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Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 USSR Energy Atlas Central Intelligence Agency January 1985 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90T01298R000200310001-8 l~~~l------- C~ll~l-----IBS USSR Atlas NOT MICROFILMED Fm Deb Ef*I Central Intelligence Agency January 1985 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90T01298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 The USSR is the largest country in the world and the second-largest producer and consumer of energy. Its vast landmass and adjacent continent.fl shelves contain enormous energy resources. Only in recent years, however, has the extent of the exploration and development of its fuel resoLrces spanned the entire country. A nationwide quest for new energy sources has rapidly outdated Soviet energy maps. Names like Samotlor, Fedorovo, Urengoy, Kansk-Achinsk, and Ekibastuz have become as well known to Soviet energy planners as Baku, Romashkino, Orenburg, and Donets were a decade or two ago. Likewise, the construction of oil and gas pipelines, electric transmission lines, roads, railroads, and towns has required extensive development of remote aicas of Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Siberia, and the Far East. Soviet energy is a strategic issue that transcends international boundaries. Soviet oil and gas exports have increasingly become available to Western buyers since the 1970s, and the Soviets also import large amounts of Western equipment and technology to upgrade the capabilities of the domestic energy industry. This atlas uses it wide variety of information to portray many aspects of Soviet energy. Maps, graphics, photographs, and text provide a general understanding and appreciation of the major Soviet energy resources-oil, gas, coal, and primary electricity as well as minor fuels and alternative energy sources. Landsat photo on page Iv. All others: TASS from SOVFOTO, further reproduction must be approved by SOV'101O The representation of international boundaries on the maps is not necesarily authoritative. The United States Government has not recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the USSR The s iuthern islands of the Kurils-Ostrov Iturup, Ostrov Kunashir, Shikotan-To, and Habomai Islands are acupicd by the USSR but claimed by Japan. I his publicat on is prepared for the use of I IS Government officials, and the format, coverage, and conic it arc designed to meet their specific requirements. LIS Government officials may obtain additional copies of the document directly or through liaison channels from the Central Intelligence Agency. Req,icsters outside the I s Government may obtain subscriptions to CIA publications similar to this one is addressing inquiries to Doc Invent I~xpediting (1)0('FX) Project I xchangc and Gift Division I ibrary of Congress Washington, 1) 1 20540 Nat oral technical Information Service s28'- Port Royal Road Spri iglicld, VA 22161 Regitcstcrs outside the IIS Government not interested in subscription service may purchase specific puhlirttions either in pater copy or microform from: Phot(xtuplication Service I ibr iry of Congress Washington, 1) ('. 2(1541) National I echnical Information Service S28` Port Royal Road Spri igtield, VA 22161 To -xpedite service call the NITS Order Desk (703) 487-4650) Sup. nntendcnt of Documents I IS ( iovernment Printing Office Washington. I) C 2041)2 Stock number 041-0I5-00 1 5 7-4 USSR: Energy Overview ........... 4 Domestic and International Issues ........ ..... ..... . 4 Energy Decisionmaking .......... ...................... .............. . 4 Energy Balances ......................... _. _.... _. ...... ........ _..... 6 The Energy Mix......... .... _. _. 6 Conservation and Substitution ..... 7 Foreign Markets _........... _.... ......_ .................. ............. ... 8 Hard Currency. .... _ ..... .....8 Trading Partners ......... .... ............. ...... ...... ... 8 International Energy Projects ......................... 10 Siberia-to-Western Europe Natural Gas Pipeline... .. 10 Sakhalin Oil and Gas Project ......................... I South Yakutia Coal Project ................... I I Fuel Resources ............... _ 12 Oil and Gas ...... ....._ ........... ......_..... .............. .. 14 Oil Reserves._ ...... ..... ............... ....... ....... .._........ 14 Natural Gas Reserves .......... 15 Gas Condensate .......... ........ 15 The West Siberian Oil and Gas Region .... 16 Other Major Oil and Gas Regions 20 Production and Consumption ._ ................ 22 Exploration ......................................................... .... ... 24 Drilling .._...... __._....__.._............ _........... ........... 26 Recovery .... ....... ...... ...._....... ..... _ 28 Oil Refining and Gas Processing ... 30 Pipelines ...... .......................... ............ ...._ 32 Coal .... ........... ..... .............................._ 34 Resources and Reserves...........__....._ _...___ ........ ..__ 34 Production and Consumption ............ .... 36 Mining and Technology ....... ............ . 38 Transportation ............................................... ............ 40 Uranium and Thorium ._............ .............................._ 42 Minor Fuel Resources ........................_ 44 Oil Shale ._ ................................_.. 44 Tar Sands.. .............................._................... 45 Peat ..... ............. ......... ........._.. 45 Fuelwood ........._ .........................._ ........... . ..... 45 Electric Power _ ..................................... .... 46 Electric Power Administration ......... ... ... _ . 46 Production and Consumption ........ _ ............. ...... ...... 46 Thermal Power ................ ........ ........ ... ..... 48 Hydroelectric Power ............................ ...... 50 Resources .... ...... .... .............. ...... ....... ....... ...... .. 50 Hydroelectric Power Stations ........ ... .............. 50 Power Production .._....._...... ...... ..._. ........ 50 Regional Summary of Hydropower Development ...... 51 Nuclear Power ...... ................... .......... ........... ...........__....... 52 District Heat Systems .......... ......... _. ..... ___..... _...._.. 53 Power Transmission ..... ....... _......... __......... ... 54 Power for Remote Areas ........_....... _._ ........................... 58 Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies .................... 60 Coal-Based Synfuels .......................... _.. ..... ......... .......... 60 Solar Energy ........ _ ..................... _.... _...... _. ............ .. 61 Wind Energy ........ .... ............. ......... ....... 62 Tidal Power .... ........................ ..... ..... _....._....._ 63 Geothermal Energy ..................... . ... 64 .. .................... ..... . . . . Magnetohydrodynamic Power .............. . Thermonuclear Fusion .... _......... ._..... _ ........ ............ _......... .. 65 Measures/Major Oil and Gas Fields and Refineries .......... 66 Major Electric Power Stations ......... ................ ............._ 67 Gazetteer and Index ....... ...... ....... ...... ....... .... ........ .._..._ 68 Administrative Divisions .................. _..... _ ............. _.......... 79 Reference Map ........... ............ ........... ..... ......... ..... ...._..... Insert Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 USSR: Energy Overview The I USSR is better endowed with energy re- sources than any other country in the world. It is the world's largest oil producer and has the largest oil reserves outside the Persian Gulf region. Soviet gas reserves are the largest in the world, and the USSR is also the world's leading gas producer. Coal resources are enormous, although most are unfavorably located at great distances from consuming centers. Electric pow- er output, generated largely from thermal sources, ranks second to the United States. Moscow's desire to maintain steady economic growth requires an expanding energy resource development program as reflected in the I I th Five-Year Plan (1981-S ). The focus of the current effort is to continue the expansion of \Vest Siberian oil and gas development, acceler- ate nuclear- power plant construction in the I~uropean USSR, and further exploit vast Cen- tral Siberian coal resources. In addition, the Soviets hope to increase the efficient use of' these primary fuels through new programs for energy conservation and fuel substitution. I`ncrgy exports are the principal source of Soviet hard currency earnings. Revenues from exports to y\ cstern countries permit the acquisition of equipment and technology for a variety of Soviet activities: particularly important are energy ef- forts to increase oil recovery, transport natural gas, and exploit offshore energy resources. Fnergy investment is surging as the Soviets attempt to meet growing energy demand through investments in new production areas and maintenance and enhancement of produc- tion From established regions. Costs are rising as exploration and production move into the more remote eastern regions of the I-SSR and operat- ing conditions become more difficult. Oil and gas exploration in Tyumen' Oblast, West Siberia. Foreign equipment being used to mine Central Siberian brown coal. Domestic and International Issues Energy Decisionmaking '['he driving force behind Soviet energy policy is Moscow's desire to remain self-sufficient in energy while increasing hard currency earnings from energy exports. As the Soviets themselves have often noted, "The Soviet Union is currently the only highly developed country in the world meeting all of its own fuel and energy needs from its own resources." In 1983 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) adopted a long-range en- ergy program that provides guidelines for ener- gy resource development and exploitation until the year 2000. Its emphasis is on: attaining an optimal energy mix through substitution of nat- ural gas, nuclear power, and coal for oil; devel- oping new sources of energy, such as geother- mal, solar, wind, and tidal: improving and expanding the energy infrastructure, continuing the development of oil and gas in West Siberia and their transport to the F.uropean part of the county; and increasing fuel and energy conser- vation by means of technological improvements and improved utilization of existing resources. Responsibility for energy matters in the USSR is shared among a number of key party and government organizations. The Politburo of the CPSU, the highest decisionmaking body in the USSR, determines the country's basic energy Construction of nuclear power reactor in the I'krainian SS R. Offshore drilling technology' is acquired.iront energy export revenues. research, development, and production policies. In the face of severe problems, the Politburo can act unilaterally to redirect energy policy or shift the allocation of resources necessary for its implementation. Much of the formulation of these energy policies actually occurs in the Presidium of the Council of Ministers, the Sec- retariat of the Central Committee of the CPSU, and the USSR State Planning Committee (Gos- plan). These three groups advise the Politburo, provide guidance on energy policy and manage- ment to lower levels, and collectively serve as a high-level forum for discussions of alternative strategies. Like the Politburo, they are con- cerned with integrating energy policy into a broader economic and political framework. A significant contribution to the decisionmaking process is made by the state committees and ministries directly involved in implementing en- ergy policies. These organizations possess a level of technical expertise that is largely missing at higher levels. They provide assessments of re- source issues and production capabilities and give continuity to energy policies. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Presidium of I'SSR Council of \linistccs Slalc ( on)[uillec lirr Slalc Planning Sr icnrc ;Ind Cunlnlillcc I -, hrnolortx ((i KNI) I( losplatl ) Organizations With Primary Responsibility for :nergy Production and Management I SSR lcadem) of Sciences. Oyersces research )It new cncrgs sources and dcyclopnnent of new methods of energy resource production Energy-Rcla ed ( ommiuees State Committee for Science and I echnolog) (GKN I) %-I L, Sets rrergs research and devclopnlcnt priorities; er rlu;lles research ;rod dcxelopnrent proposals from the \cademy of Sciences and the production ministries, assists n ic,juisiliov of foreign technology; administers scientific aril technics exchanges with foreign countries. Stale I'lanning (ommitlee (Gosplan) (I '-RI. Coordinates five- \r.11 plans in all Iields, including energy: nrakes and oversees plan, lrr energyrelelcd departments, including geology and nrincr,rl resources, coal, petroleum and gas industries, power and eleclrilication. ;rnd transport. serves as a consultant on cried:', policy State (onunittee for I seful Mineral Reserves (GK/.I (A-t 1. Reviews geologic data from exploratory wells to certify reserves and reservoir properties; establishes coefficients of rvrae on In. Ies of recovers for petroleum and condensate; cl.tssilies penolcum arid gas reserves, has final approval for held drilling Bans subnnitted by Minisirs of the Petroleum, ma nl;tin1 rescryc ,locks of petroleum and fuels. State Committee for the Supply of Petroleum Products l -RI. (Boon es the procurement, storage, and distribution of petroleum products Including those destined for export, ariministcrs I etnrlelrrn pipelines and storage bases, monitors IndustIi;rl us( of petroleum products. State (onmtiltee for the I'tili,ation of Atomic Power t(;K t ( t-I ). \drrrinisters civilian atomic energy pro- granu; conduce joint research proiccts with foreign countries State (ommilteeIo Supervise Work Safety in the Atomic Power Industry (A-I ). I stablishes and enforces standards for nuclear power plant safely and radioactive waste d ispos rl State Cunlnlittce for Slate Committee for I'seful Mineral the Supply of Reserves ((iK/_) Petroleum Products Power aand I leclrilic;rtion -secictZirlat of 111C ( I'SI Central ('ommiltee _IISSR Academy ol, Sciences State Committee for Slate (M11111 tee to Ililiialion of Atomic Snipenisc Work; Salcty Power (GKAI in the Atomic Power Industry ('hemicr1 ;Ind PCtrulelm Machine Building Construction of Pclioleunl Relining Pctrrdeuol and Gas and I'ctrochcmicll Industry I _nlcrprises Indust} Installation and Special Construction Work Energy-Related Ministries Ministry of Geology II -RI. Conducts exploration for new oil, gas, and coal deposits; monitors contracts with foreign firms for energy resource exploration in I[SSR; directs develop- ment of new prospecting techniques, equipment, and meth- ods of mineral analysis. Ministry of the Petroleum Industry Manages produc- tion drilling, extraction, transportation, and sales of petro- leum; shares responsibility with Ministry of Geology for exploratory petroleum drilling and extraction and processing of gas condensate. Ministry of the Gas Industry (A-U). Oversees the extraction, processing, underground storage, and transportation of natu- ral gas front established fields; directs obishorc oil and gas exploratory drilling and production: participates in onshore gas exploration, gas condensate processing, and geothermal energy production. Ministry of Chemical and Petroleum Machine Building (A-t ). Oversees the manufacture and supply of extraction and production equipment to the petroleum, gas, and petro- chemical industries. Ministry of Construction of Petroleum and Gas Industry Enterprises IA-t1. Constructs petroleum and gas pipelines and field processing plants; has primary responsibility for compressor station construction. Ministry of the Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical In- dustry (U-RI. Oversees all aspects of petroleum refining and petrochemical processing, as well as the production of synthetic rubber, aromatic hydrocarbons, lubricants, fuels, liquid paraffins. chemical feed additives, and chemical reagents for enhanced oil recovery. Ministry of the Coal Industry (U-R). Manages coal and oil shale extraction and equipment production, participates in the development of technologies for solid fuel liquefaction and gasification. land Reclamation and Water Resources Ministry of Power and Electrification (I'-R). Directs the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of hydro- electric, thermal, and atomic power plants, participates in tidal, solar, geothermal, and wind energy production as well as research and development of techniques for solid fuel liquefaction and gasification. Ministry of Power Machine Building IA-Iii. Provides heavy equipment for thermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric power stations; manufactures gas turbines, pumps, and supercharg- ers for pipeline compressor stations and heat recovery equipment for the petroleum refining industry; operates the nuclear reactor manufacturing plants located in Volgodonsk and Kolpino. Ministry of the Electrical Equipment Industry (A-I''). Directs research, development, and manufacture of electrical gener- ation and distribution equipment. Ministries Involved in Support for Energy Ministry of Construction II'-RI. Performs basic construction for energy production industries. Ministry of Finance It!-RI. Allocates financial resources for energy production, research, and development Ministry of Foreign Trade (A-V). Oversees trade in petro- leum, gas, and coal products, as well as energy res.wrce extraction, processing, and transportation equipment. Ministry of Installation and Special Construction Work (U-RI. Constructs installations and buildings for the coal, petroleum, and nuclear power industries; assists in construc- tion of refineries, pipelines, and drilling rigs; conducts some drilling and blasting work. Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Resources (U-R). Participates in construction of hydroclcctric plants, in the control of pollution from thermal power plants. and in the management of windpowcr facilities; also involved in construction of petroleum and gas pipelines. Ministry of Railways (A-I I). -1 ranspurts coal, petroleum products, and other fuels. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Energy Balances The Soviet Union produces nearly one-fifth of the world's primary energy and is currently the leading encrg~ exporter and the largest producer of oil and natural gas. The USSR is third after the I. nited States and China in coal production. Domestic production accounts for 99 percent of total Soviet energy use: imports are more a matter of geographic convenience than necessi - tN. The USSR consumes approximately 85 per- cent of the primary energy it produces and relies on oil, gas, and coal for the bulk of its energy needs. I he overall production rate of primary energy, after expanding rapidly for two decades, has slowed considerably during the early I 980s. The 4.5-percent annual growth rate of the 1970s dropped to about 2.5 percent a year during 1981 -8_'. Soviet plan goals suggest that this slower rate may continue during the remainder of the I Ith Five-Year Plan. In addition to the depletion of the most easily exploitable reserves, the slower rate of production is because of inadequate technology and equipment, insuffi- cient capital investment in some sectors of the energy industry, and poor logistic coordination of, materials and supplies. The Energy Mix Production of major fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal) accounts for more than 90 percent of the Soviet energy mix. Oil production has begun to level off after three decades of' steady growth. Output in 1983 was 12.33 million barrels per day (b/d), just 300,000 b/d more than in 1980. The production of natural gas, important both as it substitute for oil domestically and as a source of hard currency export revenues, has experienced impressive growth since 1970. Gas output rose from 3.3 million b/d oil equivalent in 1970 to 8.9 million b/d oil equivalent in 1983. Coal output, although increasing 28 percent since 1960 in terms of energy content, continues to comprise a decreasing share of primary ener- gy production. The shares of different fuels in total Soviet energy consumption have also shifted signifi- cantly over the past two decades. Whereas natural gas provided only 8 percent of Soviet energy requirements in 1960, it accounted for 29 percent in 1982. During the same period, oil's share rose from 24 to 37 percent. This growth in oil and gas occurred at the expense of coal. In 1960 the Soviets relied on coal for more than one-half of their total energy needs; in 1982 it provided only 26 percent. Million barrels per day Percent oltotal OPEC l' 17.55 33.4 Li USSR 11.82 22.5 0 United States 8.68 16.5 Western Europe 3.39 6.4 Other 11.15 21.2 Total 52.59 100.0 Billion cubic maers Percent of total USSR 535.7 34.9 United States 452.3 29.5 Western Europe 183.4 12.0 Other 262.0 17.1 Total 1,533.6 100.0 Quadrillion III)' I Btu Percent of total Li United States 17.29 21.8 El China 14.39 18.1 F-1 USSR 13.44 16.9 C7 Western Europe 9.18 11.6 Other 25.12 31.6 Total 79.42 100.0 I IrludCI II, I ILII II gas liquid. I I,lude, AIFcna. I'cuodor. Gabon. Induncshi_ Iran. liirl_ Kuti:uL I ihya_ Aigcrin. l)al9r. S.iudi Arihiu. Suurrc_ I nergc ITI lormulion AdnliTI ist ruli nn, I S I)c luirlnicrl utl n:rgm USSR: Primary Energy Million harrels per day oil equivalent 35 Production Consumption Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90T01298R000200310001-8 \lill on h.i n I, pci d,iy oil cplniv,dcnl 1'ruducIiun Imporls I:cporls (ousumplion I olI I'),Il 1980 Ncpl. II fl III I 'U 2 ?11 (I 5 Il ll III I 2ii 2S Conservation and Substitution USSR: Electricity Balances Rising costs of energy production have led, as in the West, to a growing interest in curbing Billion kilovv,ilt-hour. demand t irough conservation. But by most I,6o( system. Centralized planning and resource allo- ..T cation, ar Ificially low energy prices, and incen- tives gear--d toward meeting quantitative output goals do not reward innovation or efficient use 1.211() of resources. Moreover, despite official goals and pronouncements about saving energy, the requisite capital and other resources have been I.Imu allocated o energy production rather than conservation. One of the best opportunities the Soviets have sou for reduci ig the growth of oil demand is by substituting natural gas for oil in electric power plants and large boilers. Such a program re- ('00 quires the construction of long-distance natural gas transmission pipelines, conversion of older plants to burn gas, completion of new gas-fired power plants, and expansion of lateral gas distri- loo bution lines and storage facilities. Aside from reduced use of oil in power plants and industrial boilers, the prospects for substitution are limit- 00 ed. Oil use for transportation and agriculture is not readily amenable to gas substitution, so that efforts to hold down oil use in these sectors of the econoriy must depend largely on conservation. lot,il production Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90T01298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Foreign Markets For most of the past decade, Soviet earnings from energy exports have been increasing, part- ly as a result of rising prices for oil and gas. The recent expansion of Soviet exports to the West has been responsible for important increases in hard currency earnings necessary for the devel- opment of new energy resources. The Soviets have used much of the new revenue to purchase Western equipment and technology for oil and gas exploration and production. Although Soviet increases in oil exports to Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CEMA) partners have slowed in recent years, the continuation of a steady now of energy resources to Eastern Europe and Cuba remains a high priority for Moscow. Except for Romania and Poland, CEMA countries are dependent on the USSR for large shares of their energy supplies. Hard Currency Before the 1973 Arab oil embargo, Soviet hard currency earnings from energy exports com- prised only 20 percent of the USSR's total yearly commodity export earnings. Some 85 to 90 percent of these energy-derived earnings Soviet Oil Exports, 1983 came from oil. By 1977 the share of hard currency earned from oil and gas sales to the West had grown to more than 50 percent. In 1981 a soft world oil market forced the Soviets to reduce exports and temporarily settle for diminished earnings. Nevertheless, in 1982 Moscow achieved a record 28-percent increase in oil exports to non-Communist customers, largely through restrictions on deliveries to soft currency customers. Oil continues to be the most important source of hard currency earnings for Moscow, but natural gas trade with the West is growing. In 1975 gas provided only 3 percent of hard currency earn- ings, but by 1982 natural gas earnings had risen to almost 14 percent of the total. The Soviets anticipate even greater increases in revenues from natural gas exports with the large-scale gas deliveries through the new Siberia-to- West- ern Europe pipeline. Trading Partners CEMA For nearly two decades, the USSR has been the principal supplier of energy for its East Europe- an CEMA allies, Cuba, and Vietnam. During the 1970s the Soviets provided as much as three- fourths of the oil consumed by the East Europe- ans and almost all of the crude oil used by the Cubans. Most- though not all of these sales were soft currency or barter deals. To help ease the economic burden of oil price increases, Moscow delayed raising the price of oil to its CEMA partners. Thus, for a number of years after OPEC's sharp price increases in the I 970s, the economies of the Soviet allies benefited from below-world-market prices. During this time, however, the Soviet Union kept encouraging its CEMA partners to reduce their dependence on oil and increase consumption of substitutes such as gas, coal, and nuclear energy. Moscow also took steps, including a five-year-moving-average pricing formula, to discourage future increases in East European imports of Soviet oil unless the extra oil was purchased with hard currency. Finally, in 1982 the Soviets began an actual cutback in oil deliveries to some CEMA members. Historically, the Soviet Union and the East European CEMA members have worked closely to develop Soviet energy resources. Thus far, the gas pipeline from the Orenburg field, also known as the Soyuz (Union or Alliance) pipeline and completed in 1978, has been their largest joint project. The East Europeans provided la- bor, equipment, and hard currency support in exchange for future supplies of natural gas. Country receiving Soviet oil exports fnuare lhnn 15.000 barrels ner tlayi Yugo. eui. