter intelligence unit worthy of the As purely sop to Congress, and without governmental petitions ; een ? ? tile ? name. That unit Was created in the any intention of creating a really truly Congress. He was beers the ; s ans. War Department by Maj. Gen, Sher- American organization, President Tru- to render Impotent am- nine ese, man Miles, who had been our military man in January 1946, created the Cen- armed forces. He has f mere F kf.1 attache in England and who visited the tral Intelligence Group. He. however,- in industry and tins delev d ow as Army on.. the Continent before practically insured its failure by placing sion. the break-through of the German Army at its head Reserve Admiral Sidney In France. littler nn evr? era and the fall of France. - General Miles Souers, a St. Louis boy, formerly head of possible to builsi up ne solog was so imbused with the power of the a defunct insurance organization, a man nels throueh which his d -mine German and Communist fifth columns with absolutely no knowledge of the me- could be imprins ed in Pr nets rBs? In France that he bent every effort to chanics and technique of espionage or organized the nem:site 14' nrp spare America a similar fate, counter espionage. After a few months to maintain sena) and e nun; et Unfortunately for General Miles, as in office, Admiral Souers was succeeded between the ewe orient/1e Hi- TS" the Pearl Harbor hearings will show, in- by Lt. Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg. a bill- joint meetings of Prom t Art, = telligence took the rap for the inexeusa- liant young airman. vandenberg's re- war veterans, teeing for t 'at p ble failure of the high command of the gime will be remembered for his using rightist veterans organiv.,tttin h. t Army and Navy and the late President the weight of his office and White House violent reaction ley nes se. Roosevelt to accept, believe in, and act- influence to take the FBI out of the in- House was established in aerie on the intelligence which was available telligence field in Latin America and to fluential French heads ei ,ep e- ,o- to it and which clearly and definitely order the dissolution of the War Depart- lavishly and re nvineen het pointed not only to the immediate inci- rnent's remaining secret intelligence net. were not so bad after sni dence of war, but actually to the attack The present incumbent, Admiral Ros- /n America, Stalin rts it ? on Pearl E':abor itself. General Miles coe Hillenkoetter, has been in office too means possible to build is ase was summarily relieved by our present short a time to give evidence of what may channels through which enw Secretary of State. then Chief of Staff, be expected of him; but it will take a be imprinted in emeriear -mac George C. Marshall, because he had the strong, determined man to correct the organized the National s aunt- temerity to put in writing a meraoran- failures and to eliminate the Communist viet-Ainerican fesendshe tn S' - dune which set forth what happened in elements which I am reliably informed official apologist fur St let General George C. Marshall's office on are carry-overs from thee old -OSS and and tyranny. Ile has or raniZ. the fatal morning of December 7, jgen FBIS organizations which the Central :York, Veashingten, and , sewt t Despite this, the organization which Intelligence Group absorbed, gatherings of Russian ant &tilt t ? General Miles had started to build grew On the other hand, we are confronted erans, and our ,Oein See-re 0 of its own momentum into a worth-while with a Russian espionage net in this Chief of Staff eave lent heli- intelligence and counter-intelligence or- country which is without parallel in his- the furtherance of the s, its c ganization. tory. Operating today in the United ganization, There is rnos 3o- No. 141-17 Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9930 Approved For Releria1164Agi9rAlFkl:114-9CUOIA9T-M0003-2 House here in Washington today where Influential American citizens are enter- tained lavishly and are becoming con- vinced that the Communists are not so bad after all. ? In France Hitler .employed simultane-- ? ously the more outstanding means of preparing an enemy far the kill, the op- eration of spies, secret agents, agitattirs, sabOteurs, and traitors. He also used open threats and intimidations. On the one hand, the upper crust of France was being courted by the suavists and most urbane members of the Nazi group. On the other hand, there were thundered. threats from Hitler, but Hitler always that this activity is based on totally dif - took pains to make it clear that the ferent premises from similar activities .threats were for those usworthy French- carried on by the nations of. the west, men who were, allowing their country to or even those-nations which have ab- sink deeper into the morass and was sorbed more than the sheerest veneer of wooing those clear-sighted Frenchmen western civilization and culture. It is who agreed with the,Nazis. ' also. essential that he who concerns him- In Stalin is today employing self with matters of this nature needs, the more ontstanding means of prePar- by, all means, some sort of inner contact theenemy for a Bdik Healso is-using - with the spiritual make-up of, the Bus- the see.rekaiteut.s; wal.zil,i,sianz people. in ordeal a0140 on titers, "saboteurs; and traitor/I.,' On essential:. de ? one hand. the uPPer crust of Americo ? There are of? ceuree-fs, many- voys In which this problem may be met and.. wilted. Others fll occur to those Mem- of this body who, like myself. are greatly disturbed by the inept and ama- ? teurish manner in which our national. ' intelligence requirements are being met If r may presume to offer, suggestions to correct our very obvious deficiencies, Iould list gym in the following order: ? t First. Make Intelligence a career, in the Army, the Navy, the Air Forces, and ? not only make it possible for intelligence officers of the armed services to attain - high command positions but reqUire in- telligence and experience before an officer can be selected for high command. Second ntment o f Ce QULI/L p?oliffes, not only proscribe that he be a and influential: refuse us and we will purge you. There are cases in recent months where men have been rejected for appointment to governmental and public positions because they were not acceptable to the Communists in Amer- ica and to Stalin and the Politbureau in Moscow. - - Time does not permit me to go on, as I could, with parallel cases, but I want to make it clear from this floor today that to understand the technique and pattern? of Russian espionage, coercion, threat, and smeared techniques and activities, it is absolutely necessary to understand being oaUrted hy the suavists a.nd most ;,urbane the,Conynimist Vont. pf th.esearelending their names and fitiencelor the political prestige, power, ? and authority which may accrue. On the "other hand, behind the scenes, CCYMMI1- 'WSW Whisper and thtinder the threats of what to expect when, we, are finally crushed.- Not long ago, at a meeting of the district board of the Communist Par- ' ty held in one of'our large cities, a high 'official of the Communist Party, a mem- . ber of its national board, made substan- tially the following statement: "?-"P' ? ? ? There must be an intensive organization ? in every unit of the trade-union movement to use every means to destroy and drive from industry the Red batters. It must be made so that it is not possible for anyone to Red bait and hold his job or his health. Commu- nists must see to it from this time forward that Bed baiting is no longer a harmless pastime :but that it entails actual physical But Stalin also is at great pains to ? make it clear that these threats are for _ those unworthy Americans who are re- sisting the coming of the new order and who are trying to make America follow the pattern envisaged by the founding fathers and their worthy successors. In France, Hitler used the technique of simultaneous threat and inducement. He would present the alternative: Follow me and you will be happy, strong, and prosperous; refuse me and I will strike you down. In many instances in France. French papers, French politicians, and private but influential citizens would openly oppose and campaign against in- clusion in the cabinet or similar posi- ? tions of certain men because they feared It would offend Hitler. In America, Stalin is today using the same technique of simultaneous threat , and inducement. Many organizations known to all in this body today are of- fering the alternative to politicians, busi- ness executives, and men in position: Follow us and you will become prosperous iLas this) o use passage of the trate( tiOn-fifirTrsr-S-a urda; tirarnongrrZess a:ideal_w/ons4b C th a t office: Limit a aetiv t re?.Eran of nation oi ints timates, based n int( telligence collec ed 151 Navy Departme Third. Create unde National Defer e, ai passed. an intel genet to serve him a Ad 014 Staff, which age -icy s for the operatim oi al collection, and tr all eign counter-es ionage leaving the Pee -tral II gation free and infet-A r entire time and nerr domestic law f sforc which it is?pree Central Intellig, nee Agt high level evalut tion ag erad Clovernmer tane , unnecessary the waste effort which nere exis stricting the int tiger armed forces to Milit the broader sen-,e of -.1 " Fourth. The :angle- active interest n nuis - -LY 22 Vith-111e n 4.e.4 auliT2C.ez, 41.49.4s,PAILY r .et1.3..1,41...thett is JULY-19, 19A5proved For RegiiiGICMSfigatigfelAFFETORIDailiVM0020003-2 Avenue is spend, spend, spend. Some- Senate amendments, and agree to the EXTENSION c i REM ? thing has to happen, and it is going to conference asked by the Senate. . Mr. DOLLIVER a. aced ea e s given ? happen next year when the people real- The SPEAKER. Is there objection to . permission to extene his rattail' in the ize what has been going on. They should the request of the gentleman from Wash- Recoan and include a ate cent by ? and will elect a Republican President if ington? Utter a pause.] The Chair R. K. Bliss, of the extensior .ere .e., Iowa. * at not be stopped. - , hears none, and appoints the following State College. Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. ?SPeake42, Tv4I1 conferees; Messrs. Mame Serraw, . M. HORAN asked and wie gieen per- the gentleman yield? '; CHURCH, STOCKMAN, ANDREWS, of Ala- mission to extend his remarks in the - Mr. RICH. I yield. to the'gentlemane barna, BATES of Kentucky, and.Fotiaaer.,- Bscoen and include a news leiter - from Michigan. Mr. KOFFMAN. -He -cannot - anything' unless the Congress appro- priates it. ? . Mr. RICH. Well, we are cutting down on the spending in the departments of Government. If we had the aid of the- executive department, we could do a real job. Be-Wise and economizeaa aettat-'' 9561 PERMISSION TO ADDRESS TH/116/7' .. Mr. RANKIN. M4 Speaker ?4' ask unanimous consent to address the House Atqn- ' Mr. BENDER and ter. Fr) eale a asked 7311- ?!.127314zREnlarescHANT,- ?- were given permiasion to este ad their a " remarks in the Reamer. unanimoue consent that the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries may : sit during.? the day during general dee bate. , e.. The SPEAKER Is there objection-to- the request of the gentleman :ram In-- diana? , - There was no objection. . Mr. HALLE= Mr- sPeaker. r askL 5-* Mr. MILLER of Cdiforria ash ed. and , ? W g1 for 1 minute and to revise, and extend,- my remarks and inelnde article. eaeaaake The SPEAKligla a the requestae0 t lidississippiaa'aa - There was no obj [Mr. RANK .addressetde His rerearks, appear hefaafter tit Appendix.] r - STANDARD NEWSPRINTi PAPER_ Neeneeksoff, Mr.. SPeaket. asks unanimous cament for the present eon-- sideration of H. J. Res. 2311.ala ?ta - The Clerk read the titlenf resolution. " ? 1-a'aaa a The SPEAKER. Is therelcbjection to the request of the gentleman from nesota? ae""'" ' ""' 4 Mr. RAYBURN. Reserving the right - to object, Mr. ? Speaker, I think I shall object hereafter when the gentleman asks unanimous consent to take up, "H. J. Res." There is no such thing. Mr. ICNTJTSON. "House joint reso- lution"; I beg the gentleman's pardon. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Min- nesota? ? There was no objection. The Clerk read the joint resolution, as follows: Resolved, etc., That paragraph 1772 of the Tariff Act of 1930 is hereby amended to read as follows: "PAR. 1772. Standard newsprint paper: For the purposes of this paragraph paper which is in rolls not less than 15 inches In width shall be deemed to be standard newsprint paper insofar as width of rolls is concerned." --CALL OP THE HOU as missi yen per on to ea Poi his re- marks in the-Rscoan and Inc lune an edi- torial. Mr. PRICE of Illinois atled a aft WWI - given permission to. extent' nis icezarks In the Recoil') and is elude a let tie. from ?? the mayor of Lovejce. Di. Mr. KFYAUVER aeked and %via given- permission to extend his renatre in theaa ,Recoan and includes n editoaal a0OLE of Newyork.- MreSpeakere the'point Of order the 'not-Pretaer4.11,4a-a-P 1.5712n J:PEAKEIresent Mee HALLECK:?. Mr; Spes,:r? a. call of the House. ? .1 4011.21.4.14;:a4:771tJAriodani.i3O.11:4:O. extanctE askedaisandremwat tiORD End include leRrs ' - ?-a 'i iiinVge--.7" --NATiONAta seetnel Ler - Alai caw Mt . 4t Call of the House was ?rdeS;d:'''-1-7"t'''''''an-4?4'f''''''Thli:r.tilheQPITMAN-House rese- ' 31Ivre. SitacP5Iktecic.' be th 1 ? The 'Clerk called the roll, and.the fol- , . failed-to answer to their' . Comittittee of the Weole It etat on 1/tMel erattoric State of the Union fo- the - 6r . iltOii Ne. mei : ' Goff --------- 't..7-ido-rton-'"--f-. f",,Tnetatiary?11alofsec Defense; fcr a Na eoine Min .4.1Leeassetta..;?Vec . lowing Members 41 bill (}1. Ra 43)4) to arom ite .? , of the etames: a'aa,a -a- c???eevca, 03,,,rera"` laity by PrOvidini It" a Se Gossett hlextberg ?eery Establishment; f Jr a Detrarenent Blanc& OGrowgliae,Tovra ON?Harart4n: and a Department of the Ai Pam e; wee Inch. Granger IgurraY.WIL- ' the Army, a Departiaent it UN Nan- Bloom ? Beggs,La.. Bonner -? Boykin ' Hall. Ball, ?7??141 for the coordination if the attav ties at "the_ National Millie cy bment c. -with other departmei ts ani ttgin cies of - . the Government conamned with be na- a- tonal security: and eendi i V/4. Mr. Speaker, I ask Imam nous a ,? iss t that .... all those who may epc ak on tt e ti Uniay - ' - include in their remarks VI r ,levant material, and that at Memi?rk via() so - desire may have Jive tegisLa Je ? ays in ? which to extend the r in the RECORD on this subject. The SPEAKER. 15 there ,at-t -.1on to the request of the gen emar r Mich- igan? There was no objection. Mr. COLE of New Y v esker, a parliamentary inqu ry. The SPEAKER. Tae genii me a will Mr. COLE of New ork. er :peak- en, on Wednesday last. the ma t ' lead- er sought the unanim els coo t if the House for the consicif ratio?, f is bill at any time after ti--' pre-if t-tt,,t on of that request early on Wedreidav Ob- ? jection was made by ace to nett lquest for the reason that th- bill utm_, T r ri then available to the Members a le -reuse. After consultation wrth r ?teeny leader the request vas 1-,vH" made that the bill sh ed up any time after Prida.. Mu tat. Ls for the alteration in the r -quest 1; is aat at least a day would inte vane t-Axa ea the time the bill became ivailab d the - time the bill was called up. .ai a Wised that this bill has not been 1,A,1a ole to the Members until 9 30 al= rning. My parliamentary inc &Iry - her it EttiVitt Altrittr ?net The joint resolution was ordered to be ' engroseed and read a tird time, was read the third time, and passed, and a mo- tion to reconsider was laid on the table. DISTRICT OF COLMAR/A- APPROPRIATION BILL, 1948 ? Mr. HORAN. MI-. Speaker,. I ask unanimous consent to take from the Speaker's table the bill (H. R. 4108) making appropriations ? for the govern- ment of the District of Columbia and other activities chargeable in whole or in part against the revenues of such Dis- trict for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and for other purposes, with Sen- ate amendments thereto, disagree to the BUckley .. Leonard Byrne, N.Y. Harrison camp - Hartley Cellar ? Havenner Chapman Hays Clements Hebert Cole. Mo. Hendricks Colmer Hope Cooley Cotton Coudert Cox Cravens Davis, Tenn. Dawson, Ill. Dingell Dirksen -Domengeaux Douglas Eaton Feighan Fellows Flannagan Fuller Gallagher Gifford Glllie Patterson Pfeifer Ploeser Powell Rabin Reed. 111. Richards Riley Jennings Rivers . Johnson, Tex. Sabath Jones, Ala. Schwabe.,Mo. ' Kee Sheppard " Keefe Smith, Ohio Kelley Smith, Va. - ' Kennedy Somers Keogh Stockman Kilday Thomas, Tea. Kirwan Thomason Klein Tollefson Lea Van Zandt Lesinski Vinson Ludlow West - Marcantonio Whitten Mason Wilson, Tex. Meade, Ky. Zimmerman Miller, Mc!. Morrison The SPEAKER. On this roll call 320 Members have answered to their names, a quorum. By unanimous consent, further pro- ceedings under the call were dispensed , with. COMMITTEE ON BANKING AND CURRENCY Mr. WOLCOTT. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent that the Committee on Banking and Currency may sit while the House is in session during general debate today. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Mich- igan? There was no objection. state it. Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9562 Approved For Releae?20SMAI:WAIrbiMPAPRT)89(16??3003-2 . JULY 19 would be in order at this time to make The SPEAKER. Yes; and that request as best I may he Orin eisetional set-UP a point of order against the motion upon was granted. proposed by the, so-et:sea unification bUL- the ground that at least 24 hours have Mr. RICH. Mr, Speaker, that seems to .It is for that re,son I I. hilt ?tad this chart e not intervened between the time the bill be a very broad request. - prepared. Uneortuneesey, some of the_ was available and the time the bill was The SPEAKER. The }louse- has print will be dillcult fe, ere to read, but cad Up. _ - - already passed_ on that and granted I hope, in an Inform-A, eshion. to de- The . -SPFARRR. " In reply to the In- the unanimous-consent request of the scribe Just what this wriele thing quiry of the gentleman from New York, gentleman from Michigan. - -- We all know that under the_Consttta- the Chair would say that under the Mr. RICIL Mr. Speaker, I did-11ot tion of the Un ted Stares he President,e 'UnaniMout-consent agreemeht which Bear the gentleman exactly when he in addition to his dote fa= execute the eivas reached on July. 1.0, appearing in the .made that request. elt is a dangerous., laws, performs two teeter ..eryiverylim-se- ,..Coucare,stostee Remelt at page 9210, all precedent. " ? portant functions. r me, he -conducte'''' points eof order against., the bill were The SPEAKER. The. gentleman from: the foreign relatiom cif the ? United: e waivedee eet Michigan [Mr. Horteetel asked unani-- states; and tem rkk, ,mnlaneee-en , Mr.. COLE okNew 'York. Mr Speaker, mous consent that Members might be chief of the a_ inee fn cus a further parliamentary inquiry. I am permitted to so ext further advised that although the bill available this morning, the report ace- ., pawing the, bill isnot,,. Would it be order to raise a- point of Order against -motion- of ;the gentleman, from Michigan (Mr. 110erme1i open, the Coes of New yoit. mr. speaker t therefore, call attipat4, te the fact, mind :that the .report Is not now avail,e, welild it be a proper course of actionlai. that" at the to at tl'is elart5 there.Is toe which, ' ;e. -,..14).F44114131." nee- be the Mernbers ?to pursue who feel tliat depicted a trizieecomeasl--ePPrerititieltttrat';=eallueetftekaleratiellt.,? aseagneeePerZallnaarig;42' ..te',1`"gteen te the bei by theereeeehe' came 'e." Chief, atethe cnart ceenage4 inittee of the Whole to vote against the and there is Czellinhe "der''thirrz?-17'; motion offered by the, gentleman from visite* of this bill a *9sktils11115setsdlY Michigan? ''"e ,.; ete -,,-Couneti which it, to consist et that Secreere, jiarlfithihat,therrepe come,: The SPEAKifee.:The*gintleietter frone;:ft" tar3r4nf State' the Neal a sr of - tiefense whale eciaitien and` the rules of , the meek. in that New York: does not state a parliarnentary set eereerehe.a.toeatteetrewe;: .,The House,. of courseecsie vote- eeinnathmat I lea erlint' L43 :111er' 7411e. sea-4 bin,tii,exycing laWv ? e.e. ft pleases on'all sublects. ..;4._retar7 theed: talk the Bet Tetarporthnee quire le whether,. rele2revestri the The' question is on the motion offered: --"Iiael? the Secrete/7 et the Ade-Porceee gentleiban leorit , Indians., the eneetortte;,7-`,' bk the eenttemaa Iraq Michigan' et and the Chairrian cel tee elational Ree leadero :that:416111U, of:order against the ''' licalsswle,- Z4t4 t? Mire" Besati- That e Ratioetai bill be be waned also carried wftte,,te the oe.The was agreed. to. =mit and " "e041Ant Is waiving of points of order against the- ' Accordingly the House resolved itself? eee..41nemebereeeeet se desires._ Aimee report:whist:els suppesedele apeempang :.inta, the Committee of the Whole Semi "e "'" National Execa cc l'otmcg fet. , the bee' , - - on the State of the Union for the con- The The. spEAR:Erc re,,heechafrefi ram/ 'sideration of the bill R. R. 4214, with Mr. have but one cIteetiv cti/eer'tbe BlE" Cris! of South Dakota in. the chair. .. ecutive Director who neetri be described - polled to make the-same ruling in- this The Clerk read the title of the bill. 83 office manae'r,- and maa be a ilk- instance also. All points of order were waived tinder the unanimous-consent The CHAIRMAN. Under the unani- vilian. It is to ee meet .1 at au of the mous-consent agreement, general debate members of th, Exeee iii' COUnCil a r agreement and, therefore, the raising of will continue not to exceed 5 hours, to- civilians, and b reas)e o" lief/ respec- that point of order at this time would be confined to the bill, and the time to tive offices-each me of t t, ere fnust be con- not be in order. be equally divided and controlled by the firmed by the eenate Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. Speaker.. without undertaking to dispute the de- chairman and ranking minority member The Executiv- Cone ? / tneet do its cision, I call you attention to the fact of the Committee on Expenditures in the work effectively uolesq s assistance: - Executive Departments. that the request for waiving points of and one source af nee .i .tee meet be a. order was directed to the bill itself. The Chair recognizes the gentleman study to be mad- of the "P it erects of this from Michigan [Mr. Horrectel. country. The Presider n est have the - " Does the Speaker rule that the waiving of points of order against the bill car- Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, / advantage of a contin 14.6 tudy- of the- ried with it the waiving of points of order yield 15 minutes to the gentleman from resourcesof the ounte e ell as a come against the report? - New York [Mr. Wensworrea]. plete understa ding ts military' - ' The SPEAKER. Yes. Mr. WADSWORTIL Mr. Chairman strength in ordor that re gay conducte- Mr. RANKIN. Mr. Speaker, a par- at -last we have come to the considera- the foreign relat:ons of - T nited Statei liamentary inquiry. - tion of the bill known generally as the in a proper fasi"on- The SPEAKER. The gentleman will unification bill, H. R. 4214. It may not The presence f the ,F4, ere, any-of State state it. be a matter of surprise to many mem- . upon the Count' is sr re nt For the - Mr. RANKIN. Mr. Speaker, would hers of this committee that I rise in sup-, not the recourse of the gentleman from port of the measure. Having been con- New York he to vote down the motion cerned about the problems of our na- to go into the Committee of Whole? tional defense for something like 25 or The SPEAKER. That is a matter for 30 years.. I welcome this opportunity to the House to decide. support a nieasure which I am convinced Mr. RICH. Mr. Speaker, a perils- will make this Nation stronger, that will mentary inquiry. achieve its strength with efficiency, and The SPEAKER. The gentleman will ultimately with marked economy. It is- state it not my purpose at this time to engage in 'Mn, RICH. Mr. Speaker, the gentle- a general discussion, much less to at- man from Michigan [Mr. HOFFMAN) tempt any oratory, with respect to the asked unanimous consent that all Mem- defense of our country and the present hers might extend their remarks and condition of the world, but rather I Include extraneous matter in reference thought I would impose upon your pa- to this bill. tience in an attempt to describe to you In this bill ,ee seen en to set up The question was put before the House organization vt tich tst the and the House granted the request. dent in the pr-rfornaece- of those two-"- - Mr. COLE of New York: Mr. Speaker a further parliaMentary inquiry. esPeel*,..?2 rtmett_21,1' tin ...1.1.74 foreign- - The SpEAKER. The gentleman will re?'hs' 'AM as "'"".""'"'" state it. - , . e der in Chief- ef the dLarkii forces__ 1,;- first time In ou:r histo mo-nose that the statutes she.' pro ere I. :at the con- duct of foreign -elate qe el be recog- nized as an exreedint iortartt part of our general le havior e the world; . and the Resourr -s BOP r e -) make con- tinuous study of the re rre es of Amer- ica, its natural 1, ',source - It manpower, anything of imp etate -h relates to the strength of t els cc' 1)1 ir its potene tial strength: )ii, , *re, electric power, food, coa any = neer of things. that are part of the net,,rsi resources of the United State-. Tb ,e-e grew Board Is to make a centitturee st rdy of that part of the pro ,lem I a ake reams- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 Approved For ReElaNG44176344Niliri-FRIFt PAtbigi3199M?20003-2 9563 mendations to the Council, of which the lishment, Just as the Secretary of Agri- for emergency pur poses ? event t Presi t is the head. ' culture is the assistant to the President ' decision should be made rot i;J? espect to addition under the Council there in the matterof agricultural problems, operations, and it Drings eg. tier three_ . we un. ejeeeeenotnee amenT were is tel The elements in the proposed National civilians along with three cr dessional , NUvise the Councilelu ec o reg - Military Establishment are these: A soldiers. But you will mite:a re all this., dons made b the Council, in tne /1E1 Joint Chiefs of Staff, composed of the, set-up so far that the clvitiorts prestaile, o rite 1 ence, ii ore g e Chief of Staff of the Army, the Chief of The heads of every one oi these agencies,, there _Ls_ established a central interne Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff of except the Joint Cilefsie etal. are all :fence agency subject to tne council, ? the Air Force and the Chief of Staff of civilians from the top drive Then, wet leaded by a director. , A ,A,74.1, the CoMinan? der in Chietif therebe such. - have the three depertmeres-- tie Secre-e The function of that agency is to con- ' You mar remember that for some time tary of the Army, the Se reta-y of the - stitute itself as a gathering point for In. past the President has had an officer as- Navy, and the Secretary at tee ..eir Force. formation ' coming from all over the signed a him as Chief of Staff, Admiral In each of those de eartroe,ee tie Elecre- ? world through all kinds of channels con- Leahy. So, in the event Presidents of the tary is the boss inside of th- cit.1 artment, cerning the potential strength. of other future desire to appoint such a person, Using a colloquialts ta, he may I e said to ations and their political intentions. that Chief of Staff becomes semember of have the right to hire and Till inside of here is nothing secreteabout. t,hat the Joint Chiefs of Staff., ,? .; his department. Be will lave uniaplete Every nation in the world, is doing thee Now; ,the ftInctione and duties or the control over all pereonnel ti depart- e same thing. But it must be remembered `joint Chiefs ' of Staff are professional. - ment. He may not ae 1ntrter with by that the Central Intelligence Agency is That is the professional military agency,'the Secretary of Defense ir tt e internal _ subject to the Council, and does not sect, of this whole seteup.e.TheY are to .plan -Administration Of hs depar ten el it. Only Independently It is the agency f Or thel- strategic 'operation& They are to plan when the Secretary ,J,f DefeiL.* fter collecting .. mittating,Of info ton whicj the, Co .Policieeek e So' with, intern* ,,o t sort cn- ceimingeothek :natiorte-anek *format coming mi respect% OW. OWItir k sources, ,both%of which- arteavaihiblei the Council and Presidentewe willehave for the firsttimeirt our history. a-piece. , of machinery,that Werle and it ?WI, high time that we have, It We have.; never had:it. befora During thlelatkj; war all sorts of devices wereresortect to% obviously in great haste. to accomplish',: a thing like ,this. You may remember the huge number of Special committees..., organizations and agencies set ,urt- by Executive order in an "attempt to' catch up with the target., We-have learned as a result of the war that we should have some permanent organization, and that is the one proposed in this bill. ""'" We come now to what might be termed the National Military Establishment and when I use the phrase "National Mili- tary Establishment" I have reference to the team of elements that will actually defend this country together with the agencies which are to help the team. The National Military Establishment is to be headed by a new official, a Secre- tary of Defense, who I may remind you' Is a member of the Security Council. The Secretary of Defense must be a civil- ian, and, of course, his appointment must be confirmed by the Senate. The Secretary of Defense is charged under this bill with certain very impor- tant duties. I shall not read them in detail, but suffice it to say that in his hands will be the duty of bringing about through power possessed by himself a proper coordination of all the elements in the Military Establishment. It will- be his duty to see to it that overlapping and duplication are eliminated in order that economies may be effected and effi- ciency increased.. It will be his duty to coordinate all these agencies I am about to describe to you. He will have a posi- tion in the cabinet. He will sit along- side the Secretary of State and the other Cabinet officers in the Cabinet. It might be said he will be, as is the Secretary of State, the assistant to the President in foreign relations, assistant to the Presi- dent with respect to the Military Estab- training of the threat services ting the advice we will MT (4 the Re-44- are to .plan Irk, all: the; fieldee of et zeardr, and Development Eimer* or, kingltary. efforad they; artthel., Alwittion5 Boar- or suegeset Milititrief,professionarevedviserieofv,"theete,3dowaehere- amtmtpe the deport:men Seeketery- of Defense and of the, Piesi-ir31niakee up his mind that a certAice degreel:,, dent; They are to perform,:their,dutles of coordination should be achieved be-- under this bill as they have been)per-- tween two or all &k 'aof theso depart-, le_ 'lormf?gthent foe tbelast several. Yeart..Aqinentit may he then issue er., tett= -tbaCT ',.There *net change inethe Jtmetieneetef.,;,;-rtheeoordination be brougle aotiL, .1te, the Joint Chiefs of Staff.'words?in questions where there Tire ?35.tinition130ard.;::-..vtielk:.7,-,7noviTa- chance to achieve better iteir,-tesatio its irethe name of theArniseandsNavyee':and hence econom3, the sec retai y of ,Des-e.4" _ M"unitioneBoarde'li perpetuated bylaw -.1-,ferise will have the nmer to say, "You gee thie bill -and- * 'composed,' Of- and do it_"; but even so, urtder chairman, to be appointed be;the Presie, Any one of these Seeretaree it' sesee,ee dente with the 'advice and consent of the = eral departments obj ects. be he right Senate; and .who must be a civilian, the to appeal to the Pr?,isident i4lave his.efei&i,e:. Under-Secretary of theArrhy, the Under, '...day in court if, indeed, he -..tere) /sly otieeeteeeee., Secretary of the Nene:- And.- the Under ',':Jecta to the proposal made 1 tb Secre--.44. Secretary' of the Air Force. The Muni- tary of Defense S t " tions Board is charged with the constan study of our industrial capacity and wit making suggestions and recommenda tions to the Secretary of Defense ,end t the President as well as the S%urit Council for the planning of industria production in the event of war, preparin for it in time of peace. The Munitions Board has no executive authority what- soever. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman from New York has expired. Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, I yield the gentleman 10 additional minutes. Mr. WADS WORTH. As I say, the Munitions Board has no executive au- thority whatsoever, and It is continuing the work that is now being done by the Army and Navy Munitions Board. We also have in existence today a Re- search and Development Board which, under this bill, is perpetuated. The Job of the Board is to investigate the field of science in which the military forces are especially interested and to make recomMendations to the Secretary of Defense, to the Council and to the Presi- dent, as how best to coordinate the ef- forts of the military services in the field of scientific research which, of come, has become of enormous importance in re- cent years. ? The War Council found here is, in my Judgment, of real importance. It is to be composed of the Defense Chairman and three Secretaries and the three Chiefs of Staff of the several departments, and is 1 s e. limits the autonomy :if the t rt tee depart- ' ments, the Army. th - Nave tee the Air Force, is preserved, nut thtt res evation of Power lies with tee Sec r 40. of De- fense to bring about coordi JatEt a. when it is determined by elm ttel t nest be done. It is for that -eason t at he Sec- retary of Defense is eiven ice t neer of general direction ,.nd I sntr I and charged under this to ? -110 tate by appropriate means -tt. esten 1 rN, 9,Typtiag and duplication. - Mr. GARY. Mr. 'hailer ,1 /ill the gentleman yield? ? Mr. WADSWORT1i. I el I to the gentleman from Virg ?nia. Mr. GARY. Will he gm vit kyl give us the composition of the la ctIt: t Secu- rity Resources Board Mr. WADSWORTB Yes rt r Chair- man of the Board -lust o Act lointed from civil life. The heal ee repre- sentatives of various, exec In 7P tepart- ments and independent ager is.: is may be designated by the Presci-it 'lay be members. In other word ,s F' Presi- dent himself may designee tie other civilian members ? th ources Board from indepe dent '-i les or 'other departments o- the t irnent. It is nonmilitary. 31 fay- C stant to emphasize, as I hay alrea t led to do, that this bill, despite s r,- af the suggestions to the cc &trate in my Judgment absolutely pres,? Mean control, in accordant - wit )r tradi- tions and nailer the arm -- if our Constant.= Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 - 9564 Approved For Releagt)24aREIMCMIEIDRVO9ElteCTRIMR0003-2 Mr.HARRIS. Mr. Chairman, will thority, or are they under the control ,recommendatio -s arc 1.-!,orts to the the gentleman yield? ?? of the Secretary of Defense? Speaker of the hlouse ,ho tie President. -,--- Mr.. WADSWORTH: / yield to the Mr. WADSWORTH. The Joint Chiefs of the Senate a well la,n tt le President? gentleman from Arkansas. of Staff do not have executive authority. - Mr. WADSW{ MTH E s the gentle- ., Mr.- HARRIS. I understand the See- It may be said that they have a certain =Orr refer to th Sectr Atriries of the variqus services do not. degree of military authority.. For ex- . - Mr. OWENS. Yea have Cabinet statue ? ? ample, if the joint Chiefs of Staff propose Mr WAD/Mt/FETE_ Do4 s the gentle- Mr. WADSWOR171,. The Secretaries a certain strategic operation,in time of _ ?man mean that neSechrul Council shall the Anny, the Navy, and the Air Force war and come to a decision or suggest eport upon an its fhtainin and mom-- 4 do not ? ?'? -that such, an operation should be en- mendations dirrctlyz to :hi- 7,artgresa?: Mr. HARRIS: Are they' appointed gaged in, if the President approves it, ' Mr.-OWENS. Yes. the Secretary of Defense or the Fred- then the joint Chiefs of Staff-through Mr. WADSW /RTE. Ii non do. that,,, '''''.detit.of the United States? - military channels put it into effect. 'then you will -b- repay. ray o the entire Mr. WADSWORTH. By the Presi- Mr. HAR.NESS of Indiana. Mr. Chair- world. dent of the United States, man, will the gentleman yield? Mr. scRrvitri R. M ri airman, will ? Mr. HARRIS. Is this bill similar to ' Mr: WADSWORTH. / yield. - the gentleman teid? the bill that was passed recently by the agr. HARNEss of Dadia4a With fur- Mr. WA SW I 'leld to the .2 Senate, or are there marked changes? 2?ther , reference to the question gentleman free Sare'E'' IS,1 Mr. WADSWORTH: It is very... very -pounded by the gentleman from Newt Mr."SCRIVNI R. Cr,- lurk, rig a ratheis Igitilar.. In fundamentals it does not York about the Cabinet status of the.- aniQue question as a rir-rober of both the 44differ, in my judgment, from the Sea- various Secretaries,! should like to point _ Army and Nay,: Sub, toil dee en An.. .ittel Nib There are certain changes out that there is. a statute,, probably the propriatione even thrum) I have not- . ch. our committee has made which only, one on the books,. which refers?to, had time to Ant', the frfl in detail oe see IMPertana hi tbeniseleek but', theYthe' Cabinet members of' the President.- .itne Mask a curses!" etude eh the thig belle; .thange set-up at AIL. ' Thatcisohe atatutee,I?whidw. that:::ictiyourressasko woula...4.4scAtethafinorr-i, swarms-41 members, or the, .s.447-sibly. at the. ow set - there o drhirmat- gentlemen - Mr..- WADSWORTH. 1; Cabinet at $15 , goq . per year. ':;.4.",4,7;'(;-tainacesSesaccoelladabftl Ent` .1:raving. that to mititti the committee 1`,-.1rona. your expittnaties Could gentleman from front Alabama. ..z,rwrote Into this bill the salaries or the ataad that the e siato.4 ..4911211a17 be 4" JA/1M$ 3i'Arrt? I Carreet- .0 ...Secretary of war. the sentetasy. of Nam great eeonondez pr, lg., lent arat re. Phan that that* Secretaries er the and the -Secretary of the- Air ,Foree,:, at and lesele"" - and much ' rmy,-the Nam ,and 'thq Air Corps are $/4.500. , . - ? - 301 the apart now beim.- zar on riul which eivillanirtinder this ,./gr???,w4trisworrial.,Thsit, was to separated vi In the a Lai t branches of iflLeTWADE559C614 They'art:Cii;!1". distinction th ere 'S 'itt. A ?'r ? Ml KARNEsEt 'of Indiana:: And wer, wAnearc ant i a xt. theroughly, ,hte. 'Cows. New",York..', Me.:rhair- frw th?,,,,q?cretarv of Defpngi, 'Convinced of. tkett. Prilltr; ME to notko. ;will the gentleman yield? :fit ''..ii;`17187-i:Tutt7,16------;:i members? this, -observation_ W'i.i I tis bell he.. WADSWORTH. I yieldje - the Mr wApswonant, That la right. comes law, the man 'Filo Si appointed. - .,..gentleman from /tiew York- - mr. vonya. air. ? will the -1.th the pa5rtiell d Ser r " of ?elms? Mr. COLE of lien York. On the ques.. "aeothrman yield? .s ? cannot be einet ted s.crt -ere - ,otwhetber or- Doe the-Secretaries Mr 'WADSWORTH. I - ? ;lie .of dollars in sartigs in se,* or two or. , of the three departments should have ' . Cabinet status, to which the gentleman Mr. VORYS. The gentleman. has men- mouth or twoa` Perk 3 1:1" 'Yen a year. jo honed the function of the Joint Chiefs He will have a be b h s hand.. Be -? .` replied that they would not, is it net _ of Staff I find nothing in the bill whieh wilt have to wort on thl,. -tg day after correct that the bill is silent in that re- ? . provides whether their action must be day in consultaton t eta tern as they.spect? anartineus as was the ease during the report and rarer- imemi ? Be will Mr. WADSWORTH. The bill is silent war and which caused considerable dif- have his own icr,as, or r.c. but step in that respect, because no act of Con- by step I am convinced h t large sums grew has ever been passed and prob- floults--or whether they can function of money will lair saved ;31_1,1 oetter week ably neverviill be passed defining a Cab- through a majority vote or some, will be done. - met ?nicer_ like that_ - Mr. SCRIVNEit. Tin ? it will avoid; hfr. COLE of New York. That is ear- Mr. WADSWORTH. There is nothing In the ease of another ,r1-, reeney corn- rect. My point is that it is entirely Poe- in the bill to the effect that the Joint ins up. the comretitioq mirght say, sible in the future for any one or all Chiefs of Stall in reaching a military de- between the breaches - falriee in of these Secretaries of the three depart- tision roust act unanimously. It would trying to obtair certs I r 1 terials and ments to sit in the Cabinet if the Presi- be a reckless thing for the Congress to equipment. dent requests them to. _ put any such imposition upon them. Mr. WADSWC. Erna rr r. would he Mr. WADSWORTH. There is nothing Mr. VORYS. However, it is the pur- his job--ta prey -lit Qua rr lapetition? to prevent it, and I do not believe the pose of this new arrangement to provide and the hill. in eifect. Congress has the power to tell the Presi- or machinery so that action can be Mr. JENKI f NS o Et 1' its if Janta. Mr. -JULY 19 . dent who shall be a member of his Cab- taken even though the Joint Chiefs of chairman. will t geta yield? Staff are not unanimous in their de- cision? Met. A custom has grown up, of course, Mr. WADSW( ,RTII 4.tl-citto the with which we 'are all farnilrar, but there Mr. WADSWORTH. That would be up gentleman from Penn, a mein- th is no statute on at subject, ber of e comm rtee. Mr. HOBBS. Mr. Chairman, will the to the President as Commander in Chief. the Th gentleman yield? e CHAIRMAN. The time of the Mr. JMIKINS ?-ri Pe 1, sins, Is it Mr. WADSWORTH. I yield to the gentleman from New York has again - not a fact. in ar swer t.. t't, statement , gentleman from Alabama. expired. by the gentleman from Rix-, is. that the Mr. MANASCO. Mr. ?Chairman, I bill provides thir Secr-rA 14 Defense Mr. HOBBS. Would the gentleman yield the -gentleman five additional shall coordinate the btak t -.euirements - be kind enough to explain to us what minutes, of the three irrilitunr den t 1. -Ms, which happens to the Marine Corps? Mr. OVirENS. Mr. Chairman, will the the first time, is th, rimy hull- Mr. WADSWORTH. The Marine Corps under this bill is certainly amply gentleman yield? cated, in our nal anal ianigw is that any Mr. WADSWORTH. I yield to the one person has c-ver br r a position protected, gentleman from Illinois. to oversee the preparatio-1 a I presents.. Mr. MILLER of Nebraska. Mr. Chair- Mr. OWENS. Inasmuch as this is a- tion of these Midgets 1, Congress, man, will the gentleman yield? new law which might require action by and, therefore, ti- at in a itself will Mr. WADSWORTH. I yield to the gen- the Congress at some future time, would lead to a tandem v to r- -k iuplication tleman from Nebraska. there be any objection to a provision and croes-proettr-inent re a on? Mr. isfiTT,T,Rrt of Nebraska. Do the therein which would require that the Mr. WADSWORTH. ?.t r c ray that Joint Chiefs of Staff have executive au- Council immediately give a copy of its for the first time] our 4- 4.00 the House Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 ILLEGIB Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 A,pprove0 For Reledensi2e9130A2cils9k9Fee61fieBORMis920003-2 Committee on Appropriations will get an over-all view of the budget of our national defense. - Mr. LYLE. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? ee- ? Mr. WADSWORTH. ..;??I yield etch the gentleman from Texas. ' - Mr. LYLE. Would the gentleman take ? a minute to. explain the possibilities under this measure for, joint training _ and joint use of facilities so that we will ee?--. not have overlapping? Mr. WADSWORTH. tinder the proVi-' sions of this bill, the Joint Chiefs of Staff are to plan for joint training and - joint education in the military serviee. If their plan is approved by the Secre- , tory of Defense and the President, It goes into effect. u?'? ????-?` , Mr: LYLE. This bill, as I understand your explanation, will give us and give America tor the first time an opportunity to have it military policy consistent with , our responsibilities and our resources,- WADISWORTHOThia-- . t tat? i/1 Alit ? _po xrri es of other oc9 Mr. JOHNSON of C o Chairmannwill the genthunan :Yield? ? Mtio WADSWORTH.* ",tyleld to: the gentleman from California. Mr. JOHNSON of Canfornia. the gentleman explain a little more T' about the-National Securities Board? 'Is that only a plaaning board, or. is the ? law so written that in the event of an emergency they can set up these various: agencies? o 'Mr. WADSWORTH.; To which board ? does .the gentleman refer?. on? seen /tr. JOHNSON of California. The National Security Resourced Board. - Mr. WADSWORTH. That is purely advisory. - Mr. JOHNSON of California. In the event of an emergency, we would have to pass legislation to implement what - they recommend? Mr. WADSWORTH. No. Thewlegis- lation is already set up. The Munitions Board will plan the industrial mobiliza- tion and advise the Secretary of Defense and President, and it will be put into - effect. These are boards of students as it were to study, our resources and make - recommendations, but not to administer. Mr. JOHNSON of California. Under an act which we passed several years ago, the Munitions Board was simply em- powered to create a stock pile. Mr. WADSWORTH. They may rec- ommend the creation of a stock pile, and urge ?it, but they do not have the power to establish it. However, it can be very Influential with the Secretary of De- fense. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman from New York [Mr. Wens- woirrie] has again expired. Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, I yield the gentleman live additional minutes. - Mr. JACKSON- of California. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. WADSWORTH. I yield. Mr. JACKSON of California. Would the gentleman comment on the Joint Staff as to their functions under the Joint Chiefs of Staff? The Joint Staff has caused some concern to some of us. rMr. WADSWORTH Yes. The Joint purchase author? ty of crn teal equip-. Chiefs of Staff have at all times what ment; they -wotud prepare est1mates of ? might be termed a staff to help theme potential production; they would deter- e: ? It has not been a super staff, like that Mine relative pritrities: :nee 'mid make .? of the Germans; Act -a super general recommendation; to regroup. combine, or staff. Those four men on the Joint- dissolve existing intersentic t agencies; Chiefs of Staff must have assistants. If they would maintain baleen with other they come to a decision with respect to departments and agencise fa, the proper ? et strategic operation, which is planned .correlation of in1litar- r quh'emento'le probably months in advance, to put it within a civilian econome. end so fortheef",: Into operation they must have the help but they do not take into heir bands of men who will develop the orders that the actual execotion cf. these things; ? lo down through the military channels, the Secretary of Defense lint that- and their staff is solely for that pur- Mr. ICERSTEo of Wittig:Lain. enee pose, Just as it was during the war. It Chairman, will tee gentieresa ? does not supplant the Bureau of Naval Mr. WADSWORTH. I veld. Operations in the Navy Department or Mr. KERSTEN of Witetonsin. It seems the -General Staff in the War- Depart- to me from what the ger-4*m an- has said meat. ' - ' ?that the Central Intellieene* Agency is ' -- Mr. JACKSON of California. Would one of the very important poets of these the gentleman have any objection to a entire set-up. I wish to as the gentle-. provision in the act which might limit mad if there is definite coordination, the-tenure of officers serving upon the ? provided for between that agenearand _Joint Staff? Not upon ther?Joint Chiefs-':' say, the Department of State --For lleel ,or staff; bane* jatneenteer nontteeboily ie.- that certain info-mat:too et ha Meier_ which acts now as ago* of sioretiniat. ? would affect the fietiViii$ ?if UMW eatirgr / think the principal matter -of concern' system. ?-among people? who have come to- know Mia WADSWORTH. The gentleman* ? the military is that .once-an--officer be- _. correct. May I point out tbs. under tht chines ensconced in se tiwivelethair?it is Provisions of the bill the Central Teo: sometimes' difficult to get. him out"? telligence Agency in efteet mese eaoperf.71 Mr. WADSWORTH. Well, you may ate with all the azetacies I toe Mauna_ ,? -remember- that under the law, at least ment, including he Stat e fespartattente welt applies to the-Arrner, a man-may It is the gathering Point of iformatiante not serve on the Staff more than 4 years. ' ? that may come Ir from -ene iteleartnaerik Then he must go back to trools or other-.of the Governmeet with res- set- to the- stations-for a period, before he can re. foreign field, including the Stete Depart---: some his place. ? , merit, of course; ocludirec the War De- , Mr. JACKSON of California. I agree Partment, through 6-2 int tutthtethe t o k - That that is an excellent provision, but would Navy Departmen thei int ? there be any great objection to making information is ga hered te be central t such a provision in this measure? ? ' agency to be evaluated by Elea, rat Intel- -- Mr. WADSWORTH. That is existing gence and then dissent:nivel to those law and applies to this personnel Just agencies of ?over-anent 'IP nay be in- the same. - terested in some tortion t Mr. JACKSON of California. It would apply to the Navy and the Army under- this bill? Mr. WADSWORTH. Yes. That is my - understanding. That law is already on the statute books. Mr. VORYS. Mr. Chairman,, will the gentleman yield? Mr. WADSWORTH. I yield. Mr. VORYS. Coming back to the Mu- nitions Board, the gentleman said it was advisory. It Seems to me it would have administrative and executive functions ' similar to the War Production- Board. Under the Secretary of Defense, is it not proposed that the Munitions Board will be the agency which will conduct alloca- tions of priorities and do other things which we had a lot of boards trying to do in this past war? Mr. WADSWORTH. That is true. That is the way it will evolve. They plan these things. For example, they would coordinate the appropriate activities within the National Military Establish- ment with regard to industrial matters, Including the procurement, production, and distribution plans of the depart- ments and agencies comprising the es- tablishment; they would plan for the military aspects of industrial mobiliza- tion; they would recommend assignment of procurement responsibilities among the several military services, and plan for standardization of specifications and for the greatest practicable allocation of The MAMMA Te ? ne of the gentleman fronr eve again ex- I pired. - Mr. MANAPCti. /a- c 1- airman, I yield myself 10 m notes The CHAIRM N. "rti e gentleman from Alabama s re d for 10 minutes. Mr. MANASCC Mr en a rmari. the Committee on Expenditures e the Exec- utive Departments start ? I t earings on the so-called unification -au ora.V1,2 of this year. We have ter- barged by some -people with hurrvi t us legisla-? ; tion through wittinit gry-T g r roper con- ,? sideration to it. Lie the ntv-eighth Congress. the W ,odrurr cor nnittee of the House held ex ensiv-? - n-r ngs on the necessity of meramg a ied forces. Last year two Sinate irnr. ttees held extensive hearings on tilt tine tion. Our committee?as sue can f m the size of the printed hen rings in le nany days of hearings. Some people frern the Ian have ac- ' cusea our commit ee of t : r them off. We have been acctsed ni -re es to stifle the Navy. The r 'cord nen t low, how-- ever, that we het rd 1711 ivy repre- sentatives than a-. did -ru any other service. I believ, sever tr embers- of the committee who he d '4 me of the- testimony from eprese ? res giving the Navy view on his ce set c n were al- most convinced before t ? bee rings were over that we sin led ha a u anS011.1te No. 13 roved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9566 CONGRESSIONAT,a?ECIORDITTLY 19 bill. It was disturbing to hear some of elusion. -al:rijel"e atiji-tthth-sliti:511cot9411111wif2fo?r?m?3on-2e d ntsm t, ing organ- merger install?filIVIcaEu oearunRtecaatten 2 Op 3tat 0y261'; lilielk the testimony and read it in the hear- It is true that the passage of this bill Why do we ;wed ? 071 ation? At ization. '-. Inge of the jealousies, the bickerings, the may not Immediately reflect any savings. present, Mr. Chairma I Ire re are two back-biting that evidently LS going on The primary objective of the legislas separate and distinct sins se depart- nOw between members of our armed tion, of course, is to strengthen our na- ments each strning te t'e bne capable ?forces. If - a complete merger would tional defense and make it possible for of independent military .-sa t o. In each eliMlnate that fighting among the serv-- us to more succesSfully prosecute a war department we have iarei ssa. and air - Ices, bring about a spirit of cooperation, in case we are ever engaged in another elements. Consequentls Us re exists a bring, about a spirit and a will to be on war. But we should at all times have vast amount of unnecessars luplication. one team andtight for the best interests economies in mind because our Nation ' Cooperation beta can the att ; no depart- :of Arnerica,instead of the -selfish inter- cannot continue to spend more money ments is almost entire,- s matter of eats of a few. individuals, I would vote than it takes in and pay out enormous voluntary agreen tent rat: lei than pro- today, if some one offers an amendment, sums of interest to retire the obligations for an out and out merger of our armed that we owe to our people without run- cedure. . - forces. I think we could save millions Opponents of unilicat in : ipport the ning the risk of destruction from within. philosophy of ma intaintrer Iso or more of dollars, Yes, billions of dollars, if we We have many stations throughout the merger. I each competing : or mtessy manpower, were to have an out and out me United States, some of them in your dis- ses lin frank to say that when I was chair- trick and materiel. This polls 715 .; irectly op- and, of course, if an effort were posed to the real bjectirs o unification "5-man-et this-Committee last year and the made -to close one of them because we and, if pursued, can onts res (It in con- of ' bill was referred to us, I did not have have another station adequate to take tinued wasteful inefficitecv a ad the re- any hearings because i' was appased sa care of our needs, you would be coming sunsuit weakening oi ts-r national 7 &., it; but the heasinga 'this year ve in here trying to keep that station from security. changed my mind. - " 'ss-s?:"''''.- z being closed. - s 7-, - Mr. Chairman. ii. is Misers ant that we v 'It-1jfrr A. e- iteivinge war : As an illustration; We have warehouses . keep in, mind, the objects,* if this bill t ttee, bac meat *obit:lie; forsthesthree ..servicea. side: by side, in :and the tacticit en played it..ty tag opposie t ao,, Thsiss isms ssA7 ManYsPort - areas; of the cilUntrasss- We''"`" tionstseSprevent" A from bet ?ming auts a ere, trying ,to- destroy ' Mess; ---* --------7 ' s hay e airfields side by -side; and L bave-sseffectiventstrunient of core tresitive milt- - heard it said lots of times that it was not tary reorganisation. Mittee,;13m111;inbenisof this H rtheS? '7 NO MeMber Of oUr,O:Mh;;;,:, quite a good idea for the planet of one ' First, the opposition- sisitte es1 its -at- om fecallIne, gallant efforts Of the Ms; r-r;" service to land on the &Ida of another. tack upon the passers or tt e Proposed -That should' not be "It should be pos- ' Secretary of Defer se, seek i is o prevent Southwest sPacille.., T wa, - - rime 112 ateldeleanal, the feleade of the .- agile to eliminate thousands and thou- . the establishment ;if effecrl 7C( entraliZed the Mari- " "nes, titalCslinia, and'OkInatwa woUld ..it ;S sands; of; dollars' worth of - annual ex-- - civilian control an i &rec., t ir if our se- ". ;Bent lb see that .....i,...,,..,_ .1_,..,.,,,A. ?2 ? PefidittlreS for warehouses alone. It will curitY forces- in. or ler to _ens); -tuate the its s,s,s,_,,s. *47s___.`s`Lanfs:-S7Trs'ss.. s'4,.,...S'.' , take some time for these economies to be ? independent depastmentst 1 atus en- snanususan: an ; way affected sisseks :reflected, but they will come ' ' bored during past sears. ss tis ndepend- , There have been charges we are trying ' -' Of course, you Will have some people. ence has permitted our N4 'VI(' ,M3 to de- :to destroy naval aviation.. Any person "'say that the Joint Chiefs of Staff will cide their own prog tams, hi ill their own Who will read the questions asked- by become similar to the old German forces, prepare ar d clef e- heir 4 1 heir own isirtembers - of this, committee, who will almker's military- staff. As long as we budgets, irrespective of tns os -x-all ?b- read the-results of our deliberations as have Committees on the Armed Forces, jective Mr. Chairman is authority found on -pages la and 177 of this- bill, whose duty it will be to spell out the fuse- proposed for the Si cretat 3. at "*Sense is s, must surely know that the members of tions and the duties of our armed forces, the very cornerston 'of fot , P tE lineation ' is this committee can never forget what I have no fear, of any Junker system and we must be o 1 gua s a i ,inst an we owe to those men in the Naval Air coming to this country. move to reduce this mar nere fir- - Forces who gave their lives in the battles Mr. "Chairman, for many months we ureheacl. .. t of Midway, the Coral Sea, the Philip- have listened to arguments for and Failing in this first. obje = - to . ) destroy pine seas, and the seas around Japan . against unification of the armed services, the authority of th ,, props.; et lecretarY Itself would want to destroy or impair The controversy has been long and bitter of Defenae, the opposition iss directed naval aviation. , but It has served a most useful purpose its attack against the crest ,rg, 1 of a co- There were some Charges made that If in that it has given many of us a better equal Department 4 An 1 r e reason this bill is enacted into law it will bring insight into problems surrounding na- back of this is more eaten 1 it nould be about a military dictatorship in this tional security. examined with gre I car- country. That is the lowest type of at- Although the Secretaries of War and Air power has no v becss - control- tackt on the bill. The only way, in ray Navy, and their principal military and' ling force in modern wsl I lrA and no opinion, that we will ever have a military civilian officials, have reached an agree- military campaign, ehethsi t ). on land dictatorship, or any other kind of dicta- ment on the terms of this legislation, op- or sea, can be suc, essfut el i the air torship, In this country, is when the Position still arises from the rank and war has first been a on. r .1. ore, Mr. . American people themselves deteriorate file of the United States Navy. Chairman opponen s of k7 ti ,don are to such an extent that they lose their Mr. Chairman, in considering this far- seeking to prevent he ci r 7,st r anon of , ,t ' desire to fight for their own liberty; then reaching piece of legislation, it is im- our Air Force by pa celine si ong the we will have a dictatorship, and it will portant that we understand. the back- surface components_ Thi - Of, if suc- not make any difference whether it is ground of fundamental issues involved in cessful, will perpett ate t.'s p i ient In- a military, Fascist, communistic, or, any order that arguments pro and con will dependent status 0 our r -t - rather the only way a dictatorship will ever other kind of a dictatorship. That is fall into their proper perspective. . than integrate the s co7a - o 1 efforts. As I see it, Mr. Chairman, true unlit- Furthermore, it wil vitiats r 1, future come to this country. As long as the cation as proposed under the compro- military potentialitl of 4 ,e --an air elected representatives of the people have mise plan agreed on by the Secretaries power. control of the purse strings and carry of War and the Navy, will result In the Under the terms if th.? or arorhise out their duties in an effort to preserve our system of government, we will not creation of one security organization plan agreed to by le ' i i , f - - , t ?1 Navy . There has composed of three coordinate lighting Secretaries, naval a iatios --i I ft with have a military dictatorship components; our land, sea, and air forces. the Navy and marl le a x 1 'or Is left never been a dictatorship established in a country where the majority of the peo- Each of these components will be organ- with the Marines. I17 the tn ii ?