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 ]'lie production of Soviet nuclear reactors has also invol~,cd substantial Fast European cooper- ation. A recent agreement between these coun- tries and the I. ISSR calls fur the other CEMA countries to specialize in the production of Soviet-designed reactor components to be used in an integrated electrical power system. The increased nuclear power capacity of the Soviet Union and the Joint USSR-CEMA projects now under wa; to improve and enlarge the power transmiss on system should significantly in- crease So iet capability to export electricity in the future. Cuba, with limited domestic oil resources, has been hca~ily dependent on the Soviets for virtu- ally all of its petroleum needs. The construction of' a Soviet-designed nuclear power station in Cuba will improve Cuban energy self-sufficien- cy and de,reasc reliance on Moscow for oil. Western Europe Soviet energy trade with Western Europe was limited until the mid-1970s. Since then, the share of s rtes from the principal exported coin- muditics, oil and gas, has become increasingly important. Currently, the Soviet Union's largest West European energy customers are West Ger- many, France, Italy, Austria. Belgium, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden. and Finland. Between 1978 and 1981, the rapid growth in oil sales to Western Europe came to an abrupt halt as conservation efforts "aided" by an oil- fueled recession by the West Europeans start- ed to take hold. Beginning in 1982 the Soviets partially compensated for the reduced hard cur- rency earnings from long-term contracts by increasing their spot market sales of' oil at major West European oil terminals. In the mid-1970s the West Europeans turned to the Soviet Union in an effort to diversify their energy sources. Existing gas contracts from the late 1960s were expanded. This also led to a number of new joint projects, of which the most notable is the Siberia to Western Europe natu- ral gas pipeline. The terms of many of these contracts usually include compensation agree- ments, involving either a form of barter. coun- terpurchase, or product payback arrangements, USSR: Oil Exports 1n1IuJim= Rule,ni.i( i~rhn.ln~al. i,i- I.nI t-i Ilune.ii 1'~1Lin11 Kuni,in i.i. enJ) ut'n.l.IS 1.1 I SSR: I':nerg) Production Exported til \Llh~ni h,i1li I~ I' r il;n I'rorlu.ilun I'niLnid. Itnnnian i,i-,inJ lure,Lni.i Coal I':Icctricil Billion cuhic meter', Million ton', of roll crluivalent Billion kilowatt-hums (1(1(1 BOO I_-hill i 7 (1 I`ihll 6' 80 I:a'tcrn I uropc (LI ha ~iAVesicrn I`uropc IOther in which future sales or delivery of a Soviet product are linked to an advance sale or delivery of Western equipment or technology. In ex- change for providing technological help in con- structing the Soviet gas pipeline system. the Europeans receive guaranteed supplies of natu- ral gas. Japan Energy trade with Japan will play an important role in the development of Fast Siberian re- sources. Joint Soviet-Japanese development of Sakhalin Island oil and gas and of East Siberian coal reserves is now under was. Progress has been slow, however, as a result of financial problems and harsh climatic conditions. Cur- rently, Japan is the primary hard currency importer of Soviet coking coal. In addition to the hard currency, technology has been a significant part of Sovict-.lapanese ener- gy trade negotiations. The Japanese are a major supplier of energy technology; Soviet purchases account for approximately 15 percent of Japa- nese energy equipment and technology exports. USSR: Natural Gas Exports Billion cuhic mcten ,11 I_.ISlcrn kurope \c'tcrn I uropc 3.3 1960 6S 7(1 7~ SO (0 O Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 International Energy Projects During the 1970s the Soviet Union entered into several foreign contract negotiations associated with domestic energy development. The princi- pal motivation for these cooperative internation- al ventures was Soviet desire to increase hard currency earnings and to acquire essential West- ern technology and equipment necessary for resource development. Of' the many cooperative ventures negotiated with Western countries, three projects the Siberia to Western Europe natural gas pipeline, the South Yakutia coal project, and Sakhalin oil and gas development have recently received considerable world- wide publicity. Two widely publicised liquefied natural gas (I_NG) projects of the mid-1970s were the North Star project to ship Urengoy gas to the US cast coast and the joint USSR-US-Japanese venture to develop Yakutia gas. Although both projects have lost US support, the Japanese still have sonic interest in Yakutia gas development. Siberia-to-Western Europe Natural Gas Pipeline The Siberia to Western Europe natural gas pipeline is the largest international trade project the Soviets have undertaken to date. Negotia- tions for the pipeline began in 1979, and Mos- cow signed gas purchase agreements in late 1981 with West German and French utilities, in June 1982 with Austria's Ferngas. and in May 1984 with Italy. Included in the pipeline negoti- ations were contracts for Soviet purchases of large-diameter pipe, turbine compressors, and related equipment from the major West Europe- an countries and Japan. Installation of the pipeline in the Soviet section was completed in September 1983; all compressors were to be in place in 1984. Plans call for partial deliveries of gas to start in 1984 and full deliveries to begin in 1987. The Soviet Union has been exporting gas to Western Europe since the early 1970s. Between 1968 and 1975 Moscow concluded several "gas for pipe" agreements with Austria, France, Italy, and West Germany. Under these agree- merits, the USSR purchased large quantities of large-diameter pipe and other gas-related equip- ment with long-term, government-backed cred- its. To repay the loans and earn foreign ex- change, the USSR contracted for long-term deliveries of natural gas to Western Europe. The USSR will be able to use a combination of the existing Soyui (Orenburg) pipeline, domestic trunklincs, and East European transit lines to supplement the initial throughput of the export pipeline which began in early 1984. With the completion of the new 32-billion-cubic-meter- capacity export pipeline, total Soviet deliveries to Western Europe eventually could reach 60 billion cubic meters per year. They were almost 29 billion cubic meters in 1983. Siberia-to-Western Europe Natural Gas Pipeline Imported large-diameter pipe sections at Lenin- grad port. WIT Z Soviet-made excavator being used to dig pipe- line trench. Pipe sections are transported br trucks from railcards to the construction .site. Pipe sections being welded by manual, arc- welding technique. Welded pipe is coated, wrapped, and positioned Concrete blocks are used in areas of swamp and Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 The Pipeline Route Geugraphi ;Illy, the Soviet portion of the pipe- line runs 4,451 kilometers from Urengov in the northern portion of the West Siberian basin to Uzhgorod it the ('zechoslovak border. The pipe- line route traverses some 700 kilometers of swamp and marshland, 2,000 kilometers of for- est, and 550 kilometers of rocky terrain includ- ing the I. r ll and Carpathian mountain ranges. I he construction route also crosses nearly 600 rivers and ;trcams including the Ob' in West Siberia and the Volga, I)on, and Dnepr in Luropean ISSR. The 2.5-kilometer Volga Riv- ength 4,451 kilometers (E;rengoy-Uzhgorod) Capacity 32 billion cubic meters per year Pipe 2.7 million tons, 1,420-nn diameter Operating 75 atmospheres pressure Compressor 41 (40 with three 25-MW gas- stations turbine compressors each: one with five 10-MW gas-turbine compressors) Total cost $22 billion ($7 billion in hard currency) Completion 1983 (pipelaving) 1984 (compressor stations) South Yakutia Coal Region Desovskoye11~ iron ore deposit x Teye on ore deposit P io nerskoye iron ore deposit Chul'man' Neryungri Thermal Power NeryungriG Station ?13an urvs kaye Sknvnrodino- .Never In the European USSR, the pipeline route cross- es several of the country's most heavily populat- ed and industrialized regions. Interconnecting the region's existing gas pipeline network with the export pipeline enables the Soviets to better respond to changing demand for gas. Sakhalin Oil and Gas Project The USSR reached a general agreement with Japan in 1975 for the joint development of S uvetskatyt, (;,rvan Arc,i nl lvincipol unshirte nilhelrls Moskal vo ?Okha Coal rlnponit Sakhalin's offshore petroleum resources. The agreement calls for SODECO --a consortium of Japanese petroleum and trading companies and one US firm, Gulf Oil-- to finance the explora- tion and development of the offshore reserves through credits extended by Japan's Export- Import Bank. In return, SODECO is to receive Soviet oil and gas at preferential prices. The joint Soviet-Japanese venture to exploit Sakhalin offshore oil resources is similar in many respects to the Siberia to Western Eu- rope natural gas pipeline project. It includes the purchase of Western petroleum equipment fi- nanced through credits guaranteed by Western governments in exchange for Soviet repayment through the transfer of energy resources. In addition, the project will boost Soviet hard currency earnings. Moscow will also acquire offshore experience and technology that could be extremely useful should the Soviets begin intensive exploitation of the potentially rich hydrocarbon deposits of the Barents and Kara Seas. The Sakhalin project will give the Japanese an opportunity to further diversify their oil and gas sources. Work on the Sakhalin project has not met the projected plans. Exploration, already hampered by the short, ice-free drilling season, has also been delayed by equipment shortages and deci- sions to drill convenient but unproductive struc- tures. Thus far, two fields -Odoptu and Chayvo-have been discovered off the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island. South Yakutia Coal Project A third major Soviet energy development facili- tated by international investment and coopera- tion is the South Yakutia coal project. Terms of this cooperative venture with Japan, which be- gan in 1975, call for the Japanese to receive specified percentages of the 9 million metric tons of annual coking coal production as repay- ment for their financial and technical investment. The first stage of the South Yakutia coal project includes development of the Ncrvungri strip mine, installation and operation of imported mining equipment, a coal concentration facility to treat exported coal, and the first section of the Neryungri Thermal Power Station, where the first 210-MW generator started up in late 1983. The project, made possible by the con- struction of the Bamovskaya-Tynda-Bcrkakit (Little BAM) railroad, is scheduled for comple- tion in 1985, nearly two years behind schedule. Limited coal production began in late 1978 when the Little BAM reached the mine. Pro- duction has grown from 400,000 tons in 1979 to more than 5 million tons in 1983. The Soviets are hopeful the new Siberian town of Neryungri, in addition to being the major industrial city and energy hub of the South Yakutia region, will become one of the largest industrial complexes in Eastern Siberia. Be- cause of the high quality of Yakutia's coking coal and the availability of nearby Aldan iron ore deposits, Neryungri is also being considered as a possible location for steel manufacture. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298ROO0200310001-8 Fuel Resources Until recently, the Soviet Union has been able to find, extract, transport, and process its vast fuel resources at a rate sufficient to support rapid economic growth. But, beginning in the late 1970s, supplies of oil and coal, which together contribute nearly two-thirds of' Soviet primary energy production, have suffered setbacks. En- ergy costs are rising because of the growing remoteness and lower quality of the newly dis- covered resources. Reports of fuel shortages and a growing energy conservation campaign attest to growing fuel supply problems. A current sloyydown in the growth rate of oil production, uncertainty about the future world market for natural gas despite long-term contracts with the West Europeans, and stagnating coal output are major causes of' concern for Soviet energy planners. Ilistorically, the large urban and industrial cen- ters west of the Urals were almost totally de- pendent on plentiful nearby fuel resources. These western resources now provide only about 50 percent of the energy needs of the European USSR: the rest come from newly discovered reserves in Central Asia, Kazakhstan, the Urals, and Siberia. Although the Soviets have signifi- cant oil, gas, and coal resources in these south- ern and eastern regions, with the exception of natural gas they have been unable to develop them fast enough to keep pace with the expand- ing economy and replace the rapidly depleting and more accessible reserves near the consum- ing centers of the European USSR. Develop- ment of' these new energy resources has been slow for a variety of reasons, ranging from the need for specialized equipment and technology to the requirement for enormous additional in- vestment. Additionally, geographic con- straints climate, terrain, and distance have compounded the problems associated with ex- ploiting and transporting these resources. The Soviet system of reserve classification for both major and minor fuel resources is very different from that used in the West. The Soviet reserve categories A, B, C,, C., D? and D,-- are based primarily on the degree of exploration and delineation drilling that has been carried out and cannot be directly equated to the West- ern categories of proved, probable, and possible reserves, which are based on prevailing econom- ic and technological factors. USSR/US: Reserves of Major Fuels, Yearend 1983a Crude Oil Billion barrels Natural Gas Coal h Trillion cubic meters Billion metric tons coal equivalent 100 50 200 45 180 40 160 70 Range of estimates 35 140 30 120 USSR United States 0 The portion of total resources I,,c?ed is cxplnitahle under loruI economic Lon (I itinns and ne:nlahIC Iechnningu Yearend 1950. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298ROO0200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Soiiet t'nion: Reserve Classification System VIt ui ,pit Pr I~ible P, k "A" (';ite,orv Pro ved ? Geologically and geophysically examined in detail Reserves which geological and engineering or drilling ? I)elincated by exploration and production over the data demonstrate to be recoverable under existing whole deposit economic and operating conditions ? Ingineering data demonstrate recoverability Probable ? Represent reserves in current production Incompletely defined reserves estimated to occur: ''B" (atcttor\ ? Geologically and geophysically examined in detail ? In known producing areas ? As extensions of endowed areas ? F:valu.ited by drilling to a degree adequate for developnicnt planning ? In undiscovered areas within known resource-bear- ing geologic trends ? I'ngincering data demonstrate recoverability ? Recoverable under existing economic and operating ? Represent on-hold reserves or unused producing conditions capac ty Possible "('," ('atcgorN Inferred reserves estimated to occur: ? Represent reserves adjacent to "A" and "B" . ? In undiscovered areas analogous to other known categories resource-bearing areas ? Geologically and geophysically evaluated ? Recoverable under existing economic and operating ? Veriti:d by minimal drilling conditions ? l'ngiricering data demonstrate partial recoverability, and a'erage 30 percent will shift to "B" and then "A" categories - Category ? Presumed to exist, based on favorable geologic and geophysical data analogous to that for areas contain- ing verified reserves ? Some will shift to higher categories -D,- ('atcgory ? Speculative reserves presumed to exist on the basis of' geologic analogy to reference areas ? Some will shift to "C," category "I)." Category ? Speculative reserves presumed to exist on the basis of geologic analogy to reference area ? Less geologically and geophysically evaluated than "I)'' category ? Some will shift to "') " category. Oil and gas exploration on Mangvshlak Penin- sula, North Caspian. Extraction of lignite from a Kansk-Achinsk surface mine, Central Siberia. ;0 00 a& Central control room of exploratory' drill ship Viktor Muravle;tko. Construction workers study' blueprints for Urenggp gas turbines. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Oil and Gas The Soviet Union, abundantly endowed with energy resources, is now the world's leading oil and natural gas producer and a substantial net exporter of both fuels. As Soviet planners have become aware of their abundant supplies of these resources over the past three decades, they have relied heavily on them to meet the growth in demand. Oil and gas have fueled national economic growth, and the expansion of key sectors of the economy is tied to their availabil- ity. The Soviets' rich resources of oil and gas have allowed Moscow to provide the CEMA countries and other client states with low-cost energy and to export crude oil, natural gas, and petroleum products to the West in exchange for hard currency. Oil and gas have also become essential elements in the USSR's strategic posi- tion and a symbol of national pride. Oil and gas resources are widely scattered throughout the Soviet Union but, by and large, are poorly located with respect to areas of demand. With the exception of the Volga-Urals oil region and the Ukrainian SSR gas region, both now on the decline, the economic and population heartland in the west contains mostly minor oil- and gas-bearing basins. The large sedimentary basins containing the main reserves that will provide the USSR with most of its oil and gas for the rest of this century are in the once virtually unpopulated West Siberia region, where severe environmental conditions, inade- quate economic infrastructure, and high devel- opment costs will hamper exploitation. Oil and Gas Regions Ukraine Miscow The rapid increase in Soviet oil and gas produc- tion is a testament to the size of the reserve base, which by most estimates is among the largest in the world. The Soviets' strong position in oil and gas production should continue into the next century since a number of major potential hydrocarbon-bearing regions remain virtually unexplored and exploration of offshore areas other than the Caspian is just beginning. Oil Reserves Since 1947 Moscow has treated the size and location of its oil reserves as a state secret, publishing only occasional, fragmentary, and inconsistent data. Most US and West European oil experts believe that Soviet proved reserves are in the range of 60-80 billion barrels, about 10 to 12 percent of the world's total. Reserves in geologically promising but unexplored areas such as the Barents and Kara Seas and East Siberia could significantly raise the overall amount of proved reserves, putting the USSR in an enviable position compared to other industri- alized nations. Potential oil reserves, however, hold little signif- icance for the Soviet oil supply during the 1980s and into the 1990s. Current production will depend almost entirely on hydrocarbon-bearing structures already discovered whose reserves can be rapidly exploited. As the Soviets have been forced to move their search for new deposits into more remote parts of West Siberia, they have encountered smaller fields, lower production lev- els, and increased development costs. Timan- Pechora West Siberia Lena- Tunguska Volga- Urals North Caucasus North Caspian Trans- caucasus Baku Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea, was the earliest center of extractive activity, but it de- clined rapidly after World War II. The Soviets then moved in the 1950s and 1960s to the north and east into their "second Baku," the Volga- Urals basin. The Volga-Urals was the focus of Soviet oil activity for two decades and is still the second-largest producing area. Production from this region is now declining as major fields and reserves are being depleted. In the early 1960s large new reserves were discovered in the remote and environmentally hostile West Siberian basin, which contains the richest known nydrocarbon deposits in the coun- try. This prolific basin provided most of the growth in oil output during the 1970s and early 1980s and, according to Soviet statements, will remain the leading producing region into the 1990s. Although West Siberian oil production is ex- pected to increase for several more years, the rate of growth has slowed. Some oil industry officials are now arguing openly that the Soviets must search more aggressively for new reserves in virgin regions of the country such as East Siberia and offshore basins in the Kara and Barents Seas. The Soviets acknowledge, howev- er, that production from these areas will not begin during this decade. East Siberia Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 Natural Gas Reserves I r'like tFe polirv for oil reserves, the Soviets do publish nformation about the site and location of their enormous natural gas reserves. In Janu- ar 1983 the Soviet I anion had explored reserves of about 14 trillion cubic meters, 40 percent of the csorld's total and enough to sustain rapid growth in production for several decades. Al- though tl-c rate of discover' of new reserves has slowed Considerably since the mid-1970s, total reserves probably will continue to rise for the near- tern. File location of these rescrvcs, how- ever, has created serious production and trans- portation problems because most are concentrat- ed in remote Arctic regions. The northern part of I lumen' Oblast in AVest Siberia contains about 80 percent of the Soviet gas reserves. Soviet na oral gas production, like that of oil, has increased through the successive develop- nunt of newly discovered rescrvcs. 