-, of in- ple fought. bled, and died to keep any ized and trained to carry out its part of terservice harmony, I agt s t 7,; th this our over-all military strategy. No one feature of the bill. ilowes - - p iy fur- kind of dictatorship down. You may of these fighting components will be ther spreading of ou Air is t C'F among read the history of Germany, Italy, Spain, canable of operating independently of . surface components ill du f- r i le pur - many of the South American countries, the others. On the contrary, each will pose of this hill and Tray pr- t 0 istrous as well as that of the Soviet Union, and rely on the others and together they in the event of futur war Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1 1947 Approved For Relecgag3VOWPWRI3PAWWORTatTgA20003-2 9567 If we are faced with a war in the fu- Mr. ELSTON. Since the committee this a Republic t a "ix e e ' ill. Under ture, it is altogether :Probable that mill- did write Its own bill, and I am sure it has the circumstance s, we .. et t along . and tary operations during the first year will a reason for every provision in the bill, tried to write the best b 1 te it we knew be predominantly air action. If our may I ask the gentleman why there is a how since the Republieee e adership of - available air resources are divided be- separate department for the Army Air the House has jotned ea _,F.1 1 e Adrainis- . . tween surface components, the striking Forces and no provision has been made .tration in supporting tee me isure.. r power and flexibility of future American for aneparate department for the Navy The:charge thet the 4 'NI t eman from - air power will be lost. In fact, we may Air Forces? , ? - ...- , Michigan [Mr. li must; bee in any way -' never, under such circumstances, be able ? I. BENDER. Since the bill was re- , delayed the coneederat ,ee at this bill iv - to launch- a surface.; operation. because ported out the gentleman from Flew York wholly without founda; :or . The gene - - .. the air phase of the war would be lost. ' ' (Mr.; Celia]. has requested that the cone- Ueman from' Mi t Meat) 1 Mr Horrueral . In summary, Mr. Chairman, I would- mittee hold a session, and he asked to has cooperated fully. . , .. , like to emphasize that any bill designed appear.. I am sure the amendment he Mr. ,McCORMACK. lee Chairman,e to-unify our armed forces must incorpo- will -offer will be supported by an over- will the gentler:1m n yield: rate two basic features. whelming majority of the committee, Mr. BENDER. 1 yieet First, it must establish a responsible confining the Naval Air Force to the Mr. McCORM.1CK. 11.* that is ??? -, civilian head over our armed forces with , Navy. The Naval Air Force will not come very clear. The Repute # an end Demo- necessary-authieriteeta unify their come under the provisions for, unification of cratic members .ef the ( on nittee, if k f mon efforts. ,; ,--. ,s,-..4',,,it-r;.--!. .,;.- , .4-t..q. :i''''1:e' all the air forcer and under the Depart- "might use a stro ig wore el, bout being.t. Second; it must create one military or- merit of Air. That Is the situation as - unkind to the ede or qr A 1 iter of that ar- - ganization compewed-?Of three . coequal , far as the . gentleman's questicsi, is con-- tide, repudiated eny sure ef s rge as that.: _ fighting ,coinponents4land, sea, and On , cerhed,,-;?;:, ? -- - , e? -. eee, ' - e.' -,,, The gentleman from M ch,g in has co- If theseatwo fundamental features. are , This bill Came to us 'from. the Fred- . operated He ha; been ' rai 4 in the ex- ?ezi rod none ,binennifleateon ee dent asking that there Jeer unification,. , pression of his rews, aeo he haS nevereeea'a' of our, d.fereengififf,e7isk: . ,in 7f. Alknb17. Maier Members tr the cOmmit- .._ done anything %tinier than eronenete wi rthikalxfsiet:iWIT 11,---II4,tekjikd gravainisgiyinget aboutahts,hill'rete the tXralinittell'illt -nying ta he-, etheheare e e / h lir, Chat 'fliii*thatfuractrideZ%:' r;risating- a Milittu7 dietatominn In this: le Inge, expaditede'aufd Utter b execeitiiee- liberatinnw on this measure and: thrthee' ' eotuitry. ' Time and. again -tbia, phrase ' session trying to get the clia king up of a -amendments submit,ted , will be coludd;-. ,:t was used, during, consideration ' of this , the bill completed as qui cv-t-r es Possible; erect in the light of' these :facts. L.VALII.: .,s10,:i..,. legislation; ? Your committee ,- has en- /i',i'-4 Mr. BENDER. lgr. Ceuta none sineal-er'' 2, eMnelitANASCCraeked,and was givien,--deavored?tity- write into this bill provi- , ? -..the-gentleman t. om MLssac-meetts the, permirsion: to, revise and extend his re- ee alone- that would' guarantee that this minority whip I Mr. Maleoreataael is tee marksea ,teee -aete n. ,. :,-, ,...-.- - .,,i-Ay,tk,. ?., ,,,...,. not, baa military -dictatorabip, thatt we. -,,member of our manna tee E .amesura- ee Mr. t, 0401774APT..[4741[i.;'-anutirntan,:.I,eanot -:`create -a f: military :::dictatorthip , that he-is informed as .x. w ) 4 the et yield leaminutes to, the gentleman leome ' through Army, and Navy unification as _ ation was in com3nittee nr, s absolute-*eee Ohio EigieBeriesitl. '..aieep e '.:4 ?. ,44:el, ,efea weamderstand it. : However; we haveno 'ly'correct in his neeraine of the chaieW.:r.: , , . , .., - - :Oar. 4BENDER asked'. and was. given ; assurance or guarantee ? regarding . the . man's work and tae cheienier 1 diligenciar : permissiant to revise and extend his re-e- administration- of this bill. There- is a . ' in seeing to it that this bill ems reported.- ' marks) a 5, e? e ee ?,, : -,: `.- . ; e e lot of faith, hope, and charity regarding out eni eieft BENDEA, . Mr Chairman on Ady4 what will happen. How can we tell how Mr- MANABCC Mr kles rman, wine _ II a local newspaper carried aneditorial. , this, bill will be interpreted or adminis- ' ?the gentleman yited? _ and among other things it said: e - - ? - tared? Many of us on the committee - Mr. BENDER. I yieie -, New that unification bee reached. the haie. still have grave apprehensions about the Mr. MANASCC I wtett I ) say that , way mark, it is to be hoped that the Sen-' bill. ? We hope it will work, and we want the chairman of the commit ee has not ?,?- - ate's statesmanship will be duplicated by the it to work. Every member of this corn- been using dilatcr v teen: ? . happen to - House. There, unfortmatety? the Committee mittee hopes and prays that this will have had the same chare, ; in ale against on Expenditures in the Executive Depart- accomplish what the President had in me last year. :'he a -11 e nan from inents, which never should have received the mind. . Michigan [Mr. a OFFMAN i L i done eve biu in the first place, is still sitting tight on it. ? The attitude expreseed by Committee Mr. HOLIPIELD. ' Mr. Chairman, will erything in his pc wer te e et t ?e hearings: Chairman CLARE HOFFSEMCis far from succor-the gentleman yield? _, - printed on time. It via! r c. his fault that the member, of tett etr tmittee did a: ' aging. Mr. Borman has been quoted as say- Mr. BENDER. I yield to the gentle- Mg that his committee will write Its own man from California. - not return the ( opy cf tr a transcript which they had e thee , for bill: Mr. HOLIFIELD. Is it not true that. tee es purposes of corrcetion 7ra is onethe of - I want to stop there for a moment to there wil be constant surveillance over the reasons why the tit . r r cs are not say this: Of course, this editor was not the functions of this bill by the proper available to ever 'body t 'lay You can , elected to Congress and I don't think he committees of the Congress, and of not get those het rings e= at y in a min- attended any of the hearings on this bill, course by the Appropriations Committee? ' ute. The chairman evet NE T ted to hold His representative might have been there Mr. BENDER. I, trust that will be night sessions to xpedie, ti a considera- a time or two. When the editor-asks this true, and I believe 'there will be such tion of this ball, tie ha, lire everything - body to abdicate to the other body, he la observation by the 'Congress and by the possible in the m atter. wholly out of order, and I am sure our appropriate agencies. Mr. BENDER. 1 the i- IT t gentleman chairman is correct, if he is quoted cor- In this editorial it is further stated: for his testimony Thi , te t -.man from rectly here, in taking the attitude that The only possible result of such unnecei- Michigan [Mr. II 'PIMA.: fl ,, been most this committee should write its own bill. sary recapitulation would be delay? diligent and most pain.?e ere in report- - That is as it should be. We are not rub- ing this bill ate as # ...e e y as was That is, there were certain items ee- leer stamps for the other body._ We used humanly possible As I m a .er of fact, ferred to in the statement of the gen- our own judgment. We acted after due if any charge ce ald be eta ed against deliberation. Every possible opportunity tleman from Michigan [Mr. Horreemel him, it would be T -at he - . as F ) agreeable was given to those who wanted to be - regarding this bill? ' . ? that he permittni it ?nt le out too heard on the bill. As a matter of fact, delay that becomes ominous with Mr. Hose- soon. during the time I have been here, I have MAN'S denial that unification is considered a Mr. JUDD.- Ma, Ch a I ei I a, will the never known a committee that has acted Republican "must.- gentleman yield? more deliberately, that has-considered a Let me' say regarding this being a Mr. BENDER. I yin a bill more carefully than this committee Republican "must" bill that this was not, Mr. JUDD. I ; ?cold i :.a c advise the has considered this legislation. as I understand, on the Republican committee that tee het_ al a. have been Mr, ELSTON. Mr. Chairman, will the "must" list early in the session. But it here from the bent:mine e le eat the re- gentleman yield? ? _ . is today. In recent weeks we have been ports are now he e. T a'' e -re delayed Mr. BENDER. I yield to the gentle- told, that is, those of us on the Repub- in delivery from le Pr a ir g Oke. but man from Ohio. lican side, that our leadership considers they are now ava table Approved For Release 2003/04/02: CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9568 OIVETE20003-2 -Approved For Reledgi..0figt?6ialtRilirdo0RS1 Mr. BENDER. I thank the gentleman. sponse to a question by the gentleman the Congress, no becat?.e t oyone has Mr. BATES of Massachusetts. . Mr. from Alabama tMr. Hoses], stated that imposed any degr.e of .1. upon me.? Chairman, will the gentleman yield? the Marine Corps was amply provided, but because I thir Ic it is ;nab ibly better - for. / would like to ask the gentleman for a new Member to get. Icousinted and Mr. BENDER. I yield. ' Mr. BATES of Massachusetts. I think if, under this new' reorganizatidfi and take it a little slowly. ,,.. . . we can agree with the gentleman-from unification, the strength of the Marine I would not risc this altering except , Ohio, who is. now addressing the Cora- Corps will be maintained at approxi- for the fact that I do wect ti iay a word , mittee,_ that there has been a good deal mately 20 percent of that of the Navy. of praise for the ,:tiairman, to this cora- p of apprehension about this bill. -I think Mr. BENDER. I trust it will. I am mittee and for tie suhreinnatee that . it is only because we'got off on the wrong '1'.7. sure the Marine Corps and the leader- drafted this bill. I do ncl'. sin pose there 'I foot by statements which were made-par- ship of the Marine Corps is satisfied with is a man in the House that : lifer with tictilarly with reference to the Marine what is done in this bill. As a matter of more in political philosoohy than the .1. Corps that the objective of the original fact, they are amply protected and their gentleman from gichig, - t [ %fr. Hoye- ' bill was to reduce the Marine Corps to interests are protected., - - nesirl, but I have come to -six a and ad- the status of a police force. That is one Mr. MANSFIELD. I am worried at mire him a great teal for his e anvictions. '... of the thipgs that got us off on the wrong the statement contained in the hearings, because he has the courase o' us convic- - foot, Personally, I feel that while-the, . containing letters from. General Eisen- tions, because-he ;ticks to tilt se convic- -'. leadership of the-House has had its way 1.* hewer; General Spaatz, and the remarks tions, because he bad tenacity if purpose, , 2 In the matter, it might have been better of General Armstrong of the Air Force, ' I admire him also for his ...erkte of humor. "- if this bill had been referred to the Corn- ; that the Marine Corps is to be reduced to He never does tak,? hinisvic ,s i seriously mittee on Armed Services of the House,a very minute part of the Navy. an s and he does not permit y , amber of as it was in the other body., and then we.-: Mr.. BENDER. ' General Eisenhower this committee to take tanse f tot---.i. mi t have been able. get a little heks,. s'and General Spaats . did not, write this , Mall. 43 a matter of ft. ieCanSe of ter tion on - 4hill.;;',,111 a conunitter wrote it, and / can ,..0s.bis. wit there has lever be.m kdaltota- 14 , - bui -2 sailteith Sheoluteltnowledge as to the- .,:,., meat on. the 00111111Ittee: I 1Vint-10 sole referred' Wthe Comwjttee on ExPendi- ''''''''."Provisions in this bill, that the Marine -',* that ,I admire him most .if -11 beeline* tures in the Exec. utiVeDepartmeotabe4n, Corps is satisfied with what is written :-: of his fairness and especu:iy 1 is fairness-.. ,L rause itS,prinutry . purpose is to create?,.?- into this bilt. ? - . , to- the freshmanlaehlhels 01 the cern- - greater efficiency -and bring about greatee.?.?''''', Mr.:MORN- !.",?1Viz :Chainnan,':will,thei mittee ,and particularly to to meinhers:`,.' economies In anyeetaseeleas,,,-:, We do gentleman yield??, . . ,...., it-4, - ',11*-.?,-.,`-ic. ',: on the minority side. Welired s lot of "big .1'.. not, know; about- economies, but vie trust'. Mr..13ENDER.-. 2 yield to the gentle t brass? before this committe/. and r say - - that greeter efficienciew will be aecom,_- , man from South Carolina .,a member of -. that with all respect We 01( all of the pl1sled atia result of the passage of this- q the.dommittee. -7. ,..' :, ;,.:F4',1- ''-:.; - '-'';' -4.4',:-'-- great generals and edits rii 4 a Id we had a: ' ' ';',7Y' =4.;., - '''',-? ''',. 'kr.,!:1.-. Mr.'.. DORN:: As far as the Marine Dr. Varosevar final, one c-7 to i most-in---- ekt.to the, gentleman from North" ?:1' Corps Is concerned on page 17 of the bill. _ teresting men 'who appes I ea Wore- our.; ' arolina,fMr..BARDENL-'.c: ; .4.,"; -;..q Paragraph (C), there is a page and. a' ' oransittee. The gentlemNa lr rex Mehl- Mr. BARDEN; I would like to' ask-the ' s. half: more,. their General Vandegrift, gan, instead of begtnnins -Lite G lest/ening gentleman what newspaper printed that Commander of the United States Marine with the high-ranking m ea c a the Re- . - article, -1, _./.,s, - ---,...r ..-, t +- t. -I: i. ../ ,-,3,..,..t.sCorps..,:even asked for. It is right here publican Ade; horsiably, Leger question- , Mr. BENDER. 'Thiele front the Wash- ?- in the bill, pitge 17 of the bin: ; . ' . 4 ' ing, or pc/Tatted first-Ult.- At e t -ranking ington Post, - - - - ,--1...,-.. t- -&-, ...--4,-":tk A Mr. BENDER: / thank the gentleman: ' member on the rr Inertly iict, to begin Mr. VORYS._ Mr. Chairman, will the., t Mr. BREHM. Mr. Chairman, will the the questioning of those trt-Isses -He gentleman yield? s gentleman yield? - was always patien with t :. ta.ci he went - Mr. BENDER. I yield. . . Mr. BENDER. I yield to the gentle- 'from the lowest-ranking 1 , 11 'a the mi- -... -Mr. VORYS. Referring to that edi- man from Ohio. nority side to the Imest- r I aid tic man on tonal, which speaks of this as an ad- Mr. BREHM. Who is responsible for the majority side. I just vgr ted to say ministration "must" bill, and referring putting these designs up on the trestle that in praise of the (rft,tie can from _ to ,the gentleman's remarks that the Re- board? Michigan for the v ay he t sat 1 cted those -".0-' publican leadership has made this a Mr. BENDER. Just what does the hearings, They wrre mos. int-resting. "Inustbill, I want to say that I am one gentleman mean by that? I want to say ? he san,e. t xi, of the ' ?.- Republican who has been for some form Mr. BREIIM. Who started the idea gentleman from Ohio CM ? F.1, laza) and of unification for 30 years, since the time or the plan, as depicted by the drawings the gentleman f.-om_ -Ns tart( .ota [Mr. when I was attached to the Royal Naval on the easel back of the gentleman? JUDD] who, when hey pr., ii(a d, did "the Air Force when it went into the. RAF. Mr. BENDER. Frankly, I have not same thing and were .11,14 ai courteous I am proud that this task, which is a studied that chart, and kindly to mein tiers c f - h- :ommittee difficult one, which the administration Mr. BREHM. Where did the idea of as they could be. failed to accomplish when they had con- a merger first originate? 'Mr. BURLESON Mr beta man, will trol of Congress, is being carried through Mr. BENDER. It originated in the the gentleman yield? $. -..-: to a conclusion under': Republican leader- minds of the people generally that there ship and in a Republican Congress. ? is need for unification. They do not like Mr. LANHAM. yield " i N Mr. BENDER. I thank the gentleman. Army, Navy, and Marine Corps bickering. s Mr. BURLESON I w. d ist like to I will say this regarding the chairman Mr. BREHM. You mean that the gen- observe that I am ully cc', sn 1 -ed by the of this committee and his effort to pro- eral public started this idea of merging members of this C oinnurs t-e, t tat it is a duce a good bill, he has made every pos- our armed forces? good committee. sible effort to do so. He has done every Mr. BENDER. Not this particular Mr. LANFIA.M. _I did n I' nef a to make conceivable thing, even though he had idea, this a mutual-adn tratior ioz sty, but I grave apprehensions about this bill. Mr. BREHM.. / just wanted to know do want to say fry the 'Tem, b -rs of the Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, will who "we" constitute. Various previous Committee that v e ha- l' g r ,sen along the gentleman yield? speakers have said "we this," and "we famously together, and, f -or a y, I think Mr. BENDER. Not at this time. The that," and I was. simply trying to pin it we have done a g( ad Jon ; a matter gentleman froth Michigan is too modest.- down and find out who the speakers are of fact we admit ? se hay+ a r .sat corn- Mr. HOFFMAN. Well, Mr. Chairman, speaking for. mittee. The gentleman r ai ' eras [Mr. I make the point of order that the de- The CHAIRMAN. The time of the BIIRLESON I will n A has to prove it. bate must be confined to the bill, gentleman from Ohio has again expired. I think the subcommitter. VI t drafted Mr. MANSFIELD.' Mr. Chairman, will Mr. lvIANASCO. Mr. Chairman, I this bill has don- a firs- - c .. There the gentleman yield? yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from were criticisms of ,he bill yt t a we first Mr. BENDER. I yield to the gentle- Georgia [Mr. LANHAM]. began hearings, but franit 1 / laink this man from Montana. Mr. LANHAM. Mr. Chairman, as a bill the subcommil tee hi--r .-. orted out Mr. MANSFIELD. Te gentleman freshman Member of this House. I have is much Atperior to thee 45 that first from New York [Mr. WADSWORTH], in re- had very little to say at this session of came before the co -amine - a 1 1. is better Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 Approved For ReleCs9721(1112/41610MAIREVECIfiCiiThRBOIOBT20003-2 than the Senate bill. I am sure it is going to mean for us_ a more effective military establishment and, in the end, that it will mean economy. - Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman. I yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from Illinois (Mr. BUSBEY1. - ,. Mr. BUSHEY. Mr. Chairman, today we are being asked to take one of th most important steps that any Concr has undertaken. This bile provides fa the most drastic departure in the historl , of our country from any Previous POI* tion on national defense. I do not think we should be under a wrong impression as to the purpose of , this bill. Although it is called the tmille cation bill, it' reminds me somewhat of the time in the Seventy-eighth Congress when we had before Us the Smith-Con- sally so-called antistrike bill. Everee 'hodet,thOUght that just because it wino ensiled, an antistrike bill it was going to es. e It Increased `striker lee ;eti think er _ , referricl t1t qidte eterreetles ? other day when. asked nriantmatia consent. for this bilttneeeme up. tad On Pace 922klafilie COMsnasionaz Mg'oft, .7ttlyr 16,- the tstifienunr" indlanalMr: iletezeze in response to Question from, the gentleman from N ? 'fork (Mlie,gete111,- air teethe tatiefof th but reared; ? eaeee ; , ? This better s. fled. miaow:Son ce mum .? . ? Thisvis neither teiraerger nor te catkin bile We already have a War De- 'Partment and a Navy,Departmenteanci " If the CbngreeS Meet this bill we will still have theWar Department and the Navy Department. In addition, we will have a new department known as the Department of the Air Force. How can there be a merger or unification of some- thing by adding one additional depart- ment? True, under the Research and Development Board and the Munitions Board it is hoped we will accomplish a little economy, but under this super- structure of the National Security Coun- cil and the new Secretaryof Defense, as he is called in this bill, we are going to add millions and millions of dollars of expense. Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. Mr. Chair- man, will the gentleman' yield? ? Mr. BUSBEY. Just briefly. Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. The gen- tleman made the statement that this is going to add millions and millions of ? dollars to the cost of the defense estab- lishment. I take issue with the gentle- man on that and I would like to have him explain why he has arrived at such a conclusion. " ? ? Mr. BUSBEY. I will be happy to reply to the gentleman. Even though I am a member of the committee I have not had a chance to feed the hearings. I did not receive a copy of the hearings until late yesterday afternoon. I think it is a shame that any bill should come to the floor of the House unless the Members have had an opportunity to read the hearings and the report. I am sure that the gentleman from Indiana (Mr. HAR- isms] some place in the hearings will find testimony to the effect that it .is estimated something like $800,000,000 i will be required in appropriations for e this new national security set-up. I am sorry I do not have the page reference t before me; If I am in error would . like to have some one correct me. I-am partIeularielliteF- - elated in the Central Intelligence Agency feature of this bill. That is going to be a very, very important agency and I trust. when certain amendments are of- fered under the 5-minute rule the com- mittee will consider them deliberately. On page 11' of the bill I especially call your attention to this language in line 16; . (e)-Th the Went rseanireennee by the'Na- tional Security Couhell and approved by the - President, such intelligence operations of the departments and other agencies of the Gov- ernment aa.xelate. to the national' security . shall be open to the inspeetices ot the Director. of Central tntenigence,,, ex:eV-tea:et e!e_e_t_ . e?The Pt?lcieral? '13nreint. Inirentigationi - the?Bleefig tint:Mint ifFitgezteiyetornitr 4e?-' Cenrernintiftewhiatt: reintriqrS Mona- a tiaras/ security. Inasmuch as the Central . Intelligence Agency deals- with. intelli- gence outilde the. United...Statem I hope that goartieular section vie* amended to eliMinate the possibility' of its going into . he records and book*. of-'?therPB1 be- .- aniei the FBI does not go outside the. United Medea. It Is only concerned with - Internal intelligence and investigations In. he . United States. ? Another feature I have been Concerned' bout is the authority even_ the Central h Intelligence Agency :in thLa addi- tion to evaluating. correlating and dis- seminating. Intelligence, It is given au- thority to collect intelligenCe. May 21, 1947, there appeared an article in the New York Times entitled "Army's World Intelligence Ring Reported Halted BY New Agency." , I have studied the directive of Presi- dent Truman of February 5. 1046, under which the Central Intelligence Agency. was set up. and is now functioning, and I find no authority whatever for this agency to go out and collect intelligence. It has not only dissolved the Secret In- telligence Department of our War De- partment which was built Up over the Past 5 years, but it has assumed the authority to collect intelligence. Under section 3 (a) of the Presidential Directive setting 'up the Central Intelli- gence Agency, there appears the fol- lowing: lated and evalua.ed cc r" e I hope k consideration wili be gle er a that pro- Accomplish the correlation and evua- ton of Intelligence reiating to the national vision when we r ?knsicik r h . bill under security, and the appropriate dissemination .. the 5-m nate _ withirttine Government of the resulting stye- Mr. MANASC(. Mr tegic and national policy intelligence. In so yield 10 minutes o the t doing, fun use shall be made of the staff and Virginia Mr. HIP,OTi. facilities of the intelligence agencies of your (Mr. BARDY iced ale departments. mission to revis? and Last year the Committee on Military marks.) Affairs went into the subject of whether ; Mr. LATHAM. Mr. Cr 4 .1- tin. I make the Central intelligence Agency should e the point of orde. that E It E urn is not collect intelligence. / will read you their present. conclusions from their report of Decem- - The CFIAIRM. N. 'r tier will ber 17, 1946: count. (After col ating .enty-rtine ? It is specifically understood that the Di- / Members are pies, at, arum. rector of Central Intelligence shall not un- t The Clerk will ? all th, ? e - 9569 - dertahe operation foe ti-ion of in- telligence. ? I am fearful that if se e_neit this Cen- tral Intelligence Agene ta go out and collect Intel/igen "e as wee a. evaluating - Intelligence, pie 1411 run Into such situa- tions as those vel rch oee MN- during the war in Yugoslavia, *thee e war De- partment sent a aimnastion. into Yugo- slavia with Gene--al Mihailr v.ch's forces. They sent out reports, :Lt W recause. the reports went inn- another bre nch known as the etetSeand the mete . he head of the ORS did not agree s ivi the princi- ples of Mihallovir n but e rr avoring the principles of Tit( the Come mist dicta- tor of Yugoslavi , today tie reports at the War Depart nent ite I I zenee were disregarded meth else The CHA.TRIA ?,N. ra f?me of the gentleman from Illirtois haa expired._ . Mr. HOFFMAN. Ate adman. 'I yield the gentler an two reedier:mai min- utes. That is gen wtsitlien run: Intec "tlemen y ham timer of Intelligence-- egence and then imilust am I e own con- clusions. I might say I sense - in internecine myself. Ins ean cite' numerous and :peeing -oats mesh. It. /Si: the same sitinitiol we have irsd with the. National Labor Ilelatimt Irceri;?. whew_ tney wow prosemitor. Jura. el.d Judie.- I hope that we will ealu4c,e- very sert-7:: misty amending hat ler Om lar section'- s? that we will nal; per t collection in. -? this strperintellieence egenea, ope we will pre tea the se tus of the FBI so that their'. will VII ci tent be' no. -uthority for Central Intellteence to gee.' nto their records and ?, t Mr. MARTIN o: Iowa sit Chairman, will the gentlerne r yield Mr. BUSBEY. I vice 7' be gentle- an from Iowa. a a Ii ? m Mr. MARTIN 4 lute . I 1 Part in writing ti e repel : t I, tleman lust quoted free. .....r like to ask the .: entice...I a '- 1 feels thet the prevision i I telligenee in tie, bill i ? ce 1 House needs anendmen: is 1 line with that re, 0111MI-T t-Ft -} Mr. BUSBEY. I cer : en i ( not opposed .to e. cert ,.1 ' agency, for coore aatine ii t? and evaluating ntethe ? cc- had some ? L. the geree--- d I would hether- he - 'entre' In- - )efore the zing it in. ?n? - do. I am atelligence ?minating, from the - various departre lats. re remember what happened a . Pea] lar mr. They I had intelligence, 'int l! tele lot corree 47. nrrnan, leman from - r given per- d his .re- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9572 Approved For RecSMG21;g3V41/91\r:IlettAgICAR6-1-ARtirr0020003-2 . . ? come the most strident claims of air-force Army airmen generally affect contempt for armed forces durin 4 Work V ' r TI, but superiority in the war at sea. Let us exam- - naval aviation. The figures quoted herein we would not be rt. alistit I t t, did not ins the record. From the beginning of the suggest that this affected contempt may well , i war has war through January 1945-38 months-the be sired by an Air Force feeling of inferiority . recognize that the experienc e i ? Far. East Air Forces were credited with sink- to naval aviation in some of the more im--f indicated avenues for tat n ovement Mg only $30,000 tons of merchant shipping portitnt aspects of air warfare, or by an which it would be ft olhard) tf- i more.unass ? isted,..plus some 40,000 tons with the equally dangerous ignorance of the compare- - It takes no urient at '.hs point to assistance of other forces.' This total was tive capabilities of the two air services. convince the most skeptical ft our id ler exceeded by the carrier forces in the low couritrymen that the wag-ing of mod- The n Ipresenting the above - 3 months of, September to _November, 1944, reason am data is predicated upon the fact there ern triphibious war is costly romplete_ .. lose- - - - nere 13 _ a ' 1 .. The Par East Air Force, record against :. ha a been considerable activity, to. say, and calamatous to, he l , Major Japanese warships le:negligible-four, ,the least, IMon the part of some mem- limit beyond which JUT Nat on f.annot go, destroyers sunk unassfsted, !seven with the bers of the Army Air Corps to minimize . in ,.the matter of cost of 'finnan. pre- help of other forces, plus airforce assists in the necessity for a Navy and especially paredness. In my opinior i ri-a cost of _ the sinking of two light 'crineers damaged its air copponent; for example, such as the war just vast in bat/ 1-, Jaen and in the Leyte battle, and a host of small patrol material loss has lowered l-,"-: ? 1 rut of our the statements made by Big. Gen. Prank craft, but no submarines. capacity as a nation to car-; .. e cost of Armstrong, on- December 11, 1946, at The principal FEAF'claim to fame was the national security. It ma. ,I, t ' course, attack on the convoy,off Les in March 1943, the Princess Anne Country Club, Vir- . be gratifying to an 1 pater :Is magreSSor The whole, available air fore* was thrown.- ginia- Beach, Va...at a chamber of corn- into this battle against-- approximateIY 95- merce-military luncheon. 'There have if because of the el-anent cl coht-and-I-. D ships; most am speaking again In terra 3 men as or all of which the air force been many other instances. in which well as material wealth-w 4 a e -e unable claimed to have sunk. This tonnage was far members of the Air Corps and the Army exceeded by naval aircraft on each or over.. to maintain an adequate trot et, ttive gm- have gone to great length through their. 20 different days during the _war. tern f the country. The would do_ propaganda- to impress the people of--,, well to lend support to thr,se w no stand " this ,Nation..and the-Members of Con- --?I in the way of an efficient and aconoroical?, :.- greskwitkthe neeessity ftir/nunificationi rystemnt manna, ?scurity. ,,,,, 4. hilp!sntVitstitonanns-,,, for theArmy Alf-4,0?frbir. chairman; the founcing,fathersoL . It. , -- .- , ' f: Carps. 'nrn so- dbing; in many instance.4,- , our countrysaw fit to charge rhe Con- ' a , 2. NevvelaiirM partiCularl aviation chi , they" haver by direct expression' or in- '' gress of the Unitec States 'W iii the re- . Made- through,. the- laekatlaisiCal. surfact"---';- nuendo indicated the Navy was_ no ;- - minded Navyipublic-relations -,, organize, , ' ? ',, .?-- _-____2 - - fl a_ :,-. sponsibility of providing fa- tits common , 'camsafely heeOnsiderecLcons*vative. -,,:,-.; ,--tonger e'---rneu'arY- neeeee4r-Al?nr,,T,1 - defense, and never in our initory baa --, Naval carrier fames; being high*: - --national-defense pmgraln?q4Y-- --- t- ' this been a heavier and Mute awful re-. bile, can penetrate deep intit enemy tern- 2 . I feel the- branches of our Military,sponsibility than it '_.s toda.y.. VI e cannot itory to. seek tan_ the- most --importa4-and--_- 'service are like a three-legged stood-all _ ? 4:flinalnerable,'tiovete: Air Forces planes, are -1":. -three legs must be equal' to support the 11,i", Lo,itrn - - continue to survive in the .s... ? , with an outmoded system ti as ?tonal Be- lled to laud; hazes, win= *art be moved !or-- load the stool. May be called upon to _eurity any more than we an ;Airviete, if _ .. ward only very slowly and with- diffteulty."-?,--A' ' - - - .';' to destroy mach shipping, particularly 'enett. then carry. /f one leg of the stool is weak- ,we fail to heed the advano.-. of , dance in.-, .' major reason for the Army Air Pony failure the load is_thrown off nal- '-:, our every day domastic peacet me lives. , tank-r ere, was the-inability of Air -Force planes?,-,. ance and ceases to be effective. I bor- .. The patchwork t-f piece o te it military- . other than heavy bombers, whose accuracy_ . rowed this description from., 'an officer , legislation which J'-ascharerie laed our - was seldom adequate to hit-targets aa small,- who- has had long and successful mill-H" country or the last 25 P---a-a-. and the -as ships-to- reach, tkdo ehiPPill8. This was tary experience-Admiral Nimitz.- ? - - makeshift and temoorary tanx-dients te-. , particularly true in the Philippines campaign, - / feel this report of Navy's activities is - Which we resorted -o preps: e c, t war are when Far East Air Force immobility was em- definitely indicative of the necessity of barrassing. The carrier force had repeatedly not geared to the atomic -at 9- eyed jet- to attack Japanese reinforcements en route Navy being maintained as an integralprOpelled future. to Leyte, with which the Mr Force could Dart of our military requirements if we The day or change is ar -tar 0 and that - not cope from its limited bases ashore. This are to preserve atm form of government change must spell unity e . art, eta- resulted in delaying for 3 months the first and way of living. I would not under ciency, and economy. Navy attacks on Tokyo. ? ? any circumstances detract from the re- There are many -of ow , 11 it; citizens 4. Naval carrier planes are capable of at- spective abilities or all of our military who fail to realize fie cow Plea ty of our tacking small, fast-moving targets such as :Forces in this last war, but I do feel some ships with great accuracy and efficiency. ' Military and Navi?l Esta,111,-,:t nents Or of the Arm Air Corps members have This efficiency was so great that naval avia- y who know about U e chatR cs 'fiat have tion's successful campaign against Japanese gone far beyond the acceptable in their taken place within them it 1 result of warhipe and major merchant vessels required method of procedure attempting to gain the war. Victory las obs 'ilr?..1, the de- only 10 percent of the total attacks made by autonomy through the unification pro- fect,s that defeat would ht 1 e 1) ade gra- , , , naval planes. posal. ' a. These factors of mobility and accuracy The proponents of the bill have stated tesquely clear. are applicable not only to attacks on ship- it' would save money; that declaration But there are those who -Tau the hard ping but to attacks on all types of small land still remains to be proved and, person- experience of war have s , it c d wherethese defects in ow- armor lf Some of targets located on or near ,coasts, including ally, I do not feel the enactment of this vital strategic targets such as bridges, power un them are from m atary ie tome are - unification bill will serve the best inter- stations, rocket launching sites, and eamou- civilian officials in ,xecut rt. u r, 1 adrift- liaged or partly buried factories, which can- ests of our Nation's defense require- istrative positions of the D n eminent, not be seen or hit accurately by high-altitude ments and I am not going to support its and some, I sin glad to say II F Members Army long-range bombers. These are the enactment. - of the Eightieth Co igress targets of tomorrow's war. Mr. BENDER. Mr. Chairman, I yield Among and bet ween i --, s omposite 6. These facts are pertinent to -the uni- 10 minutes to the gentleman from New group of informec citizPt i firm re- methods controversy, and to the struggle over York MK A 1J.,..r. A-1NeitawSl. solve has taken form. A t si 1 e to rec - methods of warfare which will continue even Mr. ANDREWS of New York. Mr. tify now, before tt e less-) 1 ; 'it the war under unification. It is no secret that the , Air Forces wish and intend to restrict the Chairman, from the standpoint of na- are forgotten, the c "flciervi,!,. i f our na- development and employment of naval air- tional security there is under considers- tional protective sy .tem. craft, by one means or another, in directions tion by the House today the Most im- For marty month- the 1,,pidttt on which that will prevent the full 'applicationof their portant piece of legislation that has re- potentialities to the strategic and atomic air quired our attention since the cessation is before ;ton today has be-- i .s, /en care- - warfareoleeds of the future.of hostilities. fill study by committees -1 '1: ! '3ongress. For many purposes naval planes and meth- In these uncertain times .of interna- Every shade of 07.)inlon '- a' seen ex- ods are superior for strategic attack to those tional unrest and readjustment, it is vital pressed. The wiv te sun t-co las been of Air Forces bombers. Naval aviators fear, argued pro and col in ti F ', s and on that we be realistic in our approach to the Air Force enthusiasm in behalf of the public rostrum uni- fication confirms, and the private statements the postwar world. In a word,-we must - of Army airmen illuminate the intent, that keep our powder dry. I Would not prestane uni 1 1 e time of the present unification biU is designed as a We are all justly proud of the splendid the Members of tha Hou ; t tiscuss in major means of facilitating this restriction, record of victorious achievement of our any detail the stud3 and t -). - 1, t ight that LY 19 The lemons to be drawn from th are these:7 . AVM* AijP?rcee claims anti AY Boil Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved -For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?HOUSE /573 ? , has been given to the subject of unifies- Thus, our human and material country. The distance *en** t nt- seas- ,.. tion of the armed forces or, to review in resources can be accurately appraised will no longer afford as the Pea !etten detail the provisions of the bill before and weighed against our commitments to which we have been accustomed a theeee you today. ' ? - ' ' ? ? - ? , and our military policy and strength past. Th ' I wollid likie to speak briefly about' the adhisted to keep them in balance. _ A matter of prime importance eilhe::..., basic principles involved in any sound " Who is there to say that the applies, preparation for war is the joint to liming e- e American plan for national security and .' tion of such modern management meth- of units for participation in et tchibiaus why I believe this bill will put thenr'into ode will not bring economy and efficiency, - operatons and in 1211411st support a: id at- ' practice. t', " , ? -- - ei- ? . se-yee, - or that adapting them to one of the most sistance in campaign' State !reining.: 'f- .. . . First, modern management require"- a . ? important government functions, na- under a divided or tine an i*e Re- focus -of control. Ultimately that focus .:, tame' defense, is un-American?' I Say it complished only at the Unite "go in thee:. narrows down to someone who will point - - is a typically American solution. All over degree that can be agreed up' tt twuween - the way to go. Where that direction is ? the world we are known for our efficiency the separate ground and sea inemponents. Indicated it should be because the director and progressiveness in business and in- A unified defense esta,blisb ire re. would_ ' has chosen it after receiving the sound-'. dustry. ? We' should be known for efficien- have a primary respondbinter to !;1' a thats' est possible advice from-experts in every. eees and progressiveness in defense as well, sufficient training- wits held to name - field of endeavor involved.' - '. - One principal military lesson that was proper coordination c f effete in euture x* , , i - The direction should be down the path , taught by the recent war, was that wars operations. ... - . that costa the least and gains the most. ' 'of the present and of the future- can no Joint training slow will prelonv thef Most imPortant, all following the dime longer!-be. neatly : compartmented into : teamwork that is mioired Par vtetorious tion shot4 take the seine path" -7,''"'ground wars and sea wars. Wars of the action in. the field against a majorl oe , PP..rha Mr i * ' I Shall luturkevill be total wars:. Noland force., .,, In football the training of Datum ' cused of PIM tam tha 0 -, -4,-,ecis,ez f?0-9.,_"Orin-ffee .ght antle124- ,it wanee. and-linemen in the rpeehatt-rs le one; aid eveintnepovrei-'uf anIt itivAr oreertv?positfott is necesen ey badsCheri .1 , ',1,f,. *.:1 our arm /cones antaitthe , fis Ignitect,by the bases from whiCh it op- 'duce the baelc skills or the Par lectlege* des of gaternment assenfateif with, them. -,i, eratee. and the protection and 1nainte. ' position Of the player, bat tiful 2 slam In the PrOhlent,nt providing for the eilea-ik..,::nrancelof its supply Itliesewhich"Mnst be " of -the team as a whole is- Yost sr- 01 mon de,fell8N;f::::1-4,f, t:,4411.4.F^.'-*Olik.Zttf:Vhfeel by either land or sea power or :- tante . Both are .retaieycitisi , to , It wasethese same ,, I. e tdies, the a:'4';',- re Piobablytet present bY a 'cosahina-:.,- This-is even more ta nein :tile framers of the Constitution must have - . tion of the two. ' . e.e.-ee -"et* ,: e business of war. The special nett itne.otelt had in mind' when they. made ProvieiOnee"ee The fallitereof a divided'comretated In the ground. sew. and 4it trees Itaft Mal for - the Fifestdent to ' be. commander, in 'the ,field,-- so- vividly demonstrated at ,, . fact of the specialestt in bans 4' oUP, la, ' Chief of our armed forces.," e- t,"`? "mei.k:,-"tsfoel'earl Mahler, was recognized early in the vital tei the Imagism. Out the enoreinatedie,', The principles of direction 'and control -.4"past - war and improvised unified' field training of the entire &dew etebitsho under our term of government are no at- it:". 'commands established in' all theaters of, - ment is Just as important; - es ne foot-A fere& today. than they were 170 years-e? -war. -Nb responsible -military Or naval 'f hall, both tYPes, of. training eten ee-entleLeee ago. ' The difference lies itt the complex-. --'expert in the country questions the abso- A unified organization Will ity, and , magnitude of ?what , must- be -:-'4;lute necessity of"establishment, of such ' . trWn-ing- . directed.e. e,,,"---'' :- t ' 'eV?' -..`71`ee.-- e'Vel??ese.4),.? commands In the event of war or inter-, = , -.The spirit or etiop-Mtien and tearda- , The bill before- you,-Mr. ? Chairman, '' -national emergency: - ? e ' - e 'et ' " ,''''' work- is an item of great mot' etanee. ": fully recognizes these principles. It pro- , -Unification of the defense establish- Unification of the service at vie top - vides a Secretary of National Security as -merit of our country on a national scale will dramatize the fact to ' tie . nen in the focus of management and control of _ is a matter of even more importance than the field that they- sre an r eye yers of e e. , our National Military . Establishment, the creation of unified field commands one team, regardless f the 1 - A uni- - ?- - one who, as the full-time delegate of an in the event of emergency. The pres- ? form they wear and toe pail 'i u a- name - - overburdened President, will supply the ently developed atom bomb. which can of the service of which thee a '-t mem- management the President does not have be delivered to targets many thousands bers. They will. of ,InErSe or 1 hue to time to exercise himself:- , ?.., of miles from. the base of the carrying . regard themselves as armor e., se eillerY- - Expert advice is furnished the man- aircraft within only a few hours after the men, or marines, or a amen . k r a- embers agement on strategy and command by decision is reached to bomb the target, of some other great orgar ea- i it, but provision for the war-proven agency of ,is but the forerunner of even more fear- will consider tnerrisewes at i, a" team- the Joint Chiecs of Staff. Expert advice some weapons that will be delivered to mates and not as cempete --s 4 f their on broad policies affecting the armed targets at greater distances and at great- brothers in the othe: sersecot. - - . ? , - , forces is furnished through the War er speeds than anything now contain- There are those who i y y to not Council. Expert advice on munitions of plated by man. , break up a winning team I. them I war and assignment of procurement and ' This matter of dispatching aimed pro- reply that the only way e , ee a keep logistic responsibilities is furnished by Jectiles to far parts of the earth, replaces. our winning team togetten - eep- it the Munitions Board. Expert advice- on - the mile and a halferange of cannon in. from being dismembered re entmoded - scientific research and development, a 1861-65, the few miles of World War I, Peacetime laws?is start r t. -'-' w th this twentieth-century must, is afforded by and the-hundreds of miles of World War bill to build unity aid ti- -Iva rk into " the Research and Development Board. II and the thousands of miles that now our ground. gee, ar d air ' e e s on a With such management acting upon can be covered by airborne ground troops permanent basis. sound advice, the armed forces will be in a day replaces the few miles that could All of us who ha sttc-.0 his bill organized for the first time, outside of be marched-in a day by soldiers of only know that it is not perfect '.01 .-uccess- - . combat theaters of World War II, into a a few years ago. Where it was necessary' ful business venture' is re eti at the team of land, sea, and air components for Generals Lee and Meade to have full start. Success and till re-it - '11,.-.) In is an with purposeful unanimity designed to command of their. respective forces at evolutionary process wince w' ongress carry out unified plans and programs. Gettysburg; for General Pershing to is charged by law to see con- nut, d in our . On the next level above the National command all American ground forces in national security -stable erre it. But Military Establishment, there is provided France; for General Eisenhower to corn- there can be no evnation r to 1 3 devel- tbe National Security Council with the mand all land, sea, and air forces- in oPment unless we is tke a y a , and the President as chairman, which will effec- -_Europe; even so in the future it will be time to start is now tiveln coordinate our domestic and for- necessary to have some over-all con- - This is a good bit. fore i r, or the eign policies in the light of s. .. . . trolling authority to supervise the opera- best suggestions male by a ii s of wit- mation fur e ? 04.411104:11 ? ? . # - tions of the armed forces of our country nesses. It reflects war et t,tr a ace and a r 4 t -n - and with the knowledge throughout the entire world. The battle the experience of 1 eace. , , e cognizes of our manpower and material capabili- lines of the future may well be drawn the emergence of air powe- ?I s _ newerful ties derived from the National Security in the air above the industrial centers of partner of land and -lea pt.- ..r It takes Resources Board. the world, including those of our own into consideration .he co .1.1 rng ad- ' No. inApproved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For Rele030NQINNStagONALREIMINQEDORINME20003-2 JULY 19 vance of science and its application to national protection... It looks toward .,. unity of purpose and unity of action. It frowns on duplication, overlapping, and waste... It preserves and husbands that Which is useful and effective and elimi- ' Dates those, practices which are costly and dangerous to our security. _ eZ, OMB its prompt passage sethat we ay e gain it,s, undoubted4; edytnitag,es theut delay.* ate zee iltu ... ? Mr. MANASCO. hireChairman, will the gentleman yield?: Mr. ? Mr, ANDREWS of New York. I yield. , Mr. MANASCO. There has been some _suggestion that we should jimit the tenure of Office of the Joint Staff and the eJoint Chiefs of Staff.' Is that not P. mat?t. that thetArmed ServiceslCommittee Itself will consider at, a sUbiequent dater. Arnted Services: Committee-should econsider the Limitation of tenure Of office of the, armed forma and not the Com- tterteri Ikenendituresa EU= ...entlean asking'about ilte4lertUre7or :Office of At:Initial littnitx?' ' ? Mr. MANASCO.Zafoe..f.Theee has been' suggegtion On thikfloorthat?We should. thtaibilt. firnit thikenuriefeafficee-cit membereof the Joint. Staff.. Personally, thinle.thateder Mattent forethetAranede ices, Committette ,T Mr.-ANDREWS:Of:New Yorkse i'agree !with the gentlentait% Not; speaking as chairman otthe conainitteee I- think the .' ' Armed Services Committee is very much ,in favor of the Continuance of the Joint , ?chiefs of Staff new entity. Mr4-MANlif3C04, r ant talking about e the limitation of the- tenure of office, of ? the individual Members of the staff. .2 Mr. ANDREWS of New York-, Ob- viously, that is a matter for the Armed Services Committee to pass upon in the proper provisions of a bill. Mr. MANASCO. -I agree with the gen- tleman. ? , Mr. McCORMACK Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ANDREWS of New York. I yield. Mr. McCORMACK. The committee that reported this bill out had in mind that enabling legislation will have to fol- low the establishing of organic law, in many respects, and we were very careful not to trespass upon the Jurisdiction of standing committees to which that. legis- lation would be-referred: I think that is a proper policy for the committee to have adopted. Mr. ANDREWS of New York. Yes. Mr. PHILBrei. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ANDREWS of New York. I yield. Mr. PHILBDT. Can the gentleman in- form the House how, if at all, this measure affects the present status of the ? Marine Corps; whether or not it cripples or impairs the Marine Corps as to per.. sonnet or functions? Mr. ANDREWS of New York. As far as I can see, from my reading of the new amendment of the House, and the Senate bill?and I appeared before the Senate committee?the Marine Corps is amply protected for the future, not only in this bill but through the action of the - Armed Services Committee, in increased rank permanently. Mr. HOLIFIELD Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. ANDREWS of New York. I yield. Mr. HOLIFIELD. As a mutter of fact, we wrote into the bill on page 17 addi- tional safeguards for the Marine Corps. over and above what General Vandegrift asked. Mr. ANDREWS of New York. That is, right. Mr. WALTER. Mr. Chairman, ? will the gentleman yield? Mr. ANDREWS of New York. I yield. , Mr. WALiaae. Will the gentleman explain what effect the enactment of this legislation will have on the :Uric- tioni of nave aviation? - Mr. ANDRE= of New York., In my opinion it will not destroy naval avia- tion as I see it. - ? Mr. McCORMACIfe: Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? ANDREWS of New York- r yield: hottcCORMACIE that cameo- state of joint obi vion ef -any mani- fest was possible in a lr ud by mu- tual cooperation Nora al nese faults and unwarranted ass e ins clearly described in the testier eco could have happened under the unit v command. Under the latter systefte Ingle com- mander would have beer el arged with _ complete responsibility ith f the warn- , hags and orders mould .h.c.ow.) been hi& to interpret, estimate, and .imp ement. ? In a command by mutual ceope "ation there. is the unfailing ikelitiofel el conflicting and overlapping .frerogs ares The com- pletely ineffectiee lia.s is t .?tween the- Army and the N.. vy at }1ski at a time when the fullest ...xcharier. of intelligence was absolutely imperati j stated that _ military and Nay integer ce particu- larly must be :. ansoli de A:4 fair . consideration of ,he evidence adduced at that inquiry she ad coleince any think- ? Ing person that it we are to aeve a proper state of militari and leave protections, , there must be nriftcatioe of .om.mandne roye considered falba:eat theta thee- : ?thin./ might advise the gentleman. from i'security orthis Nation (lents ads- thefine.---'4 Pennsylvania that it expected. that *mediate passage of thie icaUon. ' the. gentleman from New York.: (Mr. a We of the Comp ass we! 111,0 e failed thee e- * Coes] will offer an amendment on that: 'trust which the people ti tee I laced in MC,. '.sUblept. r do not.know ; of any member.;:.: ban& if we do net adopt tht measure gee:: of the committee who Li 'opposed to, the vital to the secueity of eur 1 ation. Tye :- amendment., I know it Is eery accepts- e tog together our armed; berme into, &a ble to me,? *r'''..-;.a-e;'-,,-'eekeas,?' as _single team is or ly a small part of whate:_ ? Mr. ANDREWS of New York. The we must delete -emelt edet uately preer ?- : memhers _of- the committee knovOny, . pared and to meet our restiortsibilittese views ? -f. teee? 02 Being prepared in tha at, nic age re- Mr. . Chairman; I. yield back the bal- quires a nations war ),an )E the mus-- eef ance of my time. As a matter of fact ? tering of the eat re emir try or the coin- / withdraw my remarks and ask unani- mon defense: t)bviousa, t gime war Moue consent to extend my. remarks at * plans will cut at ross tee r oonsibilitiei- ' of many Government event ies and many- walks of life. "'hese ani cannot be ,. undertaken unless ther- so f agencies to develop them. lowes e ta, lay there is no machinery tt even f aat? ne the tre- mendous riddle posed as he need to be ready for total war. 1. ye continue without unificat?on, ora, as lea or an- _ other of ow preearedr ees se 1 suffer and . leave us vulneraele--er 7. , - Prior to Pearl tiarber efe / ad coopera- tive conunand welch isied It was only by unay of corriman I 11 a we finally succeefeed in tht late ser, There is no simple scheme ethich if es -11 will give this country thf best ect r ty program possible; rather he so tf coi it the prob- lem of proper n itionat ise must be found in the ant wers a s ries of very fundamental m estior s t me pose these Questions as an - rrer tion of the complex' t y of prf ,ent First Is the 0 ,verrec it the United States, acting th ough , ?is islative and executive branct es. ore i eg the total human and material - set -ces of the Nation to pre Ida e al security against total a-? Second. Does he Ce a 1 cent of the United States le ssess sions which are at one and t e sari r! authorita- tive, ifr; partial. rImprer e, and up-to _ date regarding tee eff?e 7 modern sci- ? ence or, nations secure-. 11 the light of the facts of the work - tut don and of the capacity of eir ec re ? Third. Are teese 7 'IC i eons suffi- ciently firm to E able t encan peo- this point in the RECORD in a. somewhat - more formal statement. , The CHAIRMAN. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from _ New York? ? There was no objection. The CHAIRMAN. The gentleman from New York yields back 2 minutes. Mr. MANASCO. Mr.. Chairman, / yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from Wisconsin I Mr. Kure]. Mr. KEEFE. Mr. Chairman, I was privileged to spend some 6 months of hard, intensive work and study as a member of the Pearl Harbor investigat- ing committee. I think it can fairly be stated that the committee was unani- mous in concluding that the evidence revealed the complete inadequacy of command by mutual cooperation where decisive action is of the essence. Both the Army and Navy commanders in Hawaii failed to coordinate and inte- grate their combined facilities of defense in the crucial days between November 27 and December 7, 1941. While they had been able over a period of time to con- ceive admirable plans for the defense of the Hawaiian coast, with the system of mutual cooperation, when the time came for the implementation of these plans, they remained hollow and empty con- tracts that were never executed. The tendency of let George do it and to assume that the other fellow will take care of the situation is an inseparable part of command by mutual cooperation. The conduct of operations in which a Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9570 , Approved- For Re lealli ORM StONda-sliiDatilidi-el$AINfito20003-2 The Clerk called the roll, and the fol- posal. It was not until the very last Undoubtedly, web ive tear ec euch from lowing Members failed to answer to their - week of the hearings that the Secretary our experience in tne lege. wa.' We must names:, of the Navy released a communication utilize every bit o- that 4 'pei tence, and . .- (Roll No. 124] in the light of changes w.-1 co r.00k place Allen, ni. , ? Gallagher . Lynch in the conduct of warfare oety" sen World Anderson; Cidif.01fford - Mason War I and World War II peacetime Meade' BY* tt Granger committee had voted to close hearings planning of our Military( Rs tehlislunent , Benne, Mich. Miller.311d. ' ' Bland Gwynn% tovra Morrtson on July 1, only 3 or 4 days later. Then should assure the mar ten, ace of a Bolton '-,'? Hall, ? ? Morton ? there wasan 'avalanche of naval, officers. flexibility which will many T lermit ad- Bonner i Edin w Arthur artthlenbernn. g ? Beckley ,- Ramis Te eager to testify, but time was short and justments to keel, pace will scientific Byrne, N ? there was not sufficient opportunity for developments. - . , . '4.,," Harrisona Case:N...744 ".:1 Hays - . - Patroan In the recasting of cito ;ix ilitary or- carrell , " i. Hartley O'Hara Caller ' - Hebert Pieties ganization. we shonld have el r sight,s and Chapman Hinshaw Ploemer attention focused on the eii .i re. What Clements i, ..tackson. Cant. Rabin will the future war be like ,A, hat will it oixiperaelci .. 4 Hope ' Powell Cole, Mo. -, ,, . Johnson, Tea. Riley , involve? How wi....1 it be i. me it. What Rivera form of weapons will be Ise, t? Where , D'Essert -.,4?,-., . Kennedy ',.? Sheppard' will the. fighting fake pie'- e"- What Are. ? Davis, Tenn(L., Kelley ', ,.---,, ' Sanborn Dingell " To 1 Keogh the objectives? What ty zie ) organize- - .Domengeaux...i -Kilburn - tion will insure vletory? - .Pellowsr.,0 Eatort, ?-? Kirwan 4 Klein : These are some ?if the einee.ons which.. , Pletcher:, , ? ' Lea should control the thoue-et Ind action rogarty Lodge of every person directly -..eric vned with ?uiltagie this problem. , They shonid i. antral our -- w the Committee rose 05.thsmilitay forceale notenew,,,,,,Ithasi .thuglits, end actinn here in bin. House.... the. Speaker having resumed the ehair; . -reared...Us- bead In. thiv-???congreSsional.... this - afternoon. it is, netieste. and idle -'.. 14r. Men 'of South Dakota,. Chairman of -''' chambers from time to time during the . folly to spend tine-try ng o improve ; , the Committee Of the Whole How. on, .'--!Aast .20 years. During the last 3 years: our armed forces and weldor al security = ? the State -,Of the' Union; reported that .:i:rt hoer-been under more or less constant?.-_. based upon World War D net nods. FOr. , that ,ComMittee,- having bad under con -.v.; ..00Paideratinn. At. no time during- this 2 .we have already ion that wa ?we have : sideration the bill H. 11:,4214, and finding' ,Iong - history has- there been any real already' Jumped that rt-t edit with the .. itselfeidthout a quorum he had directed ...- agreement between., the respective serv- . unitary orgabisstion, we pc* Aire at t.lai,s , the; rolhtb , , ,;lie called, when 3 Members', t ices. -..This, Current, egislation?this Na- :very moment. responded to their names,: A quorum"- tionArSecurity Act Of 1947?is reputed to ., ''' . .., , ? . ,..? 'onside-ate a facing us. i45- l . andt' he 4ubmitted herewith. the names r heoand was sent to Congress as, a cora- The important is national seeur tr 'of the absentees. to i be: spread upon :the ' promisitigreement between the different ,.. ',nue ek iestion be. th Journal.. ' i .1-;;; '7 , ,. t$-, element li s makingp the military services. .fore that Eve now -ans derAng will this House Is erhether or not the lege The-. SPEAKER. The Committee- will . Everyone. agreed it was a compromise. ,.. is we improve the nati mal sezard-r. 'this is-' ULY 19 to all Navy personnel permitting them to freely testify. I did not learn of this action by the- Secretary until after the them to adequately present their views. I never did learn whether the War De- partment had any regulations similar to those prohibitions imposed upon Navy people, but I discussed certain provisions' of the bill with several ground force offi- ' cars whose views were in conflict with Smith those expressed by War Department rep- o srauh: va, resentatives. I suggested that they testi- Thomas. N.J.fy, and in each case they were unwilling Toni:bon to do So for fear of jeopardizing their Van Zandt woos ? future in the service.. ? ? ? ..? This subject of merger or unification, resume its sitting., - ',- Mr: HARDY. Mr. Chairman,- we are considering today a very important piece of legislation. ? We are considering a very important step 'involving the se- curity of our country. I have the pleas- ure of being a member of your commit- tee which has had this legislation un- der consideration. Being a freshman in Congress, and not having had a back- ground of- previous contact with this problem, '/ have attended practically every hearing in a diligent effort to learn as much as I could about the problem, and to dig out the facts. These hearings began in April and ended in the first week of- July. ? In passing, I should like to point out that all of the proponents of this legis- -- lotion had plenty of time to prepare their statements and present them to the committee'. It was not until the very last week of the hearings that those per- sons in one branch of our military or- ganization who were opposed to this leg- islation had the freedom to come for- ward and state their views. Time and again in the course of the hearings, I asked the Secretaries of War and Navy or their representatives, why it was that In their huge departments there were no officers or officials presenting to the committee any views in opposition to this legislation. All / ever received were evasive answers. After considerable effort the commit- tee learned that articles 94 and 95 of naval regulations prevented naval offi- cers from appearing before our commit- tee to express their, honest and genuine views concerning this far-reaching pro- .The leaders in authority in the respective - un departments who- owe their job& to ap- .. i the fundamental questa- e ,e ' must de- : : . :pointments got together and reached an' - i termine. The-fill ure of rill' crltry, and ' agreement, but all the testimony indi- the future of th, world depends upon cates that the agreement they made?the the. right answer. I say n .'i ii, we must so-called compromist they achieved? have the right ensvrer i.ii ir country failed to represent the thought of officers cannot afford the lure -. =1! "a wrong decision" and men of the Regular services, as well as the officers and men of the Reserves. Mr. Chairman. in the . me major re- spects I think yo ir corm latd.4-1.t has done From my personal contacts, supported by testimony of various witnesses, it is clear a splendid job on his MI, 1 c las worked that a large majority of the Regular officers of the Navy and of the Army ground forces opposed certain features of this legislation, and believe they are contrary to the best interest of national security. During the course of the hearings, I attempted to find out just what was in- volved in this compromise. The results of these efforts were not too satisfactory, but one thing that was clear to me was that the only sei-vice group of conse- quence supporting a separate air force was the Army Air Forces itself. In any drastic remolding of our mili- tary organization, there is danger of los- ing gains already won and coming out with an organization that will not stand the supreme test af war. Our present military establishment, composed of the Army and the Navy and their component parts, provided this Nation with a flexi- bility and a freedom of -action of its armed forces capable of achieving over- whelming victories in two major wars. When we entered World War II, of course we had to make adjustments, but the very flexibility of our Military Establishment was Conducive to unifying command op- erations under the War Powers Acts. hard and careftiny wf'I'4' lee the testi- mony ot the wi tresses vii have ap- peared. There h we bee ci lerences of opinion on marn majtr co' Awns, but there has been gcriume ice ity of pur- pose. I think t is e you now is a vast improvement c tie original bill, H. It. 2319, a -id a r proVement over S. 758. There are ni parts of it?major parts- which rc ood, and I believe essential. end Sb '-ill be enacted into law Everyc lie is u atcz eement re- garding such essential I- pr( cements as the National Security t un ii, the Re- search and Bevel ipmer -34 e id. the Na- tional Security li,esotir board, the Munitions Boarc the niii Chiefs of Staff, and the eff arc- nr nt to inte- grate all of the eepartn en and agen- ,cies of Government til a e involved in national secur ty. Ti- r s re forward steps. They will nrove t arc dal. They will increase effct 'ncy car t ^y rteed our immediate attention. I cannot concu in tha I po ton of the committe's repo -t wht, 'commends the establishmen- and ail n of a sep- arate and independent A.:- Pc rec. I find nowhere in the t -stimc'r re a justifica- tion for providin ri comp tee independ- ent departmenta' stat the aria- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP60-00610R000100020003-2 1947 - Approved For keteaffin9AM&V-HAMMILIKKOS(g)020003-2 tion arm of the Ground Farces of the within the ground Army and the surface United States Army. Jeavy. the air-mindedness which Is so At present the Air Force enjoys a high ? essential to each at this time. ...degree of autonomy within the War De- As I.have said earlier, there are many partment. In none of the testimony do things in this bill that / consider are I find any basis for Se contention, that esserdial. I shall support the bill. If the efficiency of our fighting force can be -an amendment is offered to eliminate improved by further separation of ,the those proirisions with respect to a sepa- Air Cornsirom the, surface foreeK It zateDepartment of Air I shall support has been conceded hY every witnesstbat , that. amendment. An ? through the the sir arm of the Navy is an integral period of consideration- it has heen mY part of the Navy, and must remain. so., purpose to try to improve this leglsia- The reasons supporting this rontesttah . ? bow That is still my purpose. appear to be logical, and it seems to itie Mr. KEAELNEY. Mr. Chairman, will that the same reasoning applies with the gentleman yield? ? respect to the Army Air Force as-related me. HARDY. -I yield. ? to the Anal Ground Perces. ?_ Mr, KEARNEY. Is there anything in - The only substantial' argument 'ger a .1, .this bill that could not. be authorized further -,separaticav -eV the Army auxler-Erecutive order of the President? Corps into departmental status has to ? Mr, , HARDY. Does the gentleman do withthe morale ret Mr Corps Person- mean with respect to the Aix Forces? -'. these fh 0/10?brauch sd?ourzolli- ?? * _Mr. -ARNEY I mean with respect ary ?estaldishment widch has the least .to iiie entire set-up so far as it goes. for *Proved lissmale.'1 believe 2t?Is Meic,BARDY. 'Under Executive order nrailOgsA'esimms *lave nof wbaroziar, cbatszaulavat, has major Mow that sane a airaee'ernsay thacarripeasaa ?MigyL7.41raidy. bf -acc-aaaphahefiClwa. haw tf mop. vrasser.,:eskover-tter ift5NA men 211e late fietafigte degnitiaeht. laiii.;:damethinuct a e,ronfettie-ierstarti %Mir carrier plena*, thenigal tine esteid g away from as good s reseed asainst warettins as eartavret of aiw The',d0Yee?detestinesitia ornsuallese If:Leant:We orderair we can. and, we, have planes; they syeele four ateteese* s anti ?afi propelled in Usti legislation Ii- attempted to suite .in this legislation,. submartnes Ausasisencl. arse wive melee fat 5, A.5.= sationallyunscend exit would -freeze the ,' the basic provisions-of existing Elecu- - the sthihnft of lot? h/rtnemihrPh aufl 4ersicestilto the Pattern tor World War II-4 tive orders so that they-wil/ have a basis -crehuhh- - Aftritet Stater Weil vareste secret at a thee When eves", Przenent*Ok the , rather, than merely in , yre umker - am ruttue irelicatee a *Moulty tor szsbardi-':2; ZXentittre orders issued by the President 400:000---teras-, ? ..1krare'''aircsef(77:te 1161esallereteanang fled andasiere cluselrentegrated? etttsc- Mr. ENGLE of California. Mr. Chair- one-fourth this' Menage, `tile 'rimier duke- ? tine. It, estirbfisbee' an cousitatintion mace' ask unaniraons consent that the I-42rttrertnoze. were cmcvoLi Aided In ttier-'' , which Intatiplies comnileatIons sixxl?pro- eennemon from California Mr_ snap. period from ASterUary 1944 to It weary 1941k c vides for many additional admirdstra- PAID] may be permitted to extend his and tliu" exert" m'ndinurl dire ?11 eurta21- tive brass hats.. Mosey badly rieettpd remarks at this'. point In, the Rscone. JaPhheeer th41,/raPfuT for real military-purposes will be Used The CHAIRMAN. Is there objection- e rier planes sank Ames , Ter ger tannings a, Jap tankers and other mere ut, r Lips 'funk, plus 30 percent of the marsh) p. 1 ;mystically for over 5,000.000 ton i of Janie-meg vessels; it ehould not be necessary A leo r further is-- the submarine mann mtion t trier war; sink- ? - hag ships was their lois and tom td it mag- nificently with a re alive handle of ann.:: What is rune isnportint es t mumere there.- spective contrIbutior e Of nisi aviation and the Army Air Forces, ?-o see vr,..,st 1,1115(7111,Ellay,"-: be found therein. Carrier aircraft-Nana , stare ?Nes. ed? 40 per-t' cent of the Japanese Navy :,nx*,tge. Com-' blued with other nem --err ainkabout 875,000 tons of Averts, war-etre or 48 per- cent of the total los Can- n a craft were in on the sinking of battles pia .2 cruisers, 13 carriers. 29 destro ter!, salt sabmarinee Of these 79 major v c v. der planes P?11 shed Off 82 Withesit guns B hattlesinps, lfr cru sets, ana rarters. Army atrcraft wen credrats. nu a full or - 'palatal share in the destruct-mai at-enty vessels of the same c-sases; its ma of these - omen were they inneststed. gee si ovum, , were destroyers, the smallest of taese classes,: - et vessels. hersty seaman Ma so strike the. '3. t? ? OW -tend te Ineakell the =vele for 'doing some of the aurae thing/ the 5 ?I the "stilgs:?1 these "'It" "Ps. ICssesS team persemet. burin: Jidda_ we.warata. et _ the Navy and Meeker land newt phone heft for a greatly' enlarged departstienbaI structure and overhead.. - Future developments may necessitate closer integration of air activities with surface activities. The three-depart- ment proposals provided in this bill would make closertategratton more diffi- cult. Let us preserve the present status of autonomy of the Air Corps, but I be- lieve it unwise to provide further sepa- ration at a time when future require- ments c,annot be foreseen. I strongly believe that no Department of National Defense should in essence be built around any specific weapon. If we should proceed contrary to this prin- ciple, we shoukl be mutiny justified in a Department of Submarines, Field Ar- tillery, Guided Missiles, and so forth. While the airplane is miquestionablY one of our most dominant weapons to- day, there is no way to know whether it may be replaced with a more effective weapon in the near future. Witnesses told your committee that the strategic bomber is not obsolete as of today, brat that it is obsolescent asa type. We were also told that air warfare of the future will bear little or no resem- blance to the air warfare of World War II... ? - It is my belief that our better course would embrace a -coordinated two-de- ? partrnent establishment with adequate and positive safeguards for the- Air ? Forces of each department. Such an or- ganization is relatively simple and far more economical. It would also have the major advantage of maintaining to the request -of the-gentleman from destroyed by air play, Calif There was no objection. Mr. arterVARD. Mr. Chairman, as . we are about to consider the so-celled military unification bill, I acquired some information -which I consider is quite pertinent relative .to Navy's air record during the war. This information was coinpiled by Mr. Stuart B. Barber, resi- dent of Alexandria, Va., and the material was taken from the report of the Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee whose duty it was to assign credit among the several military services for the de- struction of all Japanese naval and mer- chant vessels sunk during the war: The Pacific war was a sea and air war. The major Japanese strategic target was the ship- - ping on which the empire depended for Its industrial life. It is highly relevant, therefore, to a study of the relative effective- ness -of the various services' weapons in stra- tegic warfare to study their relative achieve- ments in the war against Japanese shipping. The United States Navy sank 78 percent of all Japanese ship tonnage lost, the Army Air Forces, 15 percent. The Navy sank 87 percent of all the Japanese warship tonnage lost, the Army Air Forces 8 percent. The Navy sank 8'7 percent of all Japanese tanker tonnage lost, the Air Forces 7 percent. FOrt7-11,70 percent of all Air Force merchant- /ship sinkings were in the last 8 months of the war, after the .Jap merchant fleet, largely destroyed by the Navy, had already been forced back to its home waters. Most of the Air Force tanker sinkings were in the last few mohths of the war when the Japanese no longer had access to their oil fields. Most of the Navy shakings were by subma- rines, which accounted for over half of the It was during this same pend that thite-':;.- Japanese merchant marine as whole was taken off the high seas. t ss the cumu- lative nanny suffered ciurin 4 ti a period that induced thoughtne Japa ^nee w niers to be- gin work for surret tier bet. a ii-os raids first began-becat se tam b a that with :- their shipping recaced to tA action. their military and induntsial neaten was aireatay crippled beyond II of rer, 7, This is'" attested by reports of sei its tic bomb . survey. In this important 12. sn'olt period the Army Air Forces arcountest 1. I only 380,000 tons of Japanese nercht 5,1 5., 4e1s, or one- - thirteenth of the sotal y all forces'. Carrier aircraft mak 191,0asi 4 as ea 2 days ? at Truk and leant* tons .t eAlau 6 weeks later, to equal the iiir Penes ar total dur- ing the first 2 months or t E5. It is commonly regard,-!4: LI a the capture of the Philippines marked ae, implete mili- tary and strategt clefesa n ie Japanese. This campaign la axed fame r-e nember 1944 . through January 1945. this period-- 1,975.000 tons of J span-eat ct c ant shipping were strik, but or le et per- nre -f this by the Air Forees. During this sterns 5-n eete 'cried carrier planes, alone or le, coop-43;e i with surface gaps, sena eganeo tom 3, r 'reliant ship- ? . ping in the Philii nines. a-laira. 105,000 tons by Far Fleet Air Pnece; 3 tti one of enemy warships agelnst 12,000 it FEAF. The - carrier forces sank over u eime tons of ship- ping at Manila- en Septentes, 21-22 alone, the same amount again or eaeeember 13-14, and 158.000 tons 1- the chins esa od January 12 alone. The re 3st creithio t I the Far East Air Forces in -any entire ir 5'n r is 07,000 tons of merchant and naval y-.sess It is from the Far 5.-set s r Forces, led during the war lr Genes. a. I my, that have Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : C1A-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 '- ' CONGRESSIONAL RECORD=HOUSE . _ -9575. . .. ? . pie to tell what are the just demands to develop._ Yet each has samething worth where it will strike the mast effective- be made on their money, and their man-while, to offer?each has..a partial an- - -:- blow against the enemy. Thu airAlanu- 'power?. ' - . - ' ' . --' .? _ - swer to the plaguing questions which is the .only effective means of transport- Fourth. Do these - conclusions include must be answered. These many solu- - ing this bomb; and men wen versed iri.1 definite- information on ,the following .. tions have never- been brought together ',the use of air power shag= . supervise ' -POIntar2 . ;. ' :-"-?-_, ;:. - in - a common harvest, never had the ._that* operation. An officer of? the - Ain. n (a.)- The effect of recent scientific de- - chaff sifted out, and had the good ? - Corps whose entire course c,fa military . velopments and 'future scientific probe- remaining grain, cooked into the whole.. study had been concentrated. ;upon the hilitie.s.on the nature of air, ground, and ' bread of 'an adequate program. ,-- " - -. ".a-.. use of the airplar e as an instruraent-of? .;;; tea warfare; '` ' - -'- a "";.-,-"- a '..--,..,"-1- -; '1.1-'.' -', -Without unification, the-country' gets ' war. --would be-highly pretentious in at-." (b) . The most effective method for al-, none of the benefit of these multiple, in- , tedipting to tell an infantry officer howa :beating manpower as between industry; __complete plans. In short, the country ' to deploy his men for gronnd action' .. labor, agriculture, essential scientific re- , gets no adequate security. - . " against a landed enemy, or to *ell a naval -' . search, and other civilian occupations on .. With this in mind, Mr. Chairman, I - commander how '.o align ale fleet.-for 'a , . the one hand and the armed services on . recommend prompt passage of H. R.sea engagement. By the same - token:. ,". the other. , ?. :`... -; ..,:.,"_,7...,:.:.." ? ---...a.. --, ,a...a. 4214. , . ; . - _a .:... ..?- ....a.a.,..a.a...a a.......4,-..,.-Z- Army and Navy -afficers are fa- no way: a - -lc); The method' for allocating man-., ' -?il --.::-. 44?,"'t ----'1,,,c!7"' '.-.. .19- 'f-.9:,!: qualified to---. direct the Idiot:tea eta oar ssed the Committee. - ? PowernlvetWeen a' ins ground; and sea ` a e -. air arm. .. His remarks will appear hereafter.in the .. _ . , .. .,, .... .. _. .?, .. Prior ea_ World War II, the airplane was ' . - ,, --. a ' - -,'"- ' - ''- -'* --- "Appendix.I. ,..- - (dY The 'length of service for air, ,- -- - "a..,- a--- - -? -4.---".! .---'a7-&- supporting unit for the operations of .. .? 4round, and Sea forces.. ' -, .,,,- . -,..-": - Din: HOLTYIELD. Mr. Chairman, r -: the Array and Navy. Et tarne,into its t:,...-:" --.., (e) The Most effective,Waito procure - yield 5 mihutes to the gentleman troran,...awn-in World War .11 as a matikmival Una needed-manpower. ..-7 - : - - q . ? ' -_-- - - , hilsgitssippi (Mr; Winualtsla,...-- .'",::-"azi-3' i.i a..ta ,?.. al_ and fighting not.entiat, to, :Aug --(na,Thei..probable Importance or fifth-, ..?..-'.fMi- 'WILLIAMS asked'and4a.wgiveuii.abritfanii 3egCliltn-en.. In aut n. huntoct.,,:....iiroir:choloiyical anrl-hie:e permission :- roaa "naviatia.;;,'Ond4xenk., htvi? air power will ixt.t*cblet Not- eginalWarf hat knryjuture way4,? ,.-,`. , xemarks., . . .);' 7f'r '-',`: z.l.:-1-,. -,.?-!,..;1::,;;FI?ri..,t;s44.4:i"!;-;ibe:.Anny:' and?15favy will baggaig (g)- ple,ittlitc-pr,undifitTpupd.instai.;, n' Mr. WILLIAMS.W - hfi,. --thiairraana--, / - a supporting units... This, as I hue lions. -; "?' 4, -' ' ."" ', . 1:._,..C....a, ?:.--,,aai?...- "a-a' would: support this bill if for no other a.... before, is aix uncle :liable fact nalftsi.",tathaa is ,the. present - ability , "reason than-that it gives .long ', overdue:, '''-i Mr. LODGE. Mr- Cbsoloa e United' States? - : , 4"-i,,," - -- NZ-,:rd ..4,7:. , . recognition. to the contributions or air gentleman Yield? (4) ' To hold strategic air, ground, and__. power to the preservation of our Nation--,,,,:Mr. WILLIAM I yield. - .1pases,;,1" ''!',':..1.r.L.'"A:-,7;;:-: '''''' e';',..TLP-:...1?.44:4 and democratic WaY of-lifea-. The ores-77-'lidr. LbpoE, .Would. I. ..anaaa`iiiiainte immediate?. defense tion of a seParat,e air on -a par "witli..-..!inati Sat. howener. that wait resPegt gal' affistafa..and surface attacks; - ..,.?? 'our older established military units .1a , ? ,naval aviation, the officers. or the4 Navy' Cc) To undertake counteroffensive gni: Y a step which sooner or later had to come?, -,_wlio are in that field Would be.Uxtnne ".tau"ra On of all types, . ..7-:".;,,i.-.*-"a"e-, - ? ,,,t.i.aaaar'...4.,-.. about, . and, I am glad to be able to be a-".... to run the navaraviation? (El) To discharge ` Our Immediate re- Party to making it a reality. ' ',"--..'.._,... 4`..1a);;, .Mr." 1,n1LIAMS Certaintta, -: Sporisilailities,"viz, the occupation of Ger- ' I am delighted that this bill has finally ; the naval aviation, but it the gentlemen-a. *16-2-3, and japin,the?proaision of it -' been presented tathe floor of this House will read Mater de ServeakA took, "Vie-. ' tary -forces for the United Nations the :. for Passage: The provisions contained -.,. tory Through- Air Powei, ' Ito will 'get - support of American foreignPt:alley in the ' ';'. in this measure Will fulfill a long stand- ? -.-- MY views as well as Major de Serveskyne Orient and Europe, and the maintenance lug _need of our armed services, and will on land-based, long-raniZe airaower."._.?.. of communications to overseas bases, - " ? work toward a better coordination of Mr. LODGE. I Just wanr iat to meta (e) . To mobilize rapidly. " . .._ - : our military efforts in the event of - that one qualification to the statement, In To eliminate efficiently the dead- another war. . .. the gentleman made. . ' an. wood in the personnel of the regular air, The advent of the atomic bomb and Mr. WILL/AMS I thank tee gentle- ' ground and sea services. (g) To get quick decisions on matters a ecting the air, ground, and sea services. Sixth. What is the present degree of American supremacy in scientific re- search and development? - , Seventh. What should be done to pro- - 'vide for adequate civil defense of the *United States? _ I knowfl that it will alarm Members of 'Congress as it should alarm everythoughtful citizen to know that these questions have not been satisfactorily Answered. And why not. Because no agency of the Government is charged with over-all responsibility. Surely the Army and Navy cannot answer these questions unilaterally for they pose prob- lems which cut across the functions of , almost every other Government organi- zation and which dip into every phase of American life. I do know that the - War and Navy Departments each are geeking solutions to these questions? solutioni which are naturally, at variance. The Army Air Forces- is developing an- other set of answers, a third plan fer national' security. There may be many others. But such variegated plans, can ? never be completed under existing con- ditions because the author of one de- pends upon the author of the others for vital phases of any program he tries to the development of long range aircraft man. My contention that iLe Jilt Force should be placed on a par with the Army - and Navy is further substantiated by statistics which were made p dur- ing the war, showing that Array Air Forces personnel was greater than- that of the entire Navy. Mr. Chairman, I sincerely atone that this bill will be passed and proper official recognition given to our Air Wren -a The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman from Mississippi has expired. Mr. LATHAM. Mr. Chairman, yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from Indi- ana (Mr. Flaanassl. (Mr. HARNESS of 'Delano. asked and was given permission to revlse and ex- tend his remarks.) Mr. HARNESS of Indiana Mr. Chair- - man, I feel that this legislation merits the support of every Member 31 the Con- gress who is interested in etfvency and economy. As Members who preceded me have so well pointed out, we learned, ` more than a quarter of a century ago, the absolute necenety of a single com- mand in the field. That waa demon- strated even more dramatfeany ill the last war than in World War I. - To ignore this oevfbus fact and to do nothing toward correcting Gm old sys- tem would be a tragic mistake. I served for 8 years, from 1939 until- tne begin- have so revolutionized the art of modern warfare as to render the weapons of early World War II practically impotent. The recognition of air power today as?not only our first line of defense--but alsp our chief striking force?is mandatory If we are to survive another armed con- flict such as the recent conflagration. My only regret is that the man who Sacrificed most that this might come a about.-General Billy Mitchell?could not be here today to experience the culmina- tion of his dreams and to enjoy the vin- dication which will be his today through the passage of this bill Not all of the combined brass hats and gold braid of the old school can refute the undeniable fact that this baby of modern warfare?the airplane?has grown to manhood, and must along with their respective orders stand as a definite unit and full fledged member of our military combine. Recent history at- tests this assertion. Schweinfurt, Ber- lin, Tokyo, Hiroshima and Nagaski firmly substantiate the demands for individual sovereignty proposed by students of aviation and modern warfare. The atomic bomb?the most dev- astating and powerful instrument of destruction ever devised by the mind of man?can avail us nothing without a means of transporting it speedily to ?Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-FeDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9576 ApproVed For Rtmeo2fil.gyai.ACLA-HIMI).B611ffliegt,0020093-2? JULY 19 _ eiszeieeneenyeeeeesieetn _ ?teeth Let me repeat, however, that this Nation. is without extended experience in this- " field; and that we actielly have com- paratively few men qualifieet by experi- ence to head this agency. Most 'of these few qualified men r ave gained their ex- perience in the Arrry and Navy: and are., still in service. Before we deny ourselves Of the service /such milltare men may be ? able to render the country in this ca- - pacity, let us be_very sure that there are civilian candidates qualified by tgaining ? and experience-, available rea serve us ; equally well, or better. Again let messy that have no objec- tion ...to a - restriction in this measure'. which will require a civilian headnethis agency. I merely want reasonable assur- ance that such a restriction will not deny us of the services new of the nen avail- I able man if thienblet becomes operative,, It wrote into the bill provisionsethatli should allayeang_nf -then* stispicions fees as to Whattinight bleopeii4ethis".: bilk is enactedinto law. I feet their ati-- prehensions annwithout foundation. Mr. BUESEY.7 Mr. Chairman. will the ; ? 'gentleman _ Mr. HARNESS of Indiana, yield tee' the gentleman from Mr. 131-.1SEULY, The present Directori.,,. Of the Central Intelligence Agency is Ad miral Hillenkoetter; the ferater head e of the agency was -General Vandentbersreene' 'rher are batik very . splendld. men ant': have? a wonderful_ record In their e But was there ea* testirin ny Knywhere as to their experience and qualilicasti tin intelligence work? _ Mr. HARNESS c4f Indiana r doubt" if you could pick out any individual, e civilian' or military, who has made 4 career of this work. There is no such - available American, because we have never engaged in this type of activity before. In 150 years the United States has said, "We are going to keep out of other people's business. We are not go- -- Ing to engage in secret inteligence."' Therefore, we have no experience in it, we have no single career man weo knows all of the problems_ We are approach- ing this thing. more or less as an experi- ment in the present instance. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentlemad from Indiana bas expired. Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, / yield the gentleman 2 additional minutes. Mr. BUSBEY. I want to make the tbservation that we have had an intelli- gence service in our War Department and also in our Navy Department for a great many years ' Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. Yes, both ? military and naval intelligence have served proficiently within their limited * scope. Mr. BUSBEY. We have had secret in- telligence in the War Department that also. Mr.have built up over the past 5 years _ Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. True, but what is contemplated here different . scope and characte-? There has been much objection to the establishment of an air force separate from and independent of the regular land and sea forces. Such objections spring, in my opinion, from the outmoded 00100020003-2 -' nIng'of this Congress, on the House Com- , Mr. HARNESS of Indiana.,' I do not .':mittee :en. :Military - Affairs. . I :went . :*think we oughe to take the Army, the through- that period with the committee r'''Navr[Eind the' Air Forces :bump their , when .Wei"werts: preparing., for the late s' -heads together and say "You, are going : .-war and ;;While we were, fighting. */,-stsw. ., to wear, the. same _uniform Whether you ":-Somethiintinf,-'.thel heartbreaking waste; , like it or not.", If we accomplish the im-- duplicaticini- and-- extravagance resulting ? portant basic, goals, the, fennel refine - from thee nade_quacy or _total absence of' mentis you. Suggest may naturally fellow.. + coordin _ of the. armed .service',As '..e....?- Mr.- MILLER of Nebraska.' e...If we did. merely o''' 'Uniting hundreds of example-it .that'theloill would not be before us; the Of duplication and waste, we have "had ' ' Army and Navy would object toe strenu- ail -duringeand 'since- the war two: air .. ousIse .. ? - :: -- ...,:e.- -4. R,4.1' transport -: organizatione;".iii inany'-in- " '' Mr. HARNESS of Indiana: " I do not 'stances paralleling each other, the Army ' think we would get anywhere. Air Transport Command running all-over'Mr, MILLER. of Nebraska. But does the world, and the Navel Air- Transport ?not congress have control over these de- Service. tis;-said;in many ittstances.Pare ',--e`fense powers?, :Unless this bill provides - alleling, the: Army Air !,Transport Cbme e'so mach militarism that they-al'e going. mand. That , is a 'senseless, ..Wa,stkeof 1. ,,to take over the country.' --`.. ",-.7, .- equipmenteraanpewer-lind taxpajers' , .. Mr. HARNESS of Indianti:'?'.Congreal -money. ; .' ', ?e - 404,..,,,,,extill has that control; . and. I believe, it e ? -This imPosed iinifica on Will Art . ;. :yzill preserve it, ' -?.:7--:'?.; - ,..,..::-';';,,ii.,,,-,1--. end to auth: things.- aX,h,aPPerked ?. 'tP0', ''-* Mtn-STEFAN.. Mr. Chairman, Will the .Paciffe, ' the Aruty'had:edit one get ' therit row or. .-! the ot,hi 'better re the Nayt tend the. -,I4s-un ;Picinan tarelit;" entre:nen :fre'eee* the Na. IIARNES4 et Inman& e dneitbeierv1ce toin ..STEPAIkte'AThereeltithe;( section' equipnien d euppli figarding -procureinentf This plan- lfl bring abottIT r lid not hip hav?11.11-Wrdee. me, but. I think the the ,gentlemen 'from: New -York- [Ms. WADS*thinkable procurement . -wortenf sitting beside; you. can point it Incheach Servide &dent C'outtit.you. , . , , _ ammunition so that Items - Some fears aliettpprehensionti have " he peetrinterchangeably ?been expressed by -some members of the by the ot NavY:afid the Marine Corps about this Krems:gm', ? Mi,?%ournaan, ":legatottoor with particular 'reference to gentleman -*, :nava seviatibri. The committee spent a HARNESS of enesena:""I yiel good deal of time in considering the ob- SHORT And we will not have ele. Jections raised to the original legislation Army ergoneeewe with surplus of lap- y embers, Of the avy, especially the 'plies shipping them to China Instead or ? navalnir force.e, It wrote- Into-this bill letting the Navy have them o fill their, Provisions which should allay any-fears eteeee . that the sea-air force will suffer if this Mr. HARNASS Of Indiana. That- I bill is enacted. , .rIght., I understand there Were numer- 1 N1119, a word about the Central Intel-, ous instances in which one or the other igence Agency. When such an organ- service transported supplies long dist- tization was first proposed I confess / had ances from rear areas *when the other some fear and doubt about it. Along service had ample reserves of the gime th other members of the committee, or equivalent supplies in the immediate Insisted that the scope and authority of area, or conveniently near by. That sort "this agency be carefully defined and lim- of dangerous waste and delay need not ited. Please bear in mind that this is a' and 1111 not happen with the coordina- bold departure from American tradition. tion proposed here. ?This country has never before officially' Mr. MILLER of Nebraska. Mr. Chair- resorted to the collection of secret and man, will the gentleman yield? strategic information information in time of peace as.. Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. I yield. -an announced and fixed policy. Now,e Mr. MILLER of Nebraska. I wonder 'Ihowever, I am convinced that such an' why we could not go further and put them tagency -as we are now considering in all in the same uniform, have the same essential to our national security. ranks, grades, and standards? Why There has been insistence that the di-k could we not stnndardize that phase of meter of this agency be a civilian. I be-P Army life as welkas their equipment? lieve we should eventually place such a ? Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. There are restriction upon the authority we are some who would like to do that but that Proposing to create here, although I say would be a mistake at the moment, , frankly that I am not convinced of the Mr. MILLER of Nebraska. Why? wisdom of such a restriction at the, _ Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. Because outset. that is an unnecessary departure from Prolonged hearings and executive ses-1 the traditions of our defense forces. As stens of the committee behind closed we get into this thing perhaps eventually doors lead me to wonder if we have any we will come to that but / think-the first single career civilian available for this ?step must be toward basic efficiency and job, as a few men who might be drafted; economy through coordination, ? from the services for it. Understand,'. Mr. MILLER of Nebraska. I agree please, that I want to protect this very that it is a step in the right direction, influential post against the undue mili- but they are all engaged in the same tary influence which might make of this purpose. If standardization is going to agency an American Gestapo. If wo.ei help one phase of our defense why should find wea.quellfigaslyilian_cir7ennedi. it not help all phases? a7Bre and willing to handle thiLLoo.st,?I Approved For Release 2003/04/02.: C1A-RDP90-00610140 - .....,-:.....-E., ( . ? . ?. 1947 . Prgvqd F9r 13e/Sefigengtffild.ititttlaitC15-.-1 ?RN - 9577- . conception of air power as a minor aux- sense of the word, it could be more prop-This bill. I think, amply protects the - iliary of the land and sea forces. In stra- .0! erly- denominated a bill of coordination Navy and amply protects the Army by tegic and tactical importance, as well as c., rather than of unification, in my mind. : preserving their status. -rm..-- . in actual size, the air arm in the recent It is a bill that requires by its terms the , Some of the witnesses in4ont the corn- war proved Its right to the status this _ `'.. coordination of our aimed services to ."mittee who OpPOSed the bit upon cross- Plan Proposes for it. ? There simply is nd..?.,-;',', the end, first, ,that we may get greater .. - examination said they wanted one arguing the fact that witrefare has moved, .; efficiency and . with the hope and ex- . form and one service- and at total. abso-A4 Into a third dimenSion:I.There is, in fact,?-.!'pectancy that we may get greater econ- . ; lute merger. ram unalterably opposedlt no sound" reason that !eon conceit% to,-...v,oraY. .1 agree with practically all the . to that, just as I said I was *nen I eames7 doubt that air power.Willhe.a more de- - 'vritnesees who testified, , General Eisen- ?here. 14o not-beileve that kind at sys4. 'cisive element in any future_Svar,than in ,,...rhower,-1-the two Secretaries; of the .War -,:- tem would work: I believe the coordina-, the last.',' .? ,; ', ,..?.,,: , -,- .;.':, .,,,..iti.o...ziand of the Navy. Forrestal and Patter,: . , tion that is setup in this hill and the - - It has been argued that , t instead of tint- :" -aen; that in peacetime you could not say - ` power that is given the Secretary of De=.: ? fying two serviegs, this plan complicates that a certain number of dollars and ' fense under the dt,eeticin of the Pros!- the problem problem by splitting two Services into ... cents, would be saved immediately, but , dent; just as in provided bY the Constl-;,,,---. -three. That might be true if each aim- -L they both said, as well as other witnesses -1.- talon of this country, is neceisarY- Thbs..:.'"- ice were permitted to gnitslteps,ratnitnd.?.whoclaimed. to know anything about it, ... bill is not a ;departure Waco constitue,i,vr-4-1 Independent Way, as In thettant,'. But the 'would be wartinte;billibre ofi-dollacs.?*.:,:tional Methods, ittnerelY ree0gElines the:, spirit and entire purpose of this proposal .,' would he saved, anal-think that Is true. ,' fact that we mist bring ourselves lin to. is a. closeeaordinationM all element; of. , This . bill requires- the Secretary of .De-.., , gate.- ---4: -- --- -- t.'"- -'4,7it our Military Establishment:- There* no"....C'ffense-to coordinate the activities; for ', T. It has beertaiild here that this- ',. good reason to believe that three-coequal ';'instance; of the Deportment ofFAvoiti-- piece of "must' legislation for orces cannot be closely, coordinated tt..,, men for the ,various lervices?-? ,,' -. : 'Democrat; and. the Republicans. as well ectiVelY?aat 04.-.. ? ,-,,,.._.4., ,..t. ...' Air For a ,fiti,bani ,1311! 4!%11..,Petn ,Writte;Ywr-w tat ean kist lesoliTitut-"Denilti rate deP 3119,14 - Triate'imit, .,114ant,'"btr2v& -, ItetiPhAricsee.Zeicit eel; ini---rtte Including:'the. Mintarn ' of:,4`txtetr-% ?tJ? 'Chairm ,, II the gerttlematk '''Yi ?intensely interested, and being.veitr' . for I'M rufair*-;.--?.....?___ _a--.:' VP .O.-?t-- t pendia...even at the expense of being ac-, , Mt: DORN-: MC,t ?."Itaul,Sty, Mt.' HARNESS of., Ips4n*,:i.; r 'if: cusertot trying to hold. up the bill.. Of, gentleman yieldt .-t'lt ...4,-r.4_ --r, - he gentlentan.from'Pentig ' , _ ..... - , .- - lianurse.,_. ...the trouble -IS' Ulan,* ittitct3iiiity: -;7:314r. WILSON art am= zittto ai6 M. inman D. SCOTT,: JR, it- 4,1olks:'ensnk that youcan write a bill of gentleman from South Combine --4.--!" Hillenkoet, WsztamehasiteeninentionaL t,this character and of thin enormity.- by . .. lids..DOBN.- IS it not -a fact he_ I think in ?2ceto him; and tojteeri tilie?.=_inallirig In g couplet' of experts Iiinct -then:, Word;'1"Itepu - .?,' sitit-t *Ix record straight:. It bught fo:. be said that-,-;;,rePo rtitiEr il bill out. -ThaVig,Lbeertuael". were never mintirin Ai in itlit ille Admiral, Ellienkoetter has., had pub** "; they do . not know, the process Of thia,, ' ,Ings before thiS-tianntittee? ...- ' ' as rinklr'iorperience lit:hitamgeruse, ag-. -4-great constitutional. Government- of Every: .-,- Mr. WILSON TAxag...i' -Tole* . -. almost- anY, officer of . the Navy, having 4.-:- roan in it has a tight to his say, bee the -: '. Intel', a nonnartisait measure, hi my estt sorted in the Office of Naval Intelligence:1? right to say whether he is for or against;::: niation... It is to protect; the Altura and as naval attache noFaria..- He_wae,3; _and why. - We, have heard these wit- ,.' : this countty so Ulla these wig, irft.5 the Man who was responsible !Or; our .-'4:nessee and, have heard them -carettilly. H; authority to provide. the cskternat de'.' Intelligence over , there .dining. the. war .-ti as YOU will note from the record of -the-.`, tense of this coufitrk one lieges; and afterwards, and he has had a great .- :hearings. ? . " ,..: '' ? - " 1-_,'" ? - 'cciuntry: and our tires; shell' bait& deal qt experience along those lines; I . nf- There were those, not coming princi- proper authority ty do a good lob. - do not want to go into the merits at -, nab' from any one of the services, but There is nothing new about. this bill. all, but I want the Recce]) to show that, -; some_ from the Navy who had the idea This coordination was used Acting the Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. As I said , that the Marine 'Corps would be de- war, arid all through the war by execn- . a moment ago, really the most expert- stroyed or would ba relegated to service , tire order. These folks were given the enced people we have seen to be the men . ELS MP's aboard ship. That is impossible same power to coordinate and unify and ..1 who served in the Army and the Navy, and foolish. Under the terms of this " have unified commands in cartel -I tern- and to shut them out and not permit bill as written now the Marine Corps, tory, on land, on the sea, and in the itir...nt. them to serve in this capacity now I with its long history of heroism, its use- ; These Presidential Powem. of mune, --- think might be a mistake.. ... fulness and its importance to the armed , have lapsed. That Is the 1 eLsen ite is Mr. HUGH a SCOTT, JR. -I entirely services of this country, is absolutely important that this bill be passed. - - 4'.-- agree with the gentleman on the point protected. I for one do not believe that ? Mr. BURLESON. Mr. chairman, will'.. ' he Just made:- . any one branch of the service won this the gentleman yield? . . " Mr. HARNESS of .Indiana. I .hope, war. I thing it was the coordinated ' Mr. WILSON of Texas. I vielL ki --- this legislation will be' accepted by 'the efforts of every branch of the service and ' Mr. BURLESON. t do not. lee any-.-'' - .the coordinated efforts of every civilian thing in the bill that has to do sttli the Congress and that the bill will - Mr. HOLIFIELD, at home that won this war. Therefore, ; centralized Purchasing Power of the . - IVtr Chairman, '1 ' I cannot subscribe to the testimony given armed forces. I wonder if '..tie -onntle- yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from . Texas (Mr. WILSON]. '' before the committee by a few Air Corps man can tell us the reason behind the officers Who said we need no Navy, we , committee's action. ; Mr. WILSON of Texas. Mr. Chair- need no Army, because the next war will , Mr_ WILSON of Texas. - The testi- - man, before I came to Congress in Jan- be a pushbutton affair; The men who mony before the committee bY almost all uary I was unalterably opposed to a know about those matters say atilt is of the witnesses was?and the bill pro- , . merger of the armed forces as we had foolish in the extreme. We have not vides, I think. plainly?that the- Scene.. -- formerly thought about it, having the reached the stage in the history of this tory of Defense she), coordinate the ? idea that there would be a great danger country where we can sit here in Wash- procurement of common-use !terns for due to the esprit de corps and the teal- ington and push a button and fight a the Army and Navy, Air Corns, and all - - , . ousies and one thing or another between war. The infantry, the Navy, the Naval - the rest. , - - the services: that there would be a great- Air Corps, the Marines, the. Army. stra- Mr.,Bohr. Is that item 3 in , ?. ? . deal of danger in having- a man ap- tegic bombing, and all other kinds of section 106? ? - . pointed at the head of it who would tend bombing would be absolutely necessary Mr. WILSON of Texas. I betleve that '...:". to submerge one or the other services. If we entered a war within the next 5 is right but I would not be porritive. ,r - I ewes appointed ort this -committee. or 10' years or In the foreseeable future. - do not have the bill before roe. This bill was referred to it, and we had' So these folks who write in the news- Mr. BURLESON: That Is thf. Na- hearings for about 2 months, and I have papers that the next war will be every tional Resources Board? -changed raY mind. I am for. this bill, simple matter of pushing a button do Mr. WILSON of Texas. 1 wou'd not While this is not a merger bill in any not know the facts. be absolutely sure of it. - .- ApproVed F.or Release 2003/04/0 : CIA-RDF'90-00610R0001006260Q.3-Z _ 19 957$.., Approved For RP kilaNfteassaomutiRi3F4bi3iTkonigNig320003-2 JULY Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. Chairman, will mittees. I felt, as did Martin Madden, Mr. HOFFMAN, That is undoubtedly , the gentleman. yield? who was chairman of the Committee on eorrect, but if you adopt that policy, then . Mr. WILSON of Texas. I yield. ". Appropriations at the time / was assigned. you put the Army, the Navy, and the Air ? Mr. HOLIFIELD. I think the gentle- to both committees, that it was very de- Force?you close the door to them; you man will find. that on page 6, commenc- sirable 'to coordinate the work between put theta under this centralized author- ing at line 5. ? " -ka. a - aaa,,the two departments. For my own ity, and how are they going to know Mr. WILSON of. Texas.-,; It has been part.,I would like to see that done, and I ;their needs? ,You will no:. have it either , demonstrated, and I add to what my good a., wish this legislation would accomplish ' way. ? " ? friend the gentleman from ,Inclihna (Mr. jt But this is what bothers me: , Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. Mr-Chair-a lisaarlial said with regard to the number aa: Section 307, on page 35, supersedes the man, will the gentleman . of men ,who constituted the Air Corpse- Budget and Accounting Act of. 1921,- -._ Mr. ?TABER. I yield to the gentleman that the Air Corps of the Army gets 65 which was designed to coordinate the from Indiana. percent of the Army's appropriation? financial operations of the Government. Mr. HARNESE of Indiana. Is that that is 65 percent of the money spent by Section 201 thereof provided that the not precisely what the situation is to- _ this Government on the Army. So, I Say, ? estimates for expenditures and appropri- - day? The Array and the Navy must , nobody wants to put the Air Corps above aations should be submitted by the Presi- now go to the President of the United the other services, but, the Air Corps in dent without submitting what the de- States who sends the budget here? its importance in this lastawar and the pertinent or agency- submitted to him. , Mr. TABER. That is exactly correct; . Importance it-will have in the future iir'.""'". The-practice has always, been that the Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. any possible cenfli,ct that this country President would submit these budget es- " ference would there be if each, of the'- might. get into has attained- a -position timates-when the Congress Met, and the departments; the Secretary of the a of importance ,equalIo, the other, two Congress would consider them on their Secretary of the Navy, and the Air Force reicea- That alone.-I?say?, ialeafecient::fmerits. Section 307 of this bill amends were to , do just exactly w-hat they do n for .the legislation. The Secre-, "a that law and provides that there shall be .; now? aa" _ aaa- of -Defense shall have tba right and-__.-7?,.aubmitted to the Congress, first, what ...a . Mr. TABER.- It vrolild Dew greseal;"iarZa. coordinatebraiichesaat thel----athe: President in his budget shaff7submita'f, better- and theft would be *Mee military vimanYteleavi441636- ,three':f,raeconiii;bwmiharkathde, Secretary of. Defense a tion for the peoele of the finned Statesa services to maintain their espait,dereorps may D n what tie head* --Let me tell you,Tvhat this all result in. L. In the future lust as they have, in the,a. of the three, -departments _themselves It will result in 'scatter Ore. Inetead of past wttb, certahtlitaitationaa ? aubmitaa 'd$',' 4 havinga coordinated Plotnantela,Prg-P of New Var. Mrr Chair- gram under which you, -C*73( -la; 00M410- gentleman yield t: ? aa, the gentleman yield? , benefit to-the coantry Itseff, this section ,Mr.,WILSON of Teinie:?I Mr c TABER-7. / yield.. 307 could utterly deataoy the benefits of,. STEFAN- ,Referring to tliegen- tLr REED o Ne'c tpr. Whataon this legislation and leave the situation' t1emans statement that 65 percent of the earth liappens to yourge system where You are scattering fire all over the appropriation-S., fcctha Army goes to tha.. ,with that set-up? ? a _ -:',..?;;;;;',"i? lot andgetting nowhere. Your items for Coops; 'X. believe the gentleman may Mr. TABER: . Your-budget jsystem is national defense will not be effective, ,ii:errorrI think It Is 56 instead ofdead--- ? ,:rg4'1,- All sorts of things will be brought injaerer:--7;', 65": The gentleman, may be right or I '''"! Mr.HEED of New Yoriaa' Certainly: " --by individual secretaries which would ? - may be wrong. * a, aaa Mr., TABER. .There is no budget sys-' .artot stand analysis by an' impartial aa Mr:-WILSON"-of Texas: I saietthat I tem. Now what will result from this will "analyzer, and we wou:d have the entire" woUlcl riot be absolutely sure of that, but, a' be that instead of having a coordinated burden of analysis thrown ?dna here in-' as I remember, it was .64 percent -or 65 budget you will, have all sorts of wild the Congress. percent ' ? . ? items submitted by each unit concerned. Mr. HOFFMAN,' Mr Chairman. Will- MrallARNESS of Indiana. Mr. Chair- Instead of having any screening what- the gentleman yield for a question for man, will the gentleman yield? ever- or any protection to national-de- information? Mr. WILSON of ,Texas: I yield., fense, everything will run wild, and in- Mr. TABER. I yield. Mr. HARNESS .of Indiana. I think stead of this being a forward step, with ? Mr. HOFFMAN. As chairman of -the you will find that as near as it can be this section, it is a backward step. Appropriations Committee, does the gen- ? ? figured out it is 56 percent. But that Mr. REED of New York. And that is tlemarf prefer that these eepartMents? does not include a number of items prob- exactly what the military wants, for example, the Army and the Navy and. ably that are in common use in the Air _ Mr. TABER. Well, hope not. If we the Air Corps--ahould not be permitted Corps as well as in the other services. are going to have any benefit out of this to express their desires and their needs It might run to 65 percent or even more. consolidation?and, frankly, I am. in to the Appropriations Committee? I am - Mr. STEFAN. It might be even more, favor of a consolidation lilt can be con- - just asking for information- ' but I think we ought to have the figure structive and forward looking?but if Mr. TABER. In the committees there- in the RECORD. , there is to be any benefit from it you is no trouble about the Anny or the Navy - Mr. WILSON of Texas. I would like utterly destroy what you have set up by getting an oppertunity to express their to have the correct figure in the RECORD, this language, and you make the situa- " desires on anything they really need to but I believe it is around 65 percent. tion worse than it ever was. express them on. but this provision would Mr.' HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, I Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, will leave the thing wide open, you would yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from the gentleman yield? have all sorts of thinge presented all at 'New York (Mr. TABERI. Mr. TABER. Yes; I yield., once regardless of whether there was Mr. TABER. Mr. Chairman, fol ? the Mt.' HOFFMAN. As I understand any need for them or not I have seen first 10 years that it was my privilege your- objection, it. is to the provision this done so many times over in the other to serve in the House of Representatives which permits the Secretary of the Navy, , body, just this same pertormance, where I was a member of the Subcommittee on the Secretary of War, and the Secretary they have scattered their fire all over the Appropriations for the Navy. For the of Air to pres'ent' to-Congress or the Ap- lot; and if this House had agreed to the last 4 of those 10 years I also served propriations Committee their views of Provisions that they presented, there upon the Subcommittee on Appropria- what they need? You want that all would be no national defense, but we tions for the Army. With the exception channeled through the Secretary of De- would have scattered our lire; we would - of such" work as might have been done fense, do yeu not? " get nowhere at all. In the Subcommittee on Deficiency AP- Mr. TABER. I want it all channeled I want to see an effective, efficient De- propriations, I think I am the onlyy one through the budget to the President, and partment of National Defense. I want In the Congress who has seen service on by the President to the Congress .of the to see it effective and ell:lent.. I vaant both committees simultaneously. United States. 'Unless it is, all coordina- to see it in such shape that only the -- This year it was my privilege to as- tion is gone. . things that they really need will be sign the gentleman from Kan-Sas (Mr. Mr. HOFFMAN. -Mr." Chairman, will crowded up in front. 1 co, not want to SCRIVNER) to both subcommittees. He ? the gentleman yield further? see the whole picture presented here on has been serving upon both those porn- Mr. TABER. ,Yes; I yield. ? an agitator's propose,' ai bat on a basis Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90,00610R000100020003-2 Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90,-00610R0001000200034: CONGRESSIONAL RECORD?HOUSE or need and, real demands of national defense: ' - Mr. BOLIFThseD Mr. Claairinans will the gentleman yield? Mr. TABFle. I yield. e. ? Ur. 'foram:ma r Would, hesitate to argue with the gentlenian, on methods of allidoPriation. because Lhave a great deal ar. resepet for Yds expedence. and ability; but r may say that the purpose of this Committee in this. section was, ta e. haves thePresident submit to the Appro.. priations Subcommittee his recom- mended budget and also include in that budget such items as the Secretary of National Defense might sutenn, andauche additional- liana. aa, might he reconte 'emended by ? any of the other Military- estakilishine, nta for the Committee's pro-? . te.ctiein. and. CO3ssideration arder?that f certain. departMenta might, not, be. e se da- -flied hinds or miksad by this Seems._ blatiattak Defense las their Inneet` it; ? 4 ? . 