13y the time the North Caucasus region, which was predomi- nanl in the early postwar years, reached its peak in the Tate 1900s, the I.'krainian gasfields had been developed and accounted for most of the grocsth in production until the carts 1970s. Subseque rtly, gasficlds in C'cntral Asia, the Orenburg region of the Volga-Urals, and the Komi :ASSR mere developed and provided much of the growth during the mid-1970s. (rowwth in these regi )us has slocced, and West Siberia is nocc the primary Soviet gas-producing area. Six northern 'I sumcn' fields Urengov, Yaniburg, /apol~;rrnuvc, Aledve,h'}c, Kharasavev, and Rocanenk) together hold more than three- fourths of \Vest Siberia's rescrvcs. Urengov, with rrscrccs of almost 8 trillion cubic meters, is the world's largest gasfield. No necv, urge natural gas region is being devel- oped as a successor to West Siberia, but its enormous reserves are believed to be large enough to support sustained growth into the nest centr.rv. Long-terns future expansion is likrlc to d.pcnd on Finding nccy gas reserves in last Siberia, the Soviet Far last, and offshore areas such as the 13arcnts and Kara Seas. (;as Condensate In addition to Crude oil and gas, the Soviet I pion possesses large reserves of condensate the liquid hydrocarbons that condense from associated and nonassociated gas when it is extracted front the reservoir which are includ- ed in oil production statistics. Out of a total oil output of' 1 2.33 million barrels per day (b/d) in 1081, about (10,000 bid are believed to be gas Condensate.:A]though Moscow has never pub- lished official reserve totals for gas condensate, limited data I'rom the gas ministry suggest that the condensate reserve base is more than large enough to support current and future output requirrmc its well into the next century. Reserves in ,ieolo,gicallrr promising but unexplored areas such as the Barents and Kara Seas Reserves CI gas Condensate are widrl} distribut and Last Siberia could .signi/icantlr raise proved reveries. ed in nran> parts of the USSR, with numerous deposits n A\est Siberia, Komi ASSR, Central .Asia, and the t kraine. West Siberia may con- serve base is located at a relatively small num- tain is much as tero-thirds of all USSR conden- bcr of large fields such as Orenburg in the sate resources, primarily at Ilrrngoy and the southern Urals, Vuktvi in the Komi ASSR, and large oilf'iclds of the middle Ob' region. The the high-sulfur gasfields of Central Asia. rcnr,rining portion of' the known condensate re- Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 The West Siberian Oil and Gas Region Although it possesses one of the Earth's most forbidding and difficult environments, West Si- beria produces 60 percent of the nation's oil and roughly 50 percent of its natural gas, having surpassed the declining Volga-Urals region in oil output in 1978 and Soviet Central Asia in gas production in 1979. To meet Soviet domestic and export needs for these fuels by 1985, the region, according to the current five-year plan (1981-85), will have to produce 63 percent of the nation's oil (8 million b/d are planned) and increase its share of natural gas production to 57 percent (357 billion cubic meters). As production moves farther north in West Siberia, the aver- age cost per unit of output will rise because of higher operating and investment outlays re- quired for exploration, extraction, and transportat1o11. The oil and gas region is in the West Siberian lowland, one of the world's largest and flattest plains, and, consequently, one of the most poorly drained and flood prone. More than half of the land area of West Siberia is swamp or marsh- land. In the spring, flood waters of the Ob' and Irtysh Rivers, flowing from the south, are jammed by ice that has not yet melted in the north, and broad areas arc inundated. In addition, severe winter temperatures and cold winds make the West Siberian oil and gas region one of' the harshest environments in which to work in the world. Before the discovery of oil and gas in 1960, the entire area was uninhabited wilderness except for hunters and trappers. All endeavors entail a struggle against the environment and result in sharply increased costs to exploit West Siberia's valuable hydro- carbon resources. All seasons in some way seriously impair the effectiveness of men and machines in northern Siberia. The severe cold in winter as well as the swampy conditions in summer reduce the service life of vehicles and machinery. Average winter temperatures of - 20?C and below substantially reduce workers' productivity; Soviet work regu- lations prohibit outdoor work when tempera- tures reach -40?C and wind speeds exceed 15 meters per second. This produces a windchill effect comparable to 110? F and causes bare skin to freeze in less than 30 seconds. Moreover, swarms of flies and mosquitoes, which saturate the region during the warn season, take an additional toll on worker eflicicncy and health. Geologic Setting Occupying an area of' more than 3 million square kilometers, the West Siberian basin is the largest structural-sedimentary basin in the world. Favorable geologic conditions have also made it, in the estimation of most petroleum geologists, one of the better locations in the world for the accumulation of hydrocarbon deposits. Geologically, the basin deepens to the north, where the sediments generally range up to 6 to 8 kilometers in thickness. In the southern and central parts of the basin, the sediments are 3 to 5 kilometers thick. The sedimentary cover of the basin consists of marine and continental deposits of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Paleocene ages, overlain by more recent glacial, lake, and stream deposits. Surface elevations seldom exceed 100 meters above sea level except on an east-west line of low glacial hills that divides the region into two *May rr(voscrrt nrultil>le Ines RI'tr'i (o naltc 66 for rlassiti .,N nn nt held si. e West Siberian Oil and Gas Region -1 - Oil Important Gas fields Supergiant Giant Other 1,020 mm and larger Other Svetlyy Sergino? Nyakh, Labytnangi Salekhard Staryy Nadyrn. Nadym* Novyy Port parts. To the south of this divide, where the main oil deposits have been found, rivers now southward to the middle Ob' River; to the north, where the region's natural gas is found, they flow northward to the lower Ob' and the Arctic Ocean. Development Following the initial discovery of gas at Bere- zovo in the mid-1950s and oil at Shaim in 1960, the search for hydrocarbons shifted to the mid- Mamontovoo Pyt'-Yakh Novyy Urengoy. Pangody. Raduz h nyy. Novoagansk. Surgut Langepas Megion . Nefteyugansk Mamontovo Nizhnevartovsk ?~Pyf-Yakh Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 die Oh, region. I let c, during the I900s, the SIIv lets discovered :Ind hcg:ul developing a num- her of oilfield. vvitl) relatively high-quality reservoir; I'c in)nlensc Sanlollor oilfield as discovered I in the Middle Oh' region of I')unien' Oblast in I')h~ In(j put into production in 19h1). The supcrgiant S,inlotlor field near Nizhnevartovsk \\as soon rccoeniicd as one of the largest oil- in the world. During, the 1970s Sanu)tlor he) tielllements \101 keV Av I'll tiihrrl,ln seitlenlrnt, deceIoi'ed 1(0119 n)alor vv.uelvv,ns I, 1411s and'111'1 lv h;ue, I'll the region's c:nrl\ e,l)Ior,ilioll Soul deveI linen( A1;11iv heeame floor,ulihly .ind 'lou,nlr center, on the road out rail ,Asleln, that later ,enet t.l led Ile regr,II I I Iles noun wel'l' :is the Iooeit se, of tie egil n., eAI a?Ili nlg pipeline and petroleum Ilrieessi ng I'l, IIt Ie, I ahtinang1111 i t s 11 .'I I I Pwl,uI'll ioil e,l 11,001). I, rI Ihi, I iilhcad on the (ewer ()h" cart.? is tramlerred to nuii.lll IS nuul for g,is C\1,1('11,111011 ,ircas \lamontuti I')1'-AAll i10 J) A ?_' 4' I , 10 4, \ ,0 I I P 1',,ul,Ill,,n est 11),1)011- I loosing out storage area, .u Al,tinonl Ill) ,el)Icnlem Ind Till' adlaient 1',t' -A All rail urln 511 )''ll Al.unont~nw oillicId \ICgintt 011 01 t)1 I 1 11ol,ula1i,ul: col vCr 10,000 \leeion I,rrside, housing ,Ind Iogisuc sul'IsIrt lit surruund- inc 0il11eld, All neither mold, Iead I,) these Bald' ;Ind to \1, 11110,111 I\sk \alhm In, I, N 1.' I ) I'?I,ulauwil est 4),0110 One it the I.Ir1?e,t nh,nl eCnter, In the northern g;I, deselol)nlcnt nr I hoes ,shoo('. ,lore,, .ind eolmllllnily sets lees G)r vrwrkcrs of the surf, unding g,l, region Its I,ihul:Iti?n is e,hecicd to ill, re.lse to 111,111 t "iii)))) \ehc)ugan,k ti,l "1 V 'a is I I I'opul;umn cot -11,01)0 1'):; II I ITC is the I,rnn,irv purl ;Ind ,tllgslv ha,c tar the \1,i1110nto\i, out l I\k oilfield, It is linked io them h\ .III ?e,ll her \iihnctartotsk 0,0 si V 'i, 15 1 1 Potullation c,r 175,01)0 i'):K ii Av Ine%,lri ssk sit sport, the Samotlor oilfield and smalls( lien(, ncarhv It his eytcnsnr poll taeilities on the Oh Miler, I I.Il1 Ill. vvIlh Surgllt, all-51e litter road,. and 111 Sill bilei \ntoagansl, Ii,l ' V 'o JIM I'l,ulalian cot 7,111111- I atrd at thv v+esleln edge of the A ii'Veg,m oil-producing ue I. Aovo.Igansk is .l support h;l,c for nil C\111k)IIatioll 'Ind 11,ur.I,, rt \0111 I reugn) 111 0(, \ 1 1, 1 1 Pulwl,ition rot '2',00)) 5J1 Awvvv t rang,)). sewed hV raiI and air, i, the main '111'1 sort elt\ I'm The t r'ngo\ natural gaslicld Industries and I11g 1 [ 1,l' 1II Ir tll]ClllN are under eoll,Irltetuoll \uNabr'sk li 1 tt5 \ ', ..' I-i Population cst 'x,0110 111 Am.ihr',k. ,1 less urban center tot the hholnx)gory ,,illirld .III(] olhrl , it old goes r,l,lwualiwn, his a railer%cd ,I nI,Ige ,Ire.( soveilllg t., t(((here kllolllelers I.iiigudl l1, I V '4 )) I ) Populaiiwn col (,,till)) Pan- )z,al\ 1, the hone oI the \ledvr,h')e gaslield Ra111Vhnv) Ii, 0i, A 11 1.1 I'opuLltion rot 5,000 - R:i- du/l Is A ,ll.,par1, nail h\ nllhcld, and i, the Icrnlinu, of Ili All \\e,Ilher load (roil( \iihnrc;lrtrn,k, 14)) kill to tile ,outlt tiergiulo w.' it) \ 1, IS I I I'ul,ulatiwn: col 1,)1)1)) Sergi i i is I 1.111 terIllinll, Nheie e,Irgw is transferred to rivercr:Itl Sr Ill ir,Ieks {(Sng Illy vslnler road Iw the t rrngw\ g,I,lield titan) Aadtnt i1' t, \ 4'1 -1 Population e,L _0110 his c,h,Inslnig poll serves the City of NadVni II I kill ,,u'h\\csll?Ili] the \ledccch')e,Ind t rengo) ga,Iicld,. Stnvhesm hi) -' 14 1.1 Pol,ul:iiiwn_ est I(1,000 I'Ii1. 10 kill ,,Miles,( of \iihnes,irtrnsk NIIppk)ItN tile ovctskovc oilfield and Inay support nrvv oil esploralion .Ilan? the \,Ikll Riscr Surgut 111 14 V - , -'0 I 1 Pol,ulation ell 188,1)0)) ( 1954) luigilt 1, tl e kev housing, Indu,iri,iI, and stipplV center of the middle M), oil eagle ll, it h;i, turge meel)ani,ed port I.leiliuies. ill III-\\rather airport, and rail lacilitics I ray Ito 0, \ of 45 1 1 I'opulauon: est. _'1(,(100 1 to,, vvIii'Ii ulq,oris Sill all r,pluilaiion area nest of the Oh', is seised by nverer Itl mid m all-vneIther airport: a dirt road ronneets lo I r,illhe, \le,hduieehenski\ t rcngo) Ii'' ,5 V -5 " I 1 Population: cst 9,0110 I)esel0l,inel t of l rengo\ gastlrl,ls stimul:ucd sonsitustion of port (;lei rues ,nut stwrllge errs' I hr,e tasiliues lie e,- ,.inding .Romig the left hank to the 'tic of The r,Iilv,ird u)d 'ii riled ells III t ikhl\ Population and Settlement Population growth particularly urban has been dramatic during the two decades since oil and gas exploitation began in West Siberia. In the two administrative Subunits of' '1 run)en' Oblast where energy development is now con- centrated, the population increased from 180,000 in 1959 to 1.2 million in 1983. or from one-tenth to one-fourth of West Siberia's total. Whereas urban residents comprised less than half of the population in 1951), in 1984 four- fifths of the total lived in 44 urban settlements. 01' the 44 urban places, 38 were founded after 1960 Lind 26 of these are oil and gas related: the largest are Surgut and Nizhnevartovsk. The rapid and large population influx into West Siberia has required the construction of a net- work of settlements with attendant housing, stores, schools, clinics, utilities, and rcl.lted in- dustrial installations. Lack of con)fortable hous- ing and amenities is the primary reason that four-fifths of the 500.000 migrants who arrive ycarly soon leave the region. Population Trends in Tyumenskaya Ohiast' S.nna1,,-Ncnci,ki) 5uI ii I its UAru( (IILIII)k ,J. 1, 'IU11i lr s r R% r d( ~' ~~ >~ r ~\wv~~ ;. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 surpassed Ronlashkino to become the Soviet's premier oilfield and was singularly responsible I'or the rapid growth in Soviet oil output during that decade. By 1980 Samotlor was yielding about 25 percent of total Soviet oil production and accounted for about 50 percent of West Siberian oil output. Production at Fedorovo, West Siberia's second-largest oilfield, started in 1973 and began to grow rapidly following the intensification of drilling in the late I 970s as output from Samotlor was beginning to level off. In 1982 I-edorovo accounted for approximately 0 percent of Soviet national output. I'.xplored natural gas deposits in West Siberia ;ire concentrated in the Arctic regions of the Isumen' Oblast. Production from Medvezh'yc, which began in 1972, and from Urengoy, which began in 1978, is to be followed by Yamburg and ultimately extend to other supergiants Zapolyarno}c, Kharasaver. and Bovancnko. North of 64 degrees N latitude, West Siberian oil and gas exploration and extraction are af- f'cctcd by frozen ground or permafrost a phe- nomenon that occurs where mean annual ten)- peratures arc below freezing. Permafrost complicates all oil and gas activity and seismic cxploration: special drilling muds and concretes arc necessary to avoid alternate freezing and thawing problems, and well casing has to be carefully insulated to prevent collapse. Alaintc- nancc of facilities is often more expensive than their initial construction since seasonal freezing and thawing cause the ground to heave, crack- ing foundations and collapsing structures. In the northernmost areas, permafrost is gener- allv continuous and lies within I or 2 meters of the surface, creating surface drainage problems. Only a shallow laver of soil thaws each summer. Southward, the surface laver that freezes and thaws Seasonally becomes deeper and the under- Iying permafrost becomes discontinuous. At its southernmost limits, permafrost is reduced to sporadic patches, as in the Surgut and Nizhnc- vartovsk areas. \rti\, l.w'i l'l' A Sc.nnnal Ircciin I ilitu,lC I viIil)CiIs Lul i I IhLi,l R ii I111Ui I,ui nurlhcln ?Anlu, Rhani, \I.nls -1,1l' \lil,~nniiiu,Iv Ifni(' Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Administration of West Siberian Development The buildup of the region has involved the efforts of 20 ministries and state agencies pursu- ing their own plans. Concerned about the poorly coordinated management of the region, Moscow in 1981 established the unique, interdepartmen- tal Territorial Commission for the Development of' the West Siberian Oil and Gas Complex. I Icadquartcred in Tyumen', this group includes 31 major directors and heads of organizations responsible for development in West Siberia. Representatives from the State Planning Com- mittee (Gosplan) and the Central Committee of the Communist Party of' the USSR also partici- pate. I he commission has no authority of its osrn and must submit its proposals and recom- mendations for regional development directly to Gospla n. "Transportation Systems The construction and maintenance of a reliable transportation network are essential in develop- ing West Siberian resources, which are located thousands of kilometers f'roni material suppliers and markets. Nearly all construction material, equipment, and consumer goods are imported into the West Siberian oil and gas region, and transport systems are severely strained. The Trans-Siberian Railroad crosses the West Siberian plain a few hundred kilometers south of' the oil and gas region. In addition, only one trunk railroad extends into the main oil and gas region -a single-track, diesel-traction line from the Urals, via Tyumen', to Surgut, Nizhnevar- tovsk, and, in 1983, northward to Novyy Uren- goy. The oilfields west of the Ob' are served by a rail line from the Urals. Another line brings freight to Sergino for transfer to ships and barges on the Ob' or, in winter, to trucks for long hauls via winter roads to the northern gasfields. A rail line to Labytnangi on the Ob' also brings freight to be transferred to the river fleet. A temporary gasfield rail line shuttling freight from the river port at Starvy Nadym to the Medvezh'yc and Urengoy gasfields is now being converted to a regular railroad extending the line that reached Novyy Urengoy in 1983. After 20 years of building, the region's road network is still poorly developed, and the de- nmand for roads grows faster than they are built. The situation is similar to the one faced by the United States in exploiting Alaska's energy resources. There are few all-weather (paved or gravel) roads, and most others are often impass- able between May and September. In winter, however, cross-country travel is accomplished on ice roads built by spreading water over the ground or on snow roads built by compacting snow. Without passable roads through the swamps, many supply and construction activities must wait until winter. Winter roads are vital to early exploitation of new fields and for pipeline con- struction and maintenance. An impressive ex- ample that serves both these purposes is a 700- kilometer winter road linking the Scrgino rail terminus to Novyy Urengoy. Despite the short navigation season caused by long and severe winters, waterways play a key role as links between railroads and the roads serving the fields. Most river freight to the oil and gas region is routed downstream (north) from rail/river junctions at Omsk, Novosibirsk, Tobol'sk, and Tyumen' to the sub-Arctic ports such as Surgut and Nizhnevartovsk on the middle Ob'. The navigation season ranges from five months (late May to late October) at Surgut to less than a fir transport, particularily hr helicopters, is commonly used to augment road, rail, and water transport in West Siheria. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 one nron',h at the eytrenie northern hurt of \vd,r. I)urine thi?c,n on, Much of the lmeight I, tr;ru,Icrrcd to snr;rll ,hiln ;uni barge, fur trap, Inert uh ,mall ri\er,. ,oeh ;r, the :\e;rn in the ntiddic (Ih' region ;end the '~,tdvm and Pur I,rr.lie1 north. \\ Irilr ii lran,hurl pru\ ide, onl\ a ,nt;tll her- "I tine cargo ntmcd into the region, it i, Imrtienl;trl\ intl,ortant hccaa,e it earn he used tv I-en other mode, of tran,hortrtiun ;ire un;r~ail .thle l c; around or link, have been c,tahlished he' neon rn;rlon SM Ict eitic,, ,ueh a, A1o,cm~ antl (helv;ihin,k, and the limper cities of the e ion ;argot. Acftcvogan,k, Aiihnevar- tov'k, titre; hetov. Ao%vv l renrov. and \advm. I IelieoI)I~1 1),It i, ire loe;tted ;rlnto,t cver-\ ettlenlent ,rnri drilling ;rrc;r. helicopter, ;ere u,ed in I;i~ing pipe, building eunrpre?or uu,, h.n line. ,applie,, delivering licld crc~?? nd eun,trnettne po~~erlinc,- l)nrin,p snnnuc?r, ricer harg't s are /rcc/tcrntl.r lived to rips to mitt drilling site's. 1anrot/or oillicld and nearby Oh' River a.s .seen.lrom Landsat. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Other Major Oil and Gas Regions Volga-Urals The Volga-Urals oil-producing region covers about 500,000 square kilometers between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains. It pro- duces 25 percent of the USSR's oil second Only to West Siberia. The region includes the Tatar, Bashkir, and Udmurt Republics and the Kuvbv shev and Perm' Oblasts. Other oblasts usually associated with the region are Orenburg, Saratov, and Volgograd. Production in the "second Baku" began in the 1930s, but growth in oil Output did not start to accelerate until the I95Os, when the supergiant Romashkino and Arlan fields and several other major deposits were developed. The Volga-Urals was the leading oil-producing region from the I950s until it was surpassed by West Siberia in 1978. Output from all nialor producing areas of the Volga-Urals has been declining since it peaked at 4.5 million b/d in 1975. Many fields have been producing for 20 to 30 years and their casily obtainable reserves are nearly depleted. Production wells arc lifting increasing amounts of water with the remaining oil. Even with deeper drilling efforts and expanded use of secondary and enhanced oil recovery techniques, the region's share of national output has been steadily declining. It is doubtful that production from newer fields in the l;dmurt ASSR and else here in the region will be sufficient to slow the overall decline of the Volga-Urals. Significant gas production in the Volga-Urals began with the development of the giant Oren- burg field, southvyest of the Ural Mountains, in the late I960s. Most of Orenburg's gas has been exported since the CEMA nations completed the Orenburg or Soyu/ pipeline to Eastern Europe in 1978. An additional large gas deposit is being developed at Karachagunak, south of Orenburg in Kazakhstan. Timan-Pechora (Komi ASSR) The Tinian-Pechora basin is a sedimentary ba- sin of 350,000 square kilometers in the north- eastern part of the European USSR. It is part of two administrative subdivisions: the Komi ASSR and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Development of the petroleum basin occurred in two phases. The first phase was from the early 1930s to the I050s when the area south of the Pechora and Usa Rivers was explored and small oil and gas fields were put into production. The second phase began in the early 1960s with the exploration of Arctic areas nearer the Barents Sea. Iwo fields Usinsk which was discovered in 1963, and Vozcy, in 1972 accounted for more than 60 percent of Komi oil production in 1982. Komi ASSR, one of the two oil regions outside West Siberia, has shown no significant growth in oil production since 1979. Although the re- gion appears to have substantial oil resources, Volga-Urals Oil and Gas Region Major pipelines' 1,020 mm and larger Other 'May represent multiple hues R"I", to oage 66 by r ,i,ssihr.iton of held development has been slowed by the extreme Arctic environment and by the heavy and paraf- finic oils that are characteristic of the region. Nevertheless, the Soviets hope to increase oil output from the region again. Komi ASSR gas production was insignificant until the giant Vuktyl gas deposit was developed in the late 1960s. While there are more than 30 gasfields in Komi ASSR, none of the others approaches the size of Vuktyl. which in 1982 accounted for nearly all of Komi ASSR's ap- proximately 18-billion-cubic-meter production. Vuktyl gas production was responsible for the construction of the Northern Lights pipeline from Komi ASSR to Eastern Europe. Timan-Pechora Oil and Gas Region Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 North ('aucasus-North ('aspian The North ('aucasus North Caspian oil and gas region f(Ilows a productive geologic trend more than 1,500 kin from the I kraine eastward across the Caspian Sca into Kazakhstan. The North Caucasus region, situated west of the ('aspian Sea, has been a petroleum producer for more than 60 Nears. In the late 1950s, as output from carp producing wells began to decline, mater de2-per wells were drilled to increase pro- duction. Output in the North Caucasus peaked at about 740,000 b/d in 1971 and then declined to 400,000 b,'d in 1980 as production fell rapid- IN in the most productive area, the Chechcn- Ingush /,SSR. Oil production in the region's other areas Stavropol' Krty, Krasnodar Krav, and the Dagestan ASSR is also declining. meat is f-~rintarily located in three areas: the Mangysl lak Peninsula, dominated by the giant Uzen' field; the Buzachi Peninsula, with several deposits of heavy oil; and the Fmba region, the source of early Kazakhstan production. Natural ,as production in the North Caucasus North Caspian has been declining since the late I960s. A recently discovered field north of :Astrakhan' on the lower Volga, however, may prove to c as large as the giant Orenburg field. Astrakhan' gas is high in sulfur and carbon dioxide (>our gas), and the USSR is acquiring Western technology and corrosion-resistant equipment to develop the field and remove the impurities from the gas. The Transcaucasus-Central Asia oil and gas regions extend from the Georgian and Azerbai- jan SSRs in the Caucasus Mountains under the southern Caspian Sea across Central Asia's Turkmen and Uzbek SSRs. Oilfields near Baku, in Azerbaijan, began pro- ducing in the 19th century. They accounted for half of the world's oil production in 1900 and more than 70 percent of Soviet oil output in 1941. Azerbaijan's oil industry declined during World War lI and, although it never regained prewar production levels, again rose until 1966, accounting for 8 percent of total Soviet produc- tion. Postwar growth was spurred mainly by Caucasus and Central Asia Oil and Gas Regions- I Antiakh,in N~ an ~~t'uunvv K ms novr,dsk ChrR k,.n >1ltH L Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 offshore wells in the Caspian Sea, which now account for more than 70 percent of Azerbai- jan's output. Transcaucasus oil development ex- tends from Baku westward into the Georgian SSR, where oil production, though relatively small, is rising. Georgia's output about 60,000 b/d in 1980- is primarily from the Samgori field near Tbilisi. Central Asia played a crucial role in Soviet natural gas production during the late 1960s and early 1970s by offsetting declining growth in the European USSR during West Siberia's early development. From 1973, when output surpassed that of the Ukraine, to 1979, when output was in turn surpassed by that of West Siberia, Central Asia was the leading ;gas-pro- ducing region in the USSR. During this period it accounted for more than 30 percent of total USSR production. Turkmenistan has recently replaced Uzbekistan as the major gas-producing area in Central Asia. Despite outputs from West Siberia's supergiant gasfields, surplus gas from both sparsely populated Central Asian republics continues to be integrated into the vast Soviet domestic and export pipeline network. Future petroleum growth in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia regions will probably come from deeper drilling in the Caspian Sea rather than from the current oil and gas exploration efforts in western Azerbaijan and Turkmeni- stan. Any new discoveries would require nearly a decade before they would make a significant contribution to Soviet oil production. Oil Important Gas fields Supergidnt Giant Othrr Major pipelines 1,020 rein and larger Other Iashava' Khrv i' Snnarkanrl ~r}u k har Muharek. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Production and Consumption For 30 years after World War II, oil production in the Soviet Union grew at enviable rates. During the mid-1970s the USSR became the world's leading oil producer. In 1983 the Soviet oil industry reported an average daily produc- tion rate of 12.33 million barrels of crude oil and gas condensate, about 20 percent more than the United States. The rapid growth in production was largely the result of the discovery and exploration of a series of large, giant, and supergiant fields. In the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviets developed the Volga-Urals and the massive fields of Romash- kino and Arlan. By the 1970s, just as production growth from the western USSR was beginning to taper off, the Soviets received a boost in production from the mammoth fields of the West Siberian basin Santotlor, Fedorovo, and Mantontovo. Soviet oil growth has begun to slow. The Soviets failed to make either the original or revised production targets for 1980 and have not equaled or exceeded an original annual target since the early 1970s. Plans have been revised downward to the point where the 1985 plan goal of 12.0 million b/d is no higher than the original target later revised downward for 1980. The present 1985 goal, already lowered from the upper limit of 12.9 million b/d, a provisional output goal, represents planned growth of less than I percent per }car. These small increases have been possible only because the Soviets have been able to keep West Siberian production growing from 6.2 million b/d in 1980 to an estimated 7.4 million b/d in 1983. West Siberia's share of' national output is now 60 percent. Outside West Siberia, only two lesser oil-producing regions of the USSR are currently able to raise output-- the Komi ASSR, in the north European USSR, and Ka- zakhstan, on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea. These three growth areas, together with the declining Volga-Urals region, produce more than 90 percent of Soviet oil and will largely determine Soviet output in the 1980s. Oil production in all other major Soviet produc- ing regions has leveled off or is declining. Volga- Urals production has declined by 1.2 million b/d or 25 percent since its peak in 1975. The drop was largely the result of a decline at the supergiant Romashkino oilfield, the leading pro- ducer in the region and the second-largest field in the USSR. The USSR's first-place position in world oil production is primarily the result of its abun- dant resource base, massive investment, and sheer persistence rather than of' any unique technical and managerial effort on the part of its oil industry. Although accorded high-priority status in the civilian economy, the oil industry is troubled by many of the same problems that afflict other Soviet industries- equipment short- ages, technology shortcomings, and lagging pro- ductivity and efficiency. Moscow has been at- tempting to rectify this with substantial foreign equipment purchases and domestic technology enhancements. Some 70 percent of oil consumption in the Soviet Union takes place in three sectors of the economy: electric power, transportation, and industry. Although Soviet oil consumption dur- ing the last 25 years has consistently grown faster than total energy consumption, in recent years the rates of both have been declining as USSR: Oil Productions and Apparent Consumption Million barrels per day 14 USSR: Oil Production by Regiona Million barrels per da} 14 overall economic growth has decreased. In the first half of the 1970s, oil consumption grew about 7 percent annually (compared with 4.7 percent for total energy), but during the period 1976-80 growth in oil use fell to 4 percent per year (versus 3.5 percent for total energy). Soviet efforts over the last five to 10 years to slow the growth of domestic oil consumption, except in the industrial sector, have been minimal. Do- mestic oil consumption in 1983 is estimated at 9.0 million b/d. III utIIII ea. Cnn~I im,IIC I ... - the Rc I II l ll"l an SSR ind Baltic. I .ir Ila,1, Georgian SS R, Kiwi R Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 'n'atural gas, rather than oil, has paced the growth i i Soviet energy production in recent vr;trs. Nat only is Moscow turning to gas to satisl.\ a large part of its increasing internal onn demand or energy in the 1980s, it is also relying on g;as ;t>, an important source of hard currency re'rCmte. In IOe3 het SSR surpassed the l sited States ;ts the world's largest producer of natural gas. S,,vict g; s output of 536 billion cubic meters in I `)83 compared with 150 billion cubic meters for the l nited States. Iven if the Soviets fall short ol, their (,30-Killion-cubic-nteter gals production goal for [985, they arc expected to remain in first place. I he I uropean l SSR primarily the North (aucasus and the I kraine supplied 85 percent of natural gas produced in II)65. I allowing the discoser of the Orenburg field in the Lite the Volga-brats and Central Asia fields paced SoNict production growth during the I `l7t)s. I3., 1983 \\ est Siberia vvas providing nc,trIN it of the gas industry's growth and acc~)unted for one-half of the nation's gas product ii n the First g;tsliclds to be developed in West Siberia %kcre located along the lower Oh' River. near Rerrmvo. sNhere production began in 1966. The center of the West Siberian deposits, how- cver. is lk catcd much farther to the north and cast near the \rctic Circle. Of the six large fields there \Iedvrzh'ye, l rcngoy, hamburg, /apolyarnovc, Kharas;tvev, and Rovanenko only Atedvcih'yc and trcngoy have been devel- ope,l. I hr opening of \tedvrzh'ye in 1972 marked t is beginning of' West Siberia's rapid growth in gas production, and bs 1978 it sup- plied abort three-fourths of the region's total output. I'1hfI Iii ~)-n Gas condensate, also called natural gas liquids, is a hydrocarbon occurring either in natural gas or oil reservoirs. Condensate is normally in the vapor phase at reservoir temperatures and pres- sures, but condenses either at lower reservoir pressures or at the surface during extraction. Condensate can be processed to yield fractions usable as petrochemical feedstock, motor gaso- line. "bottled gas." and raw materials for other industrial uses. Significant production of condensate was not achieved until the early 1970s, when the Soviets USSR: Natural Gas Production by Region West Siberia's 1, rcngor gasf'ield, brought into production in 1978 along with the smaller Vvn- gapur field, is currently being intensively devel- Billion rubia nnctcr, aped and will account for virtually Al the 600 growth in Soviet gas production during the next several years. In 1982 I rengoy's production of 1 I -7 billion Cubic meters was less than one-half the ficld'~ planned annual production for the X00 mid-I980s. The supergiant Ilrengoy field, with reserves rf' 7.8 trillion cubic meters, is the largest gasficld in the world. Additionally, the Soviets ;rrc making preparations to start devcl- 400 oping the adjacent V'amburg gasficld to the north in the Lite I')80s. Since nat tral gas production increments in )00 West Siberia exceed declines in the older re- gions, the total l SSR output Continues to in- crease. I rrthcrniorc, West Siberia has become a principal supplier of' natural gas to 1Lurope 100 through several long pipeline systems that ex- tend as far ;ts France. Currently, natural gas provides four-f'if'ths as much domestic energy as oil, compared with on]" 01 percent in 1970. Gas output has grown an ;trcrag _ of percent per }car since 1970. The Soviets plan to raise the share of natural gas in 0 total\ energy production from 26 percent in 1980 to 32 percent in 1985. first began to add condensate totals to their crude oil production output. I3y 1975 production had risen to 250,000 b/d with sonic 1 55,000 b/d coming from two condensate fields VukttiI in Komi ASSR and Orenburg in the southern Urals. Since that time national and regional condensate production figures have no, been published by the Soviets. But 1983 output is estimated at 600,000 b/d out of 12.33 million b/d of' combined crude oil and gas condensate. Growth has been steady, but the Soviets have encountered numerous problems in expanding condensate output. Condensate development has long taken a backseat in investment alocations, with the oil and gas ministries preferring to concentrate instead on easier and more reward- ing oil and natural gas production. Consequent- ly, a large percentage of both oil-associated condensate and condensate available from gas production has been lost because of inadequate processing capacity and inefficient field recov- ery techniques. Until very recently the Soviets have lagged badly in developing their gas-pro- cessing facilities and increasing their condensate recovery totals. The USSR is now attempting to upgrade the capabilities of its condensate industry and has set ambitious production goals for the 1980s. Substantial production increases from West Si- beria, Central Asia, western Kazakhstan, and possibly Komi ASSR can be expected. The Soviets hope to recover about 100,000 b/d from the I rengoy field alone by 1985 and to trans- port it by a major condensate pipeline to Surgut which, according to some reports, will extend westward to the Volga-Urals Two other major gas condensate fields, Astrakhan' on the Volga River and Karachaganak in northwestern Ka- zakhstan, are slated to provide together some 80,000 to 100,000 b/d of condensate b., 1985. Central Asia Ukrainian SSR Other 78 79 80 81 112 83 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Exploration Exploration and discovery of new hydrocarbon reserves oil, gas, and gas condensate --are a slow but critical process that will largely deter- mine the Soviets' ability to meet future oil and gas production goals. Soviet energy planners arc actively developing a wide range of plans to locate and evaluate both onshore and offshore petroleum reserves. In addition, they are up- grading their exploration capabilities through purchases of equipment from the West, repro- duction of Western designs, and strengthening domestic manufacturing capability. Ilistorically, Soviet exploration philosophy has been to concentrate on one hydrocarbon-bearing province at a time. The bulk of Soviet explora- tion is currently being conducted in West Sibe- ria in the vicinity of the oil-producing areas of the middle Ob' and the large gasfields in north- ern Tyumen' Oblast. Exploration there will, by necessity, be moving farther from the developed infrastructure into the more remote regions of the Tyumen' and Tomsk Oblasts. At the same time, the Soviets have begun limited surveys of' the country's remaining 20 unexplored basins for a successor to West Sibe- ria the third "Baku." Onshore, East Siberia and western Kazakhstan are scheduled for com- prehensive regional investigation. Offshore, ex- ploratory drilling has been under way since 1977 in waters near Sakhalin in a cooperative venture with a Japanese consortium. Soviet exploration in the Barents Sea is beginning despite the lack of engineering and technical experience in the Arctic offshore environment. Limited explora- tion has also started in the Baltic and Black Seas and the Sea of Azov. Almost all of these basins, both onshore and offshore, are located away from economic and population centers. Some Soviet oil experts have been suggesting that, instead of exploring these remote areas, the search for new oil should be concentrated in the deeper zones of the older Volga-Urals, the North Caspian basin, and the developed areas of the West Siberian basin. Any major program to explore these deeper and more difficult targets would require a significant up- grading of Soviet drilling equipment and technology. Exploration planning for new hydrocarbon re- serves in the Soviet Union is the joint responsi- bility of the Ministry of Geology, the Ministry of the Petroleum Industry, and the Ministry of the Gas Industry. The Ministries of Geology and Petroleum Industry are tasked with onshore oil exploration, the gas ministry is responsible for all gas exploration as well as offshore oil exploration. Plans for petroleum exploration are drawn up by these ministries with the assistance of the Acad- emy of Sciences. The various plans are submit- ted to the State Planning Committee (Gosplan) for approval, after which they are announced at the beginning of each five-year plan period. During the current plan (1981-85) Soviet oilmen were expected to discover and delineate oil and gas reserves that will be translated into produc- tion during the late I 980s and 1990s. Technology and Equipment Soviet geologists, faced with searching millions of square kilometers of unexplored territory, are using every available technique to locate new hydrocarbon reserves and to decrease the time lag between discovery and the onset of produc- tion. Foremost among these is the use of space technology to minimize mapping and select ar- eas for detailed exploration. Research for this effort was centralized in 1978 in Aerogeologiya, a geologic institute which applies space photog- raphy to terrain analysis to pinpoint promising areas for seismic surveys. The Soviets employ standard reflection and refraction seismic techniques in exploration but Exploration for oil and gas in the Soviet Arctic. Fixed drilling platform in the "April 28" oil- field, Caspian Sea. are hampered by technology shortcomings. Re- fraction studies can locate large amplitude structures---like Romashkino or Samotlor- but lack the higher resolution to identify smaller deposits. Seismic equipment in the USSR is rated to depths of about 3,000 meters, and there is little chance that this equipment will be able to detect deeper deposits or the more subtle stratigraphic traps. The Soviets made significant strides in offshore exploration technology during the 1970s, but they fell far short of their original goals. They had intended to have 10 mobile jack-up drilling platforms in operation in the Caspian and Black Seas by 1980, but only four were operating in that year. Efforts to obtain Western offshore Seismic Exploration I)ctcctorti " Baky" mobile jack-up drilling platform in the Caspian Sea. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Areas of Current Oil and Gas Exploration Timan- Pechora North Caucasus Trans- t:ancasus Volga- Urals A';tc. ikh,in North Cespian '', btXest. East Siberia equipment and technology were delayed by pro- longed discussions and negotiations which post- poned actual deliveries. The USSR plans to concentrate offshore explor- atory drilling for the next few years in the Caspian Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk near Sakhalin, and the Barents and Baltic Seas. Fabrication yards at Astrakhan' on the Caspian and Vyborg on the Gulf of Finland are now producing mobile offshore drilling platforms. The first Soviet-built, semisubmcrsible platform Shelf I began Caspian operations in early 1982. A second semisubmcrsible platform Shelf 2 was completed in 1982. As of amid-1984 the USSR had I I mobile offshore drilling platforms in operation eight jack-ups and three semisub- mersibles. Three semisubmcrsible and one jack- up drilling rig are being constructed at Astrak- han' and Vyborg. To begin exploration of the Arctic offshore region, the Soviets have bought three drill ships from Finland. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Lena- Tunguska Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Drilling The past three decades have seen a fourfold increase in Soviet oil and gas drilling in terms of meters drilled. In an effort to maximize output between 1965 and 1980, the Soviets emphasized development drilling rather than exploration drilling. Plans now call for even more rapid growth in development drilling and a substantial increase in exploration drilling. In the USSR, development drilling within oil and gas fields follows specific phases. After a discovery, several confirmation wells are drilled to learn more about the dimensions and geologic parameters of the new field and to obtain early well production data. Based on the results from early production, as well as on information from Stages in Field Development I)t hole Stronger pumps required to propel mud, turn turbodrill exploration wells, a field development plan is designed to establish the optimal initial well spacing for the entire field. Finally as the initial development plan is completed and more details are learned about field characteristics, infill drilling (which creates a denser network of wells) is begun to produce the hydrocarbons that can- not be produced from existing wells or to pro- duce them at a faster rate in the near term. Technology and Equipment Although Soviet drilling technology lags consid- erably that of Western countries, most of the drilling equipment, including rigs, pipes, casing, and bits, is produced in the Soviet Union. The Soviets rely on Western imports to fill specific Drilling Methods "hurbo tighter drill pipe Turbo motor at bottom limits drilling rate; less cllicient below 3,000 m. Lost hydraulic power in depth; lost return mud velocity to clean hole Less directional/ control Drilling table- turbo drilling, LL- I ach stage of the urhodrill includes u stator, rigidly connected to the turbodrill body, and rotor, secured on the ,urbodrill shaft In the tor and rotor the direction of the mud fluid stream changes Mud (lowing from one stage to another gives up some of its hydraulic power at each stage. As a result, the power or torque generated by the rotors inallthe stages is applied to the shall of the turbodrill and is transmitted to the bit The torque developed in the stators is taken up by the turbodrill hods and the drilling string, while an equal, h i t t oppositely directed torque arising in the rotors is transmitted to the hit vi i the turbodrill shaft Blowout preventor Hydraulic bottom drive motor- turb)drill Shaft Stator Rotor Body needs such as additional drill pipe, high-pressure blowout preventers, and offshore drilling and logging equipment. The USSR produced oil and gas drilling rigs of all types at a rate of about 500 per year in the last decade. The average service life of a Soviet rig is about six to 10 years, compared with 15 to 20 years for rigs built in the United States. Until recently, nearly all Soviet rigs were built at two plants the Barrikady Plant in Volgo- grad and the Uralmash Plant in Sverdlovsk. Some 75 percent of the production has been at the Uralmash Plant. A new drilling rig plant was built in 1981 in Verkhnyaya Pyshma, north of Sverdlovsk. Productivity has risen during the past decade as improvements have been made in Soviet rig design, but there are chronic com- Rotary Stronger drill pipe Drill deeper and required more elliciently Drilling fabllcuoe,i 1N Needs drilling More directional collars control Drill by weight on drilling face Drilling table/drive system- rotary drilling ii n N G fl The Mud System-same for both methods. From the slush pumps (A) the fluid goes to the swivel (B), down through the kelly (C), through the drillstem (t) to the bit (E) washing out the drill cuttings at the bottom and carrying them hack to the surface through the annulus (F) The fluid then travels through a shale shaker (G I to remove the cuttings and returns to the niud pit (II) where the cycle begins again. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Uircclional Drilling I na ctt?I h IC I uca I i10ns I rtrrho&?il/irri rig lit /hr/rhai oi!/old, %Iarr- tlI:rhlok l'c rrirrculu. .~orllr Cn.c/ricrrr. I~Iaints th It the niiy of rig Iypes is inadequate; e,prci;tll~ lacking ;Ire portable rigs for use in northern _1 n1;Itcs. Iurbodrill, ;tee used for more than 80 percent of the oil ;I11,1 gas drilling in the Soviet I niun. The turbodrill use., ;I downhole turbine powered b\ drilling imtd that turns only the attached bit and not the entire drill string as does the rotary nte'.hod used in the y\ est. I urbodrills have been cl feetive in developing the shallow, hard-rock formation, in the Volga-Urals basin and for directional drilling front the cluster drilling pads in \\ est Siberia. The original appeal of the turbodrill vv;Is that it enabled Soviet drillers to .I\oid nr;tny potential problems associated with \\hip,lock Method for Uircclional I)rillini; the use of low-quality domestic drill pipe and tool joints that could not withstand the stresses of rotary drilling operations. Turbodrilling elim- inates torque on the drill string: consequently, it reduces the amount of time lost as a result of broken drill pipe. In addition, the turbodrill is characterised by a high rate of bit rotation which increases the initial rate of penetration. The higher rate of bit rotation in turbodrilling, however, causes a drastic shortening of bit life (meters drilled per bit), reducing the rate of penetration in deep drilling. Lost productivity caused by frequent bit changes in deep drilling increases dramaticallti as the drilling depth in- creases. The USSR now produces about 9,000 turbodrill motors annually. The quality of* Soviet drill pipe is generally adequate for drilling shallow wells (less than 2,000 meters). At greater depths, the poor- quality steel cannot withstand the torque re- quired for rotary drilling and often fails. Even with turbodrilling, pipe inadequacies are often severe. Problems relating to the quantity and quality of drill pipe and casing produced in domestic plants have been cited as factors in the failure to meet recent West Siberian drilling targets. Moscow has been negotiating with Western firms to purchase a turnkey plant to manufacture drill pipe and casing. The Soviet Union's output of drill bits, including standard, diamond, and experimental hard alloy types, is about I million per _year. Although the quality and performance of Soviet drill bits improved during the 1970s, they are still much less efficient than those produced in the United States. In 1978 the Soviets bought a turnkey drill bit plant from the United States for installation at Kuybyshev. The plant, which began operating in January 1982, is capable of producing upward of 100,000 tungsten carbide insert bits per year. At the high rotational speeds of Soviet turbo- drills, the bits from the new Kuybyshev plant should operate for significantly longer periods than conventional Soviet-made bits, increasing productivity because of reduced downtime for bit replacement. Administration and Organization Three ministries geology, oil, and gas are responsible for drilling exploration wells. Of these, the oil and gas ministries are normally responsible for the detailed assessment of field size and potential and the drilling of develop- ment. wells. National drilling efforts by the oil and gas ministries are coordinated bN Administrations for Drilling Operations. In addition, drillers are supported by research institutes in Moscow, Tyumen', and other cities. The gas ministry controls offshore drilling for both oil and gas. The basic production unit in the Soviet oil and gas industry is the regional production associa- tion, which oversees all aspects of drilling activi- ty including rig assembly and well completions. Drilling is conducted by drilling brigades, usual- ly comprising 24 men, who generally operate in four teams on a single rig in shifts of up to 12 hours' duration around the clock. Offshore Drilling Soviet offshore drilling began nearly four dec- ades ago in the shallow waters of the Caspian Sea. As oil and gas fields were discovered, development wells were drilled from small wooden platforms connected to the shore by trestles to facilitate movement of equipment and supplies to the drilling sites. The Caspian Sea is still the Soviet center for offshore drilling and production technology. Currently, nine of the I I Soviet-owned and -operated mobile offshore drilling rigs are operating in the area. Offshore oil output in the Caspian is estimated at 200,000 b/d, more than three-fourths of Azerbaijan SSR's production. By 1985 the USSR plans to boost offshore drilling activity 50 percent above the level at- tained in 1980. New drill ships and platforms from foreign yards and new construction in Soviet yards are part of a major effort to explore the offshore Arctic and Far Fast. Much of this increased emphasis on offshore drilling was stimulated by geologists' reports that potential oil-bearing sedimentary rock covers more than two-thirds of the Soviet shelf area. Development of the offshore oil potential will be important to the Soviets if' they plan to maintain oil produc- tion at high levels in the I 990s. Western equip- ment and technology will be essential for suc- cessful development of offshore areas. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 I'auli flame ('ontrol Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Recovery During the past decade the Soviets have found it increasingly difficult to locate new oil reserves, to increase development drilling, and to under- take offshore exploration. As a result, the rapid production growth of the postwar period began to slow in the late 1970s. Essentially, all of the important oil-producing regions in the country are confronted with difficulties: major oilfields have been intensively exploited and have reached peak production or are in decline, new fields are less productive and more difficult to develop, and discovery of new reserves has not kept pace with the growth of oil production. Although the Soviets produce most of their own petroleum equipment, domestic manufacturers have been unable to meet the accelerating de- mand of the oil industry for more and better equipment and techniques to improve oil rccov- crv. The lack of sufficient high-quality equip- ment and technology has hampered efforts in several areas, including drilling in West Siberia, and the enhanced oil recovery program. Asa result of domestic production inadequacies, the t:SSR made selective purchases of Western equipment and technology in the 1970s. Among those oil recovery items imported were high- capacity electric submersible pumps; gas-lift equipment, including compressors and treat- ment units: well completion units: steam genera- tors: and associated insulated tubing. Various secondary and enhanced recovery techniques are necessary to offset declining production at all major Soviet oilfields. dlechanical pumping units are commonly used to offset low reservoir pressures and lift well fluids. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Periodic servicing is required to maintain mechanical sucker rod or heam pumping units. Recoserv Methods Primary recovers is the initial production of fluids fail the reservoir using natural sources of energy to produce oil and gas. Once this method can no longer cause the oil and gas to flow through the porous rocks into the wells, various secondar_ methods including svaterflooding, me- chanical pumps, and gas lift are used to recover additional amounts of oil. In the Soviet oil industr}, waterflooding is ap- phcd at a ver early stage of a held's producing life to in tintain reservoir pressure and to in- crease oil recoverv.As a result, in 1980 the water content amounted to 55 percent of fluids recovered. More than 85 percent of Soviet oil output is recovered by waterflooding. The high pcrcenta e of vNatcr in the oil has increased the demand for artificial lift equipment submers- ible pumps, sucker-rod pumps, and gas-lift units to maintain or increase oil production. Pumping units rod or beam pumps and electric centrifugal punips are brought on line as wells Stop flossing because of low reservoir pressure or as the amount of seater in the produced fluid becomes too high. Rod pumps are used for low- llo' -rate wells, while the high-capacity centrif- ugal pumps arc used to lift large volumes of fluid. During the 1970s the I:SSR purchased more than 1,200 high-rapacity, downhole sub- mersible pumps from the I;nited States. In 1983 about E0 percent of all producing wells in the Soviet I. lion were on rod pumps, and 20 percent 'sere on subnicrsiblc pumps. gas-lift equipment was installed for the first time at the Pravdinsk field in West Siberia. As a follow-on, the Soviets installed gas-lift equip- ment at the Uzen' oilfield in Kazakhstan and at the supergiant Samotlor and Fedorovo oilfields in West Siberia. The Soviets are also interested in using hydrau- lic pumps in their artificial lift program. These pumps are submerged and are driven by high- pressure fluid from equipment at the surface, instead of being powered by electricity as are conventional submersible pumps. Although the Soviet oil industry did not use hydraulic pumps in 1980, plans call for the use of 300 such pumps by 1985. Enhanced oil recovery (LOR) refers to recovery of oil from a petroleum reservoir beyond that economically recoverable by conventional pri- mary and secondary methods. Three general categories of FOR are chemical flooding, car- bon dioxide miscible flooding, and thermal methods. The Soviets have expressed high hopes for FOR techniques to increase oil recovery from older fields and to produce undeveloped fields that contain heavy oil. Although they have experi- mented with FOR programs in many fields and tested most of the available methods, only about 60,000 b/d can be attributed to enhanced recov- ery at present. This yield has primarily come from the application of steam or hot water injection and in situ combustion. Gas lilt a process of lifting fluids from a well by a dossnltole infection of gas to lighten the fluid column so that the natural reservoir energy can lift t is fluid is an alternative to high- capacity, Submersible pumps, although it costs consider: bly more to install. Soviet petroleum officials have become more interested in the use of the ga;-fif't process for lifting fluids in the oilfields because of the high frequency of' repairs on dosvnhole pumping equipment. In 1969 US Soviet FOR efforts have been hampered by severe shortages of equipment and chemicals. The Soviets have not as Net been able to build the steam generators needed for thermal recov- ery or to produce sufficient amounts of surfac- tants or polymers for chemical and polymer flood programs. Continued efforts are being made to acquire Western technical assistance and equipment to promote FOR. Workmen waiting to loH'er sucker rods into 'ell. Recovery Methods 111 Hot oil 1 1 Steam and ' Oil water) Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Oil Refining and Gas Processing The rapid growth of' oil and gas production in West Siberia during the 1970s has required major increases in Soviet crude-oil-refining and gas-processing capacity. Moscow is constructing new oil refineries and adding crude oil distilla- tion units to existing refineries. A major effort is also under way to speed construction of gas- processing facilities to prepare increasing quan- tities of gas for domestic use and export. Al- though Soviet professional journals contain few production statistics, they occasionally have dia- grams, flow charts, photo illustrations, and de- sign capacities of crude oil distillation and gas- processing units. Oil Refining In January 1983 there were 53 oil refineries operating in the Soviet Union. Although the Soviets do not publish the total crude oil distilla- tion capacity of' these refineries, it is believed to be in the neighborhood of 10.5 million b/d, second only to the approximately 16-million-b/d capacity of the 220 operating refineries in the United States. Four-fifths of the Soviet refiner- ies are located near population and industrial centers west of the Ural Mountains. Many of these refineries are also located within large petrochemical-refinery complexes and provide feedstocks directly to the chemical processes. Before the mid-1950s the Soviet petroleum in- dustry consisted of about 30 refineries with small crude oil distillation units of less-than- 20,000-b/d capacity. The only secondary pro- cessing units of consequence were thermal crackers designed to break down heavy oils. Between the mid-1950s and mid-1960s a con- centrated effort was made to upgrade the indus- try, both in crude oil distillation capacity and in secondary processing. Several standardized crude oil distillation units with capacities of 20,000 to 60,000 b/d were constructed as well as a wide variety of secondary processing units such as catalytic crackers and reformers, de- layed cokers, and hydrogen treating and lubri- cating oil units. With the development of the Volga-Urals oil resources in the 1950s, the Soviets stopped concentrating refineries in the crude oil produc- tion areas and began locating them near points of regional consumption, such as Omsk, Kirishi, Kremenchug, and Angarsk. The refineries re- ceive more than 90 percent of their crude oil from pipelines; most of the remaining is deliv- ered by rail. Conversely, only about 10 percent of the refined products are transported by pipe- lines; about 90 percent are delivered by rail, water, and tank truck. Since 1970 required increases in primary distil- lation capacity have been obtained through modernization or expansion of existing refineries and the construction of at least five new refiner- ies. Modernization of refineries has included the dismantling of old, small refining units and replacing them with larger, more efficient units to upgrade and improve both the output and product mix. The Soviet refining industry is reported to have major problems in areas such as sophistication of refining processes, variety of product mix, and quality of individual petroleum products. Specifically, Soviet refineries lack adequate processing units especially cracking units, Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Oil Refineries which break down heavier fuels into lighter fuels such as ;gasoline and kerosene. The lacl of adequate heavy-oil conversion ca- pacity makes it difficult for Soviet refineries to produce high-octane gasoline and high-grade diesel full in the increasing volumes needed to meet grrwing domestic demand. Moreover, since a large share of the rising volume of heavy fuel oils cannot presently be further refined, they are primarily burned in electric power plants, thereby slowing Soviet attempts to bal- ance fue consumption by converting these plants to coal and natural gas. All crude oil processed by refining must pass through in initial or primary distillation process where it is separated into gases, gasoline, kero- sene, diesel fuels, and heavy fuels (niazut). These products are used as fuels or are further refined through secondary processes to produce lubri- cating of s, higher quality fuels, and other fin- ished products. Soviet refineries contain three basic types of crude oil distillation units. They range from early-design shell stills, through one-stage atmospheric pipe stills (AT), to current technol- ogy, two-stage atmospheric vacuum pipe stills (.AVT). Some of the one- and two-stage units contain their own desalting section (ELOU), and some are built in combination with other types of units. I'hc standard crude oil distillation units currently being constructed have a design ca- pacity of 120,000 b/d. Secondary refinery units provide a higher yield of light products and upgrade product quality after primary distillation. The most important secondary processes include reforming, catalytic cracking, hydrogen treating, hydrocracking, al- kylation, and lubricating oil production. Other types of secondary processes produce specialty products, recover refinery byproducts, or treat crude oil prior to distillation or refined products prior to shipment. Natural Gas Processing The processing of natural gas is becoming an important subsector of the Soviet oil and gas industry after many years of neglect. In an effort to reduce the wasteful flaring of gas that is a byproduct of oil production called associated gas, the USSR is vastly expanding its capacity to produce valuable natural gas byproducts such as propane, butane, sulfur, and stable conden- sate. These products are useful not only as fuels but also as feedstocks in the petrochemical industry. The rapid development of West Siberia's oil- fields--especially Samotlor--outstripped the USSR's ability to process the associated gas. Flaring of the region's excess gas probably reached its peak in 1975 when about 20 billion cubic meters had to be burned off. Recently completed gas-processing plants in the Tyumen' oil region have helped reduce flaring and raised associated gas-processing capacity to nearly 20 billion cubic meters in the region during 1982. Large gas-processing facilities have been con- structed at Nizhnevartovsk, Belozersk, Surgut, Yuzhno-Balyk, and Lokosovo. New processing plants in the gas-producing regions of Orenburg and Central Asia have significantly increased sulfur removal capabilities, enabling output from high-sulfur fields to replace the region's declining low-sulfur gas production. Processing of nonassociated gas by the Ministry of the Gas Industry has grown substantially since 1970 when only 3 billion cubic meters of gas were processed. The current five-year plan calls for processing about 75 billion cubic meters of natural gas, the production of about 1.6 million tons of sulfur, and more than 20,000 b/d of gas condensate in 1985. Natural gas is processed by several gas ministry plants located throughout the gas-producing re- gions. The largest and newest facility is located at Urengoy. Whether because of technological deficiencies or simply a lack of domestic produc- tion capacity, much of the gas-processing equip- ment is imported from the West. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Pipelines The USSR has greatly expanded its pipeline network in recent years to transport oil and natural gas. The total length of oil and gas pipelines grew from fewer than 70,000 kilome- ters in 1965 to more than 231,000 kilometers by the end of 1983. During this period an average of about 6,000 kilometers of natural gas pipe- lines and 2,600 kilometers of oil pipelines were constructed each year. The development of major new oil and gas fields at great distances from the economic heartland and increased gas exports are largely responsible for the massive Soviet pipeline construction program. Moscow has given high priority to the construction of pipelines from West Siberia to the industrialized areas of the USSR and to its border with Fastern Furope. At present 12 natural gas pipelines and five oil pipelines trans- port oil and gas from the producing areas of West Siberia. Most pipelaving in West Siberia is accom- plished when the ground is frozen during Octo- ber through May. The Soviet press has empha- sized the necessity of year-round pipelaying, but construction in swampy areas during the sum- nmer has been achieved only on a small scale. Activity in summer is primarily limited to areas of hard ground. Relatively few pipelines have been built in the area of continuous permafrost. These few the gas pipelines from the Medvezh'yc and Urengoy Major Oil and Gas Pipelines Khiva? ? Nehit I).lq .I oil iii ~., lilt 1 'hok? M, 01 u ~itcv votr;e? (trt3 lJt` Kuybyshev ? Chely ihinak ? Tikhnretsk Alrk :,inr6 nv Gav ?O rcn burg .O,sk hilisi NhevchP. nku fields to Nadym and from Messoyakha to No- ril'sk- are being built above ground to avoid trenching in permafrost and to prevent disrup- USSR: Completion of Crude Oil Pipelines, by Plan Period tion of the permafrost by heat from pipelines. II huusand kilonictcrs Oil Pipelines The USSR relies on pipelines to transport more than 90 percent of its crude oil production. About 83 percent of the Soviet Union's oil pipelines carry crude oil. The remaining pipe- lines transport refined products. Most of the Soviet oil pipeline network is rela- tively new. Its growth has been dramatic from 4,000 kilometers at the end of World War 11 to about 76,200 km in 1983 with half of the growth occurring between 1970 and 1983. About 20,000 km, including nearly 80 percent of the large-diameter 1,020-mm and 1,220-mm lines, were built during the 1970-80 period. Crude oil pipeline construction has slackened appreciably in the 1980s, primarily as a result of slower growth in oil production. Only 9,200 km a 1946- alt- 56- 59- 00- 71- 76- 81- are scheduled for completion in the 1981-85 plan, and just two of the 16 planned pipelines rl.~n~,~rl are large-diameter interregional oil transmission lines: one from Pavlodar to Chimkent, complet- ed in March 1983, and one from Kholmogory to lotsk. All of these lines were 1,020 or 1,220 mm Kuybyshev, scheduled for construction in 1984. in diameter. During 1976-80, in contrast, the Soviets laid a number of major interregional lines: Nizhnevar- Unlike large-diameter gas pipeline construction, tovsk to Kuybyshev, Krasnoyarsk to Irkutsk, the Soviet oil pipeline industry is largely self- Kuybyshev to Kremenchug, and Surgut to Po- sufficient and does not depend on Western Usnsk Pechora Nadym, Novyy Urengoy Siberia* Kholmogory `Surgut s. Nizhnevartovsk Nv h r)\/aye Tiro *Tobol'sk Omsk Novnsibirsk .Y,)kutsk Khamlr.i . Hesryak1, Okhn Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 I SSR: Pipeline fransporl of ('nude Oil - cs eragc I)islallCC I SSR: Length of ('rude ()if Pipeline Network, by Diameter of Pipe I Iluu,.nu1 k1him"tcr, I)I;I Ill Cr it in Ill 111110 lr r~ .o?o- fit) [_ ] I C Ih,m ?o cquipnu'nt and materials. Nevertheless, the So- viets dos lectivcly import pipclascrs, bulldoicrs, valves, ;r)d insulating materials to speed con- struction and to improve the operational capa- bility and service life of their pipelines. Gas Pipelines Several Major natural gas pipeline corridors link the gas-rich regions of West Siberia, Central \,,ia, a11.1 the southern lrats with the industrial centers of the I-uropcan l!SSR. The geographic distribution and large capacity of these domestic trunklincs also provide a flexible network for gas exports to the West. Ness' pipelines ur)der con- structior represent a major e~xtensiott of the Soviet gas transmission s}stenl, which has grrnvn ra pidly I'roni 2,300 km in I9S0 to I 1'`,(100 kin at the end of 19'43. Additional gas pipelines are scheduled for completion during During the current live-scar plan (1981-8x), four larPC-dia m eter (1.420-mm) natural gas pipelines from the t Irengos field in West Siberia have been constructed, and two more are sched- uled for completion. The fourth line completed during the plan, the much-publicised Siberia to Western Europe export pipeline, was report- edly partially operational in earls 1984, and pipelaN ing on the fifth domestic line is complete. The operation of the six pipelines swill bring to 12 the number of large-diameter gaslines trans- porting gas Iron) Nest Siberia. I TIC addition of the six nesv pipelines involved building some 20.000 kilometers of main trunk pipelines and swill allow the Soviet Union to transport the more than ISO billion cubic meters per scar ,ml \\ cst Siberian gas production planned hs 1955 (200 billion cubic meters more than in I)y0).:ylso planned for completion during tf,c 198 I-i;s period is a pipeline to trans- port gas condensate from ( Jrengoy to Surgut. t SSR: Length of Natural (;as Pipeline Network, bN Diameter of Pipe 1 ~I) I)i;iinclcr in nlillinl~tri, I.I?u 1.1170-1."11 I ,', 111.111 I_(OOH Pipe jr .welded at storage area welding bases along the pipeline h,r crews using either manual arc techniques or semiautomatic units. While the majority of' the new large-diameter gas pipelines will be constructed with domesti- cally produced pipe and compressor station equipment of Tess-than-desired quality and reli- ability, the gas network will still have a first- rate array of Western equipment. The ambitious Soviet plans to increase gas production and transport capabilities envisage reduced reliance on imported pipe and should benefit from the new multilayer pipe production plant at Vyksa, southwest of Gor'kiv. Erer.l' !'ear the USSR lays gas pipeline twice as long as the trans-Alaskan oil pipeline. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Coal Coal follows oil and natural gas as a primary energy source in the Soviet Union. The Soviet coal industry dates back to the early 19th century. It remained the cornerstone of the Soviet energy industry and provided the Soviets fuel for their economic development and indus- trial growth until well into the Khrushchev era, when it was gradually eclipsed by oil and gas----a phenomenon that was simultaneously occurring in the United States and Western Europe. To- day, the Soviet coal industry still employs more than a million workers and provides nearly 40 percent of the fuel used to generate electricity. Most experts agree that abundant reserves will keep the Soviet Union self-sufficient in coal for the near future. Internationally, the USSR is second only to the United States in reserves and annual production of coal. Most energy special- ists believe that potential Soviet coal reserves are the largest in the world. Although coal's share of Soviet primary energy production dropped from two-thirds in 1950 to just over 50 percent in 1960 and to only 22 percent in 1983, coal remains critically impor- tant to the Soviet economy. With the cost of oil production rising rapidly, Soviet energy plan- ners have become aware that coal must play a greater role in the total Soviet energy balance. They acknowledge, however, that investment in the coal industry has recently been insufficient both to develop new coal basins and to forestall production declines in older basins. Although substitution of coal for oil is a high Soviet priority, the Soviet coal industry will be poorly equipped to increase production sharply, at least through the 1980s. Reserves Explored 281 billion metric tons World rank Second Production Record year 1978-724 million metric tons World rank Third By coal rank Hard coal (anthracite and bituminous), 78 percent; lignite, 22 percent By type of mining Surface, 40 percent; underground, 60 percent Resources and Reserves As of 1 January 1983 the Soviet Union estimat- ed its coal resources at 6.8 trillion tons, about half of the world's total and nearly twice that of the United States. Only 4 percent of this total has been explored. Although the Soviets esti- mate the energy potential of their 281-billion- ton explored coal reserve to be four times great- er than the combined potential of their oil and natural gas reserves, the easily accessible coal reserves of the European USSR have been Coal Reserves and Mining Activity Pechora basin . L'vov-Volyn' basin Nrn., ~vn.k I )-,t.,k l Donets basin ~; n,iAhty ~i Kizel basin Sverdlovsk T ash kenI Tunguska basin seriously depleted and the remote Siberian re- serves are proving to be much more expensive to develop. The portion of total reserves comprised by coking coal is also enormous--estimated at 65-70 billion tons. Soviet coal reserves are widely dispersed. In the European USSR, the Donets basin contains high-quality anthracite and bituminous coal, much of which is suitable for coking and is close to major blast furnaces. However, increasing mine depths, thinness of coal seams, and high methane concentrations are making the Donets reserves increasingly difficult to exploit. Al- though production has fallen as a result, the Donets basin still accounts for almost 30 percent of total Soviet coal production. The lignite reserves in the European USSR, although high in moisture, sulfur, and ash content, have, until recent years, been successfully exploited because of their closeness to centers of consumption. The Pechora coal basin, the northernmost basin in the European USSR, has also been extensively developed, despite the severe climate, because of its proximity to markets and the high quality of its bituminous coking coals. Nearly 75 percent of the Soviet Union's ex- plored coal reserves is located east of the Ural Mountains--thousands of kilometers from the major industrial and population centers of the European USSR. In addition to the costly mine- to-market transportation problems involved, the quality of many of these remote coal reserves is poor because of undesirable levels of ash, water, and sulfur. Zyryanka basin Aleksandrovsk region a C:h~,l'ninn South Vakutia Uglegorsk region Neryungri~ basin Uryal ?Arte~~~~~'sk~y Bureya basin A-,he,r S,,d,herrsk. Kemerovo- I k tsk r u L,~ a K t basin basin uzn s-kkbp'yevsk ,Chr,i~oyorsk ? Ghekhavo ^ Partizansk basin Minusinsk basin Vladivii Stok Hard coal (anthracite and bituminous) Brown coal (lignite) I ppl SO ION 1165 131: S6,RM Belches uiif S4 ION 053551 20 u iniler111.1 trill 61) 45N (161 39!- R M Belgorod ppI SO 16N (116141 79,0 M Anlga still 62 SON 114321'. II.R M Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy pill 46 1 2N 03() 21 I. RM \n,guri' ,till S2 SON' 119381-. II.R M Belgorodskaya Oblast' admd SO 45N 017 301 71) Anal I)an.1 still 41 40N 059 01 P. 2I,R M Bclogorsk pill SO 5SN 128291 RM Anus stns 52 SON 141 100 II.RM Bclogorsk pill SS 02N 088 281'. 60, R M \nml sk pill Al 14N 116 540 RM Belokurikha ppl S I SAN (184 51)1'- RM Vnm Skala Ol last admd 54 ((IN 128 001 79 Belomorsk pp1 64 32N 0)4 481 RM A na her ,Uri 7108N II1361. RM Beloreisk pill S1 58N 058 241 R NI A 11,11(11' "PI 64 4SN 177 291 57,59,RM Belorussia Economic Region reg S1 00N 028 (1111 79 \nad, r' slat 64 S4N 176 131. RM Belorussian oil shale deposit oils 53 46N 029 141' 44 Anadyr coal h,nnt coal fi50(1N 174001 34,40 Belorussian SSR admd 53 (ION (128 ()11 P 79 A nadsr' oal dcpilit coal 6S OON 177101` 14 Belovo pp1 54 2SN (180 181' 18,R r14 \mxll rskn /All gulf 64 ((IN 17800W' RM Belovu thep SA NA 49,67 'pl 411 45N 072 221! 56,79,8 M Belovarskiy ppl SO4SN 1161 2_41 - R NI Andvhari,k.Iu. Oblast' admd 411 45N 072_ ooh. 79 Belova rskiv pill 6143N 0664111'. 1(1,RM And-p,, pill SO OIN 018 501-. 31,RM Belovarskiy nucp NA SA -2,67 Angara still S806N ((91001 SO,51,60,67,RM Belvy Yar pill 58 26N 085 011. 60,8 M \nga ilk pill S2 )4N 1113 S41:: RM Belyy, Ostrov ll 73 I(IN (17(1451, RM A ngarsk poll NA NA 11.66 Benders PH 46 49N (129 291'. R 1,1 \ng tell p0l 41 OIN 07012_0. OO.RM Bennetta, Ostrov sl 76 21 N 148 S61'. RM \ogrrn road ill 111111 coal 41 OAN 1170 001-. 14 Bcnoy off 42 42N 040 291. _1 \-I... -Su izhcnsk pill 56 07N (1861111: 60.R M Berdsk ppl 5447N 0830 I: RM \nzhcr -Su izhcn,k soil dcpisn soul S6 ION 086 (01!'. 34 Bcrd(ansk pPl 464SN 1116 471; RM AI Ins pill 67 14N 033_2) RM Berdvanskoye gasf S I 14N ISS (( I 211 April 2h rill (9 S2N 050 Sol 21 Berezniki ppl S9 24N OS6 461 RM \,,,I Sca sea 4S (lON 060001 R M Berezuvo ppl 63 SON 065 (121. 6.'1,8 M \r.IC,k pill 46 48N 1161 401:. 56,59.8 M Bere,ovo gasf 63 (ON (104 241:- ,it,, 19 SAN 1(48 21)1: 21 Berczovo oil shale deposit oils 6S 12N (102481 44 \rcnrt, 64 SIN 17411( 20 Bcrczovskoyc ppl SS SUN 0891011 60,RM Argun sun 5I 2ON 121 281: R M Bcrcrovskoyc coal deposit coal SS 4SN 089 I5l'- (4,60 Nn ill llo, t' pill 4S 09N 1 14 2211' RM Bcrczovskoyc-I thep NA NA 49,611,67 Ark.Ig.Ila pill 61 091 146 471 57,59,RM Berezovyy pp1 S1 40N I1s421. RM Ark.Iga1.I coal Icixlsil coal 61 2SN 1471101 34 Bering Sea Ica fill (ION 175 (lOW RM Arkal)k pp1 SO I IN 1(66 SOF 79,RM Bering Strait strt 6O OON 169 OUW RM Ark hinge l'sk pill 6414N 040 321'- 56,59,79,8 M Beringovskiy pp1 63 01N 179 191'. RM Arkhangel',k r .i l lhlasl' admd 64 OON (144 001. 79 Beringovskiy coal deposit coal 61 0UN 178 401' 14 Arknc hcskp gasf 69 40N 1170 491 16,00 Berkakit pp1 SO 14N 124401 I I,R M Arta ll ,Oil SS SAN 054 1It: 20,22,60 Beshkul' uiif 4611N 040141'. 21 Annecu pill 45 00N 1141 081 RM Bcstvakh ppl 61 24N 128 S((1' 1_,RM Armrm:ul nucp NA NA 52.67 Beipak-Dala Desert dot 46 (ION 070 (04', R N4 A nncncul SSR admd 40 OON 045 nat. 21,79 Bcurdeshik gasf 39 17N 060 361 2_I Arscn\cc pill 44 ION 111 151. RM Beyncu ppl 4S I I N 055 061 1_1, 3_,S6,S9.RM \rlcril pill 4122N 132131 RM Bezmcin ppl 18 OSN 058 1 II 21,0 M Anim rill 40 28N OSO 221. 21 Bidzhan pill 47 SON Ill Sol 57,R \1 Aninl road &111,0 coal 41 ION 112 191 14 Bikin ppl 46 48N 114 161'. S7.R \1 Ail moss), pill S4 21 N (191 2fil'l 57,RM Bikin coal deposit coal 40 SIN 114141 14 Annnosskn 11,,11 1)0111101 01,11 57 ION ((61 31(1 34 Bilibino pill (I8 o3N 166 201. S7,SU.R M An pill 42 2ON 068 481' SO,RM Bilibino ATETs nucp Nn NA 52,07 Arz:una, pill 55 23N 043 SDI' S6,RM Binagadi tar sands deposit tars 40 (ISN 048 511. 45 Ac. gill 41 ION 1152 331. 21 Birobidzhan ppI 48 48N 117 S"11'. S"7,RM 1, 1, h, had pill 17 S7N 058 231-. 2I,S6,fi1,79,RVI Birvusa stm 57 4IN 095 241. 60 Ashkhahad,k:r a Ohln,t' admd 19 ()ON (15910(1. 79 Biya stns 52 2SN INS 001: RM pill S7 OON 1186 091' RM Biysk pp1 S2 84N (185 1 5 1 ' - SO,R M Askv pill S1118N 09032E SO,R M Black Sea s e a 43 JOIN 035 (11(1- RM A,t.v.l pill I8 26N 048 51![ 11,S6.RN4 Blagoveshchensk ppl 5(I ION 12_7121'1 79.8 M A,Ira khan' pill 46_ I N 048 (1311 II,2S,SS,Sfi,79,RM Blagovcvo pill 61 2SN 074 561' RM Asuakha n' gaol 46 SON 048 Ifil'l 21,23 Bobrovka off 5212N (ISI 361' 20 All ,r kh.nuk:q I 0111-C admd 47 (ION 048 001'- 79 Bobruysk ppl 5101) N 029141' RM Aiaha, ga,f 31) 14N 1(58 III 21 Bodaybo ppl 57 SIN 114101'. RM \Ib:oar pill SI 48N 1168 2111' RM Boguchanv pp1 58 23N 097 291. RM Atl.unvo I'll) 40 01 N 142 091 R M Boguchany hydp NA NA 5)1,67 M ar hurskas.1, Sq,ka vole 5 3 1 SN 158491-. 64,R'.1 Bol'shaya Kuonamka stns 104SN 111241. RM \s ('II1l loll 6217N (1711161. 16 Bol'shenik, Ostrrv ill 78 41115 1112 1111' R N1 As'11 ,111 0611 59 275 1172 451 16 Bol'shov Anyuy stm fib ION 16041)) RN1 Au.tguz pill 47 SON 118(12_31. S6,RM Bol'shoy Begichev, Oslruv sl 74211N 1 12 301 . RM Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 B (continued) Hol'shoy Iyakhovskiy. Ostrov is) 73 35N 14200E RM C (continued) Chimkent petr NA NA 31,66 Bol'shoy ('it slit 5901N 09144E 60 Chimkentskaya Oblast' admd 43 OON 068 0011 79 Hol'shov Yugan stn 61 OIN 073 24E 16,RM Chirchik ppl 41 29N 069 3511 61,6 M Hulogoye ppl 57 24N 034026 56,RM Chirkey hydp NA NA 50,67 Hondyuzhskiy calf 55 58N 052 25E.. 20 Chistopol' Ppl 55 21 N 05037E RM Ron ppl 56 22N 044 036... RM Chita PPI 52 03N 1 13 301) 57,79,RM Borisoglcbsk ppl SI 23N ...04206E RM Chitinskaya Oblast' admd 5200N 1 1 7 0 0 6 79 Borisov ppl 5415N 02830E RM Chkalovsk uranium deposit /processing center u/t NA NA 42,43 Borodino ppl 55 SSN 094 556.. 60.RM Chokurdakh ppl 70 38N 14755E RM Horovichi ppl 58 24N 033 55E RM Chu DPI 43 36N 07342F' 56,RM Horovka Dill 5407N 051 19F_ 20 Chuguyevka ppl 4410N 133 526 57,RM Boris .1 ppl SO 24N 1 16 31 E 57,RM Chukchi Sea sea 69 OON 174 OOW RM Rovanenko gasf 70 25N 068 19E 15,16,17,23,66 Chukotsk Peninsula pen 6600N 17400W RM Bovtyshka (Boltyshka) oil shale deposit oils 48 37N 033 29E......... 44 Chukotsk Upland mts 67 OON 1761101) RM Bratsk ppl 5621N 10155E 55,57,59,60,RM Chukotskiy AOk admd 67 30N 170001. 79 Bratsk hydp NA NA 50,5 1,58,67 Chul'man Ppl 56 52N 12452E I1,57,RM Bratskovc Vociokhranilishche resv 56 OSN 101 50E 60,RM Chul'man coal deposit coal 56 45N 125 001. 11,34 Brest ppl 52 06N 023 42E 32,56,79,RM Chulym ppl 55 06N 080 5811 56,R M BreslskaNa Oblast' admd 52 30N 025 30E 79 Chulym sim 57 43N 083 511. 60, R M Brczhnev ppl 55 42N 052 191 RM Chuna stm 57 47N 094 376 60,RM Bryansk ppl 5515N 03422E 56,79,RM Chuna tar sands deposit..... tars 57 35N 097126.. 45 Hrvanskaya Oblast' admd 53 OON 033 306 79 Chunya stm 61 36N 096301, RM Budennovsk ppl 4446N 04412E. 56,RM Chupa Ppl 66 16N 033046 RM Hugul'ma ppl 54 33N 052 48E 56,RM Chupa District uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 Buguruslan p51 53 39N 052 26F RM Chupal'skoye oilf 60 04N 072 386 16 Bug uruslan Dill 53 39N 052 32E 20 Chusovaya stm 5813N 056 226. 20 Bukachac ha ppl 5259N 11655E RM Chusovoy PPI 5817N 05749E 56,RM Bukachacha coal deposit coal 53 OON 117 OOE 34 Chutyr' Dill 57 261, 053 1211 20 Bukhara ppl 39 48N 064 25F 21,56.61,62,79 Chuvashskaya ASSR admd 55 30N 047 OOF. 79 Hukharskaya Oblast' admd 4100N 0640OE 79 Chuya stm SO 24N 08639E RM Hulls-More gasf 39 45N 049496 21 Crimea nucp NA NA 52,67 Buor-Khuva, (tuba bay 71 30N 13100E RM Crimean Peninsula per 45 OON 0340011 RM Bureva stir 49 27N 129 30E 50,51,67 Hureva hydp NA NA 50,67 Bureya coal basin coal SI OON 132 30E 34,40 Burkand'ya ppl 63 19N 147 306 RM Dagestanskaya ASSR admd 43 OON 047 OOE 21,64,79 Bursh(yn ppl 49 16N 024 38E RM Dal'mamedly oilf..... 40 40N 045 59F 21 Burshtyn thep NA NA 49,67 Dal'negorsk ppl 44 35N 1 35 356 57,R M Huryatskaya ASSR adnid 5300N 109006_.. 79 Dal'nerechensk ppl 45 55N 133 406 RM Buy ppl 58 29N 041 30E RM Dalakhay PPI 50 SON 102 486 RM Buzachi Peninsula pen 4S OON 052 OOE 21,RM Danilov PPI 58 12N 040 1(IF RM Buzuluk ppl 5247N 052 156... RM Danilov Dill 60 56N 064 O S F 16 Byrranga Mountains nits 7500N 1040011. RM Daugava stm 57 OON 024 006 RM Bystrin oil[ 61 37N 072 53E 16 Daugavpils PPI 55 53N (126 326 RM Bytantay stn 68 46N 13420E RM De-Kastri Ppl 51 28N 140 47F. RM Debin__. ppl 62 22N 150126 57,RM Dekabr'skoye oilf 62 (ISN 070 06E 16 Demu__. stm 54 42N 056 OOE 20 Carpathian Mountains nits 47 OON 025 3011 RM Demskoye oilf 53 4ON 054 116 20 Caspian Lowland pin 4800N 052006_..... RM Denau ppl 38 16N 067 54F, 56,R M Caspian Sea sea 4200N 05000E 21,RM Dengizkul' gasf 39 28N 064 406 21 Caucasus Mountains mts 42 OON 045 OOE 21,RM Deputatskiy PPI 6918N 1 38 54F RM Center power system reg 54 OON 038 OOE.......... 46,55 Derbent ppl 42 03N 048 18E RM Central coal region coal 48 OON 142 15E 34 Desna stm 50 33N 030 326 RM Central Asia oil and gas region reg 4000N 06000E... 14,15,21,22,23, Desovskoye iron ore deposit iron 57 30N 124 15F II 25,32 Dikson PPI 73 30N 080 35E S9,R M Central Asia power system reg 40 OON 06800E 46,55 54 14N 049 336 RM Central Asia Economic Region reg 39 OON 066 OOE 79 Dimitrovgrad nucp__.. NA NA 67 Central (hernozem Economic Region reg S I OON 040 00E 79 Dmitriya Lapteva, Proliv sort 73 (ION 142 00E RM Central I conontic Region reg 56 00N 038 OOE 79 Dnepr 43 30N 032 186 5O, 51,67, R M Central Range lots 56 00N 158 006........ RM Dnepr at Zaporozh'ye hydp NA NA 50.67 Central Russian Upland upld 52 OON 038 OO6 RM Dnepr coal basin ....._ coal 48 OON 032 006 34,40 Central Siberian Plateau plat 66OON 106 OOF RM Dnepr Lowland pin 50 OON 032 OOE RM Chadan ppl 51 17N 091 35E RM Dnepr Upland.... upld 49 (ION 028 OOF RM C'haladidi oilf 42 06N 041 49F 21 Dnepropetrovsk ppl 48 27N 034 596 56,79,RM ('hany. ((zero lake 54 SON 077 30E RM Dnepropetrovskaya Oblast' admd 48 30N 035 OOF 79 (hard strtt 60 22N 1 20 506............ R M Dnestr stn 46 18N 030 1711 R M Chardzhou ppl 3906N 06334E. 21,56,79,RM Dno ppl 57 SON 029 59F RM Chardzhouskaya Oblast' admd 39 OON 063 OOE... 79 Dolgozhdannoye coal deposit coal 68 (ION 172 30E 34 Charkc-sar uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 Dolina ppl 48 58N 024 01 F RM Charsk ppl 49 34N 08105E 56,RM Dolinsk Ppl 47 21 N 142 49F 57,RM C'haun-Chukotka coal area coal 66 30N 178 OOE 34 Don Sim __... 4704N 03918E 53,RM C'havlisay-Krsnogorskiy-Yangiabad uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 Donets coal basin coal 48 OON 039 OOF 34,35,36,37,38 C hayek ppl 41 55N 074306............ 56,RM 40,41 Chaykovskiy ppl 56 47N 054 096......... RM Donetsk ppl 48 OON 037 4811 55,56,79,RM Chavvo oilf 5231N 14346E II Donetsk coal deposit coal 47 SON 037 SOF 34 Chebach'ye Dill 60 27N 078 47E.......... 16 Donetskaya Oblast' admd 48 OON 037 30F 79 56 09N 047 156............ 56.79,RM Dorokhovka call, 56 38N 056 57E 20 C'heboksurv hydp NA NA 50,51,67 Dossor ppl 47 32N 053 OOF 56,RM Chccheno-Ingushskaya ASSR admd 43 ISN 045 30E 21,79 Dossor oil) 47 34N 052 56F 21 C'hegdonryn ppl St ION 133 05E 57,RM Drogobych No. I petr NA NA 31,66 C'hekmagush Dill 5S 12N 054 44E 20 Drogobych No. 2 Pete NA NA 31,66 Cheleken ppl 39 26N 053 07F....... 56,RM Drovyanaya ppl 5 1 53N 1 13 026 RM Chelcken oilf 39 14N 053 27E........ 21 Druzhba ppl 45 17N 082 306 RM Chelkar ppl 47 SON 059 36E 56,59,RM Dubinino ppl 55 40N 089 06E 60,R M Chelny ppl 4853N 13602E RM Dudinka ppl 69 25N 086 15F I6,57,RM ( helyabmsk ppl 55 ION 06124E 32,55,56,79,RM Dukat ppl 62 45N 15S 15F RM Chelyabinsk coal basin coal 5200N 06215E 34 Dulgalakh stn 67 44N 133 12F RM Chclyabinskaya Oblast' admd 54 OON 060 30F 79 Dunay PPI 42 52N 132 22F RM Cherentkhovo ppl 5309N 10305E 57,RM Dushanbe ppl 38 33N 068 48E 55, 56, 79, R M Cherentkhovo coal deposit coal 53 OON 102 30E 34 Dzerzhinsk ppl 56 15N 043 24F RM Cherentkhovo oil shale deposit oils 5359N 101 41E... 44 Dzh'Yer oilf..... 63 17N 054 58F. 20 Cheren sh,n oilf 5444N 051 28E 20 Dzhalal-Abad ppl 40 56N 073 OOF RM Cheremushki ppl 5252N 091 24E RM Dzhalinda ppl 53 29N 123 546. I I,RM Cherepet' ppl 5407N 036 23E RM Dzhambul ppl 42 54N 071 226 56,79,RM Cherepel' thep NA NA 49,67 Dzhambul thep NA NA 49,67 Chere oveis ppl 59 08N 037 54F 56,RM Dzhambulskaya Oblast' admd 44 OON 072 (IO6 79 C'herkasskaya Oblast' admd 49 00N 031 00E 79 Dzhansugurov ppl 45 24N 079 296 56,RM Cherkassv ppl 49 26N 032 04E 79,RM Dzhebariki-Khaya coal deposit coal 62 25N 136 30F 34 Cherkessk ppl 44 14N 042036............ RM Dzhebol' gas) 62 26N 056 301, 20 S8 49N 056 006. 20 Dzhergalan coal deposit coal 42 33N 079113F 34 Chernigov ppl St 30N 031 18E 79,RM Dzhetygara PPI 52 11 N 061 121, 56,RM C'hernigovskaya Oblast' admd St OON 032 OOE....... 79 Dzhezkazgan.... ppl 47 47N 067 46F 56,59,RM Chernobyl' ppl 51 16N 03014E RM Dzhezkazganskaya Oblast' admd 47 30N 071 OOF 79 Chernobyl' nucp NA NA 52,67 Dzhizak ppl 40 06N 067 506. 79,RM Chernogorsk ppl S349N 09118E. RM Dzhizakskaya Oblast' admd 40 30N 067 40F. 79 Chernogorsk coal deposit coal 53 4SN 091 OOE 34 Dzhugdzhur Range mts 58 00N 136 006 RM Chernovitskaya Oblast' admd 48 15N . ...026 OOE 79 Dzhul'fa PPI 38 57N 045 386 RM Chernov.skiye Kopi coal deposit coal S2 OSN 11245E 34 Chernovsy ppl 48 I8N 025 56E__..... 56,79,RM Chernyakhovsk ppl 54 38N 021 49E RM Chernvayevo ppl 52 46N 125 59E RM East Kamchatka coal area coal 56 OON 162 006. 34 C'hernyshevsk ppl 52 32N 1 1 7 0 0 6 57,RM Fast Siberia Economic Region reg 61 OON 099 00F: 79 Chernyshevskiy ppl 62 59N 112 35E__. 57.58,59,RM East Siberian oil and gas region rcg 64 OON 126 OOE 14,1 5,25,32 Cherskiy ppl 68 45N 161 18E 57,RM East Siberian Sea sea 74 OON 166 OOE R M 65 OON 144 006 RM Egveki not ppl 6619N 179 lOW 57,59,RM Chervonograd ppl SO 23N 024 14E RM Ekibastuz ppl 51 40N 075 226 55,56,RM Chesh,ilkaya Gotha bay 67 30N 046 30E 20,RM Ekibastuz coal basin............ coal 51 30N 075 306 34,35,36,37,38 Chib'yu oil) 63 56N 053 44E 20 39,40 Chlganak Ppl 4506N 07358E.. 48,RM Ekibastuz I thep NA NA 47,48,49,55,67 Chigirik uranium processing center u/t NA NA 42,43 Ekibastuz-2 thep NA NA 49,67 Chiili ppl 44 ION 066456........... 56,RM EI'dikan ppl 6048N 13511E 59,RM Chimkent ppl 4218N 06936E....... 32,56,79,RM El'ginskiy ppl 64 35N 14147E RM Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 I (.onuouedl hlsa nil,a nrba F mba; Caspian I I, sands deposit ngel s I- rozionny) F inn Istonia I'tnuln it sha I: field Isnnuau SSR 1 venklyskis AO I-x port pipellne I.ii I-act I,,,wcr,)snnt I,ISt I'ron?rlis Region I:uab cdoraco erg,ni.l cr g:ul.i I ei g.lna \',illes ~:u sands delxsit erg in-kita ((Masi' I cvt,I'sk inland. Cult of onuuo,k.i on -Shcvchonk, 1 ran lord) I In I I rare lose) I ul I la, .1 1, de1w.si1 ioluco rout Gas ny conrn G:vb O.vli ( enrn rlh, 0,Irs Geor ga. /copra Gcolgnm SSK Gcorgul-Dezh (ie rgncvek Gerald, ((crisis Gihus Ghvo Gogr;nl'dag Gomel' (ianiet'sk.isa ((blast' Gi 11,1111 ( iii kn (,ot'kn lK,locol Gor'kn ,\SI Gor'k s .'r. Bakimkikh Gol'k ocsk.lsa OhIas(' Goo ,orlovka Unrrie 'V(u)sk Gonli \ha)sk:pa \O Gorno. Iiud.lkhsf anskas a AO (for noz,ivodsk Gonlsak ( hcgorsk Gnh al'd Gclkhnco Grannogursk Gi.lnnogorsk ur:,niuln deposit pnkes.cing center Grecnr B,11. Osl -os Orcnt ikh.l I, ro,hlens k;n;l [Mast' (iroohla (:rain)) Groins in sands dctxs0 Groin)) Group 6""'1" No . (:ruins No I Gran Gul o Gubknt I, uhkin Gubkin G udci nu?c G agurlb ul is fan Gil it"s cgan Gums cs G 1I r'..,. Guiles sk:nn ((lulu)' Gus' Kluuslal'ms l iu,m,avtrsk l .u,innoiitrsk G u+inooicrsk co; I dcrssil Guzar Gsdau I'cnntsula I laalsa lu Iclapd' Ilounna g.o ka Ignalula Ignalina Igrinl Ik I( in r,kn Ili hncm folios Osipenko Inder(nursk is Indigo rko I ng,ul.l Ingun Ingun Iola Inca aul deposit Imo In,i ppl 4616N 044141: 21,56,79,RM I (continued) Ions, Ostrov is) 56 26N 141 251' KM ppl 48 SON 058 080 56,RM Irbil ppl 5741 N 1161011, KM stns 46 38N 053 140 21 Iriklinskiy rip, 51 39N O50 301 KM Tars 47 47N (150 I01 45 Irikli nskiy thep NA NA 49,67 ppl 5130N 046070 RM Irkutsk pp( 52 16N 104200 32,S5,57,79,1I M ppl 65 46N 149 441: 1- KM Irkutsk coal basin coal 53 OON 102 301 34.35,40 pp1 SO ISN 095101! 57,RM Irkutsk-10 Beat and Power lhep NA NA 49,67 thep NA NA 44.49,67 Irkutskaya Oblast' admd S6 IION 106 001: 79 our 59 07N 027 231. 44 Irsha ppl 55 551, 094 481 60, K M udmd 59 OON 026 000 79 Irsha-Borodino coal deposit coal 5545N 096 131' 34,60 admd 65 OON 095 OOF 79 Irtrsh stm 61 041, 068 521s 16,50,67,KM pipe 554SN 049001 10,11,20,32,33 Isakov Dill 64 30N 056 (111 20 Ishiin ppl 56 09N 069 271( 56,19 M Ishim stn 5742N 071 1211 KM Ishimbay ppl 53 281, 1156 ((21'_ K M rcg SI 00N 114001'- 46,55 Ishimbay Dill 53 24N 065 011 s 20 reg 61 005 143 001 79 Ishirn bay pelr NA Nn 31,66 gas) 39 I6N 063 2711 21 Iskine off 47 ION ((S2 301' 21 oil( 61 40N 073 320 16,17,22,29,66 Iskitim ppl 54 37N 083 241'- KM ppl 40 23N 071 460 79,RM Islinl gas) 3S 30N 062 ((41 21 pelt NA tiA 31,66 Issyk-Kul', Ozcro lake 4225N 077 ISIL KM far, 4241N 0712)0 45 Issvk-Kul'skaya Oblast' admd 42 30N 078 001[ 79 admd 40 30N 071 301 79 Istok oilf S8 47N 057 0(11': 20 ppl 5228N 130438 RM Istra ppl S5 SSN 036 521; 62,KM gulf 60001, 1)27001'- RM Itatskiy ppl 56 04N 089 OSI S6,60,K M oill 54 11N 053 090 20 Itatskiy coal deposit coal 56 ISN 089 0(111 14.60 pp1 44 31N 050 (60' RM Iturup, Ostrov isl 450ON 148(101 KM ills 81 ()ON 0S5 0(10 RM lul'tin ppl 67 SON 178 48W 57,KM air O(1 ION 049 OOE. 45 Ivano- I rankovsk ppl 48 S6N 024 4311 79,K M pp] 49 461, 043 400 R M Ivano-I rankovskaya Oblast' admd 48 31(N 024 101' 79 ppl 42 54N 07416E 55.56,79,RM Ivanovo ppl 57 0111, 0411 S91' 79, K M Iva nos skaya Oblast' admd 57 CON 042 001' 79 Ivdcl' ppl 6(142N ((60241' KM lya stm SS 331,' 102 071 60 ppl 611 ION 05419E 56,RM Izberbash out 42 13N ((47 581` 21 ppl 48211, 02951E 56,RM Izhma stm 65 19N 1152 5411 20,R M ppl 40 14',1, 063 24 0 56,R M Izmail ppl 45 21 N 028 501': 12,56,19 M gas) 4)104N (161218 21,66 Izvestkovyy ppl 48 591, 131 311'' KM sl 77 061, 156 30F RM Izvum ppl 49 12N 1(37 190 KM i.s) 8O ION 049011E RM admd 42 001, 043 301 21,79 ppl 5(1 SON ((19 300 56,RM ppl 44 09N 04228E RM Japan. Sea of 4330N 135451 KM is) 71 23N 17S40W RM Jelgava 5639N (121411 KM ,sun 51 SON 127 280. I I,RM Jurmala 56 SON 021 341 KM pp1 58 09N 052 401; RM gas[ 18 44N 054 270 21 ppl 52 251, 031 (101 56,79,RM ad ntd 52 OON 03(1001 79 Kabardino-Balkarskaya ASSK acrid 43 ION ((43 101! 