9579 can possibly be made. national effort should be as efficient as it ' Military Establishmeet and illat it This is not our present condition. Security Organesation with other ? ' coordinate the as tivitles of the Nati ,There la much about the armed forces . partmenta and agencies of the Govern- - that is splendidly efficient.. But as. a ,ment concerned ivith nationar security; whole they are tar lesa efficient than " Mr. Chairman, I give it at my sincere , they can. and ought to be. It is truethat opiniOn that time is of the lamest ime , our signal victory in the' last war at- _partance where the mute-anent of this, tests-to the capabilities- of our leaders . legislation is concerned. We have ale and the Magnificent recOrds made by ready delayed too long. It may be that the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force. ? time is runzilter ein on is and we are But a navy SeCond ta none, or an army again too late. Our militarl picture is with the latest in mobile transport and a sad spectacle compared to i hat meg- inechanizetion, or an air force w1th. jet- nificent ffghting machine we had at the and rocket-propelled aircraft cannot close of the war. -7tir occupation forces alone nor _separately make an efficient are not equal to any deinand .e. offaistre ? national defense?nee offeneively. can :,. atrexigth if calfed upon, to rapport this they with certainty and with aininiinum country's- policies or enforce, it a win" in as, loss of life project the neceasarss force ' foreign land. Our domestics fermi-are or !Weedy victory under the military only a. shadow whida wand nt- another . stenr a& it now la devised, , them,. .- --. e sacriffee. if launched In the defense at They must be develoged withba ".in* wad' of determined inn/tete** effort -`4,-, yes. each a. vital and integre& pert of se:At , a. finable form se. beetle ____'tartiratt ut idiot arukrunia,d ander: ak dew& siat the- greateseerftet br -be- mod* le-t` bare ?Mee ceaseinare, iw Wisely seleeted said clearer some Base the Ciernitut Air Prime front ties skteiec does anal ? ;11UtharitY whlela dirent their efharts " "bottlecr uP and: inactive *kr eritlemartifrorrt 'Veer Y"orle has. expired,: -* _ , 'seks-sesee wish, a angle purpose, coordinate their s ,rorces winch reduced the' atheist:a Gere esepa dee sewer& a, common- end, Man vats. indizstriee tri rubble salt - bill t.4 tternayxina tht Zest paint. at which we are leek- have' been retrace* Le a-fter ereeMst There is IL today ne oves-alt come huger obsolescent machine,. Orta ofethinge that they do not need. ' tary 'Establishment which is needed to here ta help. preserve our zienonaletlfe , yonewilt have your yr/Iola national'. giveeveryelement af it the support that and keen America. strong thiough. elirm taetildr tumbled un and not be it needs !rem other to make it enactment of the laational ? " able to get any coordinated operation of ' assyminetrical and welerilentlell-balarmed whole. Qu. this number one piece utSeer?rnuortItlegrAest:;?if: . .? ey do that the re- mantis hich -suit fa tieing la; bee thatiteit -get them in .effortee Vire are lacking ld that hares 'salt we have aacottsplished, ease seeeeee w unifies. owe iota& military What price Ctiabinade PositioneWhere tiler aubralt all amnions compoeition ot the. entire Bail- ..naught2 Aa. effective step can be tekerrli. it._ You will not have its.gcod national Let us thirilc bacit tot the very Lash: latiort largele depend. Um tree develcills; cleferiSe ancitheyWifillot have as goad an memories of the last wee: Lee us think went of a prapertr iivegrated suet effete - opportunitttamesent.thftir ease,a&they et the delays, the mistakee. the the erseops tive. national-sect/ilk, prate line Until " Would thee____Otber war. Who trained with wooden guree she theservices axe unified na wel" balanCed " Mr. 121re feel that if sill ships sunk off our shores, earlyee.. milit the irdormation.is in the Appropriations feats, the, long,. hard u hill Committee they are adequatel PUll fore a e care of any supplentental requests What enormous advantages could have of' these departments. we were safely on the road to victory. been, obtained on. the governme in- Mr. TA13ER. We have trouble enough dustrial, eccmoznicals andscivilian side of ntal, without having this. We would not-have the war- effort had we then been me- al/ the information, it would be covered pared with plans and programs of na- up. '.' tional defense which this bill makes pos- The CHAIRMAN: The-little of the sible. Under it the entire national pa- ?,gentleniali from New York has again tential, with its great capacity to pro- expired. duce and support the war effort, can be , yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from a common purpose. ' economie Mr. MANASCO. Me Chairman / brought together In a common or effort f and diplomatic cooperation and eire,ency , Florida f Mr. Sixasl. During the intervening years between Mr.I1OFFMAN, Mr. ishairrasue t yield - (Mr. SITera asked and was given per- wars we have never had a proper bal, Ig minutes to the gentleman train New which were accomplished during Us war. mission inrevise and extend his re- ance between our foreign. and military York [Mr. Lalstsui. ' Marks.) - - . policies. Each being closely related. to Mr. SIRES: Mr. Chairman,. a great the other th deal of credit is due t h s can he assured Neither the Army. the Navy, nor the Air Poz?ce can develop their specialized errs-eta to - Its most effective degree: nor can these - great services be brought under single direction for the best coordinated and most useful application-of their potert-. tialities. And until the enai Orient by the Congress of this Vattern/ Seeurity Act we caxuaot be sure of regaining for our national- th defense program ose ad- vances in civil! striae Mr. LATHAM'. Mr. Chairaran, re is is ti committee in related nor have the military services I can recall that for many. ypsrs pa,st e never, been cor- a matter which has been long le dispute. this busy time far completing the con- and other agencies of the Government many of our leaders of military I height sideratiort of this meritorious legislase. cooperated fully in matters involving in this country were unaiteral:)y oppoeed .. tion-and bringing it to the floor.: . national security. 'We have never been to a merger bill. I recall that elesee.? - Ur. Chairman, it has been said that _ AGAINST A SECOND HEsT Aims, fully informed of the capabilities, poten- retary of the Nary was opposed to it eery tial, or intent of likely enemies, nor did strenuously in principle. aad I do not there is little actual need for this legis- lation, that coordination of plans already we have effective plans for use in time think that the princfples have ellansted - , and that things are of war of the Nation's natural and in- very much. But, the time came has been achieved irsen ..s. working as well a,s could be desired. dustrial resources for military and civil- the leaders, of our militare organiseeserns '- This is true, only ia part.. It is like bar-' we needs. This is another time- when in this country. came into agreement. Mg the second hest army, or the second ? we can well say, "Remember Pearl Ear- -and' they decided that they- Were go mg at - - . ? ? is .to split up the military argenizetton best poker hand. It is good only as far We have- been sadly lacking, Mr. of this -country into three oarts, and trin as it goes. And it may not go far enough Chairman, in some thifigs. And I be.. sat down and they wrote a bill. to win wars Ina new age when war moves lieve that these considerations have been ' The first bill_ I believes .Ares wrt ",,f ea by - with terrific, hitherto unknown speed. brought into focus within the provi? an admiral and a general, very ab- men, It we are to have an army, a navy, sions of thie hill foenational security. and they wrote a FL 2319, and they and an air force, and. if we are to mar- I am strongly convinced that the bill brought this, bill into the Comp-esi Ind - shal the Nation's potentia/ behind these does meet the needs of the country for they said, "GentIement here is.our agree.. armed forces, our organization and our an effective, efficient, and economical_ Release 2003/04/02 : CIA- Approved For- .,, RDPeo-ou6itifterocitikie Or24) 003e2 document. 7,-)u n # ? Approved For FirolyNVAMEONALIPROMMIX411614141E00020003-2 :PRA 19 cannot change a single word in this docu- Mr. LATHAM. I would say in answer colleague from Virginia, Mr. virnOdrum, ment." The balance of the agreement to the gentleman that one of the chief which considered our postwar mil/tall - was soi delicate that they said, "This objections to this bill wad that he had ' policy. After several weeks al intensive . , must not be touched. . - too much Power. .-_ hearings that committee reached the al- ' But the Senate of the United States Mr. HAND. Well, I do not think he most unanimous conclusion that imilica- had other ideas on the subject.' They has enough. . .' - - - tion legislation was not Merely nesirible , thought that perhaps: Congress had a . Mr. LATHAM. You will find in the _ but was necessary. Por several menths-7 right and duty to write its own legisla- provisions relating to the Secretary of the old House Cominttee on Military At-? , tion, so, they took the? structure which Defense that he has the power to, exer- , , fairs, of which I have been a member for n ? was set forth in the agreement and they else general direction, authority, and many-.years now, considered tins same- -",wrote Senate bill 758, and, they passed, contra and, he con1 l. not have any ,, subject. We reached the same comm.. . .. - that bill, and it came over to the House greater power. alon. " and the House took a passing look at the Mr. HAND. Is it not true that he .....?. ?Mx. COLE of New York. Mx Cir-.' original bill written by the military, and must, - ff there is objection, refer the . man, willthe gentleman yield? - then they.? discarded it and started to whole matter to the President? Mr. SHORT. '' J yield to the gentleman work from Mr. LATHAM. If there were any im- - from New York. ' proved that measure very greatly.. portant decision in dispute, / would ., , Mr. COLE of Nes York. I dislikeitc; ? the Senate bill, and they mi- , , .. , :The bill the Senate,wrote was a *vast assume that he would, but he' has the : , interrupt the gentleman, nut T titinin IrT, 'improve/tent over the measure ? which. - authority and the power under this bill n:he -will recall correctly, the Woodrum..., the military wrote, anti the bill which There is no question about it. As I say, Committee did not metre any recont-n- i the:House committee has.:. reported-out there is much that is good in this bill..-::raendations on the question of mance- ' is. in my humble opinion, a vast-improve-I do not intend to speak about the very tion although it _did conduct: raentbver thebill which the Senate wrote. - substantial objections that were made to , on it: ? - _ . 'I hope that 'today, in the normal course it.. It is, of course, a nieasure of eonial -,-.i.,, ;lir:worm. low tbsit_shia ..:arani of theDemobratialegislativepracess;that " promise I do not think there was any- tee-.. --?fteer_though,. was almostunanizersk io hill .wi11henfurther.fitroved7 one who was raorevigorclua- than I'dffity;the opinion ,tharnsorie, legislation Now, thereto, much' good that Is pee- n his opposition to certain portions of thlan1;,_ to. this ,was not.P317.,cle4ra-lie : -,iided in thisiiill: The National Security -- bill. I opposed them not because 1 am ': necessary:. ;Council, National-Resotirces Board, Joint. 'against unification.: I arm not, but- be- , Mr. gorp,mAN. mr:_ Inds of Staff, War ,Criuncin Munitions . cause it is a little -difficult for . me- to ,-?thegentiosnao yield', -7' - - 4- ? body. quarrels Wan ese rI5Vinn? an organization composed of two parts ' ....- -Voard, and Central Intern mice:- No.: ' _assimilate the idea that when you take- .... Mr. SHORT. :-.1 yield to thn IfentliOask . num Michigan:7. : - a.n...na wrtnt n. s.?,, , , ., n nn,? ,,,,, ,,,,,,, ,-....,...nn ,and .break it down into an organization._ , mr. Hopostua ilut.- itiat - ?anima - If, ---arnEKO'' of New York. Mt *-Chiir.; 'icomPosed of four ? parts,?#int is .ur10.1! --tee did not report but any legtde '-nnan, will the gentleman yield? .: . --. ny cation. ? - - - ' . 1------n--n- ' '''' Mr n LATHAM'. ' I yield- to the gentle- ? Mr. HUGH Et WPM% JR: Mr. Chair' , . Mr. SHORT. I. No, the cornretttern man from New York. ..,,..- - ? ?:, '.7.7:2. . man, will the gentleman yield? ? . ' not It was only a. policy conmritt ' Mr REED of New York I have - Mr. LATHAM. I yield to-the gentle,- We co. ul Igeiliptieisii-A . % t . i..s., Iv' listened to the gentlenian with a great man from Pennsylvania. . deal of interest, but it-Is'very hard to. Mr. HUGH D. SCOTT, at Could not thought. -L.., ...r.,_ ,? keep my seat when some. of these things the bill more properly_ be called a quad- ., Mr. SHORT. ' 'net is perhaps,the rest-. ,. are brought out. - Do I understand that? ruplication bill rather than a unification- son this legislation was presented to the- .,_ .gentleman's Committee on Expenditures- ' the military, wrote a bill and sent it to bill? Congress and said that it should not be Mr. LATHAM. There is no question in the Executive Department. ft should ? . that ere is uMty a the top. The Sec- , changed? th hamver.beHeon prmAN sent to. That .:, Mr REED of New York. We are corn- ourCOMMittis wtne.as r.un. . Mr. LATHAM. In substance, yes. - retary of National?Defense does estab- ? ing to a pretty pass in militarism and lish unity Of control. But at the bottom derstand. They could not shave it'- . there is distmincation, multiplication, through the Committee on Armed Serv- their power over the civilian population - and complexity written into the military ices so they put it over in our committee. of this country when they have such ar- organization. Obviously when you take Mr. SHORT. The gelltleMBD does not , ; , ? rogance and effrontery to write a bill two groups and break them down into know whether they' could shove -it'- and send it up to the Congress and say four that does not simplify them. -through the CommAtee on Armed Serv- it must be passed without' change. - The committee had certain fears about ices because it was never given to us. It n n Mr. LATHAM. Fortunately the Con- the Marine Corps. The Marine "Corps is was sent to the Senate Committee on.' 'gress of the United States ignored that amply protected in this bill, under sec- Armed Services. ... position. - ? tion 203, on page 17. Mr. HOMIAN. Not this last time. Mr. HAND. Mr. Chairman, will the I think it is a fair statement also to but it was submitted to the Caramittee_Te, gentleman yield? . say that the committee intended to pro- on Military Affairs before, and.. then.n? . _ Mr. LATHAM. I yield to the gentle- tect naval aviation. Unfortunately, be- when the Committee on Naval Affairannnn man from New Jersey. cause of a change at the later stages of came with you, they thought they could: ' the negotiations - iations on this bill, avia- Mr. HAND. One thing in the bill , naval not get it through there, so their handed - tion was not amply protected, in my , - which disturbs me is the Secretary of it to us. opinion. An amendment will be offered Mr. SHORT. Maybe they handed you National Defense and his apparently an from New York [Mr. tl the gentleman . limited powers. I listened quite atten- by a hot potato. But our committee is for - Cots] which -has, I believe, committee tively to the gentleman from New York this and watch the roll call_ . support, which will eliminate that defect. ? - ' [Mr. Warnworrnil this morning in the Originally I oppcsed this legislation, r # the Cole which u is a measure , opening debate. I am afraid from what This was against it, but after moan,. of hear- amendment is written into it, I will sup - he said that the Secretary could not in- ings I learned a little. ever Douglas ? port, because of the fact that it is a terfere with the internal affairs of the MacArthur can learn a little, because as ..- measure of compromise and in spite of three separate departments _under him, Chief of Staff several years ago he op- and further, if he attempted to make a the fact thatl do not agree with all of its posed this legislation, but be is very much : i coordinating provsions. order, if that were objected - in favor of it now, because if this recent-. to, he still could not do anything about? Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, I global conflict in which we were engaged.' .it except refer it to the President. : , yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from taught us one lesson it was the absolute I -make that observation to get further Missouri [Mr. SHORT]. . necessity of a untied, coordinated, co- ? clarification of the question, because it Mr. SHORT. Mr. Chairman, It was herent, cohesive armed f.)rce to strike seems to me that the Secretary of De- , my privilege to serve with the distin- quickly an land and sea and in the air.- ., ?' fense does not have as much power as guished gentleman from New York [Mr. A unified command is essential. . A di- . he should have to coordinate the defense WADSWORTH] and others on the special Tidedcommand is fatal. Mere Is- of the country. select committee headed by our former - streng- th in unity, weakness it- division. ? Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved ,F,Or RekWanikAMNATJAEltittyht9_6_11Migt?10020003-2 - The-Nazis taught us a lot in the early ernment and he has recorded/ what is The author's vivid description of the days of the war, but we taught them a truly an inside ? story. ? , . .. interservics rivalry and lack of unity ? few things before, it was over. I re- ?:,, Mr., Chairman, certain passages of this : between the Japanese army and navy . member in Saipan, Iwo Jima, and Oki- book are so cjosely related to the prob- aptly describes the condition existing to- . new% where we threw everything in the lem facing us today that I will read them day in the armed forces of the United world at those Japs eacept the kitchen ' . at this time: ' ' ?., !-1.: ,-- ."--"."'`, -- .., States. - : ? -sink, and it Was only because of. the um - 'PriCtion between the Japans's.- Army 'and a We are all familiar with the -dissension brella by 'the air armada, our bombers,, a Navy, over both strategy and division of among the componenti of our armed - -- together with the Navy with every typa, ' available material supplies, -became intense, forces. We deplore this condition. Dis- of . vessel conceivable that volleys of, :' In the fell of 1043 the Ministry of MUnitions , agreements not only involve matters of rockets were sent in, as well as the ma: -Tints established in an. effort to end competi: organization but even extend into the tion between the two services for materials, rInes, 5,000 of whom were killed on Iwo ' field of minter, strategy. Tbis condi- , but the army and navy had been traditional Jima, that we were able to really take ' tion to my mind Mr Speaker, constitutes , ,. ,.. rivals and their mutual distrust had its roots _ those islands. , ' . ' . 1 .: - - - in history. Even When they appeared to have a danger to the security of this Nation , . Mr. KEARNEY. Mr. Chalrman, will. T, buried the hatchet .during the early vic- -?, and is in itself a most compelling argu- ? the gentleman yield? . _., . .' -.. ,.. tortes, the army was building is own. ship- ment in favor of sinincation , Mr. SHORT, I yield. ,:- ? _' ? ?,,a- yards and producing its own cargo ships_ and I' do not contend that Japan would Mr... KEARNEy?,z. L want to :aitaan- ta-:.- oat cargo submarine's. The navy, on. the - a. have won the war bad her military__ es- 'the gentleman that"' served- ort that conali-' .: hand, Pr?Ceedcri t?'..mtablillit In -own ' tablishraent been unified. I do eontend, raittee with the distinguished gentleman. , 21-., ic.. iso 800T COrtliptatOrh::: int; arta I riea- designated- , however, that her meager resources , from Missouri._ and not supposed to re. he will recall that-t, as its ' percent a the .:,,/,''- Own so that they might count, on 100 ?would have been better einployed, and 'that committee wa.a - output instead of making a ' her military losses reduced through tut- , ort Out legislation, ?::, '',. '._ %?t,- , : , A ,,,,-,44-.; dlvislon:131 accordance With need. - The army 7., fled direction of her armed forcet . , M4.SHORT, - That.i&d'Oiric?In'ams -,., 'and naTctelen thelatelned.serterate weatber,, ? ":'"' 3t is wise,agn Chairraan. that we ex- simply*atUr*UftipolkyAlttitZ, _ . beinip? tObasevatoiles,.., and the civilian aoverament siva, 0:nnne the Junnese matte" organteattoiti,? Made; laYi the cominitteltint ..45''vitkv......., AvAmiroLf!.`74cial- since &miter,* opel-ating under the etc----,f -- a.... ? ? -- ? . ? 4.-g441,44-S1 =scut otuniere1Calr in, sttategy-there.A ? ? ee witafiet:tt legislative one. It ivaasn,". ? ' .- ? - ? ' -"treme pressure of total war Is more likely'. - , _ . - maw no. tmilledr =amend _ether in battle- '-'=. _ _ pecial select standing' ,omnlltee Of :ltdezsiach - W ,.611:,,t,- 'masa or In...occupied areas.,, Particular zones - basic delici cies tam one postwar military policy -- . - ',er.miarked out for army command th land, and e_ .. which IS subjected to a lesser degree of Mr nATZE3 ;nest -rata given the. others. _ _The Mat :de.,;r pressure. -In defeat. the glaring defecte- . ',.iZ.,.. ::` - hairMan; will the4entleinan - fene&areSineiuded lialf of New; ditineac. the ' ? of the Japanese system 100711 arte before,' Mr. SHORT,' I yield. ,,,, %,y;-. Seornons, the _Celebes,: and the mandated ' . us, whereas the corresponding weak-...: iap, ,,,, , , ,.,..2 .. 1.:42S72,7. MN,...1. tiesses 1. ryit - . - pene to .a Member ot tbat committee ? *Ilbere 12 no awlibt that at major" portion ''' ' 111. hal' t''' b"n .IvIr,BATES of Dlitassaohniet*a:t. ,...- et the 'reeponaibuity for, Iapana 1anure at "sccured by victor': - myself.: andr,I iniebt say' also "that., 'the '.., G ,-' Although the United States had a 123-4-7-;, , committee madeneefrortto report` out ';dalcanaL: '13?ugatriTille' ttli ' - Gilbert 2.?-' ter appreciation of the proper employ- this a- ' unification, hilt or anYother bill ?..--rr'''''121anc114 and later at 911-111196ftant' eall3" .?," may be traced to the failure. of ,the army ''. - ment of air power than the Japanese, we' ' ?:, Mr. SHORT, / know that the gentle- - ' navyte?set aside their differencsa When the ..f.,.. had in effect the same general type- at ..; ? Man from Massachusetta, has been op- , future of the nationwas , Japanese c ,milite,ry organization. Our victory WSW:: '? Posed in the past to. this;, but I do not 'Perin". Were inntfaciental: ninnber gained not so much througl-. the efficient....'t know how,he?wavete on this partionior.;:, rend the area assigned to: the naVy and le; - ..;, suppott giwm-by the arm wee. in each h case ' use of our resources, but by virtue of bill. , 3 will continue to love him regard,. the fact that we were eventua.11y able to , . , ,..1".'?. 'inadequate and half-bearted. . , aar.,, KARsTEN of :mi_?..-, .....! ? i The most serious friction between the aerv- overwhelm a nation possess-ng only one- - ;- less-of how he vote&;, .. :??- , ' : ssoifin a ..i?Dari Ince: arose over the allocation of aircraft and tenth of our resources. Chairman, will the gentleman el We for aircraft manufacture.- The Opponents of unification are today Mr. SHORT. I yield to ray friend the. traditional procedure had been to divide the - seeking to perpetuate the independent gentleman from Missouri. , ? output of cortkbat planes equalTy between status now enjoyed by OUT separate de- Av. KARsTEN of Missouri. Thatpar the two services irrespective of the strategic tense departments at the met of the .ticular committee had no power to re-American taxpayer and at tne risk of our or tactical situation, but when the allied at- tack was threatening to break through in ? port legislation, but only had the power - the central Pacific., and 'the powerful Truk national security. It 43 our responsi- - ? to recommend legislation. . base was threatified, the Navy asked. for a bility, Mr. Chairman, to prevent tracli- -- - Mr. SHORT. That is right. greater share, contending that the central tion and our past great victory from Mrs. ROGERS of Massachusetts. Mr. Pacific battles would decide the war and that obscuring the need for constructive mill- Chairm, will the gentleman yield? . Japan should concentrate her ?total air tary reorganization offered by the pend- strength in that area. The army insisted ing legislation. - _ Mr. SHORT. I yield, that its carnnsigns in Burma, with Imphal Mr. Chairman. no chain is stronger _ -Mrs. ROGERS of Massachusetts. Has as the objective, and in China with ur made any statement pose of linking Canton and ? Hankow, ' pur- were than 'its weakest link. No one branch ? the to the effect that heis for this bill? _ _ . . . , , . - of them did an excellent job and there equally important. ' ' _ of eur armed services won this war. All General MacArthur Mrt SHORT. Yes.' . I' do not know - In defending' Saipan the navy called for is enough credit and renown to go to about this particular bill but he is for army support, which materialized in disap- each one of them. -We should not fail unification of the armed services. pointing quantity. In my presence a high to see .the forest because of toe trees. Mr. Chairman, I cannot yield any fur- naval ?facer angrily remarked that the navy For our future defense I think we should - ther, because I have something to say would handle the job by itself and that Sal- place the greatest emphasis noon the here that I want to bring out for thepan would become ,a navy victory. ' most important branches. edification and benefit of my good friend, the army.:i7avy friction and the .succession ef 4T rif The senior statesmen bad been watching Mr. -F".5.1. 1.11lu 112aa`'Ilt,sg=1/L1 ;.core and by',..,.. the gentleman from Michigan (Mr. of defeats with growidg anxiety, but they HopFMANI, ' .. -- were like a group of court nobles who lacked or our Air Corps, or Mr. Chairman, although I strongly the military strength to bring about a forz.? ? ? : s ?n iimentabl urge. cible change in the situation. enteia :. ? . :?._ _ --and for scien 1 n the immediate passage of unifica- - ,nological development. rnese are . tion legislation, I do not at this time in- Mr. Chairman, two glaring deficiencies the things above all others watch will tend to discuss detailed provisions of the existed in the Japanese military organ- . guarantee our security. pending bill. , .. ? ? ization, First, there was no unity of Mr. ..1 Gun. Mr. Chairman I yield I have before me a: book entitled "The command either in Japan or in her sev-- .5 minutes to the gentleman from Penn- _ . Lost War" which give a Japanese report- eral theaters of operations. Second, sylvania [Mr. Jraegrais]. er's story of the war as be viewed itirom Japanese air power was divided between Mr. PATTERSON. Mr. Chairman, I.,. Japan. The author, Masuo Kato, a re- porter for the Domei News Agency, was closely associated with many high gov- ernment officials of the Japanese Gov- . two uncooperating surface forces which prevented the concentration of this air power during critical phases of the Pa- cific war. ' No. 139-*-10 Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 make the point of order that there is not a quorum present. This Is Impor- tant legislation and the Members should be. here to listen to this debate. , Approved For Reg(MGRiiiiakitNi111-atMegililladieldfdi3o2oo63-2 , _ JULY 19 , . . The CHAIRMAN. The Chair will the, air, but that war has become a tri- could not last 3 weeks in a war with count. (After. counting.) One hum- dimensial matter. It requires the co- ?1 America. 'The Government in Washing- . dred and nineteen Members are present, ordination of all three of those elements 7 ton was stunned and shocked beyond be- ts -quorum. of our armed forees and the 'use of all I lief when it suddenly realized that Paris " The 'gentleman from Pennsylvania three of those: media of combat, land, and Prance would fall. [Mn, Jeannie) is recognized., . . -: sea and air. , ? - An important Member of the other-' " ../ErgioNs Oi pennsvivania: idr; Mr. Chairman, I urge the passage of Ibody. who is still serving in that body. Chairman, a good' many years ago as a this bill at this time, as I have said, with said that a few bombe or Tokyo would - , small, boy. I. remember reading in the aa the force which / can bring to it mock them out of the wan What a firse Jungle Book by Kipling,. ate so- ' - The CHM:RMAN. The time of the IWoeful lack of intelligimce as -4 the po- Called Maxims of" Belo.;.: One pt those ". gentleman from. Pennsylvania- has ex- entla1 power of our esaemism People ...i ?. maxims, if my- memory serves me con- lire& were saying that Mussolini would not " eCtI3i, Went something like this:. 1/4 - ,-, Mn. ? HOLIFIELII Mr... Chairman, attack; that- he was only bluffing. ..There is nom ees to me!, mith-t1c11j3- 'yield DI minutes to the gentleman from Around the world there was a total lack In the pride of his earliest kin, , ' -- South Carolina [hrr: Dottrel. of knowledge of those forces that were But the jungle is large, Mr. DORN. Mr. Chairman, we have marshalling to defr.,roy Antericon. dame- , And the cue, he Is small; spent a considerable time and a lot of racy. I tell you gsatlemen. of the com- bust-thine, eat be sue _effort on this bill. May ; pay tribute-to mittee that your central intelligence. - _ eee . te e- . - the chairman at the committee and to agency Is a-very' important wt of this -" my rather brief eXPOrienes bill. Junior Member of this House I'have tried Usage in charge of the hearings for giv- tcebese in, mind that: maxim- and &Void Ins the younger and the freshmen. mem- - Let me say a few wares- :eeoirt praise ? here of the committeetevery opportunity fling. devntoPmene and reran& As. talking-about. things about'whiekrknew and with which had an expe. express themselves on. this bill. We, long as Amerlea staez *need el gin' tentian enemy in the livid of develop- respee , t.,h6wevei.,* the . hays had. that opportunity, fee DV_ *fore thig , .t part r certainly appreciate-ft e The merit and research, then you 'Are that. --eeteee. - ? - ereeddie net- exactly, perfeettle e foritarcIT, muctr-reinoved from the thawrof. -nee In the right direction, connection- tare- war.. NO nation- se-A attack this ' wres eer 07,-InetiZr.- ":?, with the- unification of mar armed sere,''..- country. If they frame we are ahead of .tbem he__lige engagement, teielee ? -F"-eterete."hr...e---eee..them in the- field an resezadr sad y ,Anyt ; haw; et which teag,spettteeeeellete Ciersenuan", /hope peichni --reelopment of military entroment and ehr Ana:resigt, or thaw, apedeeke ?11:tit;gareotrals reference others*, r say .my future &Tient to lie used by aur armed have become so thorough/7 convinced, mother had more sons in the service at forces. Then, gentlemen of the cam-- of thenee?dlorimificationat the.armed one-time-than-any than any amaaalasaathicata-:--2 Irdttee, sheet the Air lite"?' Let - se that as sentimber ..ofeakeeimeee, lime in /Markt War IL_ -wars served in:. me say this beScee that 'General Keller new every. ifranch of the, nevemitthe deputy corninander o'.! the air force '- cr`el885.`Ed?c1rtirth7;criZa,- eirenmyprtvJige to he as shir headquar... :of Germany, aftet the defeat- of Ger-- thee beople vitio .havn tem In-London--before the invasion oi many, made this most eigrdlicarot state-- ,flingettlin House-with alt the sinceritY" BetrePe' are? at General Bradie"; head-- theta' n'a said that the righeia., of the- quarters in northern Flemce, the heade future that has the greatest Lorca' and force atm:* eenlre4.` nd te enatt this, .. eisiate.,? , ,;?,;,.Y.,iA quarters or the NinthArmy... 'saw uni- the world- wilt" denlinate the seas' of -the ? ,:efL.e,_sreeiee !hate= fa. operation there,mnd it worked - world, will donde ate the Ism& of the emis1ekniaTy irLarlds,73;i7,7? beautifully. 'Unification of operation in world, will dontirsate the air ever the- There- have wis Europe was -one of the first and most ? world; yes, he said that the nation with had longer and broader experience than eseentiatthings that General Eisenhower -the greatest air force will dominate the /,, but I. believe most of theft re milted and those- en command realized MU .world. He said, "We are decimated and -Upon the general proposition trIss there necessary for the successful prosecution . eliminated; but it will be interesting to.? must be imity?of commimdin our armed of the war. That was true not Only in watch the pqwer politics of be future ? . forces if v1be:irk-1110 be won in thelase Europe but in the Pacific as well.. among the great powers to see if the old of any other war in which we may un- To those who have made- the charge mistake will be made over and over happily-have to engage. here today of dictatorship, / would like again." I think that is a ',ere iigniteant Much has been said, ia the words of to say and remind the committee that statement and one that the gentlemen' - ? some of the distinguished gentlemen e neeer. in the history of the world has a ? of this Congress riight heed in any fu- who have preceded me, of the frecessity man fnaintained sUccessfut dictator- ture policy toward our Military &tab- for unified command in the field, and of 'ship over any country without substan- lishment Gentlemen of the ommittee, - ? the lessons of World War --I and World tiel backing from the people. The only the Air ?farce is charged with the defense , 'War -it We did not have unification danger under our American form of goy- of this country; on land and sea and the and coordination to begin with. The, ernment for a dictatorship, and I believe air. If they are charged with that re memory of Pearl Harbor and what hap- It is the only danger, is through the sponsibility, then, why not give them, the trened there is still fresh and green in President of the United States. That has authority to do it? Thie bill does. net our minds. But memories, as men 'grew been at times- and might be lathe future set pp a separate air force It only older, have a tendeiicy to fade away, to a real potential danger; but never from creates an air force on a parity with your , dim out; and the memory of Pearl Her- a Secretary of National Defense as cre- Army and your Navy. What man in bor, and the cause of the' disaster of ated under this bill. He has no right, this committee today know s but what to- ? -- Pearl Harbor and the compelling urgen- under this bill, to go out and build up a night or any night in the future there ' cy that was there shown for the kind of propaganda machine' throughout the might come out of the mist cf the North , unification of our armed services- that, country and solicit popular support. Sea, the North Atlantic. or over. the is embodied in this bill may likewise have Mr. Chairman, one of the most impor- North Pole, where there are nc? railroads, ,,et tendency to fade away. We human tent features of this bill is the Central - where there are no sea eines. an attack . , beings have a tendency to put off doing Intelligence Agency. I would like for you against our comitrye What defense the thing we recognize as necessary tin- to turn back with me this afternoon to hgve we got against that attack? Only til a more propitious day. There will the most terrible period preceding. World an air force on e parity with your other never be a more propitious day to do the War U. Why, you had most of the news- - branches of the national defense, one thing that has to be done now, than'. to- papers and people in this country think- - that can meet the responebeity... Give day, when the memory' of . all that has ,ing that Adolf Hitler was a comic char- them the authority, gentlemen of the : happened is still with us and whenethe acter, that a war in Europe could not committee?today reasons for what has to be done are still last through the winter?I remember I need, not go into the &:uation in with us. Every one who has taken part those editorials quite well--that Ger- Europe and the Pacific Oaring the war; in.the operation of this or any other con- many would. not last through. the winter that is history wiTlft which you are well filet, particularly this last one, recog- of 193g. I remember officers of the Navy acquainted, but I will say this, that it nizet the fact war and combat are no coming back from observation posts in. General Eisenhower, as ne testified be- longer confined to the sea or the land or the Pacific and saying that the Japanese fore the committ?.e, had to go to the Approved For Release 2003/04/02 CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 Approvea For RekeeN2diails4RjAttaRRIM9ftejg_RWM220003-2 Third Army and beg General Patton for the country the degree of security which the use of his air cOrps, if he had to beg we all hope to achieve. General Straps= for the use of his air- My views on the subject of unification planes if he had to go to the Seventh or are snore fully set forth in the CONOR119- , First Army, if he had to go into the other SIONAL Reclean for June 30 under the re- army groups and collect his air force, he marks of the gentleman from Michigan never could have stopped the German [Mr. HOFFMAN]. , drive during the Battle of the Bulge. As You will recall last summer the Pres- authority, for that go to General von Went recommended a merger of the RUnstedt, the commander I the German ee armed services by way of a single De- forces. He said that the air force by its partment of National Defense. Substan- concentration of power in so short- a tial objection was made tothat by a large while on our, forces and communications - segment Of our people arid a large por- during the Battle of the Bulge was the tion of our Military Establishment, prin- cause of out defeat in that great battle. cipally the Navy and the Marine Corps. So, you see the importance of an bade- Subsequently an agreement was reached pendent air force An perplane in 1938, between the leading ?Metals, both civil or thereabout.s, ilew from Japan, non- .? and military, of the two interested De- stop, to San Francisco, a distance of over partments and the three interested serv- 5,000 miles. Why could they not do It ices?air, land, and naval. That agree- during the war?. Because their Air raent was submitted to the Congress by e -Force had' become subordinatedeto their way of a draft of legislation to enact into Navy and their vault force. and they law the terms of the agreement. The could.. not. evene; bomb- the Mariannas e-' agreement was a vast improvement over whreh_tteett Wiar14.7apan,, 1114ele .thee recommendationnt theePresidente as- Frattelecei,QWhi ivaa45.001Liniles. ore ?Conemander In Cblefivirear 9583 upon it, I am confident thet the sub- stantial fears and appreheneions which the people possess, whether Justified or not, would be removed. I would call to your attention on page 6 where the authority of the Secretary , of National Defense delineated it categorically states that he shall ,exer- ? else general_ direction. authority, and ? _control over such department,s and agencies. - , In an interpretation of that authority, the gentleman from New York says that se he shall have the power 'to direct proper coordination" between the branches of the services. - Mr. JUDD. Mr. Chairman, will the 5entlernan yield? ? I just want to call attention to the first -- part of the sentence which controls this grant of power-on the ',romans page. Mr. COLE of New Mut It is true that except in two instances. which / hope to point out, it ia apparently the philosophy of thenommittee recommending thepill Ithatttbis Secretacy of Defensif shall/he * That show*, What subordination of. thes4(!...-eAftere conidderateoieb36:the senate a. mat& to ,riew the:, wholei7 Airrerek'tn-the" 6,0er' 'branches-O. tkfi..,...v :but representing 'the .agreement- of the. . Problem to resolve differences and. dls-,': 7, setifiee'eniefilieri&-,!..r need not inention.ee-, -, services was adopted in a modifled.eoeme putes and rivalries and duplications. and. hove. .our,,lAkForcef.viasemboidinated be-,.."-L;As adopted- by . that body'At,,tolk repro- all that sort of;thing. With that, nn.vr ore-ther beginning of World: War, rf?,;:i ,.T'.-7----zc.setited in thy opinion., a 'lebetehtlet int, -,-;-.hody can disagree. Bid a. striat inter4-?, . :?rics, Aftrchairthaw:,if we "ire soing-,,to.'t -provement over the agreement,- Even- - Pretation of the authority e.entatned on - prepare for the future hate to. doeit; ''...tuainnhe bills; at. least thezubjeatmatter. r/page 6, line 3, together with another one: ' noiat-:- yet"; frankly,' LhaVe to live in the'-t'l;caMer:up, for consideration by-the Com- -I-which / vrlitepoint out In xemomen - future e; ' My lifeeteenotebehind. me but "":- mitten orr Expenditures in the Executive, .. -. destroys that interPreiation. - e ...: The gentleman from New York' whom before-ine:' e I -am speaking' for theeyotith7 Departments in-... the, House The bill - - X regard and I am sure all as the - of 'of the United' 'States -today. ' Nve,vant...."--''which-that? committee has recommended_ - ? , last word one this problem has as he adequatemationah defense .- We- demand--; ' fori, our. -- consideration - today -is;--in . my -- , f,....--4 stated, wrestled with military problems ' Ito: this. Congress. ..We?solicit and ear- ":"..- oPirdene .a , vast Improvement, over the, pro- .. ? e.: .,.,..e...,.:11.,' for many' yearseprobabt, for as long or, e '' nestly -hope for ?you- cooperation. in -7: bill as passed by the, other body' ' - ' -- ,nearly as long as 'have lived; which: is tecting. the. welfare-and security of thee -e ?: So, in the progressive evolution of the: ' anite some dm,* gp rm. ,,,,,LH,.. as ., people of-this great country: - - . The best - legislative- processes, - the people are --- --- -- --- ? ? ? . an - - 'authority in the interpretation of this. . way to do it is-through thislunification- - gradually exercising their- will over this; bill. He said that this Secretary of De- ? . bill.' That is one step in the right direc- vital matter. I would remind you that f - -e ense should "bring abo? ut a certain de- tion.. ; There are- many .other measures the responsibility for the organization ? gree of coordination. Again he said ? of national defense that I advocate, but and maintenance of our Army and Navy - the Defense Secretary should "bring I will not Mention them at this time. is not one which the Constitution places about coordination." If that is what is . This one bill that is before this commit- upon the Commander in Chief. It is one intended, why not write it. in the book? tee today is a step in the right direction ' which is imposed upon the Congress, and . He pointed out that the bill gives to . toward defending this. country, ' the changes which have been-made by the three ,individual departments au- _ - The industry of America is concert- the Senate in the agreement as estab- thority to run their own show. He said - ' ? trated mostly in nine cities or thereabout, lished by the representatives of the Com- the Secretary of War, the Secretary of ' Are you going to throw those nine cities mender in Chief and the changes that Navy, and the Secretary of Air Farce open to. a surprise attack from the north have been recommended to the House have complete coetrol over the person- or from somewhere else, someday, and by this committee are in the proper nel of their own departments: that they put America at a disadvantage? Let no exercise of the constitutional responsi- "have the right to hire and fire." If , one kid you, if Japan, had had the same bitty of the representatives in Congress that were true, nobody could take ex- war potential that America had, we ' to organize, maintain, support, and pro- ception, but, unfortunately, the bill does would have lost-the war in 30 minutes at' vide for an army and navy. . not say that. On paste 7, at the bottom. Pearl Harbor: If they had had the same Little did I think 6 months ago that it of the page, it says that the Secretary of Industrial- output, they' could have fol- - would be possible for me to stand here Defense is authorized to appoint and fix lowed up. that initial 'advantage, and we in speaking on this subject to say that . the compensation of such other civilian would have been defeated. In the next I could say "amen" to everything which personnel as may be necessary for the war we will not have that added advan-. my distinguished colleague the gentle- performance of the functions of the Na- tage of time and distance, man from New York [Mr. WADSWORTH] tional Military Eetablishmen, . Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield has said on the subject today. However,. The bill later on sets up the National 10 minutes to the gentleman from- New as I listened to him very closely in his Military Establishment as being those York [Mr. Coml. opening statement, lam frank to con- three department,, plus the other agen- . Mn COLE of New York. - Mr. Chair- fess to you that everything he said could des, the Munitions Board, the Joint - man, during the nearly 15 years in which be reiterated by myself with complete Chiefs orStaff. Research and Develop- I. have served here no . problem has sincerity, e meat Board, War Council and so forth. ' caused me greater concern than this Unfortunately, the bill, as it is- sub- Those are all parts of the National Mill- whole question of merger, unification, mitted does not expressly state the inter- tary Establishment over -which, as this -and consolidation of our Military Es- pretation which the gentleman from New paragraph which I have just read, the tablishment. as it has raged throughout York [Mr. WADSWORTH] has placed upon Secretary of Defense Is gAren authority' our country for the last 3 or 4 year*. I the authority of the Secretary of Na- to appoint the personnel , am happy to observe the continued and tional Defense. If the bill did state Mr. WADSWORTH. Mr. Chairman, .- progressive improvement of the approach that and if it wrote into statutory form will the gentlema a yield.' to a proper solution which will give to the interpretation which he has placed Mr. COLE of New York. I yield. - Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For PCANgefe65141dAT-egAfRAT:br41-6klig 00020003-2 19 , Mr. WADSWORTH. The gentleman people who operate the planes of 'this tinder this bill, we have a splendid brings up an interesting point with ref- independent department of air, this in- team consisting of a Navy, an Army, erence to the bottom of page 7. It was dependent air force? It is well known and an Air Force. Each of these forces ? not the intention of the authors of this that :when an aviator reaches the age fight in a different medium, the Army act or of our committee to give any such of 30 or 32 his usefulness as an active on the ground, the Navy in the sea., and power to the Secretary. of Defense, It aviator is terminated. Where are we the Air Forces in the air. The Air Forces - was hateneled that this power to sproint going to put them? They cannot allbe has won its "place in the sun, and it-. personnel. meant persOnnel in his own majors, colonels, or generals; they can- must not be denied its proper reeogni-- offices.; I ttliere is any uncertainty about not all sit around the council table mak- tion; back in World War Iewhee milltarY ? the language' as presently in the bin, / Ing policies. It niust inevitably mean aviation was a part of the Sternal Corns. might suggest that the gentleman offer that when these men reach the age of it was used primarily for reccellialesance- an amendment to strike out the wards 30 or 35 they are going to have to be At- that time, it was argued, and with'' "National', Military Establishment" and' turned back to civil life either on the some reason, that air power must be coordinated with and integrated into our insert "Inactions of his office' That. js pension rolls of the Government or with ? what the? committee intended. a bonus of some sort to permit them to Army Establishment. At that time, mil- Mr: COLE of New York. Again 1 am adjust themselves into civil life. Italy aviation was looked or ea a compelled to to recognize the fairness of The same thing can be accomplished her Of airplanes." Later deveioeMent , the Judgment of. the gentleman ttom . by glean recognition to the Air Force _ proved that aviation was a ftine and -.New. Toriesaarseeseeneekeent. ao his in. _ which its Importance justifies?by weld-- it Justly took as place with the other ' terpretattcer of the functions of this See-- ' inn into-cur land fortes the use of air,- forces?ground forces and sea forces. - - retarY of Defense. ? , s . the same as the Nall/ has welded into its Today, no one who has studied the mat- The_ CHAIRMAN. "'The time befits operations the use of air during naval ter would contend that the Mr should ehteeman from Neer:yeah (Mr, ?seek operations. " I recognize, however, the , be integrated Into the Armyiss Establish-- , ,iesjeer,(4, s ,;_e, - , ,,? ; ...s,saeses , futility: of trying to persuade ttaz Cone ,', meat. This does not apply to naval unH. S'emisiiectisx I - e greatt'Vi the inadvisability of -treating sa e-, aviation. The- Nave mul ls ond should pni (mai ,,,,additianar, new department or,the air. 4,.-Recopiis,?1?4have ft& candor, torim 'miaow" -It 11v,, .-. Mg the. futilitytt hese then ad abOUt to se d? part of. a serrimportant "art of ? the . ;;,, preserre;_if 'Leonid, to the =era forces ?..:,:-; fleet ? ? ? .- , .?"-s-, 6-, ,L --.. - . --,.? -0,:r ',: aasnrnMr-i*Cprit'LliuNewat, mtifiemiann miii.....".. the' mitar of air ii:e all *Recta of naval:: .-..- ,Ort the eve at World Wat II, IL. was ' ? ? the-Pattern ?'"------`; ? ' % operations. ? After consultation with the a proper understanding of air power.. ? _ 't the SecretvlY 'el Delenie se It bag brens'Paneminto.ot the committea they have -, that caused our mills-an i leaders So ,..erf,l.r*.?.11*,...4.,:"thicia_es.:hts",1,811PP?Ore_ lit....m.....,?'t `?: inreed,that the _Navy shall retain thee' tablish the Army Air Pierces as a singlese '"'"""". '"' vr""`?.."'"'"1"147 Pa68 1".* light tense the air in all its naval aspects command.' This action reconciled the , 7 eexpressing , rather briefly ant harried:, s andanneipmpriateamendasent has been ' differences between. the General Head--; S r- ?. _i,,,,,...,,,,mr deepw.,reeling... ...4,...),?,.u?....on. the queggiall,_ ......__,'-vt. tba; tr: prepared which wilt be offered for adop.k: quarters Air Forces and the Mr Corps: ,?""'"'"""'"'' ? '`''''-'""'"'""-v-_-__._,_" e'vvm.""_____,7' don at the proper time. - - ,..v.t4., -.....;;--c,:-.:.` that Is, between the combat and the ad. - will MAIL leineeee len' Ileum, ', spswthermore, I am napeliea to state, ' raialstrativa branches of our eir_lein as... If anybody ,ss _argue thsttssa.snew ctvIt - myeawrienon thattbecreetionof *sem- it then existed. It was an understand-;? ess urPitruntlE:1_ 01 117.7..../7,1,111em wi__.,.11 rest* 25I ? rate department of air and it-separate - log of air power ?tha-, led the War De. - -'-'?,,,46711'n.,?,,,,c4317' "1'..,'_uer..._.,_,,,,or not eon ____ecm:1?,? : air force as a part of the Military Estab- partment to state as a primary Prtm"Ple ' -L'u.' are ?I...?.1-?.ti l'?'' "lj MAL"' 14 1.1VW'W. :, liekiwieet of the Government lit without that? ? , , _ - - ... ary in importance. ?? It would be worth, , authority under the Constitution.. Time ?Tee Arm Air- Forced must be prodded whale' to sPedd'Illat '.ex" money if by ?does not permit an amplification of that- with the tnatimuni degree of auto/3012T per- having "ether 'department ....,..ourr Mad position at this time, but a reference to witted 1.7 laW without permitting the mas- tery efficiency conld ......, be,...a......--, my statement before the committee on tion of unwarranted dtrillicatien in the rune- ' because the goal that we all seek is the Expendttares on June ss discloses the dons of service, supply. and 'emir rtration. t Absolute security of our country. How-- reasons for my then belief that the por- The proposed National Security Act ever, to my mind, our security is seri-. _ tion of this bill relating to an independ- of 1947 assures autonomy that is an- ousIy jeopardized when we (set up this ant air force is unconstitutional. thorized by law and is itself ds.igned ? new Department of Air. ? ? The CHAIRMAN. ? The time of the as a law that recognizes the needse of .. It was not until this last war -that the gentleman from New York has expired. the National Defense Establishment in use of air In military operations estab- Mr, HOFFMAN. Mr, Chairman, I this air age. . lished itself. I think we all agree now, yield such time as he may desire to the An air force is not one branch f?f avis- at least it is my view, that of the three gentleman from New York [Mr. Certnica]. tion, but many. It consist of strategic elements of the earth?land, -water, and units, tactical Air Force =As, recon- air?air is the most effective and potent [Mr. CHURCH addressed the Commit- for use in military operations. Yet here tee. Hls remarks will appear hereafter naissance, troop-carrier tini:-S, aid air- for the Appendix.I transportation units. The section of the we are taking away from our land forces n National Security Act of 1947_ which es-." and our naval forces the use of that ele- ? (Mr. CtiugCH asked and was given tablishes the United States hir Forces ment of the earth, the use of the air, in permission to revise and _ extend his does not bring to an end the excellent carrying out military, operations, andremarks.) . ? -cooperation between the Army end the are setting it off on the side as an tride- Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. Chairman, I Air Forces. It establishes an air force pendent function of the military. The - yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from. as an organization, (mordinase end co- proper way to do it, in my opinion, would Illinois [Mr. Paten], equal with the land ind naval forces. be to have both the land forces and the (Mr. PRICE of Illinois asked and was In the European theater, General Els- water forces have available to themselves given permission to revise and extend his enhower had Ground Forcecommaraders the complete and unrestricted use of air remarks.) and Air Force commaaders. In that the- in their military operations. The use Mr. PRICE of Illinol& Mr. Chairman, ater, there actually existed coequal land - of air should dominate our land forces. - among the arguments that have been and Air Forces. As he testified before The use of air should predominate our advanced by opponents of the proposed the committee, this was an ideal ar- naval forces. Our land forces in the National Security Act of 1947, no argu- rangernent. He did not want the air future will be supplementary to air force ment IS based on so great a naisunder- units integrated into the various ground as will the use of naval forces. Our land standing of the act itself or of modern commands. He wanted to us all the Air and naval forces -will be used to support warfare as the argument that the estab- Forces, both English and American, in and supplement what is done in the air. lishment of a coequal Air Force means one place at one time- when the situa- The theory of this bill in taking away disunification. It is the contention of tion called for that use. from our land and naval forces the use of those, who advance this argument, that 'Three Jobs are always present for the s air ancl, establishing an air force off by the establishment of another depart- Air Forces in a theater, one !,he destrne- ? itself is a tragic mistake, ment, the United States Air Forces, would tion or neutralization of hostile a- r. The Then again, froth a piactical stand- remove from the Army a well coordinated - destruction win give freedom ol move- point, what are we going to do with the and integrated unit of the Army. -- . ment to our Ground and Air Forces. Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For Rftltepg/gfek:ATAffe6:1789?1111ThAl120-020003:2 The second is the disruption of hostile tent Marianas, air power was employed tinue the employment of air power in lines of communication, such as rail- strategically in a way in which no other ground and naval aperationa Of the roads. This disruPtion of lines of corn- power has ever been used. --- . functions of the United States Army the. munication is not in direct support of . Today we face the possibility of attack proposed Executive order says specifi-, the Ground Forces, but if the enemy by long-range bombers, carrying-atomic calla': - runs out of food and ammunition, he is weapons from bases in Europe or Asia The United Stater Army includier land no longer a first-class enemy. The third across the Arctic regions and the North combat and service farm pild such aviatiofl-. Is air action in. the battle -proPer; inf.- Pole. ,.The routes from such bases to the and water transport as may lie ?mimic., mediate and in close". ceopexation.With Industrial centers of the United States therein. , . , .!'' ? ,:, the Ground Forces. '-'.';',4-1.;a?)?,-; , aa lead (tCrOSS the Arctic regions because _ -Of the functions of, the United States\ ' During the invasion ,-Of Normandy, those are the shortest routes. But those- -Navy the proposed Tgxecutivi- order says - . there was splendid coordination . with are routes closed to land vehicles or sea specifically: - ? J - ; -ground, air, and sea power. ' ? vehicle& And they lead across regions The United States Navy inductee naval During that same invasion air power in which, if only air power can attack us, combat and service forces, r.aval aviation, was also used in coordination with it follows that only air power can defend and the Urdted Static Marine Corps, ' - And '- power had driven the German- Air Pqrce . Strategic bombardment by air power--,Same order says: - of the United States Mr Force the ???" ground and sea power; Our Allied air.' us._ _ -' - ., - ? - - - - : - . from the skies, and achieved mastery of ?,- 15 the most powerful weapon of war thus-- , : The United Stites Air roma ratindes. aU.-,; the air over England, ,over the English far Produced because it operates with military aviation forree, bozo combat and .? - , Channel, and over France.:, We could , freedom and with economy of force im- Nato not othomze opeoincAly assigned. -7:-. 4 . concentrate. troops and supplies hi Eng- '. Possible to any other weapon. Mr power a a land, and: Ships. in., English ports, isith_ , can -Amin its total strength; which may The Pro Ex lave order states.. out fear -Ow having them ,'attackerrand be based over a 'wide area witha speed . , explicitly what is implicit in ,..he Natio, nala ' destroyed by Gerniant;'atr, power Our Para az esse impossible to any other force,: ,..? security Act- ' Aelikticel 13 net regmnreck- Allied abtapawer -fiesegyaltaactieardkyier,li,Atispeeler ? can ',-",select: forodestruction:?,!_rinif:'1.11.,!14/"'"_131LIA___ir_1,17!____1143teli'4 over the- twasion 'arniadaa that,cidistied Zthoist targets most vital' to the, enemy's:- -!1errilicohoZo Peery analtr17:1-aan'i'mqruse `-- the Channel, and over the ground forces.7."war- economy.: no Matter where located: , iTh w , manY times i that stormed the beaches": . And Votould,::7:To air power the perimeter defenses of a n recent Tears We hit add her that. the. sueceacof -.that,,417...?4nation, are as nothing,. and are to be-bY-., zaavrde :ahte:ched the7cdereloprOcren7t or P laifVta+i4 ' artite operation wa,slitacte possible, . be- - ., passed' or ignoredi as the t,acticar.situa- : ? .. . _ . -. -"?;??? ?-? - ? ? . -tion make tam world-seem smaller-a- andi cause the principle - of unification mai t tion warrants ? -Strategic' . air power; ? , . transportation about it grow increasingly - recognized when- the-- direction ? of the.:striking at the very heart of an enemy. .., _?,,, repict end fretiaem, we mese ime - over-all operation - Ws placed inP.3he-?"!.,,- land and at the war industry of an enemy ; - ''''' been' struck ill' the fact that military ac, hands of ' one man,- that; great general? :,: country? does not seek, to destroy an . tiee. in that werid?if it still be tieeiled?::?.? Dwight IX Eisenhoweri,!??,c-, ''..,'-?.??:-':.,..??,rtii''' .2"-?:")..enennefi - armed forces, Or to -capture :must be conducted by one Oct hY three- Air power was used many times dining ' , enemy territory, so much -as it peeka to ?armed forces. ,,,,., .. ??-;_ - , ..t.,..,. World War II in support of ground 0P- On D-day. - paralyse the enemy ?-? power could so reduce the-industrial po- That is why air ... or to be a lobal -vex; it WINS fought na World War linis the first vr4r fn. his orations;plue 48, when- the Zr ' - -" ., spectacular break-through at St. Le tore ' tential ' of Japan. that she surrendered ty and g Aust l' Europe-and.; a great hole in the German defenses, and --- unconditionally with her armies--unae.. . In Africa, in the- Atlantic as iiv'the Pa- ? ., Alaska ilSt ralia; in General Patton's - Third Army plunged ? feated in - maior engagements and in . &lc; and but for certain happenings a_ " through-the gap and started its drive to control of nearly 3,0Q0,000 square niiles-of most favorable to our interests it might the west wall, the break-through was land populated by 500,000,000 people. covered by air power?tactical Air Force Here was a defeat unparalleled in his- well have been fought in the United States. operations?which prevented the devel- tory; and for the first time in history an opment of serious opposition to the prog- invading army possessed a conquered As a global war, fought On land, on the- that war was- won ress of the armored columns, which pro land without firing a shot. "- sea, and in the aia, unified command in the theaters of - . tected the .long, exposed Beni of the The United States Air Force which the by - Third Army, and which assisted the ad- National Security Act of 1947 would es- operationa. Sometimes the theater com- direct co- an ander was an Army general, sometimes vance of the ground forces by tablish is an organization to employ air a Navy admiral, sometimes an Air- gen- operation: When the German Army was power as only air power can be employed. caught in the Falaise pocket, it was splen- eral. Sometimes the commander was -. did air and ground cooperation that took under consideration raise the question British, sometAmes American. But who- Some opponents of the legislation now apart. True, some troops ever he was, whatever he was supreme ? that army, of the constitutionality of a separate command was his, Ind there ,P7,43 coordi- escaped, but they lost all their equip- Air Force pointing out that the Constitu- nation of operatiors. tion - defines Congress' power to "raise What the National Security Act of meat and most of the units lost their fighting elliciency. , and support armies; to provide and main- 1947 seeks to insure is, admnistrative Anyone who- recalls the Victories of thin a Navy." - . -unity of direction, at the seat If our Gov- _ ? our armies in World -War II can cite If the framers of the Constitution of ? ? eminent comparable-to the unity of rection, in the theaters of operation, that dl- numerous other instances of thd tactical . the United States did not provide for use of air power, in employment with such an Air Force, surely they are not to was necessary for the succesaf 11 conclu- ground power and naval power, in cover- be blamed for lack of prophetic vision, sion of the war. ing invasions, covering advances, and but why should their descendant be As such, it Is administrnitvp unity, in softening up enemy opposition. penalized because their forefathers the interest of coordinating the total war ? But it is not such tactical use of air lacked it? The National Security Act of effort of the Natloa, because lit addition i power that makes air power a unique . 1947 seeks to give us an Air Force worthy to putting an Army, a Navy and an Air --,- weapon, new to miiitara warfare and -to employ the great air power that we Force under the direction ot a single ad- new to history, and that Justifies the have developed. ininistrative Secretary et Defense, it plea of air leaders for an autonomous The Secretary of-the Navy, the Honor- places a War Council, the .Join i Chiefs of ', air force. The use of air power that is able James Forrestal, and the Secretary Staff, the Munitions Board, a Research q unique is the strategic use, in which air of War, the Honorable Robert 12:: Patter- and Development 13oard,ah1aa ' power operates alone, without ground son, in indicating their joint endorse- jelligence Agency, ando .7E-euelii dez. ... or naval support, and beyond these areas ment of the proposed legislation, sub- liarTment3- in ef!e National Defense ' f .. - ? - -e ogr a hu Twentieth Air Force burned Tokyo and when passed by Congress. The proposed available supply of military manpowert . In which ground or sea forces can oper- mitted to the President a mutually Establishment. ate. . agreed draft of an executive order to be Such an act as this under consid When our Eighth Air Force bombed issued concurrently with' executive ap- tion will result in a definite. well thou Berlin from bases in England, when our proval of the proposed legislation, if and out procedure for the allocation o dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and executive order defines affirmatively the and military material. It will produce Nagasaki from- planes based in the dis- intention of our military leaders to con- economy, in that it will eliminate dupli- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 _9586 Approved *For ReleetiA?Vggyog*flitttanc__Rlyt9M2_0003-2 cation of facilities: And it will estab- lish an intelligent policy with respect to our diminishing reserves of raw materi- als of all kinds.' Such' en act abolishes nothing in our ,Military establishment, because the pur- pose of the act is not a negative one, but a positive one. It guarantees the con- tinuation Of the Navy, and Of naval avia- tion, drkd of the Marine Corps. ' It pre- serves the historic services, including the- ? lJnited States Coast Guard, with all the healthy rivalry that creates-the "esprit de corps" that is the life of any service. ? In one sense the proposed act does riot so much create an air force as to. estab- lish by congressional act the air force. ? _ that already. exists?thanks to a patch- work of previous congressional action, Executive Order, and War. Department - Circulars.' ally,: the proposed: act rieognizes? Principle of management tratral havp. a compromise, somebody always - The arinr Air Femur emendated saal.0 ? analyzed in what way they are presented to the committees and to the House. I remember that some 20 years ago a merger bill was passed in the Senate but defeated in the House. , Last year a merger bill was introduced but not- brought to action in the House. What is the difference, Mr. Chairman, between a merger bill and a unification bill? The dictionary says that to merge is to unite, and to unite is to mergei ? Why has the Navy changed its mind? Mr. Chairman, last year the Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Forrestal, was against the merger bill. Admiral Nimitz was also against the merger bill. I recollect. Why this change of mind and thought ? There was a conference?F do not re- member the exact date?and the Army, the Navy, and the State Department got together. There-was a compromise, and- we know that in the House when you JULY 19 Other reliable reports carrel assurances that Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal would .be elevated to Secretary of National Security the powerful new podia= which would give him control not only of the armed farces but of all the other war-making agen- cies' and potentials of the country. Unification of the Army and Navy and a new Department .)f the Mr 1.5k,rce are now accepted as Wagons onackordene by the end , of this month. and It was reporael that the shuffling of key pemonnel was about mm- plate. _ W. Stuart Symington. the Assistant Sec- , retary of War for Air, was mare to be slated to head the Department of the Air Force. Thus be would hive a statue equal, to the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of the Navy, se those posts are cesignated in. the unification hil.1 recently peered by. ?the Senate. John L. Sullivaa? the Under Secretary of the Navy, Is slated to- succeed Mr. Porreistal. and it was said that Kennel& C- nano, the , Under Secretary f 'ann. erotsid` Maya into Mr. Patterson's position. t-,NtNatintial,inthe,:operationi of any, losnat- thisi instance was, the brew inaepiinuent leolt eqiilealeat_'as ?44"dern'utialuvim.10 ,Skz- It was thie:NaVi'' that:stir" end Nen* leellta ran2.411e.411/..'- .WayrWPSYY Wqrld -there la nO /AMOV'''/-not The Nan' wined nothing.nothing.:tr 155peaAirterercenmia:ning laderathei ness of greater importince to, the.ivelrbe op. - ren?eyed foraTaerr,efernet.iinitut-0 ttabergy =game* mazaintionterieweethat Neenavyturdoe tri:2iosrwanthlittasstodaunificar mantylonht the biu-. . wee. 'said that other makdatet besides' will b attune enewebt el/ersatz. cui ? --T o the Navy, it lathe-same bill that was Mr* 'etre."' 'bed bee" reeeleeseilded tb national' security, and:, tn" nreserve d called the' merger bin last year to nesideat Trumane Il the -:. director f113"1i 11.111143tei''' Chang-.unified defense estabIlsbazent Tao of theme - , ing the name does not the nature were Dr. Vannever Bush the ogles Reicare et the ; Is tar iflor.igul'i'maearrizatTORT.nwehtf9n2ch'Iwellecfno:harir:- : Let us go back into the '1*let hiet017 otr, ment.ena naltilee werdMator tha that the-National Security Act of 1%7 INIT Country and, the glorious battles that -?trr's seientigt effartg? Including. devek9- leant of the. atomic boritto ann. NeUresereta--' has been proposed proposed has won., - never lays lost. . . our Navy It hig r rd In S Let thepnet, be It never surrendered..,-We do not want b 1 ela "aerie Weeeer?eTni ot as Yerk' mall 11 h' egaR qoa.rters far hie the wipe of The Cenetnetaen, and all means IegIvuIlaw we as wzsw& to10Se .6 battle 'ever.-; The House statesmanlike queittlee wed "r-?-bfis Wiens. Which.,,,aree appropriate, which are plainly knows as well as I u- ma do that rw nation that interest le netleeati-deder-so ode- aeapteci:,.to: that and,;? which are not paw_ - has a defense plan: such as is beforena Neweltheatee them wee a mdintelaer- that ..hibited, but Consistent with the letter and in this bill or a. sintner mode of pro- lir-Pertain" tutanlad to reshro dais Yeers spirit ofthe Constitutiort, are constitutional. cedure has ever Vain. a war, and the ' tenure during widen he t'al: served " (mcculiaers y. Iwarviand _Wheat. Sla, L, United States has never lost a war. The Assistant Secretary, Under Secretary, and ed. 519).)??" - ' Secretary of lase Nary. '1716, INN accepted Navy has always been our pride. It is one as additional evidence that ha was the lead- In United Statis v: Stephens (245 Fed. ? great asset we have today. No other ing candidate far the nigh country has a great navy. Russia 'has NAVY CEICLZ5 SACK CrI13! a great army?millions of men. Russia ? The appointmeht of Ift. Forestal is espe- has no navy. Our Navy must not be Many desired by those who stilt harbor fears weakened as it. will be under this Uhl- TIME the Navy mint be reineaLed to a sub- _ ficatfon. In all its glorious history our ? ordinate statue- in the radical reorganization Navy has never surrendered. In this or the defense system. Mr. Forrestal resolutely Doomed unifica- bill our Navy has surrendered. Last Wednesday the New York Times Anthony tl?11 legislatima which the AreY Veneered Leviere wrote that reliable reports state ? imaseta_syeare wanhdi which critics cienounced as a ch -that Secretary of War Patterson will re- dominant inffuenw.-(?3e. billuld give ewouli would have ? and Mr. Kenneth Royal' will be provided for a sirgie-Chief of Staff ckler an made Secretary of War under the new three of the armed forces, and one Secretary. bill. Mr. Forrestal, he prophesies, will be Mr_ Porrestal and other high Navy officials made Secretary of National Security agreed to the new comprotalee uniacation and Mr. Stuart Symington would be, measure as one tuat would whieee 000ttli- made the head of the Department' of Air '? in the hgber oohlcv and matter/ levels without destroying the Linainistrative 956; affirmed in 247 U. S. 504, 62 L. ed. 1236,38? S. Ct. 579), the court said: The power of Congress to raise armies, like the power to declare war, Is unconditional, unqualified and absolute; and Congress is the exclusive judge of the necessity for the exercise of the power and of the powers and of the Mearis and manner prescribed by it ? for its Macias. ? Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, I yield 5 minutes to the gentlewoman from Massachusetts (Mrs, ROGERS]. (Mrs. ROGERS of gassachusetts asked and was.- given permission to revise and extend her remarks.) ? Mrs. ROGERS. of Massachusetts. Mr. Chairman, we have before us a bill to ? promote the national security of the United States. We all wonder today whether this bill will promote the se- curity of the United States. I have carefully listened to the debate today. I have followed the debate somewhat in the Senate, as well as in the committees of both bodies, but, Mr. Chairman, unless the bill is changed, I cannot vote for it. I speak as one, Mr. Chairman, who has been in Washington -since 1913. I have followed legislation for national defense during all those years, mid after coming to Congress in 1925, Mr. Chairman, I have voted for every measure that I - thought would promote national defense. All during that time, Mr. Chairman, I ? have always analyzed why measures are brought to the House. I have always slated that the unification be passed. Today comes the announcement of Mr. Patterson's resignation as Secretary of War and Mr. Royall's appointment to that position?apparently, the first step iiv the proposed unification set-up. The article in the New York Times is as follows: PATTERSON REPORTED QUITTING, FORRESTAL Due To RULZ ARLTS?WAR CHIEE Is SLATED To ' Go AFTER UNIFYING Or FORCES?Navy HEAD'S APP0TITTMETIT AS SEMITE./ SECRETARY PRE-, =TEO (By Anthony Leviero) WASHINGTON, July lb.?Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson was reported today to have submitted his. resignation to President Truman. to become effective as soon as pos- sible after unification of the armed forces becomes a fact. and operating autonomy or the Army, Navy, and Air Forces. It was reported that Serretery Patterson, ? still called "judge- by his friends, eventually would receive one of the higher positions in the Federal judiciary, perhaps on the bench . of the United Strres Supreare ,aourt when a vacancy OCCUTIL PATTI/MON POINTS H RIST A Republican a ppolamtdd ant' promoted in 'the Federal judiciary by the 'ate President Roosevelt. Mr. Patterson liele an eminent - position on the bench of -.he Federal Circuit Court of Appeals .n New Tara City. He was called from that position '7 years ago by - Henry L. Stirnson. former Secretary of War, . to become Assistant Secretare If War. When the changes become effective the new Secretary of War would hew to Ell the position of Assistant SetTetiT7 if War, which will be vacated by HoWard C Petersen on Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : C1A-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 Approved For ReeeNG2RI:s?;k:,ir gesTITA-R 1 o , k(iltEs4C111'0(1th$61)020003-2 9587 July 31. ?,,Mr. Petersen, who has supervised the success of its operation pointed out defense establishment. It is true the in- Army occupation policy in enemy _countries, clearly that a central command is much itial installation of this, system will 1n announced his resignation yesterday, setting better than diversified and independent valve some expenchtures. According to , in motion the - changes which will occur control. computations I have made, the annual when the unification bill, reported out today The bill before Us calls for the uni- additional salaries will roughly amount - by the House Esperiditures Committee, be- itcati ? ?? on of our armed services under one to a figure below a million dollars. It omee law.' - - ? _ _;-? " '? - ? ' ' - - Cabinet officer who will be known as the would be impossible to say exaell because ?-__ ? Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman. / Secretary of Defenses He will have as- there will be variation in organization Yield 10 minutes to the gentleman from sistante in charge of air, sea, and land which will determine that. Let us say MiS.S131111 (Mr- 'Ketaeram3. - ' - 'forces. The most revolutionary step In that housing will cost an additional mu-.. ? Mr." KARSTEN of. Missouri* -' this proposal, and perhaps the most con- lion dollars. Roughly, this would in- Chairman, the question of unification of troversial, is the establishment of an Air crease our military budget by s2.000,000 the Army and Navy is not new. Various -Force as a Division in our Military Es- for the first year of operation, _ e merger and unification bills have been tablishrnent ton an equal footing with the ' . The military budget for the current - before the Congress for many years and two other branches, the Army and Navy. year is approximetely sicotao,000mo. the subject has been studied from time Modern warfare takes place in three Two million dollars is two one-hun- . . ? to time. Since the conclusion of World . elements, the land, the sea, and the air. dredths of 1 percent of that budget. If e, ' War If, the matter has received most se- 'Air is an element just as much as the we can save 1 percent on the over-all rious ?consideration by several of . the . sea or the land. ... ....... , ,?, ..,. . budget. and I believe the legislation will_ committees of Congress.. Before the development of air power - accomplish much more than that, we? '? Perhaps many may have -.wondered we had an Army for land operations and will save about $100,000,000 which)* fifty why a bill of this nature was cquaidered a Navy for sea operations. Each organ-* .times the inpal cost. by the Committee on Expenditures in the ization operated in its respective ele- Economies can be erected in any.Isl -Executive ttepartMenta rather than the ment. Each became specialists of mill- ways. _We cair begin with the, auminae , ? Co tee_ oreArmed-Forces. Under the A tory science as applied to that element. - tion ofeewaste and the duplication Le ve Reergenization Act the sPie,-, 1. I believe raost of us Will concede that.. -.Junction", which exist al through. cific jurisdiction. of,: the' Expenditures' es. '....43 airplane itself is a ?weapon. So? 15service. 'Great economy cants breught Committee includes matters relating to '. a battleship:* But each operates in die.. . about through uniformity iet equipmente., reorganisations in the executive branch /went elements. In the development-of Savings can be brought about-in pro-, of the Government and the committee _ our. Navy, it certainly cannot be con- . curement, maintenance, snP1317- and 013--- has ' thee"finther ' duty, 7 among other - , tended that we built that branch of the , erations. Further and perhaper more* . things, trt study the operation of Govern- service around it weapon. The same IS...., Important, subste ntial economie* ' can'eee Malt activities at all levels with a view '.- true of the Air Force. " _ - ?'. _ be effected by assuring that expenditures -- to determining -economy and efficiency.- ? , The establislunent of an Air Force 181 , ,of funds are for Ise most modern ?ande For over 12 years I have been woo- ," 'simply the recognition that? military :effective types of equipment and by the elated with the Committee on Expendi- operations in modern warfare operate :- tures inethe Executive Departments. In in three elements instead of two. It also financing of each branch of the stervicei-M according to its value as an offensive ore' , . the many hearings and studies that have recognizes that the branches of the serv- defensive agency. - , been conducted by this - committee ice operating in these elements should Many will say that it is riot economy' ..?_,I?, through' the yeare, few measures have be specialists of the 'highest order. we are looking for but that it's national -Ali:, been so, thoroughly, discussed and de- It has been contended that this is not - security. That, / agree. is the primary bated as the legislation we are now con- ?a imincation bill because it provides for sidering. In preparing this bill we have three fighting units to operate within the consideration but we can certify have an. e_ effective and efficient military argent- had the benefit of hearings held by van- three elements. No legislation we might zation without naturally bringing about ; - ? ous other committees and also the ad- write can dissplve the functions of these vantage of studying the bills that have three groups into one. Our objective in economies. Economy is an incidental objective but is one that we should not heretofore been presented. this legislation is to tie together the corn- Our hearings brought out three great ponent units of our land, sea, and air overlook ? ri Military lessons we learned from the re- forces into an efficient fighting combine- In support of 'this bill there has been cent ware r tion under the direction of a single co- an imposing array Of GovernMent offi- First. No offensive operation, land, see, ordinating head. - ' - dais and organisations, including the or air, can- be effectively and efficiently Arguments have been advanced that President, the Secretary of State. the - ? ' first neutralizing or Secretary of War, the Secretary of the . carried out without the Secretary of Defense will have more destroying the air operations of the power than has ever been given to an Navy, the Assistant ano tinder Secre- taries of War and Navy,. the Chief of e: enemy. - Second. There must be unity of cone- elected individual. Staff of the Army, the Chief of Naval mend.At the present time, we, have 10 ex- Operations, the Commanding Genera/ ' Third. Modern warfare moves at ire- ecutive departments, each headed by a of the Army Air Forces. the Compton mendously high speeds. It is not static. Cabinet officer. Our Military and Naval Commission, ? the Mrs:Leg-lc Bombing , ?Establishments -have two Cabinet of- Survey, and the Joint Chefs of Staff In dealing with these conditions it is . to have a military or- Beers. To my mind, it would be just as special -committee to study this prob- to our advantage ganization of the greatest possible flex- logical to have two Secretaries repre- lem. ibility. Our present two-department senting the Interior Department or the -The bill before us is a good one. While system did not lend itself to the off en- Agriculture Department in the Presi- it is perhaps not the 'est werd, / lion- sive and defensive operations of the re- dent's Cabinet. It takes no immigration estly feel it will give us the greatest pos- cent war without substantial changes. to realize the confusion that would cause. sible offensive and delensIve military One of the first things we found out was The President is the Commander in power per dollar spent. It -s a definite that in the execution of our military Chief of our armed forces. The defense step in the right direction and I hope it strategy the success of a campaign can of our country is only one of the many of will be passed without waalt ening alters- best be accomplished where our forces his duties. The duty of the Secretary of tions. are grouped under one commander who Defense will be to take over some' of the Mr. HOFFMA.N. Mr, Chairman. r has the responsibility for that particu- President's work and give him more time ? yield 5 _minutes _to the genttemius from lar operation. At the Outset of the war, to spend on other obligations. The ennsytvarua Linn Ceovei. we had two independent organizations. Power and duties of the Secretary of De- As the war progressed we became in- tense are clearly defined in the bill. Mr. GROSS. Mr. Chairman, I make He creasingly aware of the necessity of corn- will be primarily responsible to the Presi- the point of order that a ottorm:0 is not bining the operations of both branches dent, the same as any other member of present. - - to make an efficient fighting team. This the Cabinet. - The CHAIRMAN it'll% lieex). -The was done by a system of Army and Navy It is my opinion that this bill will re- Chair will count. coordinating committees. This " struc- suit in substantial savings and bring Mr. GROSS. Mr. Chairman, I with- ture, at best, was a makeshift one but about efficiency in the operation of our draw the point of order. Approved-For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9588 Approved For Relettsranggp8At-PREW29_01g8M020003-2 'The CHAIRMAN. The gentleman I hope that the Members of the House problems in a way that will not be as from Pennsylvania [Mr. Crum] is sec- will consider this bill carefully and ob- . wasteful as during World War n dee& ognized for 5 minutes serve -the advantages that will be derived e have always felt that national de-?: Mr. CROW. Mr. Chairman,! wish to from the same. I urge the Members to fense should be handled under a single go on record in favor of the unification support this bill. 4. head. Ai far. as I ORR determine. the 7 a of the armed forces bill, H. R. 4214 as Mr. KEARNEY. Mr. Chairman, will fear that has beer. expressed 'are today reported out of the Committee on Ex- the gentleman yield? by some that this measure will, destroy , penditures In the Executive Depart- a Mr. CROW. I gladly yield to the gene or will to some extent destrey certain , menta ? / have had an opportunity to tleman from New York. _ - of our heretofore considered arras of our ,1 read over the Senate bill 7511 which pro- a Mr. KEARNEY. I call the gentle= national defense f?s without foundation. a vides for the same unification and I be- man's attention to section 203, the De- I have no such fears. It is a complicated lieve that the committee of the House .. partment of the Navy, subparagraph (c) organization and one that it is impassible-.. has prepared a better bill and we of the- pertaining to the United etates Marine for any committee to write the details of House should pass House bill 4214. ? Corps. I was not a marine and I think so far as all of its ft:metiers are con- I served in the Army during the last .I can ask this question in all fairness cerned.- s - _ war and had the opportunity to observe to that great organization: Is there any- s My personal Opinion is that this come the need for...such legislation by being thing in this bill that could eventually"' rnittee has rendered a very fine service to s overseas early in the war and seeing with allow the Secretary for Defense to re-: the country in trying to plate together, my own eyes the lack of cooperation- be- duce the Marine Corps to a skeleton or and unify our armed services. The een the services. / arrived in the ,? token force, a regiment or battalion, re- (a,,, e in . -tag Pacific area on March 14, 1942, about 3 gardless of the fact that under the law e -ii : .t- I 1 -? months after Pearl Harboriond I served; the Marine Corps has a permanant, four- - ? ( ( avy ? unitsMid ( - s that area Until the con .a,n. of the , star general? - ? a - a. - se ' e ?provision in the KU, section 201as/tat ter ",Admire& Minna ? was assigned to a Mr,. CROW. Personally, I do not see , the one part, holialr-eninhin; I tgil""nir ,.___ ,incomniand 04 the-Navy and ...is-, anything in thle'legbdationathat would do more &essay and-stoer tiv 1.0eneraltratilehardsetW-laeas ` assigned In authorize that a What may happen In, _ sary waste that went en aster W tommandeot2the Amite The Navy bad the future I think none of us can-abso- a War II. The grayish:mg or tratanessure? ourntara_and the AMY only three stars- . autely tell. - I believe the general law . -setting tip a (*Perste Air- Mans' Is; lair; sad thee-40m the Navy was In command ss protects the existence of the Marines , my opinion, long. overdne ant! belberesess ' thee OpestatimassitC, the Pacific arestaas In .the future. _ - ' - a, ,-....",v1,,'-,- ,- ,.7 : ithiS to be a wise decbdon.a T. 'VIM gen4-1. There yaw a great amount of Jealousy of _ -' _' The CliAllellalfa- The time of the eralat agreed now that say-power-Is our-7f_, coiamand in st,,he Pacific and the same . gentleinan from Pennsylvania has ex- - Orst line of defense. In whtek y csmicur e-- ill eoutinws to exist =leas_ eg1sIationpired. a ? ...,i , s, a-, - a . _sisa,,,,e . -as fittina. tha- lee fureSF this type is adopted s a.-- I as - - ?.4 ?-_ ---;,?','-. --Mrs 'MAN' ASCO,- -Mr. - -Mailman, I recognize this he setting , . , Mr .chainnang, althOngilk was not yield 5 minutes to the gentleman from - Aie Department. . presentart the Peelle, at the time of Pearl a North Carolina tysee. ntrpaljadi, ? ''' ' :. (mr. DURHAM silted and was :Harbor, I am sure that if we had been or- , ma Derw,Ham. , ma Chairman../ -rise 'permission to revise, and extend his ganized as set out in the unification bill particularly at this time to pay tribute - marks.) - ' :the lasses at Pearl Harbor would not have? to a man who I believe had as _much to ea- mr. .110PPALAN. ' been so great. From .information re- do wit,h winning this' war as: any' one yield 5 minutes to the gentlemen., I.,r ceivecl rieaViled that the Navy and Army individual In America. - On yesterday we Massachusetts Illir. BAT= I. t?-_,-r, .t. - -: 'commanders were not working together received notice through the press that he - ler. RATES of MASsaellUEetta, --Mr- - alid information available to one was not was leaving his post and going brick into Chairman, in the closing niOnif Ada of this - conveyed to the other branch. The Army civilian life. discussion of whet I consider to be one at the time was working under an alert For 72, years I had the pleasure of that was only to take precautions against working with Judge Patterson as we met of the most important pieces at legislie-- ? sabotage ' and they were guarding their him in the Committee on Military Al- tion that has come before the Congress vital installations. The fault of the fairs. I have never in my life known over a period of years, 1 wale to express - error has riot been definitely placed but any than who took his job more seriously, my opinion as to some testures of the - I am sure that had we had a joint staff a man who devoted himself so entirely bill in light of the many years experience . , uted so that a proper defense could have ..... a In command of the Pacc area, as is pro- to what he believed to be the defense I have had on the Naval Affairs Com-. ? vided for in this legislation, the informa- mittee of the Hoike and from ray general of his country. s observation of t,hings in respect to the- tion would have. been properly A4 4. He has my best wishes, and I believe operation of tbe -srmed forces. , a'. the best wishes of the whole committee. been made. - The questions of the merger of our I do not see any place in this legislation He will be long remembered by the men who struggled with him in the .days that armed forces is not a new ons so far- as - that would cause anyone to fear that Congress is conceeled. About 15 years t The manht. o assume the Navy Department will be delegated were not so brigago the Congress had a bill before la . his duties, Hon. Kenneth Royale north- to a place of unimportance or will in any the objective of which was to unify both ' nation has been sent to the Senate, a man way lose their identity ns the United the Arent and tte Navy int.:), a single m all y e s equally States Navy. f also believe that the whom I have known life i operating force. It is interest tag to oh- - marines are properly and adequately pro- as well-qualified and capable of carrying out the responeibilities placed on him. serve, as a prelude of what I am going to ? vided for so that they cannot be taken, say; whErt the attitude of General Mac- over by the Army or eliminated as a part Mr. Chairman, in regard to the pending Arthur was at that time art his cons- _ ? of the Navy as some people seem to fear. legislation I have felt since the last ments on - the then pending legislation Mr. Chairman, I know from expert- World War that some plan should be for merging both tee Army and the Navy. enee that the unified command was of evolved ahat would unify the forces and utmost importance in the winning of the make for a more efecient national de- Gen. Douglas MacArthur expressed his - last Great War and I am sure that the Pease. The idea started in the commit- opinion on the measure then under con- unified command will work just as well tee during the recent war by a group that sideration by the Congress in the follow- during peacetime as it did during the was interested in unifying the armed Ing clear, unmistekable, end emphatic war. I am not sure that any savings will forces. terms: . be made by the unification of the armed We had the experience of traveling. No other measure proposed in reeenrt years - forces, during peacetime?in fact it may throughout the country to the various seems to me to be fraught with toch pot,en- cost a little more?but the savings that installations and we also had the expe- tial possibnities of disaster fee, the United States as is this one will be occasioned by the reorganization rience of seeing these thrown togetherat Not only the military history al this come- being set up in case of another war will a time when we were faced with danger. try but of every country gives indisputable more than offset the added expense at We were fully aware of the expense and proof of the advan.ages of ai,,intainIng in this time. We are more interested in a unnecessary waste that came about. It time of war the int .Tral control of the two ' strong national defense than we are of is therefore proper for this Congress to great branches of national d4ense?the saving a few dollars at this time, begin thinking about trying to solve those Army and the Navy. Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 _ Approved For CiaaPAgt5ifiggi4Telag109164:16WAT3TCM00020003-2 I know of no responsible soldier or sailor the elimination of the Naval Air Corps arid business organ17ation in the coun- an the whole gamut of history who has advn- from the Navy would be an unwise thing, try. The General Staff is merely a 9589 cated such a plan as is now proposed. ' and I believe the elimination of the Air helper to the Chief of Staff and the Sec- * * * ? such an amalgamation as pro- . Corps from the ground forces of the Army retary of War. posed would endanger victory ,f or the United under the provisions of this bill will be . What is so ominous about that? What - ,'The super-Cabinet officer at its head could - an unwise thing from the standpoint of less should a military staff be required : States in case of war. not fail to be acquisitor of one of the largest the security of this Nation and the ef-; to do for its country than plan for its . fectiveness of our war effort. protection? , ? : The Army?and I mean -by that the - - Now, I am sure that every member of air forces and the groulid forces?should the Armed Services Committee and the be under one command the same as are House itself will join me in my . desire represent: one of the greatest debauches of , the activities in the Navy, namely, sur-- ' to protect our,: form of government. . I - face ships, air forces, .. and submarines, . thing this bill protects our firm of gov- extravagance that any nation has ever known. Perience otthe world. , . ', ? . all of theta being under one directing ernment both from within and withotat. , This bin: 'would run counter to the ex- .. i ' - ' . head. Then you will have real unity of It retains civilian control over the Mill- The pending bill provides, however, command; then you will have an effec- tary and thus preserves a traditional . that a separate army and navy be main- tive fighting organization, with all of principle of this country while at the . tallied,: and Provides also - for a new,. -. their aetieities coordinated, under . one e, same time it strengthens few military. ee :Department-ref, the Air .Force. : It. also::. director . or command; The trouble in , posture toward the rest of the world. .".., .- : provides for the continuance of naval air, ? the -past, I feel, is due In a large measure A brief review of the deve-beanent of. ,and :and the Marine Corps as they are pres:;- . to the lack of proper recognition to the our War. Departmert General staff. is . ' ently *constituted. ? The objective, hove- .. importance of the Air Corps of the Army, highly pertinent at this time -,--..*.er, that was: originally back of the bin but I feel that by placing men in'. con- ? The general steff was formed ender the .was to Provide-for the merger as set in'eret#' ,-. teol with an aviation background. much: -, impetus of Secretary of War Ellin Root ; *the bill years-ago. reeeeeete'e' , ,_.._ ..,:e.-,___?:.:,,-,1,.,,e.e., of-thia. fraction of the past will he elimie '-'ehY act of Congress in 1902.-- It wea formed: ,Now;?: Ber..,*"hairmanatheknravielene...: ex-e-44 natedre The Navy . recognized thle4(.elire'. i;:e:beeeuee". Prier taltigt time, them` Is. bin 'arktifar: from, being' what tam:. -..., :mime and as :a -result officers: with naval, ..'-:: agency e- in' out Army. to being:, Ix Were intended to be whenei-- -:-.5'-iie, --.--?,-. . General Zisenh.-bwer, Chief of Staff....,..-?,2?. in the name Of his superjor,. the Em..."-.*. . Neither the Marine 'corps nor. navel ' . United States Array, also write: . .,4 peror?datafrom,Whitten's Von Moltke: aviation, was adequately protected -in ' 1. That the isert-te Carps is. maintained a biographai.;-, .,,- . , _ v?...,,;..,,,t-,,'?4-4. . ....,,,,:-.1,4-?, either 8..758 or in H. It 2319.- - - - - , , .. solely as an adjunct of the fleet, and, par- Congress-. hag . Eleven' previously per...7: - - Provisions which / think were -11eces.. ticipates only in Mi3Or shore combat opera- initted the fact that a "staff in itself.. sari and which may be adequate to pro- ? ti?P9 in Will& tb,_ ii, .11137 alone h hrteregted'' -' - . ' test the integrity of the marines, of naval ', ? .. - . -, '? ? ' ? . - 3. That it be agreed that ttke Navy wilt-. has no command authority" to deter it ? from prescribing the most definitive re- ' ? strictions, ma the Was Department Gen-, ' eral Staff. The Defense Act or 1918 placed definite restrictions on the War ? Department General Staff, restrictions - designed to keep that staff from accumu- ? lating increasing authority even within the War Department. Congress was even more insistent in controlling the ambitions a the War ? Department General Staff, and specified ? detailed General Staff restrictions in the National Defense Act of 1920. Thus, this Congress in authorizing a National General Staff is giving such a staff a completely free hand at the highest national military level, whereas It has been the historic sense of Con- gress to impose most specific restrictions on General Staff influence within even the relatively restricted sphere of the. War Department. The mere fact that the military resists ? congressional efforts to put- restrictive provisions on the Joint Staff is prima ? facie evidence of the fact that those who sought an outright authorization of a National General Staff in last year's unification bill fully intend to use the Joint Staff in this year's bill as a metins of attaining their nefarious objective. Congress should consider well the in- herent dangers of the section of the bill pertaining to the Joint Staff before giv- ing it the effect of law. If the section as written is passed it will mark the vic- tory of General Strff influences over Congress, which for 44 years has fought to restrain such influences within our Government. aviation, have been written, first, Into H. R. 3979 introduced by me, and later into H. R. 4214, which is now before the House. ? - . The representatives of the Joint Staff have insisted from the very beginning until the last day this bill was under consideration that there should not be written into it the roles and functions of the component parts of our armed forces. Their very evident and apparent desire is to retain in their own hands supreme power. TUNCTIONS OW THE ARMED SERVICES The matter of legislative delineation of the roles and functions of the armed services is one of the chief issues in the unification controversy. If the basic functions of all services were clearly defined, the apprehensions a the Navy for its air component and the apprehensions of the Marine Corps for its effectiveness would disappear? and with them much ,of the present .dlsagreement. -- The War Department is urgently de- sirous of excluding the roles and missions of the armed services from law, since such an omission will permit the gradual reorientation of our military power in the direction of the ground arm. Every bill that the War Department has had a part in framing has avoided mention of roles and functions, and War Depart- ment spokesmen have fought against statutory enactment. When closely examined, War Depart- ment witnesses admit the unquestion- able right of Congress to establish the basic functions of any agency it creates, not develop a land army or asiO called am- phibious army; marine unite' to be limited In size to the equivalent of tim regiment, and the total aim of the Marine Corps there- - fore limited to some 50,000 or 60,300 men. In addition to Genera', Eisenhower, - others expressed their willingness to see the basic functicns written into law. Why, then, was a melt:lung-fel section on the subject not includen in S. 7587 There are two reasons: First. The War DePartnr-nt didn't want it. Second. It was part of the agreement not to have it. The question may well be raised, if Sec- retary Forrestal, Admir,.I N filitZ, and General Vandagr ft have al', declared that S. 758 provides adequate protection for the Marine Corps, what I uther ob- jection could there be? Is. answer to this it must first be recalift that the principals in this controversy have been under continuing, and Linde' standable, pressure to reach a compromise. Second, and most sign Meant, it must be realized that no individual primarily Involved has been a free wren as to tes- timony, the Cabinet officers oecause of their administration affiliation and the military personnel because of the official gag, which, most significentl.?, was not raised until June 23, after all chance qf effective testimony was past. H. R. 4214 is a superior bill in S. 758 In that it prescribes the genera functions of the armed servtces. It does not legis- late tactics, and its provsions ar ? ciently broad so as not to freere progress. But at the same time it: is sufficiently Approved For Release 2003/04/02 :.CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2- ""*" Approved For Release 2003./Q4/A?T.A1Aff8b0110,Q61MINg0020003-2 9599 1947 CONGRESSi WV .tt IA .1..,'""' definite to prevent the recurrence of such and using the methods advocated by the visors, duties only and concerred eLth broad unfortunate interservice disputes as that leaders of our armed forces, this Nation preparedness policy. The Munitions Board, ,. which raged over the Marine Corps and has successfully defended itself. hOWeVer, 13 placed wholly within the Depart- naval aviation for over 2 years. . The last two world wars have demon- merit of National Defense ana sealed with top officials of the three reinter/ depart- But, while the representative of the strated beyond any argument that our ' Joint Staff, General Norstad, appearing fighting forces are superior, when backed fmuenuctnBo. Thi ns whichBoard Is given Bconld manacthtit a elkilacontrol as late as Thursday afternoon before by ow production methods, to that of and direction of the cerillan setstuiny by the members of ,the subcommittee, insisted any one or all other armed forces now military in case of wsr: to determine prior- that the -Congress should not write.into ' or heretofore in existence.- ities. to supervise subordinate agendas. and - the act provisions which some members ' - - Other nations have followed their mill- to "make recoraratadations te regreup. cora-, " - of the committee believed were neces- tory leaders in their unification and can- - bine, or operatingcilssolve existing intersen les sgen- -? saryif the integrity of naval aviation and - tralization schemes, giving power to mill- cies in the Beide of. procurement. production the Marine Corps was to be protected. . tary leaders. Hitler. 3. The wording tried it. Mussolini , and,distribution.' g of the act not only permita: ' when confronted by the provisions of the tried it and Stalin has used it.' Yet, but actually encourages, interiociang three- Constitution, it was admitted that the every time it has failed when confronted _. torates as regards the Muniticns Board, the Congress had the unquestioned right to and put to the test by the so-called Resources Board, and a third tbe Resources .? write legislationsuchae that embodied ' , wasteful,. inefficient "-methods of- the and Development Beard. Representatives, I" H. R, 4214. ' ? ' " , - '''' -:' ' -"7-1't)'Y'''United States of America. ' ' '.. '--' - ' and perhaps the same representatives, a . .---..., In all. humility, it Is respectfully sub- Unification, centralization,' -in' - the the min " three. tarv departinents could 'do:nilndie all. Mitted that IL R. 4214 WM more ade-- - handa ,of the military authorities. has ' 4. The act permits in fact euggeets, that , . quately proteet and make efScient the been , one of. the-major -causes of, the the Director of the Central tetenigence med forces...of. the, Nation than_4wilk- downfall of every nation,. which has Agency serving the state " well 64 the Da- nn or any similar bill - - -.q4ti.r-, -- Udepted it: ? ? ? ? - - ? ? ' " .-4- tense Departments, be an *Seer at one of the. - -At thi..40mt time, knannOt ;againoTilli*, Ittla dIfnuit,:tir unaer`itaud_ivhil;'we? .. -.armed fortes rather than a ,Thrilien". ..-.., Calling tar' the attention of this c .-; iota:ISM-as'ivitlistvbeent,tinder' our.,. somewhat oblique but nonsthaftese. - the provisions ofthe Constitution and the ;TY:constitutional' methods' of fighting and :da langualls' tiat act Periwblateet notatof thediwyaar powersin,cd nit President- fact that legislation of this kind is e",;',.. winning wars. should adopt embrace ` in- right-about-face and andr,e,retreat from the : -and follow the methods of the losers. the laws Whichgest,ahraed t:hreier." It b.anre .i P9ri..4.5.9v,erpm_ent, established tbiere--.. .? ? TAY Vote will be cast for H. R. 4214 over to the Secretary of National DefenseIll, ? 'L ,---f, ,-.-4,..:,-,,,:t:,,,,,,-*:;:.,5,11:beetvuse and miry because some legisia- - the blanket authority which bethertei in, - Our forefathers, burdened bYikccessiVe ; tion on the subject is to .be adopted by Peacetime has-traditimallI related with Cone and oppressive taXati0L.dellrited of their this Congress and. that'. hIll. IS ther_,Iesst.,... ? gt, ;1/,;(10 not impute to generals t,....,1 - ? theand ad , . .,....... , personal and ,:..tueir, ?reuetolis ITheitiet.,:...? . ? .. ?. .?..-..s...,... 7.. ,.'a...,..,}:"., If ,' ..." . ,,,,,,,,,b, eau ract to sit nn, a. masa" dictator- came to this country Arid they herb -es-? , Were e in:rriS Poviii, 'I woad' refuse 517-ap-;-- mili,17 training-Ind prtddosionat. ex- " tablisheti a form of governthent ? tnenlnevi:;,--i ,..... legislate on this subject , at this time; ? perience have simply Clads tkeili pattern this',: to the world:'-4,- - -?'? '''''?V"- -'?"'"it :"-i''.- recommit the bill to the committee. with " legislation by military standards, They established 'ai system of 'Clieekf,i, instructions to its aponsors to lay on the But if history teaches anything at &Wit' and of *lances. ' ' , i ? " -???? - - 2- ' line,some assurance that they are not ' teaches that the military do not uncierstand Z..: They provided that the Congress shotild' seeking regimentation, a dictatership, the .workings of industry nor the needs of civilian. economy. rt teach.* that the dl- provide for for the national defense. .-,.- . - and that their proposals Would` give us ,, nett= a top mitioini pour? ?ova, be whoure ,,; , In the Constitution they sought to int- ' some economs some greater efficiency. ' - free from military domination. plement that defense by providing that Ran= A -- - - What to do about this Security Act of the Congress should establish and main- [From the Christian Science Monitor, Boston, ? 1947? The essential basis of toe merger tam n an army, appropriations for which Mass., of May 28, 1947] compromises between the armee services, were limited to a 2-year period. what bircg Atom THAN, a =Ross sm. Perhaps, should not be disturbed. But the limitatign was undoubtedly written into broader objectives ef the biU need study and public discueelon befere anything be-. ?the Constitution because its au ors The so-called merger bill is turning out ors under close inspection to be something quite comes law. feared military authority, feared a dicta- different--sometliing much broader and more ._.... torship. - far-reaching. To put it differently: There B The Constitution provided that the is another, less obvious side of the bill which. Erne:err Congress should establish and maintain is neither being headinted nor discussed. [From the Christian Science more or, Boston, Mass., f July a navy. N, And it is time the American people are told o 10, /047 Now, because of the fear brought about what this measure really means. 4 THAT Ens-roam IICYCTLISirt-ar by propaganda, the military seeks to, of united direction and better teamwork for This bill does more than draw a blueprint the armed forces has just been passed by the The Gurney bill providing for merger of and apparently will be successful in in- the military and naval services. Of much Senate with but slight amerdrneet. It now ducing the Congress to abdicate its au- deeper significance, it is a piece of basic goes to the House cf Representatives where - - thority, to shirk its responsibility, and to legislation which establishes how and by its counterpart Is :still in cornreietee, together - turn over to the Joint Chiefs of ptaff, whom national pOney and the civilian econo- with an alternative bill intreduced by Repre- to a supermilitery organization imposed my snail be controlled in any prospect of sentative CLARE Z. Hoirracee, o Michigan.% upon our armed forces, the duty of pro- war- The Senate bill is backed Ire the adminis- viding a national defense. We have supported the general provisions tration, and is the one now b,sieg publicly of the merger, particularly coordination of discussed. This bill does not provide for unifica- foreign policy, military policy, and industrial This newspaper approves sae has sup- tion. It adds to the Army and the Navy potential. But because this bill originated ported the general framework an 1 the broad ,provided for in the Constitution a third In the thinking of military men, the power objectives _of the adminigtrat me measure. department?the Air Force. it assigns or permits to the military over We belieee that the conduct of el is country's No one is so dumb as to believe that national policy and civilian affairs is very military and foreign policies and ' lie develop- the Constitution bars the use of any and great?much greater, we think, than the ment and mobilization of its Industrial po- e all methods of defense or offense which American people would knowingly choose. tential and natural rescanees must be co- Here are some of the provisions of the ordinated closely at. the bigbeNt levels. We would add to our national safety. National Security Act which we question in are in agreement that rend and. lesser . Fetv, indeed, are those who be lieve that this regard: strategy' must be plenned aid esecuted with either the Army or the Navy could in ' 1. On the National Security Council, which all the service branehes working as members these days provide national defense with- should not only coordinate but also keep in of one team. We are persuaded that this can out adequate air forces. balance foreign policy, military policy, and be done 'without Ices of the esprit de corps Few, indeed, are those who believe that. national production and resources, the Sec- and the specialized know-how of t acb of these the Air Force alone or any outfit advocat- retary of State and the Chairman of the branches or of constructve riv, lry between ing the efficiency of a push-button war, National Security Resources Board face not them. We are sure that existeag duplica- could carry on without the aid of bOth only the Secretary of National Defense, but tions can be greatly reduced in he interests also the Secretaries of the Army. Navy, and of efficiency and economy the Army and the Navy and all their corn- Air Force. The ratio thus is weighed 4All of these things the Gun ey bill sets ponent parts. to 2 in Visor of the armed forces. 'out to do. With certain exceptions, it is For more than 150 years, under the 2. The National Security Resources Board, so framed, in our opine ,e t V t it should principles prescribed in the Constitution ? an independent agency, is charged with ad- accomplish its purpose. But - nese excep- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9600 Approved For Re ieeelifigalASES2 oomizafflun Loaffevggig0003-2 tions have a momentous bearing on the Ainerican way of life. They have little or nothing to do with the military aspects of the merger. They do not pertain to unitied command, to task-force strategy, or teamwork between the fighting ? These exceptions are provisions in the Gurney bill which would weight the top co- ordination el the armed forces, State De- partment. and industrial potential much too .? heavily with the military view. They would set up a' Central Intelligence Agency, with no restrictions against possible evolution into some sort of 'a suPerPolice kferea within the United States, They would place military chiefs en the highly important War Council to sit as co- equals with their civilian Secretary superiors. They would locate too much of the job of India/trial mobilization wholly within the new tary department; These aie soine examples. Fortunately, Congress has speoifio 'correct= tion right at hand for these dangerous de- fects. It is In the form of certain provisions - of ?the Hoffman bill (11. rt. 8979), which has Wien account of terithnony gitten at-goose. ?comrolttee hearings.41; We. evinioi? go, tbigr. Efossaisan his. weakening of tharBecretary of National` Defense by reeking him a coordinator instead 'a true departments beach Other- than thats.kitt hill appearaispeoincall y, _and ..effees, "tively to oeunteract,themilitary g inherent in the Chaney-hill s We urge that these corrections be written into the Gurney bill and the amended bill enacted... Americans Want true uniilcation of Lill of _their instruments of national defense. -They want also preseryation of that historic equilibrium between- rcivillan and military control. congress hi alert, they can: have. both: ' ' The CHAIRMAN- There being no fur- ther 'requests for time, the Clerk will read. Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, I ask unanimous consent that the bill be con- sidered as read, that it be printed at this point in the RECORD, and be open to amendment at any point. The CHAIRMAN. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Alabama? . There Was no objection. (The bill reads as follows:) Be it enacted, etc., That this act may be cited as the 'National Security Act of 1947." TABLE or CONTENTS Sec. 2. Declaration of policy. TITLE I-COORDINATION FOR NATIONAL szcinarr Sec. 101, National Security Council. Sec. 102. Secretary o/ Defense. Sec. 103. Military assistants to the Secretary. Sec. 104. Civilian personnel. Sec. 105. Central Intelligence Agency. Sec. 106. National Security Resources Board. TITLE n-rna NATIONAL MILITARY ESTABLISHMENT Sec. 201. National Military Establishment. Sec. 202. Department of the Army. Sec. 203. Department of the Navy. Sec. 204. Department of the Air Force. Sec. 205. United States Air Force. Sec. 206. Effective date of transfers. ? Sec. 207. War Council. Sec. 208. Joint Chiefs of Staff. Sec. 209. Joint Staff. Sec. 210. Munitions Board. Sec. 211. Research and Development Board, TITLE IIIMIECELLANEOTIS ? Sec. 301. Compensation of Secretaries. - Sec. 302. Under Secretaries and Assistant Sec- retaries. Sec. 303. Advisory committees- and personnel. JULY, 19 ? Sec. 304. Status of transferred civilian per- to perform such eutiee as may be prescribed Bonne' by the Council in connection with the per- formance of its functions. (d) The Council shall, frees time to time, . make such recommendatier-s. sad such other reports to the President es it deems appro- priate or as the President may require. setsumurr or exesiess See. 805. Saving provisions. - Sec. 306. Transfer of funds. See. 307. Buget estimates. Sec. 308. Authorization for appropriations. Sec. 809. Definitions. Sec. 310. Separability. Sec. 311. Effective date. DECLAIM.= OF POLICY Sac. 102. (a) There shall he Secretary of Defense, who shall be anpointed from civil- Sao. 2. In enacting this legislatiore_it is Ian life by the President, by And with the the intent of Congress to provide a compre- advice and consent & the Senate: Provided, That a person who has held a commission in - a Regular component of the armed services hensive program for the future security of the United States; to 'provide for the estab- lishment of integrated policies and proce- shall not be eligible for appointment as See- dures for the departments, agencies, and rotary of Defense. The Secrernry of Defense ' functions of the Government relating to the shall be the prinepal assistant to the Prod- - national security; to provide three military dent in all mattes relating to the national departments for the operation and adminis- security. Under the direction of the Presi- .- trat.km of the Army, the Navy (including dent and subject_ to the prcarsions of this the naval air force and the United States act he shall perform the following. duties: _ Marine Corps), and the Air Force, with their (1) Establish geestral policies and programs assigned combat and service components; to for the National Military Estehlishinent and _ provide for their authoritative coordination for all of the departments and . agencies ?'1 and unified direction under civilian control therein; , but not to merge them; to provide for the (2) Exercise geaeral direetien, authority, ? 