79 slm 57 211, 111 14F I I Kachug ppl 53 58N 105 521'. 57,R \4 ppl 56 20N 044 001 32,56,79,RM Kadzhi-Say rip, 4208N ((77101' KM pctr NA NA 31,66 Kadzhi-Say uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 nucp NA NA 52,53,67 Kafan pp1 39 12N ((46 2411 R M petr NA NA 31,66 Kailiadorys ppl 54 52N 0242711 51,56,RIM admd 56 OON 045 0011 79 Kailiadorys hydp NA NA 50,67 ppl 41 49N 04407E RM Kalach-na-Donu ppl 4843N 04331 F: RM pp1 48 ION 038031 RM Kalai-Khumb ppl 3828N 070461. 56,KM ppl 51 59N 005 SOF 56,RM Kalamkas Dill 45 111, OS2 071: 21 admd S I OON 1186 000 79 Kalinin ppl 56 52N 035 551- 56,79.19 M admd 38 OON 073 001( 79 Kalinin nucp NA NA 52,67 ppl 46 341, 141 491- 57,RM Kaliningrad pp1 54 43N 020 301 56,79,8 M ppl SI OON 081 290 RM Kaliningradskaya Oblast' admd 54 4S N 021 301 79 ppl 5S 24N 088 55E 60,RM Kalininskaya Oblast' admd 57 OON 035 001 79 ppl 49 411, 1136 21 E RM Kalmykovo ppl 49 02N 051 SO1. 56, 59, K M Dill S6 31N OSS 118E 20 Kalmytskaya ASSR admd 40 30N 1145 30F 79 041' 56041, (151 550 20 Kaluga ppl 54 31 N 036 161, 56,79,K M ppl 42 441, (173 270 RM Kalush rip, 49 011, 024 221, K M u/I NA NA 42,43 Kaluzhskaya Oblast' admd S4 30N 035 3111! 79 isl 81 ION 0640(11 RM Kama slm 55 251, 050401: 211,511,51,67,KM If 56 52N 053 48F 20 Kamchatka SIm 56 ISN 162301. RM admd 53 30N 024 300 79 Kamchatka Peninsula pen 560ON 160001: 64, RIM ppl 51 41 N 023 5(IF 79,RM Kamchatskaya Oblast' admd 55 o0N 160001, 79 ppl 43 20N 045 42E 2 1,56,79,RM Kamen' ppl 5347N 08120E KM Curs 44231, 04444E 45 Kamen'-Rybolov ppl 4445N 132041 57,KM petr NA NA 31,66 Kamencts-Podol'skiy rip, 48 401, 026 341 K M peer NA NA 31,66 Ka menka ppl 58 33N 095 511 K M petr NA 11 31,66 Ka men ka out 65 03N 056 311 20 ppl 0230N 1141100E R M Kamennoye out 61 33N 067 201 16 Dill 53 ION 048 411 20 Kamensk-Ural'skiy ppl 56 251, 061 5411 RM ppl SI 17N (13732F 56,RM Kamskoye Vodokhranilishche resv 58 52N 056 IS1 20 gas) 64 45N 077 1411 16.66 Kamyshin ppl 5006N 045 241 56,KM ga,f 39 33N 052 22F 21 Kamyshldzha oil) 38 (6N 054071. 21 Dill 43 OSN 046 201 21 Kan SIm 56 31 N (193 470. 60 gist 40 041, 062 161 21,66 Kandry out ' 442N OS4 (51 20 ppl 40 291, 068 46F 79,RM Kandym gas) 39 27N 063 311. 21,66 oil) 61 411, 077 461'. 16 Kanin, Poluostrov pen 68 OON 045 001-. R M ppl 4707N OS) 531 21.32,56,59,79, Kansk ppl 56 13N ((9S 411 57,60,KM RM Kansk-Achinsk coal basin coal 56 30N 093 001 34,35,36,37,38, petr NA NA 3066 40,41,60 admd 4S OON ((53 001 79 Kansu gasf 42 451, 054 301. 21 pp1 SS 17N 040401( RM Kapchagay ppl 43 SON (177 051. RM ppl SI 17N 1)16301' S7,RM Kapustin Yar rip, 4834N 045451. RM thcp NA NA 49,67 Kara Sea sea 76 001, 080 001 K M coal SI 3)1N 106 001 34 Kara-Balta uranium processing center u/t NA NA 42,43 ppl 38 36N 066 IS0 56,RM Kara-Bally ppl 42 SON 1173 521-. RM pen 70 SON 079001, 16,RM Kara-Bogaz-Goo, Zaliv gulf 41 0(11, 0S3 151 KM Karaarn off 46 ION 053 231 21 Karabagly.... oilf 39 22N 049 051 21 Karabil' gas) 36 09N 062 461'. 21 ppl SO S6N 023 331. 56,RM Ka tabula ppl 58 02N 097 231' R M isIs 43 (ON 146 100 RM Karabulak oil) 43 12N 044 351 21 sl 58 SON 022401, R M Karabutak ppl 4959N 060141 56,KM Karacha-Velga o;lf 5516N 055 091 20 Ka rachaga nak gas) SI 16N OS3 271- 20,23 Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya AO admd 44 CON 042001- 79 ppl 67 281, 086 351. 57,59,RM Karachop gasf 35 20N 062 281 21 ppl 55 211, 026 101- 53,RM Karadag oilf 40 ION 049 331 21 nucp NA NA 52,53,67 Karaganda ppl 4950N 073 101 56,79.KM gas) (12 SON 064 130 16 Karaganda coal basin coal 49 45N (173 001- 34.3 stm 55 SS'N 052 361'. 20 Karagandinskaya Oblast' admd 48 001, 070 OOI; 79 ppl S9 56N 164 IOE RM Karagayly ppl 4922N 075 581 56,KM ,to, 4524N (174 OOF R.M Karaginskiy, Ostrov is] 58 SON 164 001 R VI ppl 52251, 116291. KM Karakalpakskaya ASSR admd 43 OON 059 000. 79 ppl 40 331, (151 471'1 56,RM Karakum gas) 39 03N 065 351' 21 slot 7040'N 148541. RM Karakum Desert dst 39001, (16000!- KM slm SI 42N 115481: RM Karakumskiy Kanal can 37 351, 06S 431; R M slot 42 24N 041 131 50,51,67 Karamov oilf 63 371, 074 371! 16 hydp NA NA 50.51,67 Karashaganak ppl 51 27N 053 251 KM pp( 66 OSN (160001 56,59,RM Karasuk pp1 53 44N 0781121. 56,RM coal 6S ION 059 461 34 Karatal stm 46 26N 077 I OF R M stun 54 SON ((82 591. 60 Ka raton out 46 25N 053 201' 21 ppl 6 3 5 1 N 046 211_ R M Karazhal pp) 4802N 07049E 56.RM ppl 60 OON 019411 56,RM Karazhanbas out 45 OON O51 351. 21 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 K (continued) K (continued) Karel'skaya ASSR admd 64 OON 032 30E 79 Kizyl-Arvat PPI 38 58N .05615E 56,RM Kargaly oilf 54 37N 054 45E 20 Klaipbda PPI 55 43N 02107E 56,RM Karkarulinsk ppl 49 26N 075 30E RM Klin ppl 56 20N 036 44E RM Karmanovo PH 56 14N 054 33E RM KlintsY. ppl 5245N 032 14F RM Karmanovo thep NA NA 49,67 Klyuchevskoye oilf 5903N 077 29E 16 Karpinsk ppl 5945N 06001E RM Kochki. PPI 5420N 08029E. 56,RM Karpogory ppl 63 59N 044 27E RM Kodinskiy PPI 58 40N 099 12F 57,RM Karsakpay PPI 4750N 06645E___.. RM Kogalym odf 62 24N 074 24E 16 Karshi ppl 38 53N 065 48E___ 56,79,RM Kohtla-Jarve......_. ppl 59 24N 027 15E... 44,65,RM KarskiNe Vorota, Proliv strt 70 30N 058 OOE R M Kok-Yangak coal deposit coal 41 OON 073 19E 34, Kartals ppl 5303N 06040E.. RM Kokand pal.......... 40 30N 07057E._.. RM Kartashcvka oilf 54 27N 056 31 E 20 Kokchetav ppl 53 17N 069 30E 55,56,79,RM Kartop'ya oilf 61 13N 065 30E 16 Kokchetavskaya Oblast' admd 53 30N 070 OOE 79 Karymskoye ppl 51 37N 1 14 21 E 57,RM Kokpekty ppl 4845N 08224E. 56,RM Kashira ppl 54 SIN 038 IOE RM Koktas Ppl 47 30N 070 54F.. RM Kashira thep NA NA 49,67 Koktas uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 Kashkadar'inskaya Oblast' admd... 39 OON 066 OOE_.... 79 Koktuma PPI 45 52N 081 39E RM Kashpirovka oil shale deposit oils 52 44N 04920E_____ 44 Kokuy coal deposit coal 58 OON 096 )15E 34 Kasimov ppl 54 56N 041 24E... RM Kola__ nucp.......... NA NA 52,67 Kaspiyskiy oilf 45 13N 04715E....... 21 Kola Peninsula pen 67 20N 037 OOE RM Katangli ppl 5142N 143 14E RM Kolguyev, Ostrov isl 69 05N 049 15E RM Katsiveli ppl 4425N 03403E 62,RM Kolik"yegan oilf 61 18N 079 USE 16 Kattakurgan pp1 3955N 06615E RM Kolkhozabad PPI 37 35N 068 40E 56,RM Katun' stro S2 25N 085 OOE RM Kolomna PPI....... 55 05N 038 47E RM Katyl'ga oilf 59 18N 077 08E 16 Kolomyya PPI 48 32% 025 02E RM Kaunas ppl 54 54N 023 54E RM Kolpashevo ppl 58 20N 082 SOE RM Kavalcrovo ppl 44 16N 135 USE 57,RM Kolpino ppl 59 45N 030 36E 52,53,RM Kayak coal deposit coal 67 30N 104 OOE 34 Kolyma stm 69 30N 16100E 50,51,59,RM Kavakcnt oilf 41 57N 048 12E.. 21 Kolyma Lowland pln 6830N 15400E. RM Kayasula ppl 44 19N 045 OOE 64,RM Kolyma Mountains mIs 63 OON'... 160 OOK RM Kazakh SSR admd 48 00N 068 OOE... 20,21,22,79 Komandorskiye Ostrava isls 55 OON 167 OOE RM Kazakh Upland reg 4900N 07200 F. RM Komi ASSR admd.... 64 OON 054 OOE 15,20,22,79 Ka,akhstan Economic Region reg 48 OON 068 OOE......_ 79 Komi-Permyatskiy AOk...... admd 60 OON 054 30E 79 Kazan' ppl 5545N 049 08E 20,32,56,79,RM Kommunarsk ppl 48 30N 038 47E RM Kazanbulak oilf 40 27N 04619E_.. 21 Komsomol Bas( 64 20N 076 39E 16,66 Kazanchi oilf 56 17N 05622E. 20 Komsomol'sk PPI 50 35N ..... 13702E I1,32,55,57,RM Kazant.sevo gasf 69 47N 08318E.... 16 Komsomol'sk Petr NA NA 31,66 Kclif pp1 3721N 06618E 21,RM Komsomol'skiy ppl 69 ION 172 42E RM Kemerovo ppl 55 20N 086 05E 60,79,RM Komsomolets, Ostrov is] 80 30N 095 OOE R M Kemerovo coal deposit coal 55 30N 087 OOE 34 Konakovo ppl 56 42N 036 46E 55,56,R.M Kemcrovskaya Oblast' admd 55OON 086 OOE 79 Konakovo thep NA NA 49,67 Kcmpcndyay ppl 62 02N 1 18 37E RM Konechnaya PPI 50461, 078 36E RM Kendcrlyk oil shale deposit oils 47 ISN 084 15E 44 Konitlor oilf 62 25N 072 29E 16 Kentau ppl 43 32N 068 36E___ 56,RM Konosha ppl..... 6058N (14015E RM Kcrch' ppl 45 21N 036 28E 56,RM Konolop PPI 5233N 03601 E.... 56,RM Kerki ppl 37 SON 065 12E.......... 56,RM Konstantinovka...... PPI 48 32N .....03743E RM Kerkichi ppl 37 SIN . .......065 14E.. RM Konstantinovka... ppl 47 SON 031 (19E 51,56,RM Ket' stm 58 55N 081 32E 60,RM Konstantinovskiy PPI 57 50N 039 36F R M Khabarovsk pp1 48 30N 135 06E 55,57,79,RM Konstantinovskiy petr NA NA 31,66 Khabarovsk petr NA NA 31,66 Kopeysk PPI S507N 06137E RM Khabarovsk coal basin coal 45 45N 135 OOE......... 34,40 Kopeysk coal deposit coal 55 0I N 061 51F .... 34 Khabarovskiy Kray admd 55 OON 134 OOE 79 Korf coal deposit... coal 60 45N 166 OOE 34 Khachmas ppl 41 28N 048 48E 56,RM Korkino PPI 54 54N 061 23E RM Khakasskaya AO admd 53 OON 090 OOE 79 Korkodon stm 64 44N 154008. RM Khal'mer-Yu ppl 67 58N 06450E 16,RM Korosten' ppl 50 57N 028 39E RM Khamza ppl 63 43N 122 59E 32,RM Korsakov ppl 40 38N 14246E. 57,RM Khanrza ppl 4025N 071 30E RM Koryak Mountains mts 62 30N 17200E RM Khamza petr NA NA 31,66 Koryakskiy AOk admd 62 OON 166 OOE... 79 Khandagayty ppl... 5044N 092 03E RM Koryazhma ppl 61 18N 04711 E RM Kha ndyga ppl 62 40N 135 36E RM Koschagyl oil(..... 46 48N 053 42E 21 Khanka, Lake lake 45OON 13224E..... RM Kostomuksha PPI 64 41 N 030 498 R M Khantayka hydp... NA NA 58 Kostroma PPI 57 46N 040 55E 56,79,RM Khanty-Mansiysk ppl 61 OON 069 06E RM Kostroma thep NA NA 49,67 Khants-Mansiyskiy AOk admd 62 OON 072 OOE 17,79 Kostroma nucp NA NA 52,67 K ha pchera nga ppl 49 42N 112 24E RM Kostromskaya Oblast' admd 58 30N 044008. 79 Kharkov ppl 50 OON 03615E__..... 52,53,56,79,RM Kotel'nich pal 5819N 04820F....... 56,RM Khar'kovskaya Oblast' admd 49 30N 03630F__.. 79 Kotel'nyy, Ostrov is] 75 45N 138 44E RM Khar'yaga oilf 67 ION 056 21E..... 20 Kotlas PPI 6116N 04635E. 20,56,RM Kharanor Thep NA NA 49,67 Kotur-Tepe oil(........... 3914N 05349E 21,66 Kharanor coal deposit coal SO ISN 117 OOE 34 Kotuy stm..... 71 55N 10205E RM Kharasavey gasf 71 ISN 06652E 15,16,17,23,66 Kotuy-Maymecha tar sands deposit tars 69 41N 100 25F 45 Khasan ppl 42 25N 130 408._......... 57,RM Kovdor PPI 67 34N 030 24F RM Kh,tsav yurt ppl 43 15N 046 36E RM Kovel' ppl 51 13N 024 43E 56,RM Khatanga ppl 71 58N 102 30E 59,RM Kovrov ppl 56 25N 041 18F RM K ha t anga stm.... 75 55N 10600E... RM Koyun-Sharlyk gasf 39 39N 058 47F. 21 Khavankort oilf 43 ISN 04S 27E 21 Kozubay oilf.... 57 53N 05603E 20 Kherson ppl 46 38N 032 36E 32,56,79,RM Kramatorsk PPI 48 43N 037 32E RM Kherson petr NA NA 31,66 Krasnaya Sopka ppl 55 42N 090 02E....... RM Khersonskaya Oblast' admd 4630N 034 OOE 79 Krasnoarmeysk PH 48 31N 044 32F RM Khiva ppl 41 24N 060 22E 21,32,RM Krasnodar ppl 4502N 039 (l(lE 56,79,RM Khntcl'nitskava Oblast' admd 49 30N 027 OOE 79 Krasnodar petr NA NA 31,66 Khmel'nitskiy ppl 49 25N 027 OOE 79,RM Krasnodar Heat and Power they ---- NA NA 49,67 Khmel'nitskiy nucp NA NA 52,67 Krasnodarskiy Kray admd... 45001 .04000E 21,79 Khokhryakov oilf 6201N 07928E 16 Krasnogorsk ppl 48 24N 142 06E RM K hot bon ppl SI 53N 116 15E 57,RM Krasnokamensk uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 Kholmogory ppl 63 06N 074 18E 16,32,56,59,RM Krasnokamsk ppl 58 04N 055 48E RM Kholmogory oilf 63 06N 074 16,66 Krasnokamsk oilf... 58 02N 055 39E 20 Kholmsk ppl 47 03N 142 03E........ 57,RM KrasnoleninskiY ppl 61 38N 06742F 16,RM Khonuu ppl 66 27N 143 06E RM Krasnotur'insk PPI 5946N 06012E RM Khoper stm 49 36N 042 19E........ RM Krasnovishersk PPI 60 23N 057 03E 56,RM Khorezmskaya Oblast' admd 41 30N 060 308 .............. 79 Krasnovodsk PPI 40 001 053 00E 21,56,79,R M Khorog ppl 37 30N 071 36E RM Krasnovodsk petr NA NA 31,66 Khromtau ppl 50 17N 058 27E 56,RM Krasnovodskaya Oblast' adrod 40 OON 055 30F 79 Kiev ppl 50 26N 030 318 55,56,59,79,RM Krasnoyarsk ppl 56011 092 50E 32,38,45,57,59, 79 60 RM Kinel' ppl 53 14N 05039E 56,RM , , Kincshma ppl 57 28N 04207E 56,RM Krasnoyarsk hydp......... NA NA 47,50,67 Kinzebulatovo oilf 53 27N 056 IOE............ 20 Krasnoyarsk Heat and Power thep NA NA 49,67 Kirensk ppl 57 46N 108 08E R M Krasnoyarsk-2_ thep NA NA 49,67 Kirghiz SSR admd 41 OON 075 OOE 79 Krasnoyarskiy Kray admd 67 OON 100 OOE... 16,79 Kirishi ppl 59 27N 032 028........... 32,RM Krasnoyarskoye Vodokhranilishche resv 55OON 091 OSE 60,RM Knish, thep NA NA 49,67 Kremenchug ppl 49 04N 033 25E 32,RM Kirishi petr NA NA 31,66 Kremenchug pelt NA NA 31,66 Kirov pp1 58 33N 049 42E 55,56,79,RM Krivoy Rog ppl 47 55N 033 21F RM Kirov ppl 54 05N 034 20E RM Krivoy Rog-2 thep NA NA 49,67 Kirovabad ppl 4041N 04622E RM Kropotkm PPI 45 26N 040 34E RM Kirovakan ppl 40 48N 044 30E RM Kropotkin ppl 58 30N 115 17E 57,RM Kirovo-Chepetsk ppl 5833N 05001E........ RM Krymskaya Oblast' admd 45 OON 034 OOE 79 Krrovograd ppl 48 30N 032 18E 56,79,RM Kstovo ppl S611N 0441IE RM Kirovogradskasa Oblast' admd 48 30N 032 OOE 79 Kuban' stm 45 20N 037 22E... 21,RM Kirovsk PPI 67 37N 033 40E 56,RM Kubiyazy oilf 56 19N 056 39E 20 Kirovskaya Oblast' admd 58 OON 050 OOE 79 Kuchukovka oilf 56 16N 053 04E 20 Kirpichli gas( 39 46N 061 14E 21,66 Kudymkar pp1 59 0I N 054 39K RM Kiselevsk ppl 54 OON 086 39E RM KukhluY Stm.......... 59 24N 143 16F RM Kishinev ppl 47 OON 028 508 ............. 79,RM Kul'sary ppl 4659N .....054018......... 56,RM Kislava, Guba bay 69 22N 033 04E 63 Kul'saty ---- - - - - - -- - oilf .............. 46 58N 05405E 21 Kislovodsk pp1 43 55N 042 438 ............. RM Kul'tyubmo oilf 5458N 05701 E 20 Kividli ppl 59 21N 026 578........... 44,RM Kuleshovka oilf. 52491 051 08E 20 Kiya stm 56 52N 086 39E 60 Kultuk ppl 5144N 10342E 57,RM Ktyengop oilf 57 18N 053 20E 20 Kulunda ppl 52 35N 078 57E RM Kiyevskaya Oblast' admd 50 15N 030 30E 79 Kulyab ppl 37 55N 06946E. 56,79,RM Kizel ppl.... 5903N 057 40E RM Kulyabskaya Oblast' admd 38 OON 069 50L 79 Kizel coal basin coal 58 30N 05800E 34 Kum-Dag Dill...... 38 54N 054 37F 2) Kinel coal deposit coal 5902N 05749E. 34 Kumertau pal ...... 5246N 055 47F RM Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 K Konnnunll K urirni tau coal 1cl?sn Kun\a hun.olur, 0,I" , Kungrud Kungur Kuo, k,, cu s:mds deI*sn Kuplno K up> ansk h uis Ku ,u Ku, akhoeo Kurnkllavo K are, ka K organ K organ - I i the Kurgam Isuhm .Anyn Uhfast' K urganskas.t Oblast' K un1 Islamis Kursk Kursk Kursk.tsa Obla'Y 1 1,111111,3 K ushkul K ushlnulu,, an,l delk,sn husi m u h usl.,na,+ka,a Ohi-I K us b, sIicc h us b,shcs K u, b, she, sk.,, , OhI,rsi Ku, hsshcsshrrr' 5', nlokl,r,iiiiI1shch,' h its d,hlk K lisnla Koine irk K u,ncbk coal I som K' Alit" Ksllr, rl' K,s,1 Stir , o- Kinn), K,unndag K,un.,ug,.l K,nl K>,>I anal dcin sit Kr n I I Lhar ....omits de,omt K,,,1 KI,., co., de1*,,,( Ksnlk urn K,?Ikun, Ilrscr, K, n Icd coal drl,,,sn Knl l /rda K?1 l )nimsku)., l )hl.,st' Ir u co" me Pl.,, c.w cn.~ I ungusk. ,nl .uu1 gas rrgnm rnnr, bed 'non., b.ulsk.,, , I((u rn ' I rnln.l k.n el,l,lg,nd , mg,ad einng,ad oil hal, bold eiong,.,dsk.l, I I1hl.,sl cnn,,,g,usk I cnln?g risk I e,unsk I,uL Ian0 I cnlnsk humclsk? I rnursk Kn,ncnkni eo.,l deism errors Lire ensk r, Innnlor I en nnu oc uranium (ICI-11 processing center I ess,sibrisk I eso,.,,odsk d., ,a 111reisk I n`elsAa,a 01, ust' I neknrsk hunk I Is,r h., risk 11st, nk., I nl,,,u,kn nhu., n,.u,, s, 1 I role It \M obu naco odesno,e PA, I ,,,,g,. folly 1 0,0;110 111111 la ur,,nlum. (honors, dc(wsi( os,u Is .un., ,,itch K,,,i,., I ],.it and PoNer I , , hog? sk I rig., coal 524)N (155191. 34 L (continued) I ugovoy rips 42 S6N 072 451[ K M stm 5611 N 0301IF SO,67 Lukoml' ppl 5442N 029091: RM is 44 ION 1461)(11 RM Lukoml' thep NA NA 48,49,97 ppl 41 O2N 058 491. 21,56,RM Lun36ovskiy Zaliv gulf 67 48N 040 271 63 ppl 57 19N 056 491. RM Lutsk ppl 50 4SN 025 201 56.79.8 M tars 69 30N 121 226 45 Luna ppl 6039N 047 101: S6,KM ppl 54 22N 077 181. KM Luna oilf 65 0ON 055 311 20 lip, 49 42N 037 391 RM Lyuntor oilf 61 16N 072 (1111 16 gust 61 46N 057 336 20 It Ill 19 24N 049 19F 21,SOSI,RM ppl 47 59N 037 161? RM then NA SA 49,67 Magadan ppl 59 34N 1 50 48F 57.59,79,8 M stm 66 30N 087 121.' KM Magadanskaya Oblast' admd 6S OON 160 001'. 79 pp1 55 26N 065 188 56,79,RM Magnitogorsk ppl 53 27N 059 046 56,KM pp1 17 SON 060 471 79,RM Mago ppl 53 ISN 140111 KM admd 17 40N 060 401 79 Makarikha oilf 66 34N 058 171 20 admd 55 ION 064 0011. 79 Makarov coal region coal 49 OON 143 0111. 14 Iss 46 ION (52 001 KM Makat ppl 47 39N 053 lot 21,K M ppl 5! 42N 016 121 56.50,59.79,RM Makeyevka ppl 48 0IN 037 518 Rill nucp \A \A 52.67 Makhachkala ppl 42 SON 047 301' 56.79, R M adlnd SI 30N (116006. 79 Makhachkala gasf 42 46N 047 31F 21 pp1 IS I6N (162 208 21,56,RM Makinsk ppl 52 37N (77(1 266. 56,KM trill 55 28N 056 131 20 Makushino ppl 55 (3N (167 131, 56.KM coal 52 ION 065001- 34 Malgobek oilf 43 24N (144 3711 21 ppl S3 ION 063 3S1 5S,S6.79,RM Malochernogorsk oilf 61 ION 077176. 16 admd S I ()ON 064 0(16 79 Malorechensk Dill, 6031N 077081 Ifi ppl 42 I SN 042 406 R10 Maloyamal gust 68 2ON 071 491'. 16 ppl SS 27N 078 191. RM Mama ppl 58 ION 1 12 541 57.KM ppl 5112N its() (19) 20,27,32,55.56, Mamakan ppl 5740N 114011: 57,59,K M 69,79,RM Mamontovo ppl 60 46N 072 471 10,17,KM .,,laid 51 ()ON 115() 001 20.79 Mamontovo oilf 61) 39N 072371 16, 22.66 rrsv It 40N 1149001-. 20 Mana slur 55 57N 1(92 201: 60 gasf 11) 03N 054 421 21 Mancharovo Dill, 55 24N 054 281 20 odf 56 26N i(SS 331-. 20 Mangut ppl 49 42N 1 1 2 4111 KM oilf 56 03N OSS 1O1 20 Mangyshlak Peninsula pen 44 ION (151 (1111: 21,R M ppl 5 3 OT N 1(46 11. KM Mangyshlakskaya Oblast' admd 44 OON 054 (101_ 79 cots( 54 ION 1107 001- 34,3536,37,38, Manzurka ppl 53 30N 106 048 RM 40,41.60 Margilan Opt 4)127N 071421 KM SO 20N 11(6 301' 57,8M Mariyskaya ASSR ad it 56 30N 048 001' 79 olll 0153N (154481; 20 Markha star 63 28N 118 508 KM ppl 61 S3N 122 468 KM Markovo ppl 64 40N 170 251: KM (rpl 40 21 N 1)48 111. 56.RM Martvshi oilf 4711N 05044E 21 Dill 19 3SN (49 041 21 Mary pp1 37 36N 5(111 0 6 1 5 ( 1 1 2 1.32,55 56,79,KM All 19 27N (149 161. '_I Mary then NA NA 48,49,67 pp] SI 42N 094271. 57,79,RM Maryyskaya Oblast' acrd 37 OON (162 301'. 79 coal SI 28N 094441. 34 Matyushkin off 6(11(8N 0765711 (6 Ns NA 42,43 Maya 'tan 60 24N 114 301. KM coal 4016N 072151_ 14 Mayak If 57 25N OSS 401 211 gall 1911 N 11S412_1_ 21 Muykop ppl 44 3SN 040 111E 56,KM d,u 42 OON 064 001 KM Maykop oilf 59 OON O55 5x1, 20 coal SI ION 1165101. 34 Maykuben coal deposit coal SO 45N 07601(1 34 ppl 4448N 1165281-. 56,79,KM Meyna ppl 53 OON 091 201 KM admd 4S OON 065 001. 79 Mayskoye gasf 37 20N (162 051' 21 Maicikiai ppl 56 19N 022 2011 RM Maicikiai pctr NA NA 11,66 Medvezh'i Ostrova ills 70 52N 161 261'. KM ppl 49 SON 024 001 55,56,79,RM M edve, h' ye gasf, 66 08N 074091 pct, \A \A 1 1 .66 '_3,32,66 coal SO IO,N 024 301- 14 Megion ppl 61 O1N 076061- I6,17,I9,KM admd All ()ON 0224 001. 79 Megion oilf 60 SON 1176 201'. 16.66 stet 4S 4SN 142 001 KM Melitopol' ppl 46 SON (115 2'_11 KM ppl 66 39N 066 211 I is.I 7,18,KM Messoyakha gitsf 68 SON 082 5811 16.32_,59 lA, 61 0ON (111 301 RM Me/en' ppl 6S SON 044 161 KM pp1 48 40N (29 ISI RM Mezen' stm 66 1 I N 041 591'. 20, K M Ihcp \A \A 49,67 Mezenskaya (iuba bay 66 40N 043 451 61 ppl 41 49N 046 161. 56,K .M Mezhdurechensk ppl 51 42N Oxx 031'. KM u 1 NA 42.43 Mezhdurechenskiy ppl 59 36N ((6S 561: 1(,,0 M gasf 19 I_N O52 3(1_ 21 Miass ppl S4 S9N 060061. _ KM ppl 6I IIN 07, 171. 16.RM Michayu oilf 6411ON 055 478 _'O 76 ooN 126 001. KM Michurinsk ppl 52 S4N 040 31(1'. S6, R M ad and 57 (ION ()2S 001. 79 Middle Olenek tar sands deposit tars 6812N 121 151. 45 gasf 67 44N (154 511- 20,66 Middle Volga power system reg 54 OON 048 001. 46,55 ppl S, I 142 121'. K M Mikhaylovka ppl SO 114N ((41151 KM oil( S9 SIN (176 S41'. 16 Mikhaylovskiy ppl SI 49N 1179456 KM alt 64 ISN OSS 221'. 20 Mikun' ppl 62 21 N 05000 S6, KM ollf 6057N 1163121- I6 Min- Kush Opt 41 41 N 074 28): KM sun 25N 126401 KM Min-Kush uranium deposit/processing center u/I NA NA 42,43 coal 610(IN 12_1006 34,35,411 Mingechaur ppl 40 45N 047 011' KM upld 6(1 45N 125 (1011 KM Minsk pp1 51 54N 1127 341'. 53,5 S.5fi,79.K M erg 18 OON 1(17 (1(11 14,2 Minsk ATETs nucp NA NA 52,117 ppl 40 17N 069 371'- 79,KM Minskaya Oblast' admd 54 OON (120 001' 79 ,oil d 40 00N 1169 11)1 79 Minusinsk ppl 5343N 091 421 KM ppl 40 40N 041 S01'. S6RM Minusinsk coal basin coal S3 ION 091 151' 14 ppl 59 55N 010 151 32,55,56,59,79, Mirbashir Dill, 40 12N 046 SA: '_1 RM Mirnyy ppl 62 33N 1 1 3 5 1 1 57, 58, 5').K M Il llcp \A \A 52,5 3.67 Mirzaani Dill 41 19N 046 (15) '_1 oils Si) 1 1 1 N 07) 1H : 44 Mishkino Dill 57 O8N (1S4 011'. 20 admd 60 (ION 012 001. 79 Mishovdag oil( 39 48N 049 11 1 21 ppl 54 36N OS2 101 8'vl Modar gas( 39 24N 057 55F _1 ppl 51122N 081121. S6.R,M Mogilev ppl 53 54N 030 211'. 5fi. 79, KM ppl 45 40N 061 tor Sfi.RM Mogilevskaya Oblast' admd S4 (ION 030 451 79 ppl 5418N 086101'. 60,RM Mogovto ppl 54 2SN 110 2_11 KM coal 5445\ 1(x6001. 14 Moldavian then 'A NA 49,67 ppl 47 5fiN 112181: 57,891 Moldavian SSR ad it 47 LOIN 1129 (1(11: 79 ppl 60 4IN 114551 57,50,59.R,M Mollaker gash 3705N 061 201'. 21 ppl 4406N 042571. KM Molodechno pp1 S4 ION ((26 Sit( RM u1 \A \A 42,41 Monchegorsk ppl 67 56N ((32 581` KM pp1 58 20" 092 201. 57.60,RM Mondy ppl SI 40N 100591. KM ppl 45 20N 1 11 271'. 57,RM Mordovskaya ASSR adrnd S4 30N 1144 001. 79 III,] 5153N 0'_5 181 RM Monrzovsk ppl 48 22N 041 S1 1 ; 56,K M ppl S(, IIN 021 OIL 56,RM Morshansk ppl 53 26N ((41 491 KM ppl 5' 17N 019 151'. 56,79,RM Mortym'ya-Teterev off 61133N 064 391 16 ad,mi 52 ION 011) 001. 79 Moscow ppl 5545N 017351. 32,5 5,56.59,79. ppl 5' 39N 062 458 56,RM KM ppl 48 SSN 010 261 RM Moscow coal basin coal 54 30N 036 001. 34.35,36,17,40 petr NA \A 31.66 Moskal'vo ppl S3 35N 14230F. I I,KM Dill, 57 08N (151 361 20 Moskovskaya Oblast' admd SS 45N 037 306. 79 ppl 5( 52N 104511. KM Moskva slur SS OSN 038 s11` KM they \A \A 49,67 Moskva (Moscow) Lyuberlsy pelt NA NA 3 1,66 admd 56 (ION (124 ()OF 79 Moyynty ppl 4714N 071206 KM rr 56 ION 124 501. 11 Mozdok ppl 43 44N 044 4011 S6,KM gars) 19 41 N (151 S81'' 21 Mozyr' ppl 521)3N 02916E KM oil( 57 45N 056 111 2(1 Mozyr' peir NA NA 11,66 ppl 60 44N 011 131'. S6.RM Mubarek ppl 1916N 065108 21,RM It 61 1 I N (175 061' 16 Mubarek gasf 19 21N 065 288 '_1 oil) S9 34N 077 ((96 16 Mugun coal deposit coal 541)ON 100301 34 stet 70 ION 178 0015 RM Mukachevo pp( 4827N 022431_ 56,64, K M ppl 68 (1ON (135 ()OF RM Mukhanovo.... Dill, 53 21 N 051 241 20,66 42,43 Multanovo Dill, 6006\ 073146. Ifi hvdp AA AA 5(1,67 Mulym'ya Dill 6015N 1164371 16 Ihep NA NA 49.67 Mona stm 67 S2N 123061. KM (ml 46 29N 114 1211 S7,RM Muna tar sands deposit tars 67 07N 122 271 ppl SO 44, 029 521: RM Munalyk Dill 46 45N 054 491'. Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 M (continued) Muradkhanly oilf 39 46N 047 51 E 21 N (continued) Novokadeyevka oilf 54 43N 056 24E....... 20 Murgab stn 3818N 061 12E RM Novokazalinsk ppl 45 50N 062 IOE RM Murmansk ppl 68 58N 033 05E.. 55,56,59,79,R M Novokiyevskiy Uval ppl 51 40N 128 57E... 57,RM Murmanskava Oblast' admd 68 OON 034 OOE 79 Novokuybyshevsk ppl 53 07N 049 58E RM Murom ppl 55 34N 04202E... RM Novokuybyshevsk Lend Lease 3 petr NA NA 31,66 Musina oilf 53 04N 055 45E 20 Novokuybyshevsk No. 2 petr NA NA 31,66 Mutnovskaya Sopka vole 52 27N 1 5 8 1 I E 64,RM Novokuznetsk ppl 5345N 08706E 32,55,S6,RM Muyunkunt Desert dst 44 30N 070 DOE RM Novomoskovsk ppl 54 05N 038 13E RM Mvs Shmidta ppl 68 56N 179 27W RM Novonikolayevskiy ppl 50 58N 042 22E 56,RM M vsovove ppl 45 27N 035 SOE 62,RM Novopolotsk ppl 55 32N 028 39E RM Novopolotsk petr NA NA 31,66 Novopskov ppl 49 33N 03905E 32,RM Novorossiysk ppl 44 43N ......03747E 32,56,62,RM Nadvornava ppl 48 38N 024 34E.... RM Novoshakhtinsk ppl 47 47N 039 56E RM Nadvornaya petr NA NA 31,66,RM Novosibirsk ppl 55 02N 082 55E 18,32,55,56,59,79 Nadvm ppl 65 32N 072 32E 16,17,19,32,59, Novosibirskaya Oblast' admd 55 OON 080 OOE 79 RM Novotroitsk ppl 51 12N 058 20E RM Nadvm stm 6612N'..... 