'effeetive strategic direction of the armed and ccmtrol over such, departments and forces and fer their operation under unified agencies: - sss's cqntr?I_and foe ,,,their integration beta ens!, , (3) Take appropriate stemsto Akoinateimee efficient team of land, naval., and air- forces. necessary duplication or overleaping 'Tette- Tran r--Cooannesaeow Not Narrower. fields of Procurement, euPt4f. anaportren, gannarn storage health, and resserchi NATIONAL siscnarrr, (4) SuPerviee and'imardimatil the PrePara- usk .v` lion of the budget Wait:eaten eZ the depute sc. 101. (a) There is hereby. estabillined manta and agencies comprtsing the Natured, a Council to be known as the National Se- _ eenitare Establiehreent; and cupervins the ? cavity Council (hereinafter in this section _ budget program, of- such depertments and referred to as the "Council"). . , -? " - agencies under the applied*. lapropriation - The President of the United States shall act, , s? ?ss preside over meetings of the Council: Pro- provided. That nothing' bere.n. eoutamert-:es vided,-That in his absence he maydesignate ". shall prevent the Secretary' of this Army, the a Ineraber of 'the_ Courril to preside In his secretary of the Navy, or the gepeetery of place. - A the Air Force from presenting talbe The atuiction of the Council shall be to dent or to the Director of the Budget, after advise the President with respect to the in- rhat ? Informing the serrate" ee Demme. -tegration of domestic, foreign, and military any report or recoramenesttli relating- to policies relatinrto the national security ad hm department welch he may deem fleas., sary: And provided further, 'that the De- partment of. the Army, the Department of the Natty, and the Department of the Air Force shall be administered as individual ex- ecutive departments by their respective See- ? retaries and all powers end duties relating to such departments not specifically conferred upon the Secretary of Defense by this act shall be retained by each of their respective Secretaries. (b) The Secretary ,of Defense shall sub- mit annual written reports to she President and the Congress cfovernig erpenditures, work, and accomplshments of the National Military Establishment, tsgetner with such recommendations as he shall deem appro- priate. (0) The Secretary of Defense shall cause a seal of office to be made for the National Mill-.' tary Establishment at such design as the President shall ap trove. and Judicial notice shall be taken therebf. Al/LITARY ASSIST kIPTS TO THE SZCRETARY SEC. 103. Officers of the armed services may be detailed to duty as assistants and person- al aides to the Secretary of Defense, but he shall not establish a military staff. CIVILIAN PERSONNEL SEC. 104. (a) The Secretary of Defense Is authorized to appoint from civilian life not to exceed three special assistants to advise and assist him in the performer ce of his du- ties. Each such special aseistent shall re- ceive compensation at the rate of $10,000 a year. (h) The Secretars of Defense Is authorized, subject to the civil-service laws and the Clas- silicatioia Act of 1923, as amended, to appoint and fix the compensation of such other civil- ian personnel as may be necessary for the performance of the functions of the National Military Establishment. as to enable the military services and the, other departments and agencies of the Gov- eminent to cooperate more effectively lir matters involving the national security. The Council shall be composed of the Pres- ident; the Secretary of State; the Secretary of Defense, appointed under section 102; the Secretary of the Army, referred to In section 202; the Secretary of the Navy; the Secretary of the Air Force, appointed under section 204: and the Chairman of the National Se- onity Resources Board, appointed under section 106. (b) In addition to performing such other functions as the President may direct, for the purpose of more effectively coordinating the policies and functions of the departments and agencies of the Government relating to the national security, it shall, subject to the direction of the President, be the duty of Council- (1) to assess and appraise the objectives, commitments, and risks of the United States in relation to our actual and potential mili- tary power, in the interest of national se- curity, for the purpose of making recom- mendations to the President in connection therewith; and (2) to consider policies on matters of com- mon interest to the departments and agencies of the Government concerned with the na- tional security, and to make recommenda- wtliotnsh to the President in connection there- .? (c) The Council shall have a staff to be headed by a civilian executive secretary who shall be appointed by the President, and who shall receive compensation at the rate of $14,000 a year. The executive secretary, subject to the direction of the Council is hereby authorized, subject to the civil-service laws and theClassification Act of 1923, as amended, to appoint and fix the compensa- tion of such personnel as may be necessary Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For Reed?eGgiri3ggyaisi:2E,LA-IiPc.,9(9L9B6_11:1ffegi0020003-2 1947 CENTRAL LNTELL/GENCE AGENCY ities: Provided, That the Agency shall have transportation of military or civnian sup- Szc. 105. (a) There is hereby established no police, aubpena, law-enforcement power% plies, materials. and products_ under the National Security Council a Can- or Internal-security - functions: Prcrvide. (4) the relationship between potential tral Intelligence _Agency with a Director or further, That the responsibility and author- supplies of. and potential remdrementa for, Central Intelligence, who boll be the head ity of the departments and other agencies 4 manpower, resources. and prettictive facill- the Government to collect, evaluate, corret ties in time of war; thereorn??. The Director shall be appointed _ by the President, by and with the advice and late, and disseminate departmental intellii (5) policies for ertablIshing adequate re- consent of the Senate, from among the cora-serves mf, strategic and critical material. gence shall not be affected by this section; . missioned officers of the armed services or And provided further, That the Director of and for, the conservetion -of MOW' reserves; from among individuals in civilian life. The Central Intelligence shall be responsible for (6) the strategic rtlocatior of ndustries, ..- Director shall receive compensation at -the protecting intelligence sources and methods ? _services, government, and economic activities, rate of a14.000 a year. -.- --r-, rfrom unauthorized discloeure; the continuous operation or wheis is Se- (b) (1) If a commissioned officer of the (4) to perform, for the benefit of the exist-1 sential to the Nation's security. ;armed services is appointed as Director; Ing intelligence agencies, such additional (d) In performing ita functions,. the Board , then? - services of common concern as the National shpll utilize to the maximme extent the (A) in the performance of his duties as Security Council determines can be- more facilities and resources of tire departments , Director, he shall be subject to no supervi_., efficiently accomplished centrally: and agencies of the tiovernirie et. than be - itary or otherwise) .other weuld op duties related to Intelligence affecting the sion, control, restriction, or prohibition (mil- (5) to perform such other functions and T II Tar NATIONAL Mar'hICY 0:mamma- '-' erative with respeotto him if, he were a civil-- 'national security as the National Security th De art- Council may from time to time direct. ' sarreaLignmincrawrOyAstriagrawsmnriTI:stfAL tenzrear ... _ Ian in no way co Merit of the Army, the Department of the. (e) To the extent recommended by the - Navy. the Department of the nit Force, or National- Security Council and approved by . , Swrion 201. (a) There, is nereby lintels-, the armed- services 'or any' component _there- , the. President. such intelligence operations of - . limed the Natioisal Military Stitablishdent,.. r, rev d - -.- - - ,. t,he 'departments and other agencies. of the C and the Secretary, of Defense - riser! be the ' rlEty be - not - or exercise any . as relater to the nationalsecuritya.',,, head thereof . . . 4,.; OuPeqi-.0*- -,00ntrot.,,, powers., ox functions - - shall be open - to the inspection or the Di. ",---,,. _ (lit The National lifllitary Ilatablieheasn l(othee,,, , inCheresrlierpetelessesoe'le-M14 red, _int 'Of centra4t,..,Intelliftenese_ And- ,suchil_. shall conalst of theramertmentor the - , to,. eaerciee., se-E.Ri-reotar),' I ,, intelligence misdates to the national seeurity;r7.-tna Department . ag- me- Nave_ ande,teler orisiid, pertinent of the Air Flame. toroth ed- with ith,resneti, to , the -armed services or. any' ''' and is Possessed h./ such departments-and ', --- . , the Department t of the -- other Agencies shall be made- available, to 1-,' other agencies created under mile ll of tildtz'l. Army...the. component - t ,of - ttte Navy . or,the - ? the-Director cd. Central Intelligence for corre-1,.not , : , ;- ,, -- n? -- bilrean; abliCor, division thereof. oe with rs- -- (f) -etymon) at any of the-foregoing, , "--. .._,-; ' ' 4. office- - ? -";-? - ? -?,--- ', ? -,:::' ?-?__,L- -?,..-ii7,11uraeaftiltofhereseinmy*:an4edidgaitthet'''-dtUe!.t,afe the spect to, any Of the personnel (military ..or pointed ?under - euraiection - (a), - bres taken-, , ;:-.., (2) ,Eacepttas, piroirided, or ?paraivaph. A I) , . . 4) the National Intelligence Authority (1t. I nun, stain be, changed to s,cre.arr at- and ,_nie acceptance ,iit . araimaervice-an? Boob, 7- .(a) personnel, _ property: -',034 recor-de.:--of' ether-officers_ -and ECEMZIES ? ft tall, - De-? ',office; shall in no way affect any status, Office .? --of the Central Intelligence Group are trans- Pal:me" Cit tbeArTnr sir 1ms neerstarr. :rank, or grade. he may occupy or hold In 'the - 'erred-- to the Central- Intelligence Agency, A .t.'he,_Armir, may neterunne. perrita,? -, and such Group' shall cease to exist. *Any 1, , to/ -All laws,' orders. regillwasnit ''' 'site, Tight. 'Privilege. ? Or benefit incident' to ..- unexpended balances of appropriations, allo- I other ' actions relatnk to .he Department ' r armed services; or. any emolument, ., or ?bin out, of =ranch statue, owe. rank. .... - catiores, or other funds available or author- ' ?for War -dr' in any officer dt- senritY wilnee . Or "grade.,' Any Buell. commissioned' ottleer -.. 'zed to be made available for such Group, "title is enanged under this eeendn shall, in.' Q. Shall, while serving in the office ef Director, ? shall -be available - and shall be authorized . -hotel as they are-.1Int fneassiater4 with thor-'''',-,- ? ?" ' receive the military pay and allowances (ao. , to be made available in like manner for ex- provisions of this' act. be neemed to relate '-'-' - tive or retired, as the case they be) payable Penditure by the Agency. -_ - - - ?.., to the Department of the Arm/ withrtt the:...=..-'..,, to a commissioned officer of his, grade and - NATIONAL sem:Tarry ixectacze-i&Ana' National Military Establishment or to serch - 1-- ? ' ?... ' length of- service and shall be paid, from any. Sac. 106. (a) There is hereby established ' officer or activity aegis:metro by his or tie,,. ..? Agency, annual compensation at a rate equal inafter in this section referred to as the new title. (c) The term "Departmen, of the Array" - ? funds available, to defray the expenses of the a National Security Resources Board (here- , to the amount by Which 614,000 exceeds the "Board") to be composed of the Chairman. as used in this act shall be construed' to. - - amount of his annualmilitary pay and allow- of the Board and such heads or represents- mean the Department of toe Army at the ances, ' - - tives of the various executive departments seat of government and all dekt beadquar- _ . (c) Nothwithstanding the provisions or and independent agencies as may from time'- text, forces, Reserve componeo. 5, installs- . _ section 6 of the act of August 24, 1912 (37 to -time be designated by the President to ti"S' activities, and functions under the Stat. 555), or the provisions of any other be members of the Board. The Chairman control or supervisian of the Department of law, the Director of Central Intelligence may. '' of the Board shall be appointed from civilian the Army_ ,.,. .._ In his discretion, terminate the employment life by the President, by and with the advice (Cl) The Secretary of -he army &mil of any officer or employee of the Agency and consent of the Senate, and shall receive cause a seal of ofnce to be 'nide for the , -'? - '- whenever he shall deem such termination compensation at the rate of $14,000 a year. Departraent of the Army, or such design as r advisable' in the interests of 4, (b) The Chairman of the Board, subject to the President may approve. ----nd judicial no- tice shall be taken thereof. . . Departmeidotthe itut.rorco,,,, or any,braneh,?, lation.-evalrytelonw. and dbiahen th rinatiron. , e(7.1rierfterftvannieTere the appointment to the office dr-Director of Reg, rag% lug, February 5,1496) 'shall. awn be_ Topa.to 8 corammidoned officer of of the armed servioee. . cease to exist; and - - - srin-Y? ?411inges the United States, but such termination shall. the direction of the President, is authorized, not affect the right of such officer or employee " without regard to the provisions of the civil- (e) In general the tilliPed Stater Army, , to seek or accept employment in any other service laws and regulations and the Classill- within the Department of the Army. shall _ department or agency of the Government if cation Act of 1923, as amended, to appoint' include land combat and servioss forces raid United States Civil Service Commission. as may be necessary to assist the Board in be organic therein It shad be organized, such aviation and water transport as may declared eligible for such employment by the and fix the compensation of such personnel es of the several Govern- (c) It shall be the function of the Board trained, and equipued primarily for prompt intelligence activities (d) For the purpose of coordinating the carrying out its functions. ment departments and agencies in the inter- to advise the President concerning the co- and sustained combat incident to operations on land. It shal': be resporAble for the est of national security, it shall be the duty ordination of military, industrial, and civil- of the Agency, under the direction of the Na- Ian mobilization, including- preparation of land forces necessary for the tonal Security Council- (1) policies concerning industrial and effective prosecution of war except as other- gned and in accordance with In- (1) to advise the National Security Conn- civilian mobilization in order to assure the 'adze assi - cil in matters Concerning such intelligence most effective mobilization and maximum grated joint mobilizati on plans, for the expansion of peso-dime components of the ' activities 'of the Government departments utilization of the Nation's manpower in the Army to meet the needs 'II ear - and agencies as -relate to national security; event of war; (2) to make recommendations to the Pres- (2), programs for the effective use in time ereArrnaler Or 11." Ft"V - ident through the National Security Council of 'war of the Nation's natural and indus- Sec. 203. (a) The term -Department of the for the coordination of such intelligence trial resources for military and civilian needs, 'Navy" as used in tnis act shalt rie construed activities of the departments and agencies for the maintenance and stabilization of the to mean the Department of the Navy at the of the Government as relate to the national civilian economy in time of war, and for the seat of government the headquarters, United security; _ adjustment of such economy to War needs States Marine Corpse the entire operating (3) to correlate and evaluate- intelligence and conditions; forces of the United States Ilavy, including relating to the national security, and provide (3) policies for unifying, in time of war, naval aviation which shall nereafter be dee- for the appropriate dissemination of such the activities of Federal agencies and de- ignated the naval pir force, and of the 'United intelligence within ? the Government using partments engaged in or concerned with States Marine Corps. inehigting the Reserve - wheresppropriate existing agencies and fedi- production, procurement, distribution or components of such forces; .11 field activities. Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-09610R000100020003-2 9602 Approved For Re legalicTAMUPidlIVREIW gia#R0R611Jtair:120003-2 JULY 19 headquarters, forces, bases, installations, ac- Secretary of Defense to be necessary or de- shall be transferred in branch to the United tivities, and functions under the control or sirable for the operations of the Department States Air Force. All other commissioned supervision of the Department of the Navy; of the Air Force or the United States Air officers, warrant officers, and enlisted men, and the United States Coast Guard when op- Force, shall be transferred to and vested in who are commissioned. hold werants, or are erating as a part of the Navy pursuant to law. the Secretary of the Air Force and the De- enlisted, in any component of the Army of (b) In general the United States Navy, pertinent of the Air Force: Provided, That the United States and who are under the within the Department of the Navy, shall in- the National Guard Bureau shall, in addi- authority or conuiand of tits, Commanding , elude naval combat and service forces and tion to the functions and duties performed General, Army Air Forces, shall be continued such aviation as may be organic therein. It by it for the Department of the Army, be under the authority or man:Rand Of the shall be organized, trained, and equipped pri- charged with similar functions and duties Chief of Staff. United States Al' Force, and inertly Mr prompt and sustained combat in- for the Department of the Air Force, and under the jurisdiction of the Department of cident to operations at sea. It shall - be. shall be the channel of communication be- the Air Force. Persormei whose status is responsible for the preparation of naval forces tween the Department of the Air Force and affected by this enlisection enall retain-tha necessary for the effective prosecution of war the several States on all matters pertaining existing commistdons, warrants, or enlisted' ? except as otherwise assigned, and, in accord- to the Air National Guard: And provided status in existing t omponeots of the armed iince with integrated joint mobilization ? further, That, in order to permit an orderly forces unless otherwise altered or terminated - plans, for the expansion of the peacetime - transfer, the Secretary of Defense may; dur- in accordance with existirg law; and they components of the Navy to meet the needs Mg the transfer period hereinafter pre- shall not be deemed to have been appointed of war. - scribed, direct that the Department of the to a new or aifferent office or grade, or to (to) The United States Marine Corps, Army shall continue for appropriate periods have vacated their penman .it temporary Within the Department of the Navy, shall in- to exercise any of such functione, insofar as appointments in aa existiri i x, inponent of elude land combat and service forces and such they relate to the Department of the Air the armed forcer, solely try vielue of any * aviation as may be organic therein. The pri- Force, or the United States Air Force or their change in status under this subsection. No marg. mission of the Marine Corps shall be property and personnel Such of the such change In stat is shall alter or prejudice - to provide fleet marine forces of combined arty, personnel, and records of the Depart- the status of any Individual so assigned, so arms, -together with supporting air compo-- ment of the Army used in the ,exercise of , as to deprive him cif any rignt, benefit or mints; for service with the fleet in the seizure,. -functions transferred under this subsection-4,, privilege to WIWI., he may he. enettlednieder... , defense Of advanced naval baser and, for ' as idle Secretary of Defense shall ng laW. - - -.; cis onduct of :melt land operatiOni as rani shill be transferred or .91igned shall, the pe-- - determine exiitI(d) Eicept oeherwisei diteeted by the. 'essential " to the priaiecutione or tie naval, partraent of the Mr Pore*.f-7WItedretiary of the Mr Force; a..1. property, reeeieeece mpaigii?elt Iiii7the duty of' the Mae (g)- The Secretary of the 'Air Force shall ords, installations. agencies. sethottiek. prol- e Corps to develop, In coordination with , cause a seal of office to be made for the De? ects, and civilian personnel under the jurise e ? the, Army and the. Air Force, those phone_ partment of the Air Force, of such device as _diction,- control, an er eommand of - Cd amphibious operations which. pertain -to 4.,?the President shall approve, and, judicial the commanding general. Arm,- Air Forces, the tanticit,,,techniqueee and equipment, em-'.:. notice shall be taken thereof,- _ shall- be continued in the neva ennui: under toyed by force.. In In addition to ?I,- warm ATATzg Am mei, _--; e the Jurisdiction, control, authority, Or COM.e ArtrearY minion. the Marine Corps shell Pro- - ? - ? e _ mend, respectively, of the aatel of Staff,. Sao. 205. (a) The United States Alr 'vide detachments and for seri-, hereby bushed under the Depar,w&t .r. United States Air Pores. In the, Ospartment -ice-(e?11 .alined.veellek the NavY' shall Pr?- a the Air Force The Army Air Forces the -** ar:the.2.k:tr PbreL = ; vide security detachments. for the protection _, - ? . Mr Co-ps United States Army and the (len- "s..* '(a) --For a period ef 2 yeeee from the data and shall. perform such other duties' as the , "I" Of navaiproperty at naval stations and bases, ___, ? uartera Ater (kr Force com. ..enactment of vas sot portothei (both, President may direct:- Provided. 'That snob bat Command),. shall be transferred to the mints/7' and cdrilinni. ProPelt7. : records.: iree.; - Ural additional-- duties, shalt not detract from . - interfere with the performance of the. pri- mary mission hereinbefore set forth.? The Marine Corps shall be responsible in aeccrd- ance with integrated joint mobilization. plans, for the expansion of peacetime components - of " the Marble- Corps to. meet the needs of .NVST: DEPARTMENT OF TM MR FORCE . Say. 204. (a) There is hereby established an executive department to be known as the Department of the Air Force, and a Secre- tary of the Air Force, who shall be the head -thereof.. The Secretary ot the Air Force shall be appointed from civilian life by the Presi- dent, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. (b) Section 158 of the Revised Statutes is ,amended to include the Department of the Air Force and the provisions of so much of title IV of the Revised Statutes as now or hereafter emended as is not inconsistent with this act shall be- applicable to the De- partment of the AN Force. (c)- The term ? "Department of the Air Force" as used in this act shall be construed to mean the Department of the Air Force at the seat of government and all field head- quarters, forces, Reserve components, instal- lations, activities, and functions under the control or supervision of the Department of the Air Force. (d) There shall be in the Department of the Air Force an Under- Secretary of the Air' Force and two Assistant Secretaries of the Air Force, who shall be appointed from ci- vilian life by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. (e) The several officers of the Department of the Air Force shall perform such functions as the Secretary of the Air Force may pre- scribe. (f) So much of the functions of the Sec- retary of the Army and of the Department of the Army, including those of any officer of such Department, as are assigned to or under the control of the Commanding General, Army Air Forces,. or as are deemed by the United States Air Force - - , stallations agencies activities, and acts (b) There sha/r be a Chief of Staff, United States Air Forces, who shall be appointed.by the President, by and. with the advice and consent of the Senate, for a term of 4 years from among the officers of general rank who are assigned to or commissioned in the United States-Air Force. Under the direction of the Secretary of the Air Force, the Chief of Staff, United States Air Force, shall exercise com- mand over the United States Air Force and shall be charged with the duty of carrying into execution all lawful orders and direc- tions which may be transmitted to him. The functions of the Commanding General, Gen- -era' Headquarters Air Force (Air Force Com- bat Command), and- of the Chief of the Air Corps and of the Commanding General, Army Air Forces, shall be transferred to the Chief of Staff, United States Air Force. When such transfer becorties effective, the offices of the C Jet of the Air Corps, United States Army, and Assistants to the Chief of the Air Corps, United States Army, provided for by the act of June 4, 1920, as amended (41 Stat. 768): and Commanding General, Gen- eral Headquarters Air Force, provided for by section 5 of the act of June 16, 1936 (49 Stat. 1525), shall cease to exist. While holding office as Chief of Staff, United States Air Force, the incumbent shall hold a grade and receive allowances equivalent to those pre- scribed by law for the Chief of Staff, United States Army, The Chief of Staff, United States Army, the Chief of Naval Operations, and the Chief of Staff, United States Air Force, shall take rank among themselves ac- cording to their relative dates of appoint..merit as such, and shall each take rank above all other officers on the active list of the Army, Navy, and Air Force: Provided, That nothing in this act shall have the effect of changing the relative rank of the present Chief of Staff, United States Army, and the present Chief of Naval Operations. (c) All commissioned officers, warrant of- ficers, arid enlisted men, commissioned, hold- ing warrants, or enlisted, In the Air Corps, United States Army, or the Army Air Forces, , may be transferred eetween die Department-, of the Army and the Deparfreten of the Air Force by direction. if Secreary of tense. `,'" _ (f) In general the United States Air Force shall include aviatioa forces aoth exabat and service not otherwiee assigr-ed. It shall ffe organized, trained, and equipped primarily for prompt anti sustained offensive and de- fensive air operations. The Mr Force shall be responsible for the preparatiel, of the air forces necessary for the effect _ve iroaecution of war except as otherwise ,lasighed and, in accordance with in egrated Join!. mobiliza- tion plans, for the -mansion of the peace- time components of lie Air Force o meet the needs of ear. newer= mart or raessreas Sac. 206. Each ti ander, esaienraent, or change in status under sectioe 20,t or section 205 shall take effect upon such '(re or dates as may be prescribed by tee Secretary of Defense. WAR COUNCIL SRC. 207. There thee be within the National Military Establishment a War Council com- posed of the Secreta .y of Defense. as Chair- man, who shall have power c=r rte.-Asian; the Secretary of the Army; the Secreary of the Navy; the Secretary of the Air Forces; the Chief of Staff, United States Aemy the Chief of Naval Operations: and the Chief of Staff, United States Air Force. 'via War council shall advise the Secretary ofDcfenio on mat- tens of broad policy relati , to the armed forces, and shall consider and report on such other matters as the Se,714,kry of De- fense may direct. JOINT CNIOIE OP STAPP SEC. 208. (a) Ther-s is hereby established within the National Military Establishment the Joint Chiefs of Staff, widen shall consist of the Chief of Star', United Sestet; Army; the Chief of Naval Operations, the Chief of Staff, United States Air Force and the Chief of Staff to the Comm ender .711,-f, if there be one Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 Approved For ReicatTRYttWetk-Flig0 'S. 10 9 - (b) Subject to the authority and direc- (7) to make recommendations to regroup, tion of the President and the Secretary of combine, or dissolve existing interservice Defense, it shall be the duty of the Joint agencies operating in the fields of procure- Chiefs of Staff? . meat, production, and distribution in such ? (1) to prepare strategic plans and to pro- manner as to promote efficiency and economy: -vide for the strategic direction of the mill- (8) to maintain liaison with other dee ? tary forces; partments and agencies for the proper cor- (2) to prepare joint logistic plans and to relation of military' requirements with the ? assign to the military services logistic re- civilian economy, particularly in regard to sponsibilfties in accordance with such plans; the procurement or disposition of strategic (3) to establish unified commands ?,and critical material and the maintenance strategic areas when such unified commode of adequate reserves of such material, and are in the interest of national security:- ? - ? to make recommendations as to Policies in ? (4) to formulate policies for joint train- connection therewith; Mg of the military forces; ?.(9) to assemble and review material and (8) to formulate policies for coordinating persorinel requirements presented by the the education of members of the military Joint Chiefs of Staff and those presented by forces; the production, procurement, and distribu- (8) to review major material and per- tion agencies assigned to meet military needs, sonnel requirements of the military forces, and to make recommendations thereon to in accordance With Strategic and logistic.. ?the Secretary of Defense; and Plana: and. ?. ._(10_) to p.erf...,..'Ilorm such other duties as the (7) to provide United States representa- mryrruari ?I "an" may direct' tion on the Military Staff committee ot the (d) When the Chairman of the Board first United Nations in accordance with the pro- ar: Navy ti listed has ea once, e o n tray 9603 /14V020003-2 be required by the Board for the performance of its functions. Tine III?Macau salons oosaarsiaacci cur 31:1:3=41,111114 Sao. 801. (a) The Secretory of Defense shall receive the oorapensation prescribed by law for heads of executive departments. - - (b). The Secretary of ire Array, the Sec- retary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the - Air Force shall each roadie torepensation at the rate os $14,500 s year. ,.- - triune SECIUMA73211 AND .135INTAXIT SICUILTML1111k Sac. 302. The Under Secretaries and Assist- ant Secretaries of in. Artily, the Navy, and the Air Porte shall men receive compensation at the rate of $10,000 a year ano shall per- form such duties as the Secretaries of their respective departineota may prescribe. . ADVISORY COMI reitz3ONNIIL SEC. 308. (a) The Secretor). at itemise, the Chairman. of the National seomity Resources' Board, and the Director or tlentral Intent- A 'visions of the Charter of the United Nations. - ?ons Boardshall cease to puce are authorised to appoist such an-. (?. and au,.....itLrecorda, ejruniandtiounp7onnBoatt. visorywith othercoinmnteesprovidoranadoredsernalotact:scuconahlaptart-ent ?? (Q) TherJoint G'hiera of Staff shall act as 6,,..124 the principal military advisers to the, Pleat,' ei-``" *"." r"I" ???', eheii (ek The secretary cd Defense. ems -- time advisory personnel as they may deem. rritormari4eneh'itbs SacrenthertaZtilanefasenlathe ppyandinande r`: wide the Board. with such nnel _sus& -necessary earrliinit outa their respective 'and che:?evIretary?of?Defe6:8-0- m- --direct "facilities as the Secretary may determine to ,.':ilttuation" and thedrinathr-* aganCleiril, as :4;10- liatiaBrascribed by law. -ousT sun There.; shall be under the hiefe oretas, a Joint Staff-to OODS1S6 of, not a tie-, ter? exceed 100 officers and to be composed tarY Beta, "vice. Other members' of erica? conunitteers of approximately equal numbers of officers nan",.,!t: (hereinafteran"?"wv7_?P_____.men",_""'"'L ,arid other part-tirce advt-sory personnel sO-?.?,4' from each of the three armed services; ?m LW. "cud? runtrxvti w all""e ?13tgaita?"/.-, employed may 'erre IISUID= compensation Joint Staff, operating under a Director there* I's The Board shall be composed of a Chairman,_ or may receiver compemier*as sa a rate oat- appointed by the Joint Chiefs- of Staff, wn? "hall be the moo therein, and I " to exceed -$85 for each wire,. as det6r4" '-shall perform such duties as. may be directed ? reeentativee from each of the DePartmerita mined by the appolating surbority. ?IS the Joint?Chiefs. of. Staff. The Director of the Army, Navy. and Al Force, to be derig. (to ?gamic. og an todirdont rnenibar-,? - `shall be an Officer- Junior in grade-to air *' bated by the Secretaries cd their respective of nosh advisor? eamoutter, or-in. ana, , members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.' departments. The Chairman shall be ap- other pmt_tima capacity fee a department Mulerrtorea BOARD pointed 7 ' pointed from civilian life by the President, --- -or agency hererrater. shall riot be considered ...ere le hares.; established it by and with the advice and consent of the as service bringing such individual, within Sac. 210. (a) in the National Military zet-Yehhehment e. Senate, and shall receive compensation at the provisions of section 109 er laa of the,- , Munitions Board (hereinafter in this sec-- the rate cd Sitb?? a year. Tile PurP?se Of - CriMinal Code (1r. S. C., 1940 Kt. title 1$. tion referred to as the "Board"). ? -? -Secretary secs. 198 and 202), or section 10 (a) of the the Board shaU be to advise the (b) The Board shall be composed of a of Defense as "to the status of scientific contract stnzesnent ant ,311941. unless the . h , Chairman, who shall be the head thereof, researc re to the national security act orsuch indlvtdLal, synch by such section and an --Under-Secretary or ssistant Secre- , and to insist him in assuring adequate pro- is made nraawyni when perrouned by an. A tary from each of the three military depart- naents, tq be designated in each case by the Secretaries of their respective departments. The Chairman shall be appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall receive compensation at the rate of $14,000 a year. (c) It shall be the duty of the Board un- der the direction of the Secretary of Defense and in support of strategic and logistic plans prepared by the Joint Chiefs of Staff? (1) to coordinate the appropriate activities within the National Military Establishment with regard to industrial matters, including the procurement, production, and distribu- tion plans of the departments and agencies comprising the Establishment; (2) to plan for the military aspects of in- dustrial mobilization; (3) to recommend assignment of procure- ment responsibilities among the several military services and to plan for standard- ization of specifications and for the greatest practicable allocation of purchase authority of technical equipment and common use items on the basis of single procurement; (4) to prepare estimates of potential pro- duction, procurement, and personnel for use In evaluation of the logistic feasibility of strategic operations; (5) to determine relative priorities of the various segments of the military procure- ment programs; (8) to supervise such subordinate agencies as are or may be created to consider the subjects falling within the scope of the Board's responsibilities; be der th control. oe intotha required by4b?'13?&?'' f?r t"PFI?rinallcsoo or sir posit/One under Perae dMg Thar United Statatet. yor. which they oseeive fonownestion ? .a? 711MBRAIWE serving as members. of each =reinitteesi shalt %',..;? oasa 211. (a) Theirsh is---so sao-eoes,ea ;La-receive additional compensation for sueh.;;;" vision for research and development on scien- -individual referred to in such section, is with problems proble relating to the national se- ? respect to any particular matter which di- curity. rectly involves a department or agency which ? (b) It shall be the duty of the Board, such person is advising or In which such under the direction of the' Secretary cd . department or agency is directly interested. Defense-- ( to prepare a complete and integrated ?, STATOR or muorarriozo CIVITaltaf PEICSONNISli program of research and development for Sze. 304. All transfers of eivition personnel military purposes; under this act shall be witticot change in (2) to advise with regard to trends in scien- clasification or compensation, but the head tific research relating to national security and or any department or ageoca to which such the measures necessary to assure continued a transfer is made Is authorized o make such and increasing progress; changes in the Idles and designatiens and (9) to recommend measures of coordina- prescribe such changes in the duties of such tion of research and development among the Personnel commensurate with their claSelt military departments, and allocation among fleations as he MAY dear necessary and ap- them of responsibilities for specific programs of j , ? propriate. &tango rseavatrass (4) to formulate policy for the National Sec. 305. (a) All laws, orders. regulations, Military Establishment in connection with and other actions applicator', writ respect to research and development matters involV- any function, activity, personnel, property, Ing agencies outside of the National Military , records, or other thing transferred under tale . Establishment; ? act, or with respect to any officer, depart- (5) to consider the interaction of research inert, or agency, trom which such transfer and development and strategy, and to advise is made, shall. exceot to the extent rescinded, the Joint Chiefs of Staff in connection there- modified, superseded. teoninated. or made with; and inapplicable by or under authority of law, (8) to perforni? such other duties as the - have the same effect as if such transfer had Secretary of Defense may direct. not been made; but, after soy such transfer. (c) When the Chairman of the Board first any such law, order. regniatiois. or other ac- appointed has taken office, the Joint Research tion which vested functims in or otherwise and Development Board shall cease to exist related to any officer, department, or agency_ and all its records and personnel shall be from which such transin was made shall, transferred ,to the Research and Develop- insofar as applicable with respect to the func- ment Board. tions, activity, personnel, property, records, (d) The Secretary of Defense shall pro- or other thing transferred and to the extent vide the Board with such personnel and not inconsistent with other orzrisions of this facilities as the Secretary may determine to act, be deemed to have vesteti such func- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RD.P90-00610R000100020003-2 9604 Approved For Release CONGMNIQNAL RECQRD-HOUSE iuz : CiA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 19 tion in or relate to the officer, department, the amount recommended by the Secretary ' The amendment was agreed to. or agency to which the transfer was made. of Defense and the head of the department, Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman I ? lawfully commenced by or against the head (b) Each supplemental or deficiency esti- ..eiv ffer a committee amendinP.rit (b) No suit, action, or other proceeding respectively. . , of any department or agency or other of- Mate for appropriations or expenditures The Clerk read as follows: .,- deer of the United States, in his official ca- transmitted to the Congress by the President Committee amendrient offered by Mr. : peaty er In relation to the discharge of his which contains any item recommending-Nan , HOFFMAN : Page 14. 1:ne 3, strike out the official duties, shall abate by reason of the appropriation to -or an expenditure by the comma after "of" and In line 4, striae out the taking effect of any transfer or change in.,title National Military Establishment- or any de- comma after "for.".,, - -- under the provisions of-this act and, in the Partment ?therein shall be so arranged as The committee amendment w case of any such transfer, such suit, action, or clearly to show with respect to any such item agreed to. other proceeding may be maintained by or a statement of the nature of the item and , against the-successor of such head. or other ? of the amount recommended -by the Presi- ' Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chef-man,, _ officer under the transfer, but only it the s' dent, the Secretary of Defense, and the head ' offer a committee amendment,? - court shall allow the same to be maintained of the department, respectively. The Clerk read as follows: . ',... on motion or supplementai, petition filed AUTHORIZATION TOR APPROTETATIONSt7' . ' COMMIBteek amendment offered hy!.^Mr.,---, Sm. 308. There are hereby authorized to BCWFMAN: Page 32, 11 Le 5. "11" "ut "(er and Insert "(a)." within .12 months after such transfer takes effect, showing a necessity for the survival of be appropriated such SUMS as may be neces. such suit, action, or other proceeding to sary and appropriate to carry out the pro- obtain settlement of the questions involved. yisions and purposes of this act. ?.? The committee amendment was (0) Notwithstanding the provisions of _the, ' agreed to. , ,- second paragraph of section 8, Of title I-of . .. . .., Diern'aTIMS 4.- ,,- ..,-,:.,*,. . 4-1 , , The Clerk read as follows: . the First Wes Powers Act, 1041, the existing Saa, 309: (a) As usedCommittee ansentnnent oCerec by in this 'act, the terra ' - organization of the War Department under ... Merman : Page 18..line 7, after 'established': ? "function" includes functions, powers, -and the provisions of Executive Order No. 9082 ?? strike out "an executive" and insert "a' , of Pebruar28?194 as modified hlf Ereev- ' (1:0), Aa used in this act, the, terra ?budget - , tire Order- No.. 97?74 of May 13- 1948, and -::-Pralitraln" refers to recommendations as to ,....the eolith:is:organization of. t,he Departinatit-.. - the apportionment to the allocation; and ,-, . The committee aMendirient 'was of the,Navy Wider Exectutilie Order No. 9835 ,L? to the review of.allotMentel.OfapPrOp,r.iiit.4- of septensbertk.10414.?Ineluding.thweodg0-4,, ,urtit . ? .. 4 - gioillge,-.40p...- Mx: lEfOrPMAil,' - Mr. Chairr Ment',0t?nrilettons. to,;eriglinleatienel_.- imite,-4,2,:: * ,--,,5,-- - '..., -- .. -'7-7?`dx... , --*.--i.:4,-.:7". iiitilirdmotls con.sent t,Ihtt if 'An the within the War and Navy Diatextraenna'rintV , ".., Sam ale. efUlT.13T01111110M2 -CT ' :set or'., i, .ing of ths bill we discover alter :,:, to the extant determined by Secretary ''' the application thereof to any person 'ee eft.; ; graphical ors th'--T fie rIDIT_ acted.,,,,,..-: typo- of Defense, 'continue in force foe 2* yearit-_ cumstances is held invalid the validity of - , f-. -following th* date%04 e ' t of thie'aat : the remainder of the act and ot theaPPUra.. , by the legislative ci rit except to tbglexterit modified by pmv0 i;-.., tion-of h provisionto rifoneand . ...The CHAIRMAN Witiloat 4'bJeGCM:. alone of thleact or under authority of law-,.s4 ;?. circumstances shall not be affected, therei.;:by. the Clerk will be authorized tot correct. wi , ..- .,- ,Nosnassuoir swipe ,,,,,,,, ...,,,;,,t,i4 , z ,, re-t ,...._ , ETFECTITh. Wax , . . .../trlutt. ....' typographical errors. , -......,4., - ? - ,k..0,,,,..,,r-z9P, %. ,, e? . . , , os; 4n, unexpended.balincet 'of sp.* , mi.. gi- (a) The test sentence. of- pection , ' Mr. JUDD. Mr: Chairrlie1X,-.1 Offer; .. propriationik: allocations, .. nenapPrOPrieted - ? 102 (a) and sections 1, 2,. 308, 309, 310, and 311 amendment. -7 - - '.'.- funds. or other funds available or hereafter .: shall take effect immediately upon the enact- The Clark read a.3 follows: , , ..?-...., ? In shall bu the , r ; (b). EXcept as proVided in atibsection (O.? a?,-Amendment offered by mr. Jose: Seginning 7., on page 8;11ne 10, str:ka out ail- notion to and ;?'-`7!--"'' .4.'adesvailable for use by or on behalf of the : meat of this act. ..- ' ,. _, ....: ,-* Army Air Forces or officers, thereof Force for use connection with the exercise on whichever of the following days-, is the including line 18 on rage 9 e r d rarest in lieut.= '- transferred-to the Department of the Air '' 4 provisions of the. act shall take effect of its fILIICUODS; Such other unexpended ' earlier:' The day after the day upon which thereof the following- - - -- balances of- appropriations. allocations, non- the Secretary of Defense first appointed takes "(b) If., a connettsioner. nfitee 1- of-tbe-- ,. regular establishment of ern' of - thos armed ?. ,or hereafter made available for use by the the enactment of- this act. , - - services- is nomitustel by the Preddent for --':'-- aPProPriated ttmds, or other fends available ,,' office, or the sixtieth day after the. date of Department of War or the .. Department- of ,, - appointment as Director and his nomination .?,._ the Army in exercise of functions transferred - The CHAIRMAN. Does the gentle- for such appointment is coranned by the to the Department of the Air Force under man from Michigan [Mr. Homan] de- Senate, he shall be ineligible to * cept such this act, as the Secretary -of Defense shall sire to offerany committee amendMents appointment until be has resignen his corn- determine, shall be transferred to the De- at this tinie? missioned officer nominated and confirmed mission or has been retired Ana such com- partment of the Air Force for use in con- nection. with the exercise of its functions. Mr. HOFFMAN. Yes, Mr. Chairman, for appointment as Director shill tie entitled, Unexpended balances transferred under this I offer an amendment.? at his own request, to be rerzrd from the , section may be used for the purposes for The Clerk read as follows: , . armed service of whizh he is it minable and, . , which the appropriations, allocations, or--Committee amendment offered by Mr. to have his name placed "nem the retired - T. other funds were originally made available, or ? HOFFMAN: -Page 37, after line 22, add the list of such service in the grade of major for new expenditures occasioned by the enact- following new section: general or rear admiral (upner bait), which- ever may be appropriate, or in any higher - ? rnent of this act. The transfers herein au- "SUCCESSION TO THE PRESIDENCY' ' thorized may be made with or without war- grade in which he nay be ear:Pled to be -- "Sze. 312. Paragraph 1 of subsection (d) retired under other provision.s of law.. -any rant action as may be appropriate from time of section 1 of the act entitled An act to commissioned officer retired nrcior the provi- ? to time from any appropriation covered by this section to any other such appropriation provide for the performance of the duties stores of this section shall be entitled to re- or to such new accounts established on the of the office of President in the case of the ceive retired pay at the rate al 73 percent' , books of the Treasury as may be determined removal, resignation, death, or inability of of the pay of the grade held by bun on the : to be necessary to carry into effect provisions both the President and Vice President,' ap- retired list. While serving as irector "die" " of this act. proved July 18, 1947, is amended by stink- shall receive his retired pay and shall be : . - 'ing out 'Secretary of War' and inserting in paid, from any funds avai able to defray BUDGET ESTIMATES lieu thereof `Secretary of National Security' the expenses of the agen,7, annual corn- SEC. 307. (a) So much of the annual budget and by striking out 'Secretary of the Navy." pensation at a rate equal to the Amount by " transmitted to the Congress by the Presi- which 3.14,000, exceeds the amonnt of his dent as contains the estimates of approptia- Mr HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, I ask annual retired pay." tions for and expenditures by the National unanimous consent to modify the Military Establishment and the departments amendment by striking out "Secretary of Mr. JUDD. Mr. Chairman, this therein shall be so arranged as clearly to National Security" and inserting in lieu amendment was submitted In the corn- show-:- ? thereof mittee before I got it worked out in per- "Secretary of Defense." (1) witit respect to each item for which the President recommends an appropriation The CHAIRMAN. Is there objection fected form with the hello of the legisla- or expenditure, a statement of the nature of to the request of the gentleman from tive counsel. It was voted down there by such item and of the amount recommended Michigan? a small majority. I can explain briefly-. , by the President, the Secretary of Defense, There was no objection. what it does. and the head of the department -concerned, - The amendment was agreed to. - Along the line of the remarks Just (2) with respectively; respect to any item for which and Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, I made by the chairman of the committee, the President does not recommend an appro- ? the gentleman f-om Michigan (Mr. offer a committee amendment. priation or expenditure but for which a bud- The Clerk read as follows: HorrmAx) thbre is a legitimate fear in get estimate for inclusion in such budget Committee amendment offered by Mr. this -country lest we develop too much was submitted by the Secretary of Defense HorratAN: Page 2, at the end of the table military control of any agenCY which has or by the head of a department therein, a of contents, add the following: great powers anti operates n secret. statement of the nature of such item and of "Sac. 312. Succession to the Presidency." This central intell gence agel-y is sup- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP.90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 NWIRLIMAMPAPJMNIFY10061Datiert00020003-2 9605 Approved For I Posed to collect military intelligence abroad; but we want to be sure it cannot strike down into the Jives of our own people here. So we put in a provision ethat "the agency shall have no police. =beton., law-enforcement Powers, or internal-security functions." To make - still More certain that no would-be mili- tary dictator could ever neet it as a gestapo many of us feet the director should be a. civilian. Much of the testimony before Us from people with a great deal of es- . periehce In this field-was to the effect that the director should be a civilian. On the other hand, the committee did not think it ought to exclude a man who is now or at some later Unto may be in the military service from being appointed, as' director of the Central Intelligence Agency if he shoteld be the best man for the job .it was agreedethat he thould not have the job =lea be first becoMes an *that he will have na divided. des, ' not be sanding-with, met detain and one Soar in the ?VOW ? Under gin piesent ge ?Tibia which t recimmittee has drawn, lark tr ewas aecompliehthe same thing I a aft believe it goes far enougl On page 0: line 10 is the followin erv1 r? or the armed cee ?otatet- az director there? ? - (A)'in the, performance of his duties' as threaten be shall, be suirjert to- no ewer- vhdren contra, restriattoo. prohibi (military or otherwise) other than would be operative with respect to him if he were a civilian inn* way conciectedyrith the depart- ment of lb, Army, the. department oe the ?Navy; tbe department of the Air Farce. or the armed gentoes_ or any eaDeponent thereof. None that ?soUn.all right, but all of ? us, being human beings, surely know that If a one-star general is Director of Intel- ligence, and a tweestar general or a three-star general talks to him. it is wholly unrealistic to imagine that they will not have an influence over him, , despite the law. ? I The man who had charge of our secret : intelligence in Germany during the war that he can at his own request be retired in order to accept this appointment, but his retirement rights are protected so that when he is through as Director of Intelligence he will have the same per- quisites and retirement benefits as does a major general or rear admiral, upper was a ciYillate, rdnednen.laleen. He did such an extraordnary job that he was . in contact with the top men in Hitler's secret service. Hitler had to execute his ri top five men because they were double- , f 3 crossing him and playing ball with our peopeeen Mr. Dulles told us that the man 1 that takes this job ought to go into it as a man who goes into a monastery. He , ought to take it as J. Edgar Hoover has taken the FBI job?make it his lifeas Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. Mr. Chair- mannwill the gentleman yield? Mie JUDD. 'I yield to the gentlem from Indiana. ? Mr., HARNESS of Indiana. -Does th gentleman think that you can legislat relative to the heart and the mind of an Individual? Mr. JUDD. No,. indeed. Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. Does the gentleman think it makes any difference whether he is retired or whether he has not retired? Mr- JUDD.' Yes, doe ? , . Mr. HARNESSof Indiana. palsies and his heart warble with. .even branch of thieservicee neetecf, with. ? - Mr; JUDDeereettitinlet; Egad always be with-that branch, but his ore (canto connection with it will be looker4 In no Sellte Will bete nudge its control of -infillence- Under the bill as it is. written , now he is always tempted to regard him. 'self as What he still * Officer of armed forces, When he gets through Director of Intelligence, or if hackies n like the work, or does not do too good job and is let out, well, never mind. can always go back tor active mill , -service. To do that, he has to keep Ins bridges intact, his military fences in geed ? repair ? That is, his mind may not be single because his interests are divided. We do not want that. , Under the amendment he will still have his retirement. rights; his family will be protected, and yet he is retired and completely separated from the mili- tary service, free from any possible in- fluence so that he does not need to con- sider what might happen if the time tshould come that he wanted or needed to go back into the military service. Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. Mr. Chair- man, if the gentleman will yield further, the bill itself says: "In the performance I 04 his duties as Director he shall be sub- liect to no supervision, control, restric- neon or prohibition, military or other.e wise." Mr. JUDD. That is correct. Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. Now, bow much stronger can you make it? The only way you can change it is to say, "You are going to have a civilian." Mr. JUDD. The only way to make it stronger is to have the man resign or retire. I do not want to make him re- sign and lose the benefits accumulated during his military life. I want him to retire so he can go, as it were, into a monastery; but at the same time to pre- serve what he has earned as an officer in the armed services so he and his family have that security. It seems to me that this is the middle ground be- tween the two extremes. It will give us civilian-directed intelligence, and at the same time will protect any commissioned officer, if one is apponited because e s thought to be the best man for the job. I hope the Committee willeninliera amendment-- ? MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, I rise in opposition to the amenoment. Mn chairman. this section caa central Intelligence was given more study be our subcommittee and by the full committee than any other section of the uilL It Waif a most- difficult section to write. All. - of us had the same ?effective in view, yet we had different ideas on ie. . think personally that the compromise we reached adequately protects the position. Eventually I certainly trust trial the head of this intelligence agency will be a civilian who is trained in the agency. It Some will tell you taut the present director is not adequatiTy trained; that - is true. We do not have any man in the- United States who hanadeiniate traininge today to do this gatt of wore beennee unfortunatelynthe United Saint enterer gore fn feweene right kind ot Me. telligence. we had had 3 taring cein- trnlinteffigence orgroaisation.ht all prob-- ability we would never have bad the at- tack-on Pearl Harter; titterer might not'ee have been a World War U. Many wit-, nesses appeared betore our- oommitteee? We were sworn to secrecy, nui - hesitate . to even discuss thts section eeeenee I anent afraid Might' eae sometime because et- the Conaassatanar. Recota et a public& record, and divulge some inneratatienee here that we received in that cemmittee. t that would give aid and connort to anett4. potential enemy we have, rot? that rea- son am even reluctant to rrtention the testimony. I hope the committee wilt , support the provision in the bill, because' 1,t the future security of our country in a. large measure depends upoa the intent- gence we get. Most of it Ca3 3? , gathered- without clandestine inteilleence, but some of it must be of neces.sity clandes- tine intelligence. The tlur res we say here - today, the language we ensuge, might endanger the lives of some American ; citizens in the future. I think you can rely on ihe patriotism , of men like the gentleneen from New York [Mr. Weasweeteni. the gentleman from Massachuse nein Coemeciel, the gentleman 1 rom California Bare - Floklittlal. the gentleman rrom New- York [Mr. Lemuel. and *he gentleman from Michigan Mir. Horrasit 1. We didt our best to work out language here that? would protect tbat pennon and keepe from building up a so-caiied military hierarchy. A bill will be introduced soon after this legislation beeemee law that, will be referred to the Committee on Armed Services, where more study can be given to this most import-ant subject. I sincerely trust that the emendment will be voted down. Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Cenune ? the gentleman yield? Mr. MANASCO. rein to the gentle- man from Michigan. Mr. HOFFMAN. I note the gentle- man's statement that the subcommittee did its best. Yes, we did cell' best, but we had a great deal of dcruot when we le work. He certainly ought to be cut cent- !: pietely loose from, any ties or respon- sibilities or connections with any other branch of the Government?civil or mili- tary?except the President and the Na- tional Security Council. --All this amendment does is to provide that if ' a commissioned officer of the armed services is nominated by the Presi- dent and confirmed by the Senate as Director of Intelligence, then he shall be ineligible to accept such appointment and take office until he has either re- signed his commission or has been re- tired. The amendment provides further No. 135-13 Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9606 Approved For ReleMerlipng/133/sAlk,-FREM "IL.1.01MAM020003-2 JULY 19 finished whether we were right or rt. Does the gentleman recall that? Mr. MANASCO. We did, and still have. Mr. HOFFMAN. We are not seeking to impose our judgment on the Members of the House.' Mr. MANASCO. That is right: I am just trying to show that we were all hon- est in our efforts to accomplish the same objective. ? ' "e4 ' Mr. HOLI.M.Me." Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MANASCO. yield to the gentle-. man from California. Mr. HOLIFIELD If the Members read e'this section carefully they will see that ??"" we did everything possible to divorce any military person from this position with- out taking'away from, him his Prestige sites, emoluments, pension .expectations, ?"and so. forth, and also the rights of his ? family. die not believe the amendment, ._ offered by th.e gentleman from Minnesota IM jnital :will cover 'particulatlY the falniirrilibt4t; of- 0_ indiyidual., the preientetirdelllw haveeAdmiraer;Hinene. koetteelti.,-there. It seems that he Is best Man for the JOb at the present time.. rfavor a civilian director in this _ position,. butthere is certain-intelligence - work in which Actraral Hillenkoetter Is engaged it this time, he has the back- ? grotmcink certain information, he ia en- gaged, ire putting, forward, certain -Plane ? In thiSteldeand so, in the wisdom of the committee, it was decided that he should' not be issterfeeed with at this particular "thfile- "S?-e-'-'s ? . , ? . Mr. BuSBEY. Mr. cilairme:n I movey - to strike out the last two words. ' Mr. Chairman, trust the coassitttee will, give -the. amendment offered by the gentleman from Minnesota [Mr. Juin:] very careful consideration, because I think it is extremely important. There ? was considerable discussion in the com- mittee, and by a very, very narrow vote it was decided not to include the amend- ? ment in the bill as reported by the com- mittee. I call the attention of the committee to one thing that I 'believe the gentle- man from Minnesota [Mr. June] failed to emphasize due to the fact that he did not have enough time. This agency has , been running less than a year and a half. We have had three directors of - the Central Intelligence Agency in that time. No one is criticizing Admiral Hil- lenkoetter, the present director of the agency, but there is nothing in the world to prevent him from being removed next week or next month-and replaced with someone from the War Department or the Navy Department. The main point In the amendment offered by the gentle- man from Minnesota [Mr. Juni is per- manency and the effort to-work toward a civilian head who is not influenced by any department of our Military Establish- ments. k It is true that you can refer to the lan- guage of the bill where it states he is re- lieved from this and he is relieved from that, but you cannot write into legisla- tion that human element which enters ? Into the Military Establishment of our country of a subordinate officer fearing that some day he might come under the direct command of a superior officer somewhere along the line. That is what the amendment of the gentleman from Minnesota [Mr. Juno] will correct. I think it is very impor- tant that the committees "adopt this amendment. It provides for all retire- ment pay and other provisions for a mili- tary man so he can afford to separate himself completely from the military and make intelligence his life work. - The gentleman from Alabama [Mr. Mariescol said that we could not find a man trained for this Job. I believe it would be more correct to say that no attempt has been made to find a civilian to fill this particular job in the Central Intelligence Agency. The committee as a whole was agreed that it would be fine to have a civilian head of the Central Intelligence Agency., But they did not want to-Mclude a quail-, fled military or naval man from occupy- ing such a position. The amendment offered by the gentleman from Minnesota ,corrects.: this sitiation,? and I hope the_ Committee will adopt It Mr. HARDY. ? litre Chairenan: gentleman yield? Mr. BUSBEY. I yielder,* _ Mr. HARDY. Under the present lan- guage of the bin, assuming that the ad- miral -now charge continues in hia present position, he would still he in the Navy, would he not?' - , e Mr. BUS#EY. He would absolutely be in the Navy, and he could be transferred at any time. "S"-- ' 7 ? Mr. HARDY.-.- That is int- point.' He certainly could be transferred, and he could work it out with the Navy Depart- ment and get any other assignment that he Wants., Mr. BUSBEY. *Absolutely: He is still a naval officer. Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? , Mr. BUSBEY. I yield: ? Mr. HOLIFIELD I know the gentle- man wants to be fair. Section (A), page 8, line 12, continuing to line 19, and then in section (B), expressly states that no superior officer of any of these depart- ments shall have any control over the gentleman once he is appointed by and with the consent of the other body. He could not be shifted or given a tour of duty. There is absolutely no control over him. The gentleman knows that that language is in the act. Mr. BUSBEY. I am sorry, but the gentleman, I believe, did not understand my reference to human nature when it comes to military officers. Mr. McCORMACK. Mr. Chairman, I eve to strike out the last word. (Mr. -McCORMACK 'asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.) Mr. McCORMACK. Mr. Chairman, in an effort to help the Committee, I have a few observations to make on this very important question. I want no member to underestimate the importance of this. Whatever action the Committee of the Whole takes will be most agreeable to me because if we were not confronted with a very practical situation, in the subcom- mittee and in the full committee, I would have voted to provide for the appoint- ment only of a civilian. I would have taken that action at the outset. But we are confronted with a very practical situation where the present director is an officer in the United titate.s Navy with the rank of rear admiral. - As I see it, the amendment offered by ? the gentleman f-om Minnesota [Mr. Jowl has this weakness as compared with the provisions of the bill- Suppose a man is 51. years Ad and he is an Army e or a Nary officer. I think the admiral who is Director now Is not much, older than that. Immediately upon being appointed under the Judd amendment he will take three-quarters pay as re- tirement and in the next highest grade. Then, if he remains as Director for 2 Or 3 or 4 years?and there is no term of tenure in this bill--if he were be sepa- rated in 3" or 4 or 4 years, he is stills& young man and he still would have three-quarters retirement pal with the retirement age at 62. We on the subcommittee tried to meet 1 the, practical situation so-that whoever. is -appointed. if a comintsskined ofilcere he would not be servirut in. a dual, capace ity. We put language in there lust 621 strong as can be expressed by 1:Jaehumart mind, that while Director he is *entrain. a civilian capacity. If be Is removed,: he is still young snough to coritindi In the service and, if he desiree to do- we he does not get his retirement but 'goes back and serves his time Is_ the Army or Navy until he-has- Nsrnesi. bit -se- retirement. However, while he. Mein _ there the emoluments of the office that would accrue to him for retirement pur- poses and rank purposes -voted accrue to hint. It seems to me -f we are going to keep any language in here, the [anguage con- s, 'Mined in the bill is preferable to that proposed by the gentlemen from Mirmee.' sota, Dr. JUDD. I agree that whoever Is appointed should be pennanent But what is permanency, unless it is appoint- ent for life, with removal as provided or in the case of judges? 'We cannot - ye any man any assurance of perman- ncy as far as an administrative posi- ion is concerned. The best we can do is as in the case of Mr. J. Edgar Hoover: A man by his personality 3 man who im- presses himself so much upon his fellow- men that permanency Decease by reason I of the character of service that he ren- ders. But J. Edgar Hoover has no ten- ure for life. He has earnest: it because of his unusual capacity, "I remember in i 1933 I was one of those who advocated his reappointment by the late President I Franklin D. Roosevelt. e. distinguished former member of the Rouse from Ala- ; bama, Mr. Oliver, and I went to the Pres- ident on three different occazons urging t" the reappointmert of J. Edgar Hoover. It was something I was proud to do, be- cause he was the man for the Job. But "! we cannot provide a permanent tenure. In fact, after this bill passes, enabling legislation must be enacted with refer- ence to this and other agencies affected by this bill. We felt also that the basic question of whether or not one should be a civilian should lie with the standing committee, the regular committee of the House to which the bill will be referred. In the - stop-gap situatioa?and that is what this is?we felt that the neettod we ern- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For Release 2003/04/02 ? CIA:RDP90.70061DR9V0020003-2 1947 CONGRESSIONAL .R.Eucaiu?tiou ployed was the best that could be adopted under the existing circumstances. The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman from Massachusetts [Mr. ?McComa/sex] has expired. ' - Mr. BROWN of Ohio. Mr. Chair- man, I offer a substitute amendment which I have sent to the desk. - The Clerk read as follows: , ' Substitute amendment offered by Mr. BROWN of Ohio: On page 8, strike out lines 5 to 59r both Inclusive; on page 9, strike out lines 1 through IL both inclusive, and insert in Hen thereof the following: "head ? thereof.. The Director shall be appointed ? from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice, and consent of the Senate. The Director shall receive compensation at "the rate of $14,000 a year." - ? Mx. BROWN of Ohio. Mr. Chairman,e this amendment is a simplifying amend- ment. This ,amendment .Is offered for the purpose Of settling the differences be-: ? tWeen tile- members Of My Committee; the,- 7 .Cioinroitta`'PtieExPtillditureseld-? the Ex=', ecutiveZDetialtanentai:It.esimPly-Telim:e inates any-AtearreVor discussion' about - Just how we take care of the Direator of ' the, Cent* ellitelligence Agency-11T ha should besee:Pammissioned officer by 'pro,- "." eiding 'Wry simply that the Director shall hen civilian.-eThenes it result you can . ? etrike out. all' Of Subsection .(13)-, and on clotvretoltee-,18 on page ? 4 Mr. :JUDD.. Mr. Chairman, will ,the , gentleman _yield? ee,- te Mr. BROWN of Ohio. '.Mr. JUDD- I may Sa3r to the gentle- Man from Ohio and the Committee that :I myself prefer' his amendment and have from the beginning. T have one exactly like It which -I intended to offer if the one I have offered were to be defeated. In it I was trying to go halfway between requiring that the man to be appointed be wholly a civilian, and giving a chance for men now in the military service to take the job as civilians, but without los- ing their retirement rights; ' ? Mr. BROWN of Ohio; I remind the gentleman from Minnesota that at times one comes to the place where one has to go all the way, where one cannot go halfway. In my-Mind the people are afraid of just one thing in connection with this bill and in connection with many other matters that have come before this Con- gress in recent months and recent years, and that is they are afraid of a military government, some sort of a super- dictatorship which might arise in thi country. They are afraid, in this par ticular instance, over the possibility that there might be some sort of Gestapo set up in this country. I will agree and I will admit to yo very frankly that it is entirely possOil that you might have a military office who would like to do that; but I know on thing, that if you require a civilian to b the head ef this agency then you will no have any danger within the agency o military influence or military dictator- ship. I do not believe.the present occu- pant of that office would ever abuse it; I it have the highest confidence in him, but I do not know who may succeed him. We have had three different military of- ficers in charge of this central intel- ligence .group or agency in the last 15 months, and we might have more. I say to you that we need a civilian of the type of J. Edgar Hoover in charge of an agency like this, and the appointment of a civilian would at least be a partial guaranty to the people of the United States that -this agency is not going to be usurped by any branch of armed services at any time. Mr. JUDD. Mn Chairman, will the gentldman yield again? Mr] BROWN of Ohio. I yield. Mr.' JUDD. And is it not true that under the language of the gentleman's amendment a military man could become the head of this unit if he first became a civilian? -? -Mr. BROWN of Ohio. Certainly, if he becomes a civilan first. _ Mr. i ULM. The only thing is that you require him to resign, - Mr, BROWN of Ohio. That is right. ? Mr..1:13DD. WI:tereas finder my-origi- nal amendment he would be permitted to-retirer and keep MS per:pinnies. as- , retired officer while serving as a civilian as Director of Central Intelligence. It Is my belief that a man of sufficiently great ability and interest in the field of intelligence .. to merk thiii appointment would be willing to resign; despite the sacrifice of retirement rights. I remind the committee that he would receive $14,000 a year, far above his salary as an officer. I approve the gentleman's sub- stitute amendment. ? Mn Peovarr of Ohio. A resigned military officer is-no longer under the control or direction, of the military branch. A retired military officer is sub- ject to `recall in time- of emergency, still has to take certain orders and instruc- tions from the military branch of the Government. -The gentleman from Minnesota [Mr. Jrniel in his provision to permit a military officer to hold the post, set up certain safeguards. My amendment goes the whole way. Mr. MecKINNON. There is a differ- ence between one who resigns and one who retires; is that not right? Mr. BROWN of Ohio. Yes; the re- tired officer is under the control of the Army. A resigned officer becomes a civil- ian and is no longer under the control of the Army. Under my amendment you, do not have to figure out what commission he should have when be retires, what per- quisites he should heie, and so on. It seems to me this is a very simple solution of the problem but it is also a very im- portant angle of this bill and I hope that the substitute will be adopted. The CHAIRMAN. All time has ex- pired. The question is on the substitute amendment offered by the gentleman from Ohio [Mr. BROWN]. The substitute amendment was agreed to. The CHAIRMAN. The question now occurs on the amendment offered by the gentleman from Minnesota [Mr. Juan], as amended by the substitute offered by the gentleman from Ohio [Mr. Baceweil. The amendment as amended was agreed to. Mr. JUDD. amendment. - Approved For Release The Clerk read as follows - Amendment offered by Mr_ June Page 11, line is, strike out the words "and ?toes agen- cies", and in line 22, at the anti 01 the sen- tence, add the words "or the (iovf:rnment." 9607 Mr. PATTERSON. Mr, Osterman, I ask unanimous consent-to exteni my re- , marks at this point to the ilsoosn. The CHAIRMAN. Is tOere eblection to the request of the gentienian from Connecticut? There was no objection Mr. PA-rfhttSON, Mr. Chairman, I should like to-direct. myeslT now to sec- tion 105 concerning the Central Intelll- fence Agency, to which section my pro- - Posed amendment relates The ment, in effect, provides that e civilian shall head this Intelligence Agency rath- er than allowing a choice of a milieu or a military man. It also provrths that the . 'powers granted the Central In'elligence. - group 'under the Presidert's erZtecutive ' order shall Pees on to the National ilty Coundt as was designated tthe ? which, passed the other boctr on Jelly- The amendment further orvides that"- the authority and functions of the Cen-,,,; InteffliPsiee Agency shall be those - which were designated wider tne Pred dent's Executive order. As this section is now constituted, the Etirerter e't the In- tllgflee Again, to- he chosen.' by the President, with the consert ef the Sen--1 rassi be either a civilian Or an officer of the armed servIees. I feel that it is ,extremely undesirable to have its head of this agency, in a position which makes it Incumbent upon him to coordinate intel- ligence reports front the esterions services. a member of one or the. orbe,- services A civilian in this position woulcEirat be . subject to a cry of discritrinatlo or fa- voritism and would, therefore, be in much better position to be completely ob- jective in his discussion. TLe oortion of this amendment which :elates to the granting of powers snider she President's Executive order to the National Security Council retains at least a semblance of power within this agency trv effectively correlate, evaluate, and eisenainate in- formation which is gathered by other intelligence services. By confining its powers te this au- thority we, therefore, effective ly deny to the Central Intelligence A ;ency the power to interfere with the ir.c rk person- ally being done by established services_ In this field. - I refer you, Mr. Chairman to House Report No. 2734 of the Sev,eity-ninth Congress, which is a report. or, the intel- ligent section of cur naticnsai war effort and which includes recommendations made by the Howie Committee on Mili- tary Affairs at that time. While the mistakes of Work:. War 11 are still fresh in our minds, the- committee undertook a survey to determine what MX policy on national intelligence shoidd be. Their recommendations are not wailly carried out in the measere here corternplated; but the gains m sde since teeir report would be consolidated ey edoption of this amendment. I feel, Mr. Chairman an. i I cannot stress it too strontly, that whit is needed Is an independeet iraeiligeece agency, working without direction be our armed Mr. Chairman, I offer an 003/04/02 : CIA-RDP.90-00610R0.0 lood0903-2 Approved For RtbsgagERAMAlt-liattlq5:11)Mejt02020003-2 - JULY 19 services, with full authority in opera- tional procedures. However, it seems impossible to corporate such broad authority into the bill now before us?so consequently I , support the amendment which hoz now ? been offered. To do less than this would ? be to wreck what little has been done to strengthen our intelligence system. I feel that it is very important for the security of our Nation, at a time when ? our, security is more? and more threat- ened, to grant adequate authority to the Central Intelligence Agency. InNconclusion, Mr. Chairman, I do want to, commend the gentleman from --Michigan Mr. Horrmaarl and the other members, of his committee for their ardent work and fairness in reporting his measure. - Mr. JUDD. Mr. Chairman, to _reas- sure the committee: let me say that this is the Only other 'amendment I shall offer, and r rqeient it. now because iralso. bat) to dt with" the Central Intelligence 'Agency"' 'cIfithe members of'the commit- tee 'will look on pagag' of the bill,. line c 16, subsection (e), and follow along with me,'! think we cart:Mike it clear quielgat. ,The subsection rends: (a) To tile' extent recommended ny the National Security Council and approved by the Presitient, such intelligence operations 'of the departments and' other agencies of ?the Governinent as. relate to the national security shall be open to the inspection of' the Director of Central intelligence. - 1J" The first half of the amendment deals with that.,-; ,It strikes out the words in line 18.-,"and other agencies." Why? Primarily* to protect the FBI. agree that all intelligence relating to the na- tional security which the FBI, the Atomic Energy Commission, and other agencies with secret intelligence activities develop should be made available to the Director of Central Intelligence for correlation, evaluation, and dissemination. The sec- ond half of my amendment provides that ? their intelligence must be made available to the Director of Central Intelligence. But under the amendment he would not have the right to go down into and in- spect the intelligence operations of agen- cies like the FBI as he would of the de- partments. I do not believe we ought to give this Director of Central Intelligence power to reach into the operations of ? J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI, which are in the domestic field. Under the lan- gauge as it .now stands he can do that. The Director of Central Intelligence Is supposed to deal with all possible threats to the country from abroad, through intelligence activities abroad. But without this amendment he will have not only the results of the FBI's intel- ligence activities here at home, but also the power to inspect its operations. I do not believe that if we had realized the full., import of this language when we were studying It in committee we would have allowed it to stand as It is. Surely we want to protect the Atomic Energy Com- mission and the FBI from the Director of Central Intelligence coming in and finding out who their agents are, what and where their nets are, how they oper- ,,..ate, and thus deatroy their effectiveness. Mr. BUSBEY. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. JUDD. I yield to the gentleman from Illinois. ' BUSHEY. Under the present lan- guage of the bill, is it not the gentle- man's judgment that the Central Intelli- gence Agency has the right, the power. and the authority to go down and inspect any records of the FBI which deal with internal security, whereas the Central Intelligence Agency deals only with ex- ternal security?' Mr. JUDD. Yes: not only inspect its records but also inspect its operations, and, that includes its activities and its agents. We do not for a moment want that to happen. I hope the members of the committee will accept this amend- ment. - Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? - Mr. JUDD. I yield to the gentleman froth Alabama. Mr. MANASCO.- Ilyou do not tive the ? Director of Central Intelligence authority to collect intelligencein this country and disseminate it to the War Department ' and Navy Department, the Air Force, and the State Department, sialhy not _strike Pe entire section out? t _ Mr.. JUDD. We der under -this tint end - theilt(give him that power. We say: "Such intelligence wrelate.s to the na- tional security and is possessed -weir - departments, and other agencies of the " Government"?that includes the FBI and every other agency?"shall ba. made. available to the Director of Central In- telligence for correlation, evaluation, and dissemination." - w Mr. MANASCO. If the FBI has in-" telligence that might be of benefit to the War Department or State Depart- ment, certainly that should be, made available. Mr. JUDD. Under this amendment It will be made available. I do not strike that part of the section out. All the intelligence the FBI has and that the Atomic Energy Commission has must be available to the Director of Central In- telligence if it relates to the national se- curity. But the Director of Central Intelligence will not have the right to inspect their operations, which is quite a different thing. I do not think we ought to give the Director of Central Intelli- gence the right to go into the operations of FBI. Mr. S JaaVAN. ? Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield?-- Mr. JUDD. I yield to the gentleman from Nebraska. Mr. STEFAN. In setting up the Cen- tral Intelligence group it was agreed that the FBI was a part of the organization. Now, what would the gentleman's amendment do? Mr. JUDD. Does the gentleman state that the FBI is a part of the Central Intelligence Agency? Mr. STEFAN. Certainly. As I under- stand it, as it was explained to our com- mittee, the FBI0 information would be part of the information secured by the ? CIG. - Mr. JUDD. That is right. The FBI information would be available to the Di- ' rector of Central Intelligence, but under my amendment the FBI operations would not be part ,of the Central In- telligence as they would oe under the present language of the bill. , - Mr. STEFAN. But the CIO could draw any information from the FBI It. wanted? Mr. JUDD. Yes, it would be made available, if "elating to the national curity. Mr. STEFAN. But what 'would the gentleman's amendment do other than- ? what this is doing? 16' Mr. JUDD. It would nierel) withdraw the right of the Director of Central 7-n--,-- telligence to inspect the intelligence ope, erations of the FBI. It would still make available to him the intelligence de- veloped by rsr. cc The CHAIRMAN. The time of the gentleman from Minnesota has expired. Mr. STEFAN., Mr. Chairman, I ask, unanimous consent that the 4entIeman be permitted to proceed far I additional minutes. ' - The CHAIRMAN. - fit there obiectiori - to the requeetr_of the gentleman_ train Nebraska? act , Ica There was no -objection. ?"?4- Mr. STEFAN. Dees the gentleman feel that this section on Central Intelli- gence makes it possible tar the Director of the GIG to go into Mr. Hoovers office? Mr. JUDD. That is right. , ' _ Mr. STEFAN., And supersede hia rection of P13.t operations? Mr. JUDD.. Well. it says plainly that "Such intelligence operations of the de- partments and other agencies of the- Government as reate to the curity shall be open to the trisection of the Director of .Central /intelligence. ' "Other agencies' ceitainlY -Deludes the FBI., Mr. Sal:IVAN. And the gentleman objects to the inspection ccf h. does he? Mr. JUDD. The inspection of its op- erations; yes. Mr. S'Er.VAN. I agree ,rith the gen-, tleman. Mr. JUDD. Then the gentleman will support my amendment Mr. si-tFAN. I certainly Mr. JUDD. Under it. the information is all available. tut the operations are -- not open to inspection. Mr. JOHNSON of California. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. JUDD. I yield to the gentleman from California. Mr. JOHNSON of California. I want to get this straight. If the FBI has in- - formation about fifth-calm:rut activities , and subversive information affecting the national defense, would that be open to the Central Intelligence Al- ncy? Mr. JUDD: Yes. It mus-, be made available under this subeciien, but the Director of Central Intelligence under my amendment could not go in and in- spect J. Edgar Hoover's activities and work. Central Intelligence is supposed to operate only abroad, hut it will have available all the pertinent domestic in- formation gathered by the FBI. It r should not be given power to inspect the operations of the FBI. Mr. liCiLIFTPLI-) Mr Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. JUDD. I yield to the gentleman from California. Mr. HOLIFIELD. The gentleman , realizes that the limitations in the first Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For Release 2003/04/02 ? CIA-RIDPMfflin(egV020003-2 9609 1947 CONGRESSIONAL RE lines would limit his ability to go in and Inspect any operation. Mr. JUDD. That is true. Mr. HOL1PIELD. I do not think it Is necessary for him to inspect the opera- tions inerder to set up his own intelli- gence unit in the way that he wants to, and I point out that the National Security Council is composed of the Secretaries of State, of National Defense, of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, and the National Security Resources Board. and the Central Intelligence Agency, so it seems to me that the protection of the National Security Council is a check and the President is a check. I hardly think that the man could exceed his authority. ' asmendirientewas--agree Un JUDI). Well, I believe the FBI Mn TABER. Mr. Chairman, I offr ii Job, I will accept the amendment in be-, operatione should be protected beyond amendment. ? - hs,:ff the committee. question.; It is too valuable an agency. The Clerk read as follows; 'rife CUAIRMAN... The quaation is on: to to be tampered with. Amendment offered by &in Tents: On page t the amendment offered by the gentleman- The CRAmMAN he -firee of the-36 beginning_ in thisetrupe .out an a Arom New York [Mr. Tame). gentleM f Minnpota. h section 307._ , 4'11 Mut amendment waloagreete. might need some inspection, and they hold some very important positions with Central Intelligence. Mr. JUDD. I have had no informa- tion on that one way or the other. , I must assume the Director of Central In- telligence is going to exercise utmost care in choosing his personnel. I hope this amendment will be adopted because I cannot see how it can hurt the Central Intelligence Agency in the slightest and It certainly will protect the intelligence operations of FBI and the Atomic Energy Commission. The CHAIRMAN. The question is on the amendment offered by the gentleman from Minnesota [Mr. Jaen]. at a time when there were not as yet la- the bill any provnaons dealing specifi- cally with the Maxine Corps and naval, aviation.. It was put in PrimaritY to pro- tect their right to appeal to the -Congress-. - .over the head of the Department or '!the Bureau of the Budget cr" even of President. They were a/raid they might f be frozen out and not giver. any or ade- ? quate funds. With the amendments that ..4; are now in the bill, with officially_definecV ; status given to the Marine Corps and naval aviation, they will have greater'' t. security than they have now or ever had , before, and this section is not necessary.... Mr. HOFFMAN, Mr. Chairman,. un- less some member of the committee : Jects, and they are all here and on the 'expire IIANABG01-111EiChairMiss, Mr.- 'ITHOMAB? the gentleman yield? ?- Chairman, r ask unanimous consent that - ear. `l'ABKR. .., I yield. to the gentleman' the gentleman may proceed for two ad- from juabarm , ditional rrii,nutes. `.% , MrMANASCO., I am prepared to Say - The,CHAIRMAN, Is-there obJection , that the members of the'committee on to the request of the gentleman from : the minority side eie willing to accept New JerseY? ' the endment. -5? :AM COLE- of NewYork...._ inam-I 'offer- an amendment -The- Clerk read as follows: 'Amendment offered by Mr. Cla Of"iffeer-_, ,-Vork:. On page. 3. line 2. Wee the word' cluding7:, strite- out the worlsr "thisnaval forcer: and insert "naval aviirtIon.'?%::::, somatAN- ..Ntr rhaJtmal.1 There Was no objection. -; Mn TABER.- I wonder if we may have ;the gentleman yield?' Mr. THOMAS of New. Jersey....r want,an acceptance from the majority ifs; COLE of New York. I eteltV to say to the gentleman from Minnesota If so, I would not care to speak on the HOFFMAN. Mr. Ceitennanet that I am wholeheartedly in favor of his amendment ? , ',.Conirnittee will accept that amendment amendment --If we open the doors to the Mx. HOFFMAN. Chairman, will ; The amendment, was agreed to -% Central Intelligence Agency to go in and the gentleman yield? ? - - Mr. COLE of New York: Mr chili; inspect the operations of the FBI, you Mr. TABER. I yield to the gentleman- ?; ..man, I offer an amendment, are starting to do the thing that Is go" : from Michigan. ? ? The Clerk read as follows: ? .s ing to be. the end-of the FBI in time, be- Mr. HogFmAN. may / ask the -gen- Amendment eadm,ed by mr. cowth cause you will open it to this agency and tleman from Wisconsin [Mr. Semi, who York: On page 6, line 3, atter "general" then you will open it to somebody else. is on the Committee on Appropriations strike out "directica, authority, and contra' I think we will make a great mistake over" and insert "authority for the Integra- unless we accept the amendment offered by the gentleman from Minnesota. Mr. JUDD. I thank the gentleman. I think we will all agree he knows what he is talking about. Mr. BUSBEY. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? ? Mr. JUDD. I yield to the- gentleman from Illinois. Mr. BUSBEY. In reference to the gentleman from California [Mr. Hoer- FIELD], when he states that we can as- sume that this National Security Agency will do this and do that, I just wish to remind the membership that the trouble In the past with legislation has been that we have not taken the time to spell out these little details. It is these assump- tions we have had that have gotten us into trouble. I think it is very impor- tant that the gentleman's amendment ,be adopted. Mr. JUDD. / thank the gentleman. Mr. AUGUST H. ANDRESEN. Mr. Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. JUDD. r yield to my colleague from Minnesota. ' will be made up originally on a propa- Mr. AUGUST H. ANDRESEN. Is ganda basis. That is where the trouble there anything in here that rmits the is with the language. FBI to inspect the personnel of the Mr. JUDD. Mr. Chairman, will the Central Intelligence? gentleman yield? Mr. JUDD. No; there is not. Mr. TAI3ER. I yield to the gentleman hope there is no misunderstanding be- Mr. AUGUST H. ANDRESEN. I un- from Minnesota. tween the gentleman "rorn New York derstand that some of the men in Cerel ,Mr. JUDD. I think it ought to be said [Mr. Cote) and myself on this particular tral Intelligence at the present time in explanation of the action of the corn- amendment. It is true that tie and I have are certain foreign-born persons who mittee that this section was put lathe bill discussed it, bu- I have leen unable thes with the gentleman from New o % ton, coordination, and supervuton of." [Mr. Teen), to express his opinion on the amendment to strike section 307, on Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. Chair- page 35? I should like to have the Com- #. man, I do not believe that any explana- mittee have the benefit of the opinion non whatsoever s necessary but in or - 44.,, or the various members. der that it may be nude-stood this - Mr. KEEFE. If the gentleman will amendment is offered for the purpose of yield, may I say that I have carefully ? clarifying the authority and lower given. examined these provisions in section 3B7, to the Secretary of Defense. It amends and in my humble Judgment that whole subparagraph k 2) to lortForm -more section can just as well be stricken out , nearly with the expressions that have of this legislation. It will not cause one- been made by the proponent., of this bill bit of difficulty. I think the committee as to the authority of the Secretary of ought to accept the amendment offered Defense. It will read as amended: by the gentleman from New York. The - The Secretary of Defense ;bat exercise ati- fact of the matter is that what you have t1aority for the integration, tnorlination. and sought to do the chairman or any mem- supervision of such departinents and aged-. her of any subcommittee of the Com- dies. mittee on Appropriations can do by ask- I have submitted the an to lag any Navy or Army officer that the gentleman from New York [Mr. comes before the committee the ques- ?ne ?TADSwoarni, who, insofar as I know, tion, "What was your request of the Bu- ids interposed no serious obfection to it. reau of the Budget? What did you ask Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr Chairman; will for?" and they will tell us what it was the gentleman yield? That is all there is to ie ' Mr. COLE of New York. I yield. ?Mr. TABER. There is a little more. Mr. HOFFMAN. This is not the It is spread out, and the whole budget amendment which you submitted to the subcommittee yesterday afternoon. - Mr. WADSWORTH. Mt Chairman, will the gentleman yield? Mr. COLE of New York: I yield. - Mr. WADSWORTH. Mr. Chairman, I Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 z 9610 Approved For ReIdWinebtINC/IirlibEageD1-01EIDWIND320003-2 JULY 19 far to ascertain just what he is driving ment. To those who want unification as The amendment was agreed to. at The language of the bill reads that distinguished from merger?we provided Mr. COLE of New York, Mr. Chair; the Secretary shall exercise general di- for unification in this bill?if you want man, I. offer an amendment. rection, general authority, and general merger, then you had better vote for the The Clerk read as follows: control over such departments and agen- Cole amendment. That amendment is Amendment offered by Mr. Cosa of New des. I think that is proper language, more authoritative in its directions than York: On page 7, line N. after the words The language of the gentleman's amend? the provisions of the bill. The commit- "functions or, strike out the Arords "Na- ment strikes out the word "general"; it tee recommendation as contained in the tional Military Establishrent" and insert strikes- out the word "direction"; it bill is to exercise general direction. My ? strikes out the word "control"; and it friend from New York says, "exercises Mr. COLE of Now York. Mr. Chair:- leaves just- the word "authority." authority." ? man, an explanation of this amend.: "his office," Mr. COLE of New York. That is not Mr. COLE of New York. No. The merit? as. ? ee` correct. If the gentleman's interpreta- amendment does not say that, The au- Mr. WADSWORTH. Mr. Chairman;-- tion of subparagraph (2) is,as he has just thority would read that the Secretary, will the gentleman yield? expressed it, I would have no objection, shall exercise general authority for the - Mr. COLE of Nev Yorg. I yield: and those who are apprehensive about it integration, coordination, and supervi- Mr. WADSWORTH. While the gen- would have no objection. If the au- sion of the departments and agencies. tleman from New York was addressing thorny of tile Secretary were to exercise Mr. McCORMACK. The gentleman the House during general debate earlier - general direction, general authority, and leaves the word "general" in there? this afternoon he mentioned this very - general control, there would be no objec- Mr. COLE of New York. Yes, language on the bottom of page 7 and tion. But the bill does not say that. The Mr. McCORMACIC. Under those cir- I took it upon myself with great im- ' bill says he shall "Exercise general di- curastances, it seems to me that the len- Pertinence to say at. the time I could not rection, authority, and control over such guage of thaconunittee is certainly as el- see any objection to makt4 this change epartments and agencies." - ? '7 ? f eetive as that ,offereel..by- the gentlemarf-- se et was really the intent of the ailvetal WADSWeRTH, Does" not the .from New York.- We say, "-exercise gene- the intent of Ufa cora/nisi:ea ? ' - ortt egenesrare eiremohe erapziani. 4e end direction,; authority and- controkl,?,,,---The CIMIRMAIL' The questiorria thority find control"FeS;,c , -1 The gentleman says, "exeraise general the amendment offered lir the pare._ Mr. COLE.of New York. Who is going authority for the integration, coordina- man from New York. ` - to ,interpret It?'-,L think the-Congress - tion, and supervision. of. such depart- The amendment was staieet -should sayyhat is-meant by it. I do not mints and agencies", It seems to mel Mr. COLE of Ntw York. ? Mx., Chair believe this: Congress intends that this that both would confer substantially the man, I offer another amendment. Secretary of Defense shall have absolute, same power. As between the amendment The Clerk read as follows: - arbitrary,?artd complete and =limit& offered by the gentleman from New York Araendinent offered by Mat Mew et New- control over all the departinent& (Mr..Coratl, and that which' was care- York: Page 10, line 22. after -r.ne word nate- Mr. WADSWOR'171.. He cannot have' fully worked- over by the committee, it hgeheo", insert the w urla "eve his eiVitinattote, It. wider this law anyway' because on this seems to me the committee's provision, thereof." 'very same, page,?at the bottom it sasrs should be retained. / urge that the gen- Mr. COLE of New York. :?' 111. "That the Department of the Ana, the tleman's amendment be rejected and man, just a brief enittf OSUMI, ot egg Department of -the Navy, and the De- that we keep the language in the bill as amendment, and it is rather a minor partment of the Air Force shall be ad- recommended by the committee. one. I am reluctant- ministered 'as individual executive de- The CHAIRMAN. The question is on Committee for any extended period of partments by their respective Secretaries the amendment offered by the gentleman time since we bay:. been disousaing the and all powers and duties relating to from New York [Mr. Coeel. bill for many hours. ? such departments not specifically con- The question was taken; and on a Under the obligations of the Central ferred upon the Secretary of Defense by division (demanded by Mr. Cou of New Intelligence Agency its dutv, as exPressed this act shall be retained." There is no York) there were?ayes 36, noes 190. in the bill is "to provide tor the proper specific authority in subparagraph (2). So the amendment was rejected. ? - dissemination of such intelligence," that It is general. I think the language of Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. Chair- is the intelligence which the central the bill provides three departments man, I offer an amendment, agency gathers; and yet the Central In- and also guarantees that the Secretary The Clerk read as follows: telligence Agency LW also obligated, to shall have the necessary general direc- Amendment offered by Mr. Coss of New evaluate the intelligence. tion and authority to accomplish the York: On page El, insert the word "general" The effect of this amendment is to purposes of the act. beigre "authority and control." require the Agency when it disseminates - Mr. JUDD. Mr. Chairman, will the Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. Chair- the intelligence which it has gathered to gentleman yield? man, the Clerk did not report the amend- dissiminate not only the Information Mr. WADSWORTH. I yield. meat correctly. Ills on page 6, line 3, in- which it has received but also its inter- Mr. JUDD. If the Members will turn sert the word "general" before the words pretation and its evaluation of the in-` to the preceding page and look on line 21, "authority and control." formation. ' they will see the rest of this grant of au- Then the authority of the Secretary Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, will thority. It is "under the direction of the would be to exercise general direction, the gentleman yield? President and subject to the provisions general authority, and general control Mr. COLE of New York I yield. of this act" that the Secretary of De- over such departments; and that cora- Mr. MANASCO. Do I understand the fense shall exercise general direction, plies as near as words can comply with gentleman is striking out the word authority, and control. It is only with the statements made by the gentleman "evaluated" in line 20 and inserting it respect to carrying out the unification from New York as to what this authority and reorganization previsions of this act should be. in line 22? Mr. COLE of Nev York No. that the general authority can be exer- Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, will Mr. MANASCO. What does it do? cited, and even then only with the con- the gentleman yield? Mr. COLE of New York in line 22, sent of the President. So there arkre- Mr. COLE of New York. / yield.' after the word "Intelligepce" it inserts strictions and limitations both at the Mr. MANASCO. Does not the Ian- the words "and its evalultion thereof." beginning and at the end of the grant of guage contained in the bill now mean power. Is that not true? that? Mr. MANASCO. Does not the Ian- Mr. WADSWORTH, That is true. Mr. COLE of New York. If that is guage in lines 20 and 21 provide for the- The CHAIRMAN. The time of the what is meant, let us say so, same thing the gentleman has in mind? gentleman from New York [Mr. Wens- Mr. MANASCO. I am not an -expert Mr. COLE of New York. Ler me read worten] has expired, on grammar and so forth. The gentle- it. I think I can explain it Subpar- Mr. McCORMACK, Mr. Chairman, I man from Minnesota [Mr. J1713D] is our agraph 3 reads that the central move to strike out the last word. man on that. agency? Mr- Chairman, I think the gentleman The CHAIRMAN. The question is car Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chalman, will from New York [Mr. Cote] had-better the amendment offered by the gentleman the gentleman yield? give further consideration to his amend- from New York [Mr. Cote]. Mr. COLE of New York I held. Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 1947 - Approved For Releup,MEMN9M-FRTVOINID1.0.111p0j19020003-2 9611 Mr. HOFFMAN. ? Does not line 20 cor-I derstand that is the practice of the Members. In my opinion, the amend- relate and evaluate intelligence relating agency, and I see no reason to not write meat is a very proper one arm, speaking to it? What does the gentleman want it into the act. for myself, it is agreeable I Just want ? to do now? Evaluate the dissemination Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, I of it or what? rise in opposition to the amendment Mr. COLE of New York. If the gentle- offered by the gentleman from New York. man will let me explain what I have in If the Members will take the bill and mind. Section 3 reads in part "and pro- refer to page 10 they will find that this vide for the appropriate dissemination of agency is charged with the duty of col- such intelligence within the Govern- ment." My amendment would have him disseminate not only such intelligence but his evaluation of z the intelligence within the Government, and so forth. Mr. WADSWORTH. Already, evalu- ated. Mr. COLE of New York. The amend- '. ment 'simply provides for what L am assured is already being done, It is that the dissemination back- to the source be lecting and evaluating intelligence, and then it is disseminated. What- is the use rially in this regard. In the House bill of rewriting it again in the next line? there is inserted a provision reciting the If we are to go over this bill and change every comma and period and put it three words down or three words ahead, we will be here all night. The CHAIRMAN. The question is on the first time in our history we are at- - the amendment offered by the gentle.' tempting such legislation. The amend- man from New York [Mr. Cotzl, meat offered by the gentleman from New Th - e amendment was rejected. - York [Mr. Cozzi in which tie naval avi agency or to other agencies shall to make that observation to confirm what the gentleman has said. Mr. WADSWORTH. Mr Chairman; I move to strike cut the last two words. Mr. Chairman, for-the information of the Home let me say that the House bill . differs from the Senate bill quite mate- roles and missions of the Army, the roles and misaions of the Navy, tnr: roles and , missions of the Marine Corps and the: roles and mission: of the Air Force. For - Mr. COLE of New York. far. Chair- ation personnel are deeply -nterested, is - not only, of the intelligence which the man. L offer an amendment, - to add to the list ef those branches of the central agency has received bui also. its The Clerk read as follows: service-whose missions an4 roles shall he_ - Walu on .of the intelligence. offerid,hr Mr. 0012 et Niiv frozen /Met law. r; 4 - FFMAN,5,Mrt,Ohairmataa?, York: Page 16, liner-43-14, after "Naval, Mr. vontuk. Ian aisitvw4, wi an yiempl-js:AKA.,.....:%. aviadon", strike out "which shall heraaftee-44 gentlenniri yield? the intelligence mentioned in line 20 there is no objection to that 'amendment. Mr Mr. PORTS.? IDoes thia pr4vide to LE of Now, ocki. t vela be atesignated the Naval' Air Force." , Mr. VADSISTORITiallfrield to the, , tleman from -Ohio. 7 ' oFP/4.m.y In other words, _ HOFFMAN. Mr: Chairman, w eente then you . want to make The amendment was agreed to. ? i.ebarate Prtwurewwwt 'lay" IC It absolutely certain that the intelligence ' -Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. Chair.'-'? is aim worth, a nickel. ? man,' I offer an amendment. ' waubvica-in- II. rkei not. -Mr. Mr. COLE of New York. The gentle- The Clerk read as' follows:' ,S? ' 'chairman. At Inatier el feet in _ man ntsalbit flippanta:-..-Asthe subsection-- 'Amendment" offered by Idr. COLE of New of the instances in this hd7- where a reads- now, It containsabsolutely noth- York: On page 17, after line, 5, insert the are reeirinit the roles and elieel?133- of Ing which' requires' the agency to send following: .7 ?. the branch of the service, we have Para- back toe egenclei of the Government - -A11 naval aviation siall integrated with " phrased the language contained. in the Its evaluation of the intelligence, the' the naval service as part thereof within the Executive order of the President whieh,f - . - interpretation which the agency' Department of the Navy. Naval aviation, it Was agreed, among all the services CCM- Upon thednformation it r. Places 'has hhas gathered, clUde combat service end tra renautica/ ining, shoal n cerned, would' be isued tZ be services the entire ? ae organizatio P The amendment have offered imposes of the United States Navy; all land-based in the event of the assage of this bill; ? upon them that obligation. ." naval aviation' ;ship-based aviation; naval we have amnia taken from the Executive ? Mr. HOU:FIELD Mr. Chairman, will ? the gentleman yield? -; Mr. COLE of New York. / yield to the gentleman from California. Mr. HOLIFIELD Does the gentleman mean to say that the word "intelligence" in line 22 does not refer back to the "in- telligence" in line 20 which_ has been - gathered and evaluated? - Mr. COLE of New York. It does not say so. Mr. HOLLFIELD. Then I do not understand any of the language. Mr. COLE of New York. An agency Is obliged to correlate and evaluate the Intelligence, but it is not obliged to pass back to the other agencies of the Gov- ernment the interpretation, the corre- lated intelligence, the evaluated intelli- gence. Mr. HOLIFIE1D. What words would the gentleman's amendment substitute? Mr. COLE of New York. Line 22, after "such intelligence"' insert the words "and its evaluation thereof" so that the agency would be obliged to provide for the appropriate dissemination of suck Intelligence and its evaluation thereof,, Mr. HOLIFIELD. I think the gentle- man's purpose and the purpose of the committee is the same. The word "in- telligence" in line 22 clearly refers back to the word "intelligence" mentioned in the other line. Mr. COLE of New York. But what is the intelligence to be disseminated? I not undertake to belabor the mat - i is not of great importance. I un- air-transportation services; fleet air forces; carrier forces; all aviation components- of the United States Marine Corps; and all other aviation, air weapons, and techniques' Involved in the operations and activities of the United States Navy, togethe.r. with the'. personnel necessary therefor. "The Navy shall be generally, responsible for. naval reconnaissance, antisubmarine warfare, and protection of shipping. Mat- ters of joint concern as to the air aspects of , move to strike out the last word. ? those functions shall be coordinated between (Mr. HOFFMAN asked and was given the Army, the Air Force, and the Navy, in- ?permission lb revise and erend his re- eluding the development and procurement of aircraft and air installations located on marks-) . shore, and use shall be made of personnel, Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, when ? equipment, and facilities in all cases where this bill came before the subcommittee, economy and effectiveness will thereby be the same question which in now up was increased. Subject to the above provision, raised. There is no question on the the Navy will not be restricted as to types of record but that it was the purpose of aircraft maintained and operated for these purposes. the staff?I think they caller it the Joint "The Navy shall maintain the air trans- Chief of Staff?to practicaly get rid of - port necessary for essential naval operations and reduce to the status of a police force - and for air transport over routes of sole in- the Marine Corps. Then tiii-xe arose the - terest to naval forces where the requirements question about naval avistion and there cannot be met by normal air-transportre. cllities. . was the though': _in the rrand.s of some of the members of the committee that an order, the tentative one venich has been agreed upon by an services, and pare-- phrased them properly in a legislative sense and inserted them in the bill, and the language which the gentleman from New York [Mr. Cor.sl nes Proposed, is parallel with the language of the Execu- tive order. Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr Chairman, I "The Navy shall develop aircraft, weapons, tactics, technique, organization. and equip- ment of naval combat and service elements; matters of joint concern as to these func- tions shall be coordinated between the Army, ? the Air Force, and the Navy. , where the battles on the sea were fought, Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. Chair- the admirals and the captains who, if. _ man, this amendment has been submitted to the members of the committee and has been accepted by them. Mr. McCORMACE. Mr. Chairman, I move to strike out the last word to make the observation that the gentleman from New York has consulted myself and other effort was being made to do that, or at least, there was a fear in the minds of the high-ranking officers cf the Navy, especially those who were on the ships they lost their ships went down with the ships, unless they were hely enough to be among the iortima,e ?"t? iv who were saved, that aviation was to be taken from the Navy and they objecLed. Then th:re came this quest on raised the gentle- man from New York I Mr. WADSWORTH] Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 I 9612 as to whether or net we should depend upon some Executive order to be issued In the future to protect the marines and naval aviation, and the subcommitee de- cided that they would write into the law, not tactics, not specification, but a gen- eral over-all policy. We concede that to be our duty. That question came up again when the gentleman from New York (Mr. Coes] brought this to our at- tention and to the attention of the mem- bers of the subcommittee yesterday af- ternoon. 1 That conference was attended by a representative of the Navy and a representative of the Army, the ones who drafted this bill, and it was finally de- cided unanimously, except for the oppo- sition of the gentleman from New. York (Mr. Wenswneen] and if / ant wrong, correct rae., The rest of those present decided :that the would accept this amendment. ? Mr. WADSWORTH. Mr. Chairman, CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE iuLy 19 ApprOveafor Release 2003_104/_02 %CIA RDP9.0_ 00640R00a1.00.0-2nnaa-12 Mr. WAD'S:: W Ottx.rt.- ivir. eensareriarr, --umux-ucoriaerac-tazaa- laagUage al3glears h b 11 and tbis gentleman ieldt ot erwise assigned. act: -ha' the functions for execut ve orck!t' er for the Mr, TerAIDSWORT11.., -The gentlernan rom New York agreect ?amendment offered, by me ?and lust _,.?,...stanaing committee Wee. oursituf, adopted,' -would assign certain aviation. _ legislation later" on.. e - means he did? e.?---Ageg forces) both combat and service, to the If the wordy in the me Mr. HCIeFFMAN., eThes gentleman Mr. WADSVVOR'TEL This gentleman Navy., is it the intention that the United amendment are includekl. it will be ',- States Air Force can be assigned avis- serious limitation upon the Oettartment om New York. agreed to it. e Mr. -.HOFFMAN. understood -- he tion relating to the Navy, in contraven- of Air, the separate and independent time of the amendment that has just been - , Department of Air that this bill eisee opposed it in -the subcommittee and was adopted? will the gentleman yield? -many, many p iaces in Mr. COLE of New York. I yield to is the first time anyoni has ever objected the gentleman from New York. to the language. If we amend e. here, Mr. WADSWORTH. The gentleman we should stay here another 3 or 4 hours apparently suspects the use of the words and go back through ,lee bill and amend, "unless otherwise assigned." No one it properly in all the other racttori. I can tell tonight where some special rats- suggest that we vote down the amend- sion of the Air Corps will be required ment. They might be otherwise assigned, for Mr. McCORMACK. Chairman., example, to the international force under will the gentleman yield? - - the Charter of the United Nations. No Mr. MANASCO. I yield to the gentle- one can tell. So in all of these provi- man from Massachutetts. sions for the roles and missions of the Mr. McCORMACK. I there-uglily agree several branches we have put in that with the gentleman. Further, the gen- phrase, "unless otherwise assigned." tleman from New York himseit he; clear- Otherwise you might get into a situation Iy evidenced his uncertainty by exPress- where the assignment to something not lag a willingness to withdraw his emend- recited in the law, being absolutely neces- meat and then insieting Upon a vote. sary, could not be made. The words the gentleman ba4 euggested Mr. COLE of New York. I call the 'be added Will disture the whole set-up gentleman's attention to the fact that throughout the bile We have done this provision authorizes the United something in this bill that has not been States Air Force to incluide aviation done In the Senate hill. We pin. in the will the mr..Hopmex., ,Ans wrong?. foEces, both combat and service, not general junction& _eying PPPOSing now. .e - :zee, 4,3! - tablishes. -Mre,WADSWORTIL' 'r nOC: / am Mr*- 11?P1PMAA' Mr; Chairman, will Mr. DORIC ? idr-- Chain:Thee will the. 6cribing- what it does. - the - gentleman yield? - ' gentleman yield? ?-? ' ; 4 Mr:HOFFMAN Evidently then, while .Mr. COLE of New York. I yield to the Mr. MANASCO. - I yield. . 'referring t,o the- original Cole gentleman from Michigan. .;31fir. DORN-. May 7. say ta tbonainibera amendment; the gentleman wee referring. .... - gentleman's amendment would prevent of the committee that an amendment like _ . to. that amendmenV. as - subsequently that would restrict the operarlons of , ' Mr. HOFFMAN. If I thought the amended by the gentleman from New ? York' [Mie Coes] before it today pre- sented. That being the situation, permit , me to add that / sent a copy of the pres- ent amendment to each member of the ? committee. Having heard no opposition from committee members the commit- tee accepts the amendment. The CHAIRMAN. The question is on the amendment offered by the gentle- man from New York [Mr.. COLE]. . The amendment was agreed to. The CHAIRMAN. The Clerk will re- port the next amendment. -. ? The Clerk read as follows: - Amendment offered by Mr. Cots of New York: Page '23, line 19, after the word "as- -- signed" strike out the period and insert "by this act." . . . .-? the assignment of our forces of any kind to the United Nations I would be whole- heartedly for it. The difficulty of this is that in all of these provisions relating to the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force we have these same words, and if we put the gentleman's words in here, it would appear that the Naval Aviation could not "be assigned to help out the Army or the Navy itself, or the Marine Corps. Mr. COLE of New York. The gentle- man's understanding of the purpose of my amendment is entirely in error. My point is that by the amendment regard- ing naval aviation which has just been adopted certain "aviation forces" have been assigned to the Navy. If it Is meant that those forces which by the act have been assigned to the Navy cannot be later assigned to. the United States Air Forces, I would be quite happy and content, but I want to make sure that that will be the result, that, having written that amendment into the bill, it is not intended that later on by some executive order aviation forces assigned to the Navy by the act will be assigned to the United States Air Forces. If that Is the understanding, then I withdraw the amendment. The HAIRMAN. Dees the gentle- man from New York withdraw his amendment? Mr. COLE of New York. Upon recon- sideration I do not, Mr. Chairman; let us have a vote on it. Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, I rise in opposition to the amendment. Mr. Chairman, I sincerely trust that the committee will reject this amend- Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. Chair- man, lust a very brief explanation or " the amendment. This language is found on page 23, line 17, in which it says: In general the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned. What does that mean? Not other- wise assigned where? Not otherwise assigned by whom? I insert the words "not otherwise assigned by this act;" so that there is a direct reference back to the amendment relating to naval avis- tion which has just been adopted. I feel quite certain it was the intention of the authors of the bill that the United States Air Force should have the functions not otherwise assigned by the act. If I am in error, I would be happy to have some gentleman explain it. the. whole Air Force. and if inverted in. - -.- other sections might restrict the Marines.:..... or the Navy. I think this amendment, --.- should be voted down. -Mr. HALLECIC. Mr. C21airintin, will the gentleman yield? Mr. MANASCO. I yield. Mr. HALLECK. Reference aas been made to the attitude of the gentleman from New York [Mr. Coes when it was suggested by him that he might with- draw the amendment. My understand- ing from what he said and from the ob- servation that he made was that the explanation of the intendtneet Of the Ian- - ?Nage as it is contained in the bill ap- parently is in line with What ;le thinks would be accomplished by hi: amend- ment. Therefore, the matter, being _ finally a matter of interpretation of that language which will ultimately be in the law, the amendment is not of that degree of importance that it might have been heretofore except for the discussion that we have had on the floor in respect to it Mr. MacKINNON. Mr. Chairman, I offer a substitute amendment for the amendment offered by the .entleman from New York [Mr. Cote 1: - The Clerk read Is follows: Substitute amendment offered by Mr. Mac- Kirmorr for the amendmerm offered by Mr. COLE of New York: Page 23 itr.e 19, after. "assigned" and before the parted, insert a _ colon and the following: "Provided, That it shall not include aviation f.)reel otherwise " assigned by this act." Mr. MAcKIDIMN. Mr. Chairman, I offer this in the hope that trie gentle- man from New Y-irk [Mr W eisweeen] and the committee can aci:ein it because I Approved For Re1ease-2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 . ( I 1947 Approved For Rel . ., . eelWercgiVANPOICIKRINBC001134Rlidiblikiii520003-2 1 i - 9613 I think that this more clearly sets out The CHAIRMAN. The vote now re- The CHAIRMAN. Is there objection exactly the intent that is sought to be curs on the amendment offered by the to the request of the genelemaia from expressed by the gentleman from New gentleman from New York [Me. COLE]. New Jersey? e York [Mr. COLE] and it still leaves open The amendment was rejected. There was no objection , "the forces not otherwise assigned" for Mr. CASE of New Jersey. Mr. Chair- Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, I the legitimate purposes for which the man, I offer an amendment, which is at ask unanimous consent that the debate gentleman from New York stated that the desk., ? on this amendment, and any amend- they probably wished to leave this open. The Clerk read as follows: 4 - ment in substitinion therefor. be limited Mr. COLE of New York. Mr. Chair-- Amendnaents offered by W. CABN of New to the 10 minutes which the gentleman man, will the gentleman yield? - _ Jersey: - -' has been allowed. Mr. lefecKINNON. I yield to the gen- On page 12, strike out an of line 18 after The CHAIMENN. Is there ottlectiore en- , tleman from New York. ? the word "Board", all of lines 19 and 20, and to the request of the gentleman from Mr. COLE of New York. My under- thy words "of the Board" in line 21, and Michigan? - ? sota is that it accomplishes the same the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce,. Mr. CASE of New Jersey, Mr. Chair- ecnivterionr, War Agencies the Chairman of the man. that is either a great compliment purposes as the amendment which I Planning commission or the worst insult I tia.ve ever had. sought to have adopted, and the substi- appointed under section 106A; the chairman Mr. Chairman, before cuscuesing the tute therefore is entirely agreeable to me. of the Munitions Board appointed under sec- amendment, I want to make my general , ? , Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman, will tion 210; the Chairman of the Research and position on this subject very clear_ I the ,gentleman yield? - , ? Development Board appointed under section support completely the proposition that e Mr. afecnaNNONneI yield to the gen- elle and. such other inembers ea may be des- the security of the United States and the 'email from Alabanune, . - ? - . , On page 14 immediately after lin 8, ignated by the President from time to time." t hope for the establishment. end mainte-. ealEANASC0. n1 "am just yeondering - a:new- A li; to' - . insert ' ' whe 14 thise'a?-wee euselInnenthe eele, ,',..e.nnaeie The Boardsuptebie? gni': ' '''''4- noneanceennoffneva Perullorld Cequire?that - to or We leavettie-essignment, of the` the execution a such potence and platen ee }h., .1,4?,.--....."--Z?' strength.?7_. he deenioned-' tr Force to the Commander of the Air- teeing to military, Maustrial, and manpower:7, -.,_,,,44`aw........r13?86...?,.,11216,?Egegre,_ I h_l_l_3_1___Cs - measures designed to further that ote-e, Force ne , eeneeee . egen*ni.... e. e , mobilization as tray be approvedhy the Pres- ''- .,? nerve"' and, will (mien" el' MIPPliww tainly 'assigns those component's.' of avi- tions, not intonsistent with law, concerning Jective. For example, 1 have come; IsiZelefeeltaNNONze4 The bill Most ea- : ident, and shall perform such other func-- . atioin that are assigned hereby lellesla- the coordination of military, Industrial,.and . though with con.sideraree reluctance. to , earn= mobilization, as the Peesdent may e conclusion that compulsory military- Lion I - directee training is necessaree and k inland to -- eareelettaNASCW r do not know that ,. On line it Change "(d)" to "(e)." ? ' gupport in _I beljeve that unification :of e- Mr. MannEINNON4 e You just adopted - eark a new notion, SS follow.: 7::;;;Inneearmeatteeserviten ce-!'' 4. "entienzaleerk r 7 we Resign any air forces. c 4,'-,..", ' .i. On page 14, immediately after line 11, in- - our some amendments to that effect a while "CIVILIAN WAR nuaecess peamente costatmanne , --inr have no11-t-ereHt; 'ree 'nenenev- .' 41 er leteeuee? back when by adopting the Cole amend- -.. "Sac. /06A. (a) There is hereby established rivalries may still exist between theArmy , ment- you assigned naval aviation to the a civilian war Agencies Planning commis- and the Navy. Nor have I sufficient, ac--- Navy Department. , ---------le ete I yield to the gentleman from New York. , [Mr. ViraD8WORT1/1. Mr.' 'WADSWORTH. The 'gentleman is very courteous to yield to me. But this bill does not assign any element. It de- scribes the roles and missions. The as- signments are made by the Commander In Chief. - Mr. MecKINNON, Mr. Chairman, I contend that when you place naval avi- ation in the Department of the Navy, that amounts to an assignment of naval aviation to the Department of the Navy. I think that is just as clear as a bell. Of course, if it is the general understand- ing that naval aviation is definitely as- signed to the Navy Department, and as such not subject under any possible con inc - tingency to being assigned to the United Board of such civilian war agencies as in the ever been befcre. States Air Forces, then this amendment opinion of the Commission are essential to ' would not be necessary. Under the the national security. If and when the next war comes, there statements of the gentleman from Ala- "(c) The Chairman of the Commission is will be no time to mare these plans. No bama [Mr. MaNASCO1 and the gentle- hereby authorized, subject to the civil-sere. period of trial and error through which man from New York [Mr. WADSWORTH] ice laws and the Classification :let of 1923, as we have always gone in the past, before the amendment would only be a clarify- nonen may 183:?nmeeesnsasary- settling on methods ior industrial and manpower mobilization?before deter- oare da.uto appernnt :read big one. These men are both members to perform such duties as may be prescribed of the committee and their statements by the Commission in the perfoLmance of its mining who shall do -? tie job. as to the construction of the language, functions. General Eleenhonen has told us that as negotiating any such future assign- "(d) The members of the Commission, the next war will be won or lost within ment of naval aviation to the United while actually so serving, shall receive coin- 60 days. When the next war comes, we States .eir Forces are entitled to great penatition at the rate of $50 a day, but not InUat be able immediately to put into ef - weight. Their statements might make to exceed $14,000 in any one year. "(e) The Commission shall cease to exist fect mobilization plans welch will work. the adoption of this amendment unnec- 2 years from the date a enactment of this I am convinced that if the peacetime essary. t 1 tn for our industrial and economic - The CHAIRMAN. The question is on the substitute amendment offered by the standing of the substitute amendment insert in lieu thereof the following; "; an There was no objection. offered bet the gentleman from Minne- Assistant or Under Secretary from each of as the "Commission") to be composed of tile quaintance - with the matter from the Rion (hereinafter in this section referred Chairman of the Commission, who shall be technical standixdrit r.o. 4:now, whether, en appointed from civilian life by the President, under this bill, the necessary (level:tea by and with the advice and consent of the healthy competition between. the services ee Senate; and such additional civilian members to keep each of them at its peak of 41. n as the President isiiiy designate. ? flciency will be encouraged. As to such' , mission? matters, I must and do accept the judg- "(b) It shall be the duty of the Com- "(1) to investigate and appraise the ment of the fentleffiart item New York Nation's requirements for civilian agencies of [Mr. WADSWORTR] ana others- whose ex- the Government to operate under the direc- perience is far greater than mine. tion of the National Securitiy Resources But there is a feature of this bill, not - Board and to be charged with preparing plans related to unification not related to -- for the civilian aspects of industrial and merger of the services, which leaves Me manpower mobilization for war and with greatly disturbed. time of war or national emergency; and Who will prepare In time of peace the supervising the execution of such plans in "(2) to recommend to the Congress, not plans for industrial mobilization, man- later than 1 year after the date of enact- power utilization, and tne like, which will ment of this act, the permanent establish- be put into effect if war comes? t der the National Security Resources , This question IS More vital than it has act, unless sooner terminatedy oinr lution of Congress." . - cies, but is rather done by the m mobilization is not done by civilian agen- Mr. CASE of New Jersey. Mr. Chair- military, the result will be compietely unworkable. gentleman from Minnesota [Mr. c- matensince I have amen m KINNON3. different sections in this amendment, ? The provisions of tne pending bill, lam The substitute amendment was re- I ask uanimous consent to-proceed for convinced, will result in such planning jected. an additional 5 'minutes. ? being done by the :an eteree - - . . , No. 139-14 eor Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 Approved For ReemetMg/SzACLA-HIMB61mygipo2own:2 My fears as to this were confirmed by .the explanation of the bill so fairly and clearly made by the gentleman from New York this morning. He stated, and I think that I am quoting him correctly, that the Munitions Board would have the function, among others, of constantly studying our industrial capacity, and of making recommendations and plans for ? industrial and economic mobilization to be put into effect on the outbreak of war. If you will turn to section 210 of the bill, commencing on page 26, you will find in paragraph 2, on page 27, that the Munitions Board has the duty, among others, "to plan for t of industrial mobil' paragraph 8, on pag "to maintain liaison meats, and agencies fo lation of military reg civilian economY." --Obviously,: the prop its duties in these tW entire the Munitions mobilization aour en -r'wartime every esPee will necessarily be a The Munitions Chairman, appointed and of an Under ?Elecretagy from each o departments. Now, th be nominally' civilian from our experience d alone,, that they will will express the mint It is Inconceivable th pared by the Munitio products of the mints, Is it necessary for m perience in the last w At the outset the mil dustrial and manpowe to be discarded comple you will remember, ha the Army and Navy M which, as the gentlem stated, the Munitions this bill will be the s dustrial and economic to be planned all ave beginning. Countless tit LY 19 with the actual preparation in detail intention to suggest. a further amend- of the pans which we must have ready ment to the section of the 'eel relating _ when war comes for our industrial and to the Munitions Board. So -,hat the economic mobilization, committee may have a complete picture The amendment which I have offered of my purpose, I would briefly explain my is intended to bring that about and I - Munitions Board amendment: believe that it would do so. It would substitute for _paragraph 2 on The amendment has two parts?first ; page 27, which now charges the Muni- It would make specific the composition times Board with Planning for he mlii- of the membership of the Board. Un- tary aspects of industrial mobilization, a der the bill, as introduced?section 106 provision making it the duty of the Mu- on page 12?the Board would be corn- nitions Board to advise the National Se- posed of a chairman, appointed by the curity Resources Board of military ma- President from civilian life and "such teriel and manpower requiremerts in or- heads or representatives of the various der that they may be integrated into the e military aspects executive departments and independent over-all plans for national industrial and tion." And, in - agencies as may from time to time be manpower mobilization plane which, un- 28,.; it is directed designated by the President." Under , der the amendment now pending, would_ ith other 'depart- my amendment, the other members of be made_ by the National Security Re-- the proper corre- the Board, in addition to the Chairman sources Board and Its subordinate civil- rements with the Appointed by the President, would be an Ian agencies. I said earlier that I.wase - - Assistant or Under Secretary from the convinced that the great nuiierit7 of the r 'performance of, Departments ..of :Agriculture, Commerce, Members -of the 'BOUSe believed; deeply respects wil/. re- _ Interior, and 'Labor, tire Chattinali of tlie in the principle that" the -econotilY, at the, to plan, for thcr-1 Munitions Board already, referred to the - country, in wartime aa -well as iij Ingen-Z-e-tl' economy as in Chairman of the Research andDevelop- time, must be controlled slid directed by of our economy ment Board provided for by another sec- - civilians, I have attempt to point outt litary aspect; ; tion of the bill, and such other members that under the pending hi I there- is at. will consist of a as the President may designate: e,, least gre4 danger that this would not. rani, civilian life,. The The naming, as members of the Na; follow. ? I 15Palleve that it is more than 11:' or. Assistant tional Security Resources Board, of the danger and would be the certain result, the three military ,Chairman of the Munitions Board and and I am not alone in my fear. -0-Elecretarieswill. Chairman of the Research and Develop- The Christian Science MOilit,01, which,. but it is obvious. ' ment Board, both of the latter boards like me, supports the principle of =idea; ing the past war. being dominated by the military depart; ? tion, has dearly expressed the same fear- imbued with and nients, carries with it the implication: . in a number of its recent, editorials, y point of view J and Is so intended, that no other repre- Thus, an May 26, it stated: ? t the plans pre- sentatives of these 'military agencies nee bill ems more than draw a blueirint- Board will not be should be appointed to membership on of , unified direction and better "eariamrk-`. mind. the National _Security Resources Board. for the' military and naval bends:as.- Of recall our ex- It is essential to maintain the civilian much deeper Idgnifiewhee, it id PIC. of bud*. r? character of the National Security Re- legislation which eatabliabea ncw and by tary plans for In, sources Board: _ , whom national policy and the civilian soon-- mobilization had The second point of my amendment ely. These plans is that it creates, as a temporary body, been prepared a Civilian War Agencies Planning Com- bY nitions Board, of mission, consisting of a chairman, ap- from New York pointed from civilian life by the Presi- oard provided by dent, and such additional civilian mem- ccesSor. Our in. bers as the President may designate, mobilization had The Planning Commission would investi- again, from the gate the Nation's requirements for per- manent civilian agencies, to operate un- der the direction of the National Security Resources Board and to be charged with preparing plans for the civilian aspects of industrial and manpower mobilization for war and with supervising the execu- tion of such plans in time of war or na- tional emergency. The temporary Com- mission would be directed to recommend to Congress, within 1 year, the permanent establishment, under the National Secur- ity Resources Board, of such civilian war agencies as the Commission deems es- sential. - The Commission, as I stated, would be a temporary body and would cease to exist 2 years from the date of enactment of the act, unless sooner terminated by joint resolution. The purpose of this part of the amend- ment is obvious. Nowhere in the bill is there clear provision Tor the preparation, In peacetime, by civilian agencies of in- dustrial and economic mobilization plans. My amendment recognizes that principle and provides a method by which it may be made effective. hope that the committee will see fit the gentleman yield? to adopt it. If it is adopted, it is my - Mr. CASE of New Jersey. I yield. eeks and months ? of precious time?time which we will not ted until finally, r, our economic. d, under civilian all the struggles etween the mill- cies as to who e economy? ply does not un- st effective mo- y cannot result hich it instinc- have again?were wa through trial' and err mobilization was effec auspices Is it necessary to re throughout the war, tary and civilian ag should direct the warti The military mind si derstand that the m bilization of our econo from the methods to ? tively turns. , I am sure that near ? that plans for the in ? dustrial power and o erally should be made dltion to. being carried control and by civilian Under the bill, the ? Resources Board is or non is to advise the P lug the coordination o trial, and civilian m merely an advisory a I submit, .be made th y all of us agree bilization of in- resources' gen- yr civilians, in ad- ut under civilian gencies.? ationaI Security ated. Its func- esident concern- military, Indus- binzation. It is nor. It should, agency charged ?my shall be controlled in any nrospeet of war. The editorial continue: We have supported the general proviiions of the merger, particnlarly coordination of foreign PolieY., military pale/ and indus- trial potential. But because tabs aill orig- inated in the thoorirtv of military men, the power it aseigna or permits to the military over national policy and civilian affairs is very great?much greater, we think, than the American people would knowingly choose. - I am sure that a number of the mem? - bers of the committee very honestly be- lieve that my fears in this connection - will not materialize. It is my own equal- ly honest and deep conviction flast the situation presents very groat danger. Should we not take a course which would eliminate any possibility of results which we all would deplore': My amendment offers a way ea avoid that risk. I believe that it is well drawn, and / can say so without embarrassment be- cause it is taken very largely f ,om the carefully prepared bill, IL R, 3979, intro- duced on June 25 by the distil, gUiShed Chairman of the Committee. But, even - - if there should be imperfections in it, in detail, that should not deter anyene from supporting it, since any such defects can, and of course would, be eliminated in - conference with the other body to which this bill, of course, will go III any event. Mr, HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman, will Appr ved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 S. ee - 9615 Appr ved For ReleWag1P4?}2. -RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 .11* RECORD?HOUSE Mr. HOFFMAN. -I may say to the Mr. CASE of New Jersey. May I state Forces Committee. I think: we can as- gentleman from New Jersey that I tried to the gentleman that both the War sure the gentlemen that study will be that same thing in the subcommittee and Department and the Navy Department made at another date. , the committee and did not get anywhere. have stated that it was their purpose Mr. Id:MICHELL,. I thank the-gentle- . Mr. CASE of New Jersey. May I say under unification that the execution of man, but I certainly would like to see . that this amendment is exactly the the plans should be carried out by civilian ? -this spelled out in the present bill toss- amendment which the...gentleman tried agencies similar to the War Manpower much as you provide for It substantially to have approved by the subcommittee Commission, the Office of Defense Trans- in section 206 aad I cannot see wliere_, and the committee; and I am embold- portation, and the like. I would not the addition of my aMendment is going-' ened to repeat the attempt here because -willingly accept management of our ecort- ' to do any ha= end it might possibly be': of the success we have, had with some- in wartime or peacetime by the mill- a very' important stop-gap. - ? what similar amendments offered to the. ., I believe that in. both wartime ' In contrad ..te that, Mr Cludrmane.?'"?e committee this afternoon. - .7' and peacetime it should be managed by this Hbuse has always carefully limited...! ? The" National - Security Resources civilian agencies, and / am very much the scope, tenure' and rntation of Gen-,; Board, a civilian agency, is the outfit afraid that will not be the result under eral Staff officer .in every' Previous Piece ; V, that, under this bill, should have the full this bill. - - ' .'- ' . - of such legislation that has come before Power to prepare all plans for industrial The CHAIRMAN. The question is on us an the subject , in 1903, 1916, and 1920, . -- and manpower mobilization and for the amendment offered by the gentleman to name the most notable occasions. .. - . My amendment would provide for the The amendment was rejected/. ;;.,.-3; pur Joint Staff, as a matter of legisle-'-'1?:? , I suggest. therefore, if we axe to have organizing our natural resources:; ----. -- - - from New Jersey [Mr.: CAW._ ?- creation of a temporary commission to Mr. MITCHELL. Mr. Chairman, tire consistency and in keening with . decide what agencies, subordinate to the offer an amendment- -- - - American traditions, that at least we, , -National- ? Security -'? Resources - Board, The Clerk read as follows:, ' - t" write into section 20e the normal pro-, e should ,be *eluded -as ,. Mk. :part t of the amenaraen,t offered by' Mr zerrcsiges: Page -- -VhdOna for tent irk rotatioro -wad- se0_,Pa 'Pexmanint ;structure- and:, bee thergect- -A tine 12, etrike 'eat tne-periodCaaa inseet:'e , of duties which. we l'ave avian setiorto, -.'? , with, that particular duty,.? e.:-.. wsetrz :Us following: "and inali.hiechosen in rota- e- for the, meat * Mr.liVADSWORTEL: - air --:?-' -chairman. ' ton ? -,'-?..andiaset offniamendartent ... 1. ? l . .... , arm the yield", '' ' ' -..., that the total /service of saw ?facet from the ?three' armed , serviceae moo t ? Mr.,CASE a New JerseY.' r yielalto ....4 as Director of the Joint Staff shall not exceed--; - the gentleman from New York.- -; - -.- -.: com -.4 7 bat? service of ? any officer or Director .4 - in au: Provtded further, Tbat tbe i - Mr- 8MATIIKEUI Mr; rise in SMOriort of the aulendMent,A,- , gentleman- ei,,, ,,--,,, ' Mr WADSWORTH. The -National .' or member of the Joint Staff shall not exceed-1 ferea by 122e gentlilemhz ttcha ilidi5na;47'??, soureci Board to which the gentleman ryears in all - . - - - r e e.- ereett,-*A ' ' 'llahl A nionlent 'Ka the le? lama__ ,_ Irsulli has just_ referred., 1s charged with some . . ' ' - 4 , Michieset iMr. linliffsWe mom* & werf-:.?.---; Mr MITCHELL. Mr Chairman one of these very duties", to fix policiee con- ' ----- - , ; Wise-Observation when he said that.the In connection with the joint' staff , staff would do the Prtacinal- -worrefort?4 cernirefindastrialand civilian mobilize- '-.. point - tion iti order to assure the most effective Which we are setting up imder-weetiort- au the Secretaries and Chairmareiedgedot,thatthla :1. ? . 209 is the vagueness of that o Board, k th 7. *- 'Ar of the Nation'S Manpower in the event language- - - - - . --.,:ehere the Joint Staff wilt do, MOet of _then_ mobilization.. and maximum utilization .. , of war, and determine the relationship For example, Mr. Chairman, - I note , , work for the joint Chiefs at stair.-11 :-.4--- between the potential resources and pa- tenure of duty, or methods of rotation OL stela may chbogp and ,otate, at the : that it fails to specify the qualifications, such is the case, while the Joint, Chiefst,'' . sources, and productive facilities. 7 , , of officers .on the joint staff. These are same tb.,,,,, there ts Jan provision, anima: ' tential requirements for manpower, re- Mn CASE of New Jersey. Mr. Chair- tion with a general staff. You all know indiana, for the rotathnt and the Cb"--' extremely important matters in cornea- been painted out by the gentleman from, ,:.. gentleman from New York that it is the of the rise of the Prussian General Staff, ins of the members of the Joint Staff. man, I svould first-of all point out to the function of the board, the National se- and I might add that one of the most It is possible that the Director of the 'curity Resources Board, to advise con- potent factors in that rise was the fact Joint Staff night be an infantryman cerning these various matters. I find that its officers and its directors were and he could slant and direct all tactics nothing in the bill under consideration allowed to remain undisturbed on gen- along infantry lines_ The result would that authorizes the board to prepare eral staff duty year in and year out, be, whether his policy was right or and make those plans. But in the bill working, planning, studying, and con- wrong, we would pursue that policy Ir- there is an express provision that the triving to dominate the nation, respective of what tho Joint Chiefs of Munitions Board shall have power to Between 1857 and 1906, Mr. Chairman, Staff thought. , ? make plans. It looks very much to me the period in which Germany forged the We know that we need new blood, and as if it had been deliberately planned iron spells which ripped our world apart, if we adopt this anaendment and rotate plans and this civilian commission will Prussian General Staff: Generals Von no danger of us rindring the mistake that that the military board will make the there were but three directors of the the members of the Joint Staff, there is merely advise the President about them, Moltke, Von Waldersee, and Von Schlief- was made by the Joint Staff in France . and I think that is the completely wrong fen. Of these three, Von vv aldersee was when they set up the Maginot Line and approach. I would be glad for further Two ruthless, brilliant, and aggressive did not know anything about aviation or anything ot that kind. SDI heartily unimportant, holding office but 3 years. from the gentleman, effen, actually effected the transition of endorse the amendment enlightenment and further instruction military intellectuals, Moltke and Sclali- Mr. WADSWORTH. I read such an Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman. will Prussia into the agressive, war-monger- interpretation of the functions of the ing state which we have unhappily the gentleman yield? Resources Board as does the gentleman learned t,o know too well, andit was their Mr. SMATIIERS. I li. Id to the gen- from New Jersey, because it has the duty descendants in office who made World tleman from ,tiabama to advise; and, of course, to advise theyMr. MANASCO. It is my understand- would have to plan?to advise the Pres- War II a reality. Mr. MANASCO. Mr. Chairman will lug that the promotion bill passed by ident about industrial and civilian mobi- the gentleman yield? the House a week or two ago, that came lization and manpower problems. Mr. MITCHELL. I yield to the gen- out of Armed Servie C nnroittee, does 'The gentleman's proposal, as I recall, tleman from Alabama. ' contain a provision or rotation of of- was rejected by the committee. Mr. MANASCO. I think that is a iicers. I am not a member of that corn- Mr. CASE of New Jersey. That is car- matter that requires consideration, but I mittee, but I would be glad to have them rect. understood the chairman of the Armed answer that question ' hint that is an Mr. WADSWORTH. The gentleman Forces Committee to say today that his important matter. gives the power of execution to a board, committee is going to study this ques- Mr. DX:M.)3AM. Mr. 3ha1rman, will and all through this bill we have de- tion. It is a matter we did not feel was the gentleman Yield? -... dined to give powers of execution to these in the jurisdiction of our committee be- Mr. SNIATIIERS I yield to the gen- boards. cause it should be left to the Armed ' tleman from North Carolina,. -- \ Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R0.00100020003-2 9616 ?)' _ Approved For Rel9gAgRIMMIRAAEFITMIttpi_11416M1:90020003-2 1k, Mr. DURHAM. _ It certainly was the Intention, of the committee to set up this promotion list in the bill we passed a few - weeks ago. Whether or not it cures the particular point under discussion here, I am not in a position to say, but cer-.; talnly that Was the intention ofe.the Armed Service Committee. I see the chairman on the floor at the present time, who can probably, enlighten us on that subject. Mr. SMATHERS. In any event,' Mr. Chairman everybody agrees that there should be rotation, so in order to be safe. let us adopt this amendment, and then if the Armed Services Committee wants to make further changes, they can do so, but let us adopt this amendment and assure ourselves of rotation. Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. Chairman, r rise in opposition to the amendment Mr. Chairman, I yield at this time to the Chairman of the Armed Services C.ommitten on that point., ? =1". a.. Mr. "ANDREWS Of Nevi. Ydrk:. I have no Idea, orttiffagreellig tObe amendment. except that any study oftthe promotion. bill passed by the House for .the Ana* or the Navy, off the present set-up, you understands' a matter purely within the provirice of the ruleffand regulations of the Department that pass through the = Armed Services Committee., ' the gentleman yield? .? , Mr. HOLIFIELD iiielefin the gen- tleman from Indiana ? Mr. MITCHELL.' Tbagentleman 'says he has no objection to the amendment. e Mr. ANDREWS of New York. It is a matter, as I'seelt. not within the province of this bill. : That is a matter for legis- lation by the Armed Services Committee upon the direction of the Department, and that is the sort of legislation we are making all the time. Mr. MITCHELL. It pertains particu- larly to section 209. It prevents the per- manency of holding office. That is the thing I wanted to get away from. Mr. ANDREWS of New York. That Is prevented automatically. Mr. MITCHELL. Then what is wrong with writing it in this bill? Mr. HOLIFIELD. Mr. Chairman, we have been very careful on the Committee on Expenditures of the Executive De- partments not to go into the field of the Armed Services Committee regarding promotions,. tours of duty, pay, and so forth. All of those questions come with- in the province of that committee. I think the members of the committee are in sympathy with the purposes of the gentleman's amendment, but I submit that this particular subject should be the subject of inquiry by the Armed Services Committee and hearings should be held on it, and that it should be given that attention by the committee which they normally would give. I ask that the amendment be voted down. Mr. HOFFMAN-. Mr. Chairman, I ask unanimous consent that all debate on this amendment and all amendments thereto do now close. . The CHAIRMAN. Is there objection ' to the request of the gentleman from Michigan? There was no objection. leY 19, The CHAIRMAN. The question Is on son here will agree with me that Secre- the amendment =offered by the gentle- man from Indiana [Mr. Mreciezei]. The question was taken; and on a` division (demanded by Mr. Mrrcann.e)., there were?ayes 37,. noes 117. ? $o the amendment was rejected. tary Patterson, Secretary Forresial, and Secretary Royall, or any of the persons who have been occupying those positions or will occupy them in the future, are entitled to be cOnsldered as heads of departments and to receive the pay ? Mr. CLASON. Mr. Chairman, I offer thereof. All I am askingle that they be an amendment. acknowledged as having the right to the ' The Clerk read as follows;. ; pay of the head of an executive depart--, ?+1 Amendment offered by Mr.. Ceesorr: On- ment, as provided On pages rand 18. of F. page 31. strike out all at line 2 and insert this bill. In fairness to them, . the compensation prescribed by law for heads of executive departments." . they ought to get $15.000. I do not want .? to be one of those to .:ut the pay f either (Mr. CLASON asked and was given Mr. Forrestal or LE. Royal', for I feel permission to revise and extend his re- each of them is entitled to every cent he marks.) - e.. is getting and a whole lot more.,. Mr. HOP1FMANei Mr. Chairman. :-/ The CHAIRMAN. The Chair ieeog-- ask unanimous crinsent that all debate nizes the gentleman from. Indian ea [Mr.' on on this amendment and all amendments Heim:M]. thereto close in 7 minutes, 5 minutes to Mr. HARNESS of Indiana. MI Chair- be allotted to the gentleman, from man. I hope this amendment will be-, Massaehusetts. 7-eet, t.',1 voted down. We are not Legislating here ,te -The CHAIRMAN, Xe thererObJeCtinne' for, any particular individuals whet.may ? to tha request of ?ittie gentleetuen,i fronte:be in office. ?After EU,. the two- Cabin Michigan?..numbed the Sedretarr of Wier and There was no 'objecilon ee.=,:e?eet ee- Secretary of the Navy are arrant us 2? Mr ." MASON. Mt Chairmane' the adept this legislation. The committee purpota of my amendment is ta give to gave careful consideration to reducing1,1 the Secretary of the Arnfee the Secretary " the pay from $15,000 -a this figure of $14.--(es - of the Navy, and the Secretary of the, 500, for thesolepurPnanof ?tistinglnahing Air Force the pay of $15,000 a year. At ? between, Cabinet members to the axial. the present time we have two Mourn- : ?tive department and the heads of thee eleetits; one of whom may move up of both ? ?neW Departments of War; Navy. and Aire` - oy wlibm may not move up. Each of There has been some nivel:Mr raised - them Is a very well qualified 'man and:':here as to whether le not these three new Is more than earning the $15,000-a year - department heads would become mem- he is receiving. ' ? - eeei, hers of the President's Ckblnet. This, in On page 30, section 301 Ca), it is pro-. itself, answers that. ciliation. Five bleue....e. vided: , - ete, dred dollen; a year Jr not the drag that le The Secretary of Defense shall receive the IS involved_ It Is not 4 queaten of money. compensation prescribed by law for heads It 18 it question of estabilaritng ft policy. `. of executive departments. I hope the members will stand by the committees bill. Each one of these other Secretaries is coThe CHAIRMAN. The triestion is on the head of an executive department, by the provisions of bill. the amendment offered by the gentleman this On page 8 it is stated: from Massachusetts [Mr. CLASON). - That the Department of the Army, the The amendment was rejected. ? Department of the Navy, and the Depart- Mr. OWENS. Mr Chairman I offer ment of the Air Force shall be administered an amendment. ?. as individual expcutive departments. The Clerk read as follows: Amendment offered by Mr. Owarts: Page On page 18 ft is provide& 5, line 12, after the period, insert "That There is hereby established an executive such recommendations or reparts shall, upon department to be known as the Department request, also be made ,o the SpeakPr of the of the Air Force, and a Secretary of the Air House of Representatins and to the Pres. Force, who shall be the bead thereof. ident of the Senate; provided that said In- On page 30 we provide that the Secre- formation shall be confidentiel end not of . " tary of Defense shall receive the corn- public record. pensation prescribed by law for heads of Mr. PIOIPFMAN. Mr. Cbairman, will executive departments. According to the gentleman yield' this bill, each one of the other Secretaries Mr. 01701:NS. I yield. Is the head of an executive department. Mr. HOFFMA/q. Mr. Chairmen, I ask I feel that each one, even though he is unanimous consent that debate on this not to have the Cabinet position, and amendment and all amendments there- even though by this bill, under an amend- to, and substitutes -herder close in 5 ment thereto that was adopted this after- minutes. noon, he is no longer in the line of suc- The CHAIRMAN. /s there objection cession, Is certainly entitled as the head to the request of the gentleman from of one of these three great departments, Michigan? which are going to be so important in the There was no objection. lives of every one of us, to receive the Mr. OWENS. Mr Chairman I had pay of the head of an executive depart- not Intended to take but a moment to ment inasmuch as they hold that job un- explain the amendment. But I under- der this bill. ?' stood the amendment was acceptable. Under this provision on page 31, the They told me when I submitted the compensation they are now receiving as amendment that it would be acceptable. ? the Secretary of War and the Secretary Mr. Chairman, yoe have heard quite of the Navy will be cut from $15,000 to a few remarks about amendments to $14,500 a year. I am sure every per- change commas and words arid o forth. Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 President of the Senate, ne to them, and it shall be confidential and of the British Commonwealth. If not of recorcePso that they will at least wiser to leave the air arm of the Navy as have the information and be able to act a part 'of the Navy, then why should we upon it should it be necessary. :That is divide the two highly effective parts of i. really a safeguard which the people need our Army which brought victory by their , in a bill like this. As I said when I gave unified command and close cohesion It to the committee members of each.? when launched against our late enemies? ?body, they agreed readily to the' amend- I would not have you think that I do not fully appreciate the importance of ment because they could see se agreed to and that the felt aa antended of thejamerelmeete .' I was not even pre.% the air arm in the situation that faces do pass. - :Pare to argue itefiut i now ask you t-the secifritl ef-ahis country today, -In Mr_ HOFFMAN. Mr- 4Ptelr.er, I move Use good judgment In baying the evaluating our -national defense estab- , the previous questiOn. Same friformationcWhich is giVen,to the e lishment, we must come down to they ..., The previous question ents'ordered.. President: giveretto our Speaker end thee, practical business of analyzing' Just what The BPEAXER. Is a. Separate( vote President of thi Senate when they make " " enemy we are likely to fight, should the demanded on any amendment? If note- requeet for the Same, . -1`.ie , - tee, e ::: ,s great. tragedy cofae ?of our being forced the Chair will put them en gross._ , e" ,z. why, should stick in amendment he Into another war. I. think all of us ; The amendments were agreed to. defeatede Task you to vote for it. - have to agree that there Lebut one nation , , _-__ The spEezele. The gliesan Is on The CHAIRMAN. --The question is on frcim whom we may have any cause to ' the engrossment and third reading. of the he amendment offered by the gentleman ' anticipate an attack. - - That attack is bile reereemeete Dere eeseeeree, ? etee eerti, i bound to come by the air. for compared' The bill was ordere, t.o be engrossed The amendment . was rejected.. ' ,? t ' ' to ours It has no navy in size even to be , and read a third time, and was read the - Mr.. GOFF. Mi. Chairmane 1' think ' thought of as a threat, and navies are not third time. t has long been the hope of the maJority ? built in the matter of a few months or The eamegea The. question la on. - .. f our citizens that we shou4 have a could IA. in the ease of Russia, in a mat- the passage of the bilL ? - . _ unification or mexger of our arriled sell,- ter of years. I say again that the at- t The bill wag passec. ORD-HOUSE 9617 1947 . -Approved For RelcaWgiag?i?;91\Tak-R%P&-00610R00010002000_3-2 , I am not asking you to do that. I am want lathe most effective means to guar- able enOugn, and our Preeident will be pointing out that this bill would create antee our national security. But I do not strong and able eaough, to ferce a uni- a council such as we have not had in the see how the efficiency of our defense es- fication which is lacking by the terms history of our Government. There has tablishment can be increased by setting of the bill that we now nave before us. not been one word said about the Con- up a new and separate department, with Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Chairman. I gress, the representatives of the people all its complicated staff organization, and move that the Committee do now rise themselves, having one word to say about distinctive uniforms for the members of and report the bill back tr, the House with the Piens that are being made 1 year or this new agency. You can be sure that sundry amendments, with the recom- 2 or Mr 4 years ahead. BY this amend- one of the first steps taked by this new mendation that the ameniments be merit rsay that the recommendations department veil be to presciebe an en- agreed to and the bill, A.; ainended, _do - and reverts that are Marie to the Fred- . tirely different uniform-from that used pass. dent shall, upon request of the Speaker in the Army or the Navy, with new titles The motion was agreed to. of the House of Representatives or the for the different grades, similar to what Accordingly the Committee rose; and d has been the case in the Royal Air Forces the Speaker having resumer, the chair. f Solite Dakota, Chairman of the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union, reeorted that that Committee, having had under con- , sideration the bill H. R. 4214, directed him to report the same bark to the House with sundry amendraenee with the rec- ommendation that the emendments be 11 iceseeeUnfort, unately, the bill before us -tack, if it comes, will be by air; over the A motion to reccauncier was laid on the fallserar 'short Of' trununification,lxid polar cap, and that is why I spoke so trongly for am increase in the House Ti table. when, analyzed, does not, except in small measure, accomplish that purpose. One appropriation for the construction of . weakness is that it actually creates a planes, when the Wee Department ap- whole, new separate department, with propriation bill was .&,fore this body. . a new Secretary for Air, and superim- In my view, for the next two decades poses a new super secretary with his war with Russia will' almost entirely de- staff over our already complicated estab- Pend on whether eve maintain an air- lishinents to. maintain the security of striking force superior to that of Russia. t ea- It will be far cheaper for this country to ds our country. It Is bar how it can be called unification, when it provides for four secretaries, instead of two, and when it adds an entirely new department,. The bill merely compli- cates our present arrangement and makes it cost more. As I say this, I am fully aware of the tremendous contribu- tion to victory made by the Army and Navy air arms. The coordination of the air d round units of our Army and Navy was the major factor in our victory, and I cannot see why we should jeopard- possible. ire that close cooperation by deliberately We should not forget, when we are providing for a separation, when we have thinking about setting up a separate air the lessons of World War II so close at force, that there is ample basis for the ? hand. Remember that the Germans had belief that the real striking force in the a separate air force, and it seems to me ' future war will be by guided missiles or we are taking. a step backward rather by planes which fly without human pilots. than forward if we destroy the close The planes in which human pilots sit at controls may come to be only troop- nsa spend the major part of its e e for planes and guided missiles in the sure hope and expectation that they will never have to be used and, from time to time, be discarded as obsolete. We will have no war if we can maintain air superiority over the Russians until by education and agreements sincerely en- tered into on both sides, war is at last abandoned as a method of settling dis- putes and uniform disarmament becomes The SPEAKM nder the order ore the House, the Clerk will report the Sen- ate bill, S. 758. The Clerk read the :itie of the Senate bill. Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. speaker, pur- suant to the unanimeus-consent agree- ment. I offer an amendment to the bill S. '758, to strike out all after the enact- ing clause and insert the provisions of H. R. 4214, as passed by the House. The Clerk read as follows: Amendment offered. 07 M. Horraistz: Strike out all liter the ent?cting clause of S. '758 and insert the provlswna of H. Be all, as amended. The amendment wae ag ?eed to. The Senate bill was ordered to be read a third time, was reaa third time, and passed, and a motion to reconsider was laid on the table. The title was amended so as to read: 'To promote the natior, at security by providing for a Secretary of Defense; for a National Military Estatlishment; for a Department of the Army, a Department of the Nary, arid a Depart merit of the Air ? the as is provided in the committee bill, carrier planes, in which our forces will Force; and for the coordination a unity between our own air and land arms ' Certainly, such an arrangement cannot be transported, to follow up and complete activities of the National Military Estab- promote economy, and there is no use the full exploitation of the devastating lishment with other departments and spending more to provide a less efficient effects of an aerial bombardment. agencies of the Government concerned organization simply because we have let I hope this House will not vote to with the natonal securil Y." our admiration for the great service ren- create a separate air force. However, Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Speaker, I ask dered by our aviators run away with our if it should do so, I intend to vote for unanimous e,onsert that in engrossing more sober judgment. the bill, but this only because of the hope the bill, H. P, 4214. the Clerk may be au- Economy alone should not, of course, that in case of war the new Secretary thorized and instructed to make the nec- be the major consideration, for what we of National Defense will be strong and essary corrections in page numbers, see- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2 9618 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD-HOUSE J1: 19 - Approved For Reledasii2093/04/02 ? lion numbers, e CIA-RDP9?-00619RONINgOLMt-e2 ' subs ction numbers, an ona defense 'purposes a s rong, - a ee recede from its amend- ficient, and properly maintained Nation- wide system of public airports, and for other purposes. The SPEAKER. Is, there objection to the request of the gentleman from Michigan? - - There was )20 objection. correct typographical errors. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Mich- igan? There was no objection, :17 EXTENSION OP, REMARKS Mr. BUM,. Mr. Speaker,I ask unan- imous consent to revise, and extend the remarks /made earlier toddy in the Com- mittee of the . Whole and4.,to Include therein extraneous matter. '14's?,/,?,;?'??.?? Mr. KEARNEY asked and Was given perrnisison to revise and .extend-Jais. re? - marks. - ? - Mr. PATTERSON asked and was given permission to extend his remarks in the CONTINUATION OP MORATORIUM STA.rules. 3111C)21ENER. zeliir. Speaker. I ask unanimous consent for the immediate ments numbered 14. fte 38, 97 93. 103, 117. 118, 119, 120, 123. 126. 127, 15a, Ak. ris, 174, and 175. ? That the House recede from ..ts lisagree- ? meat to the amendments of the Senate num- bered 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11, 12, 15, 21, 23, 23, 24, 25. 26, 27, 23, 32, 33, 35, 36, V. 38, 41, 42, 43, 46, 47..45, 50, 51. 52. 53. 54. 55, 56. 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63, 63, 66, 67, 69. 70, 71. ',Z. 71;174, 75, 76, 'Ti, 79, 80, 89, 99, 102 106, 107, 110, 111, 112, 115, 116, 121,123, 131, 122, 133. 1.3e. 13e, 129, 142, 147, 15%. 154, 15e, 157. 158, 159, un, 163. 165, 170, and 172, and agree to the asine. consideration of S. 1508, to amend the Amendment number -ci 3: That the House act entitled "An act to express the intent nierefteet of tm its disagreement to the amend- cif the Congress with reference to the enberedn3, aid agree to it'iu_o heSwiSetnah ant. "111 t es follows: regulation of the business of insurance," Restore the matter Istricket. on: by said approved March 9, 1945 (59 Stat. 33).? - amendment amended to read as follows: Appendix of the RECORD and include an The Clerk read the title of the bill. . ": Provided fart/ter, That put to exceed $50.00D of this appropriation may he used for article from the Saturday Evening Post The SPEAKER. Is there objection to of July 19 1947: ?? the request - of the gentlemen from the philetell et Pewer lied" the ?1174 t'he ' Secretary": and the Senate are te the same. ? Mr. CASE of New Jersey and Mr. Mac- Michigan? ?Amendment numbered 9: That the House KINNON asked. and were given- Fermis- There being no objection, the 'Clerk recede from itedisegreeraent to the amend- , sion to revise and extend the _remarks read the bill, as.tollows: -; ? pent of the Senate hunbered 9. and agree-' ei,leymade earlier in the Aay, - the crpm- Be is enacted, etc., That ttie act entitled to the. fame with an arAendinent follows. ef the ' ;4,`Azt act erprese the-intent:of the Congress,: ' the' aura Prenatal De said amend.: With referen,cfetei theregulation bf, the busts, Meat insert '11.900,0047, Matt theigVte eNiTRIDT, ? anwas per--, on *elite "remarks In e An-. at aaaa at Insurance; approved Much 9 1945,i ppaentwdrixedtortotteatExcon,,,, ,,n8414:417.140,d4it,..newov Are.ita:seeausudeld 194ense.mmawh out the 'words agreetAmelat4dIseethl 1St ;-0.-1:"LthelralLtr. Mr ? ?-? iamb. act, and they- appear In , ay.= re:cart/JR.; asked and inserting in lien ;needs from its disagreement 'teethe .theTepf.ithe , merit of the Senate numbered -13, ear:grt- was given marwiniiige-77,-47)--pen to rArrit!. - . - the. same with an aras0403e t - Oa 0 iiacHErnat.: Ntr? the "ml is Zonal": * PrePovee kr said amend- and?Include an editorial from bill NewsWeek *Used the Senate On Jul"! Speaker- tine to=ne '"18;8?6143?': "et ta Senate Game to the,Hotisei Th15 simply, a c011--ee,e,..-- Amendment numbered 19: That the House 1121Clekelats tbioistiork- of thei:...rharatorioro. ? rade front its diespeement tc. the amendeee?,7.:?: '?Mr.,. DAVIS- of:Cleorgia askeit.avirj Was -i, statnta expires_on the 1st day mentuf the Senate ntnnbered 19. 'and' agree.4.? , - given' permission t.r.c extend hi.s remarks January, ig4g, and -tiada continues the ' mmtnr,?ta the 6117'Zlirith an anlandnle-nsickan etel follows: In the ?Appendbroffthe lkatcow ttntkin-, life,?of the present,motatorium statute _ amended -a read as follows; - IJklb/i June 30 1940-' "-- eConstructiont The funds appropiated for" elude' a resolution... -4 4 _an Mr. BUCHANAN aged. j4 Wen a p s on, clary Committee to which the bill was- Appendix of the. ORD and include, an referred. They are unanimous in favor- editorial froth the? New York Tim.es en- - titled? "Garnbling With Ing the report except three who are out of the city. The gentln from Penn- Mr. EVINS asked and-was given per- sylvania r. member of mission to extend his remarks in the Ap- " the minority, is here, and is prepared to - pendix of the Meow) and inchade-- an - make any statement required. I have - article. Mr. BLA'INIK asked and was given permission to-extend his remarks in the Appendix of the RECORD and include two resolutions. ? ? Mr. SCHWABE of Missouri asked and was given permission to extend his re- marks in the Atpendix of the RECORD In two instances. BILL, 1948 PERMISSION TO PILE CON- PERENCE - Mr. BRADLEY asked and was given REPORT permission to extend his remarks in the Mr. TABER. Mr. Speaker, I ask Appendix of the RECORD and include an unanimous consent that the managers on the part of the House may have until midnight tonight to file a conference re- port and stateInent on the bill (H. R. the RECORD with regard to the unifica- 3123) making appropriations for the De- tion bill just passed and that they may Partment of the Interior for the fiscal appear in the RECORD just prior to the motion that the Committee rise. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from Idaho? ' There was no objection. ? I have polled the members of the Judi- the Saud- year -10e1 (Interior repartment APPraPrtathut Act, .1947),, are hereby eon- 'e tinned available during the fecal year '1948 , to meet obligations incurred In contract or ' contracts duly executed and le tercet on or before June 30, 1947: ?or adramistrative cx- peosee connected therewith: Ilene:ling pur- chase of live, and hire of passenger motor vehicles: for temporary @emcee ae author- ized by section 15 of the Act of euenst 2, 1946 (Public Law 600), but at rates not exceeding $35 per diem for individuals: or siting and binding; for the purchase or aequ.sition of necessary lands for rights-of-way and neces- sary engineering and supervise-.'t of the con- struction under said contracts: wail for the construction of neoneary intnexnnecting facilities incident to Led conn, ,eted with the construction of the Denison-nu-fork trans- mission lint," -.And the Senate agree to the sem-. ? Amendment numbered 20: That the House recede from its disagreement -r the amend- raent of the Senate numbered 10 end agree to the same with an amendinert a: follows: /n lieu of the sum pronosed ze sate amend- ment insert "81.175.000"; and the Senate agree to the same. Amendment numbered 99: That the House recede from its disagreement -e to.' amend- ment of the Senate numbered 29 nd agree to the same with an amendment ae follows: In lieu of the sum proposed be sale amend- ment insert "63,500,090"; and the Senate agree to the same. Amendment numbered 30: That the House recede from Its disagreement',- te amend- ment of the Senate numbered en end agree to the same with an amendmert as, follows: In lieu of the sunr proposed bv said amend- ment insert "$11,139,"00"; and the Senate agree to the same. also consulted with the majority leader and the minority leader. The bill was ordered to be read a third time, was read the third time, and passed, and a motion to reconsider was laid on the table. INTERIOR DEPARTMENT APPROPRIATION article from the Press Telegram. Mr. GOFF. Mr. Speaker, I ask unani- mous consent to extend My remarks in PERMISSION TO PILE REPORT Mr. HOFFMAN. Mr. Speaker, I ask unanimous consent-to file supplemental report No. 958, part 2, on the bill (S. 364) to expedite the disposition of Govern- ment surplus airports, airport facilities, and equipment and to assure their die- .position in such manner as will best en- courage and foster the development of civilian aviation and preserve for na- year ending June 30, 1948, and for other purposes. The SPEAKER. Is there objection to the request of the gentleman from New York? There was no objection. The conference report and statement follow: CONFEMENCII IMPORT The committee of conference on the dis- agreeing votes of the two Houses on the amendments of the Senate to the bill (H. R. 3123) making appropriations for the Depart- ment of the Interior for the fiscal year end- ing June 30, 1948, and -for other purposes, having met, after full and free conference, have agreed to recommend and do recom- mend to their respective Houses as follows: Amendment numbered 31: That tne House recede from its disagreement -r?' tee amend- ? ment of the Senate numbered 31, : nd agree to the same with- an amendrneet al follows: /n lieu of the sum pre nosed be sell amend- Approved For Release 2003/04/02 : CIA-RDP90-00610R000100020003-2