07200E 16,19,RM Novovolynsk coal deposit coal 5042N 02413E__..... 34 Nadym gasf 65 36N 07300E 16 Novovoronezhskiy_.. ppl 51 19N 039 13E RM Naftalan oilf 4023N 04638E. 21 Novovoronezhskiy nucp NA NA 52,67 Nagorno-Karabakhskaya AO admd 4000N 04635E.. 79 NovoyeIkhovo oilf 54 59N 0S2 02E 20,66 Naguman.skoyc gasf 51 OON 055 02E 20 Novyy Port ppl 67 40N 072 52E 16,59,RM Naip gasf 4042N 061 31E 21,66 Novyy Port gasf 67 53N 072 211, 16,66 Nakhichevan' ppl 39 12N ........04524E 56,79,RM Novyy UrengoY._.._.. ppl 6605N 076421, 16,17,18,19,32 Nakhichevanskaya ASSR admd 39 15N 045 30E___ 79 55,56,59,RM Nakhodka ppl 42 48N 132 52E 57,RM Novyy Uzen' ppl 43 I8N 05248E... 56,RM Nakhodka gasf 68 04N 077 59E 16,66 Noyabr'sk ppl 6308N 075 22E 16,17 RM Nal'chik ppl 43 29N 043 37E 79,RM Nozhovka oilf 5709N 054 49E , 20 Nantangan ppl 41 OON 071 40E 56,79,RM Nukus ppl 42 29N 05938E. 56,79,RM N;unanganskaya Oblast' admd 41 OON 071 30E 79 Nurek ppl 3823N 06921 E 56,RM Namtsy ppl 62 43N 1 29 37E RM Nurek hydp NA NA 50,51,67 Nar'yan-Mar ppl 67 39N 053 OOE 20,RM Nurlat oilf 5437N 05(154E 20 Narva ppl 59 23N 028 12E..... 44,RM Nurmin gasf 69 02N . .......071 41 E 16 Naryn ppl 41 26N 075 58E 56,79,RM Nyakh ppl 6209N 065 27E 16,RM Naryn ppl 38 17N 068 55E RM Nyamed gasf 63 16N 05415E. 20 Naryn stn.... 41 08N .......07205E 50,51,67,RM Nyandoma ppl 61 40N 04012E..... RM Narvnkol ppl 4243N 080 12E RM Nyda...._. ppl 66 36N 07254E. 16,19,RM N arvnskava Oblast' admd 41 30N 075 30E 79 Nyda...__ gasf 6637N 07349E. 16,66 Natanebi tar sands deposit tars 42 44N 042 39E 45 Nysh ppl 51 33N 142 46E RM Nauganan uranium deposit u/I NA NA 42,43 Nyukzha stn 56 35N 121 36F I I Naushki ppl 50 22N 106 07E RM Nyurba ppl 63 17N 118 20E RM Navoi ppl 40 09N 065 22E 56,79,RM Nyuya stm 60 32N 11614E. RM Novas thep NA NA 49,67 Navoiyskaya Oblast' admd 42 OON 064 30E 79 Nazarovo ppl 56 01 N 090 26E 57,60,RM Nazarovo thep NA NA 49,67 Ob'_....... stn 6645N 06930F 16,19,60,RM Nazarovo coal deposit coal 55 SON 090 30E 34 Obninsk ppl 5505N 036371. RM Nebit-Dag ppl 39 30N 054 22E 32,56,RM Obninsk _ nucp NA NA 67 Nebil-Dag oilf 39 06N .05418E 21,66 Obozerskiy ppl 63 29N 04019E RM Nebit-Dag tar sands deposit tars 40 23N 053 57E 45 Obshchiy Syrt oil shale deposit oils SI 40N 055 53E_ 44 Neftechala oilf 3906N ...04909E 21 Obskaya Guba bay 6900N 07300G.__. 16,RM N e(tekantsk ppl 5605N 05416E RM Odessa ppl 4628N 03044E 32 53 56 79 RM Neftekunisk oilf... 44 20N ......04437E 21 Odessa..... _ petr NA NA , , , , 31 66 Nefteyugtnsk ppl 61 05N 07242E 16,17,19,RM Odessa ATETs nucp NA NA , 52 67 Ncflezavodsk pelr NA NA 31,66 Odesskaya Oblast' admd 47 00N 030 OOL , 79 Neftyanyye Katnni If 40 06N ......05043E 21,66 Odoptu oilf 5320N 14349[ II Nclidovo ppl 56 13N .03246E 56,RM Oka stm 5642N ... 031 05F RM Nelidovo coal basin coal 56 15N 033 04E 34 Oka-Don Plain pin 53OON 04030F RM Neman stn 55 18N ........021 23E 50,67 Okarem oilf 37 53N 053 57E 21 Nenetskiv AOk admd 67 30N 054 OOE 20,79 Okha ppl 53 34N 142 S6E 11,32,57,59 RM Nenoksa ppl 6438N 03911E RM Okhotsk._ PPI . ........5923.9 14318F. , RM Neryungri ppl 5641 N 124 39E 11,57,59,RM Okhotsk coal area..... coal 59 45N 147 00E.. 34 Neryungri thep NA NA 11,59 Okhotsk, Sea of sea 5500N 15000E... II RM Nervungri coal deposit coal 56 40N 12415E 11,34 Oktyabr'sk ppl 49 28N 0S7 25E.. , RM Never ppl 53 59N ... 124 10E 11,57,RM Oktyabr'sk ppl 53 ION 04842F... RM Nevinnontvssk ppl 4438N 041 57E RM Oklyabr'skry ppl 5240N 15614E. RM Nevinnontvssk thep NA NA 49,67 Oktyabr'skiy PPI 39 06N 06649 RM New Siberian Islands isls 75 OON 142 OOE RM Oktyabr'skis ppl 54 28N 053 281.... RM Ncyto gasf 70 03N 07008F 16,66 Oktyabr'skiy ppl 5301N 12837E 57,RM Ncchin ppl 5103N 031 53E 56,RM Oktyabr'skoy Revolyutsii, Ostrov isl 79 30N 097 OOE RM Nike[' ppl 69 24N 030 12E 56,RM Oktyabr'skoye pp1 62 28N 06603 F._ RM Nikol'skiy ppl 47 58N 067 33F RM OI'doy stn 53 33N 123 21 E. I I Nikol'skoye oilf... 52 52N 053 OSE 20 Olga ppl 43 45N 135 181, S7 RM Nikolayev ppl 4658N 032 OOE 5h,79,RM Ol'khovka oilf 58 41 N 0S6 41 E , 20 N ikolayevsk ppl 5308N 14044E 57,RM Olekma stm 6022N 120 42E II,RM Nikolayevskaya Oblast' admd 47 I SN ...... 032 00E 79 Olekminsk ppl 60 24N 120 24L RM Nikolaycvskoye Dill...... 44 56N 041 34E 21 Olen'ye oilf 59 31 N 07636E 16 N i kopol' ppl 47 34N 034 24E RM Olcnek.... pp1 68 33N 112 18E RM Niihneangarsk ppl 55 47N 109 33E 57,RM Olenck..__ stn 730ON 11955E RM Nizhnekamsk ppl 55 36N 051 47E RM Olenek oil shale deposit oils 67 30N 119 22E 44 Nizhnekanisk petr NA NA 31,66 Olenck tar sands deposit tars 71 17N 122 23E 45 Nizhneomra oilf 62 38N 056 20E 20 Olenekskiy Zaliv__..... gulf 7320N 121 OOE RM Nizhnesortym oilf 62 39N ......07057E 16 Oleynikov oilf 45 31N 046 30E 21 Nizhneudinsk ppl 54 54N 099 03E 57,RM Olovyannaya pp1 50 56N 115 35E RM Nizhnevartovsk ppl 6056N .......07638E 16,17,18,19,31, Oloy stm 66 29N 159 29F RM 32,56,RM Olyutorskiy Poluostrov pen 60 15N 170 12F RM Nizhnevansk ppl 71 26N 136 04E RM Omolon. stm 6842N 15836E RM Nizhniv Bestvakh ppl 61 58N 129 56E RM Omolon coal area coal 64 45N 15930E 34 Nizhniv Tagil pp1 57 55N 059 57E RM Omsk....... ppl 5500N ... 07324E I8,32,56,79,RM Nizhnyaya Poyma ppl 5611N 097 13E 60.RM Omsk petr NA NA 31 66 Nizhnyaya Tunguska stn........ 6548N ......08804E RM Omskaya Oblast' admd 5600N 07300E , 79 Nizhnyaya Tura ---- ppl 5837N .05949E 32,RM Omsukchan ppl 6232N I5548E....... 57,59,RM Noginsk ppl 55 51N . .......03827E RM Omsukchan coal deposit coal 62 30N 156 15L 34 Noginsk ppl 64 32N 091 I OE RM Onega ppl 6354N 03808E RM Noril'sk ppl 69 20N . ....... 08806E 16,32,57,58,59, Onega, Lake lake 61 30N 035 45F RM RM Orion stm 51 42N 115 50E RM Noril'sk coal deposit coal 68 45N 087 30E 34 Opukha coal area coal 62 OON 173 30E 34 Norio oil( 41 57N 044 45E 21 Or'ya Dill 56 06N 05444E 20 North (aspian oil and gas region reg 57 OON 054 OOE 14,21,25,32 Ordzhonikidze ppl 43 OON 04440E__. 21,56,79,RM North Caucasus oil and gas region reg 4500N 04500E 14,15,21,22,25,32 Orel ppl 5255N 0360SE 56,79,RM North Caucasus power system reg 46 OON 043 OOE 46,55 Orenburg.. ppl 5145N 05506E 10,20,32,55,56 North Caucasus Economic Region reg 45 OON 042 DOE 79 , 79, R M North Kazakhstan power system reg 50 OON 073 OOE 46,55 Orenburg gasf 51 45N 05447E 15,20,23,66 North Siberian Lowland pin 7200N 10400E RM Orenburgskaya Oblast' admd 52 DON 056 OOE 20,79 Northern Economic Region reg 64 OON 045 DOE 79 Orlovskaya Oblast'...... admd 5300N 03615E.. 79 Northern Hills hlls..........5930N 049OOE_....... RM Orsha___.. ppl 5431N . 03026E RM Northern 1ights pipeline pipe 57 OON 035 OOE 10,20 Orsk_. ppl 51 12N _... 05834E 32,56,RM Northwest power system reg 59 OON 031 OOE 46,55 Orsk......... petr NA NA 31,66 Northwest Economic Region reg 59 00N 031 OOE 79 Orsk 421 petr NA NA 31 66 Novaya Sibir', Ostrov isl 7500N 14900E RM Osa oilf _ 5714N OS525E , 20 Novaya Zemlya isIs 74 OON 057 OOE RM Osh DPI 4032N 07248E. 56,79,RM Novgorod ppl 58 31N 031 17E 56,79,RM Osh coal deposit coal 4030N 07300E 34 Novgor tdskaya Oblast' admd 58 30N 032 30E 79 Oshmarino ppl 7147N 08250E RM Novikovo ppl 46 22N 143 22E RM Oshskaya Oblast' admd 4000N 073 OOE. 79 Novo-Angren they NA NA 49,67 Osinniki._ ppl 53 37N 087 21E . RM Novoagansk ppl 61 57N 07641E 16,17,RM Ostrov Bulla Dill 4004N 049 37E.. 21 66 Novoaltaysk ppl 53 24N 083 55E RM Oymyakon. ppl 63 28N 14249E. , RM Novoasha rovo oilf 53 27N 053 15E 20 Ozek-Suat oilf 44 29N 044 47E 21 Novocheboksarsk ppl 58 08N 047 30E RM Ozernyy..._ gasf 7029N 08506E. 16 Novocherkassk ppl 4725N 04006E RM Novocherkassk Thep NA NA 49,67 Novogornyy ppl 5537N 06047E RM Novogornyy uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 I'ak ha, hi pill 6034N 16903F RM R (continued) Reftinskiy thep NA NA 47,49,67 1'.11\.ux,cn Dill 61 SON 06641E 16 Revda pp1 5648N 05957E RM I'a larva ppl 5907N 159500 RM Riga ppl 56 57N 0241)61{ 32,56,79,RM Palatka ppl 6006N ISO 540 57,RM Riga, Gulf of gulf 57 30N 023 3511 RM Pah.n,lan, stilt 6K SON 17045E RM Rogun ppl 3847N 069521 RM is 39 OON 073 OOF RM Rogun hydp NA NA 50,51,67 Pail ie( s pp1 SS 44N 024 21 F RM Romanovka pp1 53 14N 11246E RM I'm di l ns pp1 44 ION 00001E 56,R M Romashkino oilf 54 SON 1152 32E 17,20,22,66 P:Ing,x)s ppl 65 SIN 074 30F 16,17,RM Romny pill 50 45N 033 2011 RM P.1 r,l11111\1111', ( (sII'i,m is1 50 25N 155 501' RM Roslavl' pp1 53 57N 032 5216 RM unka ppl 52 S7N 159 14F 57,64.RM Rossokha tar sands deposit tars 71 07N 111028 45 PA,nli pill 50 24N 02432E 56,RM Rossosh' pill 50 12N 039 2611 RM P.I RIII I:1\ ppl S2 SON 143 02F. 57,RM Rostov pp1 57 II N 1)39251 55,56,59,79,RM I'.uluansk pill 4107N 13305E RM Rostov nucp NA NA 52,67 I'.u ttnulsk ,,.it lusin eoal 43 ISN 133 OOF 34 Rostovskaya Oblast' admd 47 OON 042 OOF 79 P:uhnsa It 63 16N 056 20F 20 Rovenskaya Oblast' admd 51 OON 026 301 79 I'atara Dill 41 09N 046 26F 21 Rovno ppl 5037N 0261511 56,74,RM 1'aunc'lku pill 51 29N 15648E 57,64,RM Rovno nucp NA NA 52,6? 1':ni,xhtr pp1 52 ION 076 571 32,56,59,79,RM Rtishchevo pill 52 ISN 04347E RM Pashxlar petr NA NA 31,66 Rubtsovsk ppl 51 30N 091 151. 55 56,RM f'nchxlarska)a t blast' admd 52 OON 076 OOF 79 Rudnichnyy ppl 59 38N 052 26)1 56,RM Pail Iogtad ppl 47 (ION 03S 031'. RM Rudnyy ppl 52 S7N 06307E RM ':uioss kosc oilf 56 34N 056 061 20 Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic admd 60 OON 100 OOI1 79 Pcchenga pill 69 33N 031 12F RM Russkaya gasf 66 40N 080 3311 16,66 pill 65 2SN 057 020 20.32,56,59,RM Russkaya tar sands deposit tars 6656N 09045E 45 Pechora still 6013N 0541SE 20,50,51,RM Russkiy Khutor oilf 44 15N 0451916 21 'cc hnr,l coal burin coal 67 OON 062 000 34,35,36,37,39,40 Rustavi ppl 41 33N 0450311 RM Pcchnra- Korhsa gasf 6S 1SN 056 SSE. 20 Ruzayevka ppl 54 04N 044 56F 56,RM Pce honkose More sea 7000N 05400E RM Ryazan' pill 54 38N 039 448 56,65,79,R M Pt'Ipti', I ake lake 5045N 02730E RM Ryazan' thep NA NA 49,67 Pch,uka gasf 69 44N 081 5316 16,66 Ryazan' petr NA NA 31,66 Pena ppl 56 SSN 032 456 RM Ryazanskaya Oblast' admd 5415N 0403011 79 Pcva pill 53 I3N 045 000 56,79,RM Rybach'ye ppl 42 26N 076 12F- 56,RM I'enn?nskasa OtrList admd 53 (ION 044 30F 79 Rybinskoye Vodokhranilishche resv 5830N 038251 RM I'rnzhma stilt 6228N 165 ISE RM Ryrkaypiy ppl 68 56N 179 26W 59,RM I'cvhinskaya (. item ban 61 (ION 162001. 63,RM Rzhev ppl 56 15N 034 20F 56,R M I'rrrgrrhnu)c pill 62 SON 065 O5F1 RM I'cnn' pp1 90 OON 056 1 SF 20,32,56.79,RM I'cnn' Thep NA NA 49,67 Penn' pctr NA NA 31,66 Saaremaa is1 S0 25N 022 301 RM I'ennsk:q:t Ohl:nl' admd 59 (ON 056 OOF 20,79 Safonovo ppl 5S 09N 03313E 56,RM Perms akoe Dill 61 27N 079 30F 16 Safonovo coal deposit coal 5s ISN 03309F 34 Pc ,oi lat sk ppl 4803N 030521' RM Sagiz oilf 47 26N (15321E 21 cnontns sk ppl 46 26N 141 57F RM Sakar gasf 38 54N 063 35E 21,66 'enom:ls skate Dill 59 09N 076 14F 16 Sakhalin isl 51 OON 14300E 11,RM I'cnoucll'sk ppl S6 54N 059 581 RM Sakhalin oil and gas region reg 520ON 143000 11,14,25,32 I'csnucy> gust 67 02N 075 21 F 16,66 Sakhalin tar sands deposit tars 53 58N 142 471 45 I'ci n,pac lomsk ppl 54 52N 06906E 56,79,RM Sakhalinskaya Oblast' admd 52 OON 142 3011 79 n,p;niovek-K tmchatskl) pill S3 01 N ISO 391 57,59,79,RM Sakmara stm 51 46N OSS 011! 20 l otrunsk ppl 52 19N 045 23F 32,RM Sal'sk pp1 4629N 041331 Sfi,RM l'cl rusk- /ab:q lal'sk in ppl SI 17N 108 501: 57,RM Salaush oilf 5559N 052 S7F 20 1'ctroia nods k ppl fi149N 03420E 56,79,RM Salavat ppl 53 21N 055 55F 20,R M l'cmck pill 69 42N 17017E 57,S9,RM Salavat pctr NA NA 31,66 1'Ikhtos k.i pill 56 O(IN 082421 RM Salekhard pp1 66 33N 066 400, 16,RM I'll> uguta Dill 53 23N 052 1811 20 Salym oilf 6047N 071 121 16 fine ga sun 0408N 041 541 RM Salyukino oilf 66 52N 050 431 20 Pinsk pill 5207N 02607E 56,RM Samantepe gasf 38 59N 063 531 21.66 1'unn?rs kose iron ore deposit iron 57 30N 125 051 I I Samara still 53 ION 050041. 20 1'Ic?sctsk ppl 6243N 04017E RM Samarkand ppl 39 40N 066 501 56,79,RM 1'obcdino pill 49 S I N 142 49F RM Samarkandskaya Oblast' admd 40 OON 067 OOF 79 P,xtkantcnnaca l,nguska pill 61 16N 09009 F- RM Samgori oilf 41 34N 045091' 21,66 P,xA:uncnnaya lmguska ,in, 61 36N 090 19F RM Samotlor oilf 61 14N 07639E 16,1 I'ogr.uuc lint ppl 44 25N 131 241 RM Sangar coal deposit coal 64 30N 1 28 001. 34 I'okaclu Dill 61 42N 074 591 16,66 Sannikova, Proliv strt 7430N 140001- RM Polk uses) pill 55 31 N 101 041. 57,RM Saran' ppl 49 46N (172521 RM 1'okros ka oilf 52 49N 049 39F 20 Saransk ppl 5411 N 04511E 79,RM Pokreska oilf 53 01 N 052 47F 20 Sarapul pp1 56 28N 1153 48F R M Pokromsk pill 61 29N 12906E 57,RM Saratov ppl 51 34N 046021--, 32,56,79,R M Dill 50 ISN 056 251 20 Saratov hydp NA NA 50,67 Poles), reg 52 (ION 027 OOF RM Saratov petr NA NA 31,66 I'nlcs sko, pill S6 26N 060 [ I F R M Saratovskaya Oblast' admd S 130N 1147 000 20,79 I'olobk pill s5 29N 028 471 32,56,RM Sarny pill 51 20N 026 361 56,R M pill 4935N 03434F 79,RM Sartang stm 67 44N 133 1211 RM Poll,, skin a ON ill' udmd 49 30N 034(00 79 Sary-Ozek ppl 44 22N 077 591 56,RM 1'oludcn nos Dill 60 07N 078 091 16 Saryshagan ppl 46 06N 073 361 56,RM Puhaross ppl 6938N 17944E 59,RM Sasovo pill 54 20N 041 551. 56,R M four.. . pill SS SON 049 21 F 10,20,RM Savoy Dill 61 54N 1)73 4217 16 Panama rem ka It 5318N 054114E 20 Sayak ppl 47 OON 077 2411 56,RM Patios sint 66 S9N 041 171. RM Sayan Mountains mts 5245N 096001. RM Pupil g.n stilt 72 54N 106 361 RM Sayan-Shushenskoye hydp NA NA 46,4',50,5 1,67 l'onn .issk ppl 49 13N 14307E 57,RM Sayanogorsk pill 53 05N 091 251 55,57,RM I'os'> rt pill 42 39N 130400 RM Savgat oilf 61 22N 072 09F 16 Potnnas calf 61 ISN 065 5616 16 Segezha ppl 63 44N 03419E 56,RM Poll ppl 4209N 04140E RM Selcmdzha situ 51 42N 128 5311 RM Pour k II Dill 62 28N 075 511 16 Semakov gasf 69 I I N 076 021. 16,66 ppl 4936N 129411; RM Semenovka oilf 53 41 N 050 341'. 20 IS amdmsk Gill 60 SIN 071 471 16,29,66 Semipalatinsk pp1 50 28N 080 1311 56,79,RM Prasobercg g isl 62 13N 056 391 20 Semipalatinskaya Oblast' admd 49 OON (180001 79 I'nargunsk ppl 5024N 119068 57,RM Serafimovskiy trill 54 33N 053 351'. 20 I'ndneirtovsk pp1 48 24N 035 07F RM Serdobsk ppl 52 28N (144 131. RM I'ri4 ncprom sk thep NA NA 49,67 Sergeyevka ppl S3 51 N 067 251'. 56,RM I'rdukl ppl SO 16N 1)32 241 R M Sergeyevka oilf 54 SON OSS 41 Er 20 1'r mtonkn Is ras udmd 45 OON 139 OOF 79 Sergino pp1 62 30N 065 30E 16.1', 19,R M I'rmwrsko-:\khl,i rsk pill 4603N 03810E RM Serov ppl 5936N 06035E S6,RM I'rip> .u' sins 51 ION 03030E RM Serpukhov ppl 54 55N 037 250 RM 1'rokop )cesk pill S3 53N 096 451 R M Sevan, Ozero lake 40 20N 045 20F RM I'rokop>cvsk co I dclxnit coal 54 ISN 08645F 34 Sevastopol' ppl 44 36N 033 3211 56,R M 1'ronn s11 lcn)) ppl 67 35N 063 55F RM Severnaya Dvina slut 6432N 04030F RM Pn n'knts Dill 52 47N 052 34F 20 Severnaya Sos'va still 6411N 06527E 16,RM It 45 SIN 053 20F. 21 Severnaya Zemlya isIs 7930N 099000 RM Pro % dcnn a pp1 64 23N 173 18W RM Severnyy Pokur oilf 60 48N 079 2717 16,66 Prz liana I'sk ppl 42 29N 079 24F 56,79,RM Severo-Achak gasf 4106N 061 381 21 'skos pill S7 SON 029 201 56,79,RM Severn-Balkui gasf 39 SSN 061 3611 21 'skovsk.n, Obl; st adlnd 57 SON 02900E 79 Severo-Buzachi Dill 4S 09N OSI 50F 21 Pogue I,& pill 52 02N 048 498 RM Severo-Gugurtli gasf 40 25N 062 01 F 21 Ihetga gasf 62 40N 064 1 I F 16 Severo-Kamsk oilf 58 07N 056 08F 20 I'll still 67 31N 077 551- 16,19,RM Severo-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast' admd 54 30N 069 OOF 79 I'ushk inn pill SI 14N 046 591- RM Severo-Komsomol gasf 64 46N 076 091 16,66 I's asma stilt 73 SON 087 IOF 16,RM Severo-Mylva oilf 62 17N (155 S91 20 1')atlgursk pp1 44 01 N 043 05F 56,RM Severo-Naip gasf 4042N 061 491{ 21 1's l'- \'ukh pill 6045N 072 501 16,17,RM Severo-Osetinskaya ASSR admd 43 OON 044 OOI! 79 Severn-Pokur oilf 61 12N 07S 48F 16 Severo-Urengoy gasf 67 34N 076 321 16,66 Scvcro-Var'yegan oilf 62 26N 077 251 16,66 Radas r,ka Dill 53 SIN OSO 571- 20 Severobaykal'sk ppl 5S 38N 109 19F RM Radu, Im, pp1 61 06N 077 3I IF 16,17,RM Severodvinsk ppl 64 34N 039 501 56,RM Rassok ha gasf 61 SIN 057 19F 20 Severomorsk pill 69 OSN 033 270 RM R:nchlkhnnsk coil hash coal SI SON 12900E 34,40 Severoural'sk.. pill 6009N 05957E RM Ra Mail pill 40 29N 044 46E RM Seymchan pp1 62 53N 152 2611 RM R,, Man Ihep NA NA 49,67 Seyrab gasf 38 40N 062 40F 21 R., a tort ppl 63 29N 048 42F 56,RM Shadrinsk ppl 5605N 06338F RM Rcchilsa pill 52 22N 030 231 RM Shaim ppl 60 21 N 064 101. 16,RM Rellulsk,, ppl 570ON 0613011 R M Shakhpakhty.... gas( 42 49N (157 221' 21 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Shakht lnsk ppl 49 41 N 072 36F RM S (continued) Sutormin oilf 6401N 07458E 16 Sha khly ppl 47421, 04013E. RM Suzun ppl 53471, 08219E 56,RM Shakhtp coal deposit coal 47 37N 040 22F 34 Suzun gasf 68 ION 083 526 16 Shunta rskive Ost rova isls 55 OON 137 36E RM Sverdlovsk ppl 5651N 06036E 26,55,56,79,RM Shapkina oilf 67 18N 054 17E 20 Sverdlovskaya Oblast' admd 58 OON 062 OOE 79 Shars pour ppl 55 33N 089 12E 55,56.60,RM Svetlogorsk ppl 52 38N 029 46E RM Shashkin off 55 OIN . 05607E 20 Svetlogorsk ppl 66 55N 08823E 57,R 'A Shatlyk gasf 37 20N 061 276 21,66 Svetlyy ppl 6243N 06417E 16,RM Shatura rip, 55 34N 039 32E RM Svetlyy ppl 63 I5N 113 45L 57,RM Shatura thep NA NA 49,67 SvobodnyY ppl 51 24N 12808E 55,57,RM Shchuchinsk ppl 5256N 07012E RM Svobodnyy coal deposit coal 51 30N 127 45E 34 Shelikhova, Zaliv gulf 59 45N 158 OOE RM Syktyvkar ppl 61 40N 050486. 56,59,79,RM Shevchcnko ppl 43 39N 051 12F 21,32,52,53. Sylva Sim 57 39N 056 54E 20 56.59,79,RM Sy nya ppl 65 22N 058 02E RM Shevchenko AES nucp NA NA 67 Sy'nya gasf 65 25N 058 14E 20 Shiikh-Darvaza gasf 4009N 058216. 21 Syrdar'inskaya Oblast' admd 41 OON 067 15E 79 Shikotan- EO isl 43471, 14645E RM Syrdar'ya elm 4603N 0610OF RM Shilka .stn 53 20N 121 26E RM Syrdar'ya thep NA NA 49,67 Shingino If 58 31N 078 23E 16 Syzran' ppl 53 11 N 048 276 20,44,56,RM Shkapovo oilf 53581, 05402F 20,66 Syzran' oil) 53 12N 048 20E 20 Shmidta, Ost roe sl 81081, 09048E RM Syzran' petr NA NA 31,66 Shorkel' gasf 37031, 06140E 21 Shostka ppl Si 521, 033 29F RM Shugurovu Dill, 54 28N 052 O5E 20 Shu ['bit hvdp NA NA 50,67 Taboshar uranium deposit /processing center u/t NA NA 42,43 Shurab cord deposit coal 40081, 07027E 34 Taganrog pill 47 12N 038 S6F RM Sh irt:m gasf 38 30N 066 02E 21 Tagrinskoye oilf 62 23N 078 156 16 Siaulial ppl 55 561, 023 196 RM Talik SSR admd 39 OON 071 001 79 Swan oil! 41 OON 048 54E 21 Takhta-Bazar ppl 3S 57N 062 501 56KM Siberia power system reg 55 OON 097 OOE 46,55 Talakan ppl 5019N 13022E 57,RM Siberian AIIS nucp NA NA 67 Talcs ppl 42 32N 072 14F. 56,79.RM Sihi ryakos a, Ostroe sl 72 SON 079001. KM Talasskaya Oblast' admd 42 20N 072 101 79 Si k hole-Alin' Range .is 48001, 13800E. RM Taldy-Kurgan ppl 45 OON 078 241 56,79,RM Sillantac ppl 59 24N 027 45F RM Taldy-Kurganskaya Oblast' admd 45 OON 079 OOF: 79 Silluniae uranium deposit processing center u/t 'A NA 42,43 Talimardzhan ppl 38 23N 065 371, 62,RM Simferopol' pp1 44 SIN 034 06E 56,79,RM Talimardzhan Thep NA NA 49,67 Simus hir, Oslrov sl 46581, 15202E RM Talinskoye oilf 62 051, 065 5SE. 16 Sinegor'ye ppl 62 04N 150 286 57,59,RM Tallinn ppl 59 251, 024 4s[ 32,44,55,56 79, Siren'kino If 54 53N 056 I5E 20 KM Skovorodi no ppl 53 59N 123 551/ 11,57,RM Talnakh ppl 69 30N 088 1 I E R M Slants) ppl 59 06N 028 04F 44,56,RM Talon ppl 5948N 14838E KM S la,gunnl ppl 53 OON 07840E RM Tambov ppl 52 431, 041 271, S5,56,79,RM Sl.nsansk ppl 48 525 037 37F RM Tambovskaya Oblast' admd S2 451, 041 306. 79 Slav)ansk thep NA NA 49,67 Tanvp oilf 56 435 056 071. 20 Shrvs;usk-na Kuban, ppl 4S ISN 03808E RM Tara ppl 56 541, 074 226 56,KM Slobodskot ppl S8 42N 050 126 RM Taribani off 41 "NN 04S 54F 21 Sit uds anka ppl S138N 10342E KM Tarkhan oilf 53 321, 053 076 20 Sit rids ankn uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 Iarko-Sale ppl 6455N 117749E RM Sniela ppl 4914') 031 536 RM Tartu pp, 5823N 02643E KM Smolensk ppl 54471, 03203E 56,79.RM Tas-Tumus ppl 64121, 126371: KM Smolensk nucp NA NA 52,67 I as-Yuryakh ppl 61 471, 1 13 01 6. R M Sntoleusk.iya Oblast' admd SS OON 033 OOE 79 Tcisbulat gasf 43 OSN 052 20F 21 Snezhnogorsk ppl 68 ION 087 30F... 57,58,59,RM Ta.scveva elm 58 061, 094 Oil: 60 Sochi ppl 43351, 03945E 56,RM Tash-Kumyr coal deposit coal 41 161, 072 056 34 Sotiysk ON Si 33N 139 541..... 1 I,RM Ta sha0to ppl 49 43N 089 III, KM Sogo cord deposit coal 71 ISN 128 ISE 34 Tashauz ppl 41 SON 059 586 21,56,79,RM Sol' Ilctsk ppl 51 ION 054 59E RM Tasha uzskaya Oblast' admd 41 ION 058 SOF 79 Solena)a gasf 69 08N 081 56E_.. 16,66 Tashkent ppl 41 20N 1)69 151-,RM Sol igorsk ppl S2 49N 02732F RM Tashkent thep NA NA 49,67 Solikansk ppl 59 39N 056 47E RM Tashkentskaya Oblast' admd 41 OON 069 30E- 79 Solnechnyc ppl 60 19N 137 35E RM Tashkuduk gasf 39 54N 063 271 21 Solnecknyy rip, SO 35N 13702E RM Tashtagol ppl 5247N 087531: RM Solidi Tar sands delxi.cil tars 70 36N 125 23F 45 Lear nucp NA NA 52,67 Solo,', evsk ppl 49SSN 11542E RM Tatar Strait ................. sort 500(11, 141 OOF KM Sosoogornk ppl 6337N 05351E RM Tatarian tar sands deposit tars 5618N 055481/ 45 Sosnovo-( )zcrskoyc pp1 52 31 N I I I 34E 57,RM atarka pp1 53 58N 07S 031:. 56,KM South power system reg 49 00N (1321106 46,55 Talcrsk pp1 55 13N 07S 586 56,KM South K:vakhstun it hig;otak) thep NA NA 4 9,67 Tatarskaya ASSR admd SS OON O5I 001' 20,79 South kkraine nucp NA NA 50,52.53,67 Tavda ppl 58 1)3 N 065 151; 56, R M South S akutia coal basin coal 56 30N 126001 11,34,3 5,36,38,40 Tavtimanovo ,)ill' 54 495 056 458. 20 Sovetabud gasf 36 41 N 061 23F 21,66 Tasczhnoye iron ore deposit iron 57 41 N 12S 238 I I Sot etsk ppl 55 OSN 021 S3E RM Tavmurzino oilf 55 29N 054531-'. 20 Sot eisk:p.t (;;,an' ppl 48 581, 140 18E 11,59.RM Taymylvr coal deposit coal 72 30N 122 006/ 34 SoveIsK iy rip, 61 24N 063 316 16,RM Taymyr coal basin coal 74 30N 097 008 34,40 Soeelskose Dill, 6048N 07705E 16,66 Taymvr Peninsula pen 76001, 104001' RM Soyuz (Orenhurg) pipeline pipe 49 46N 043 40E.......... 10,20 Taymyr, Otero lake 7430N 10230E KM Spassk-Dul'ni) ppl 4437N 13248F...... 57,RM Tavmvrskiv AOk admd 72 001, 095 008 79 S red nec he .... gorsk oilf 61 15N 077 06E 16 Ti-het ppl 55 57N 098 001/ 57,59,60,KM Srcdnek(,)n msk ppl 6727N 15341E RM Taz slm 67 32N 078 401 16,KM Sredneuru l'sk pp) S6 591, 060 286. RM I a, gasf 67 23N 079 131/ 16 Sredneural'sk thep NA NA 49,67 Taz Peninsula pen 6835N 076006 16,17,RM Srcdncvasyvgan ,)Of S9 251, 078 24E 16 Tazhigali oilf 4617N 053 151. 21 Sredney"ntal gasf 69 21 N 071 056. 16,66 Tazovskiv ppl 67 28N 078 421-, RM Sredni) I rgal coal deposit coal SI 13N 13259E 34 Tbilisi ppl 41 42N 04445E 21,32,55,56,79. Sretensk ppl 52 151, 11743E RM KM Stakhanoco oilf 54 24N 053 43E 20 thep NA NA 49,67 Stanocos Range nits 5620N 12600E II,RM ppl 37 23N 060 318 56,RM Slanacoy ( pland tilts 53 30N 115 OOE RM gasf 37 09N 060 461/ 21 Stnraca ppl S8 OON 031 231........ RM ppl 4448N 078 571/ KM Starobcshcvo ppl 47 44N 038 036........... RM Feudriau ppl 5005N 072 568 KM Starobcshcvo thep NA NA 49,67 lengc pp1 43 1 SN 052 488 21,R.M Stars) Nedpnt ppl 65 351, 072421. 16,17,18,RM Tenge gasf 43 04N 052 411 21 Slaryy Oskol ppl Si 171, 03751E KM Tengiz oilf 46 01N 053278 21 Stanope)' ppl 46 371, 042 15F 21,55,56,79,R M oilf 45 335 046 0111 21 Stay ropol thep NA NA 49,67 Teplov Dill, 60411, 117212E 16 Stavropol kit Kray admd 4S OON 044 OOE 21,79 Terekla oilf 53 091, 055 55E 20 Stepanakert ppl 39 SON 04646E..... RM Teren'uzyuk calf 4625N 053431/ 21 Stepanovo oilf 53 40N 052 I SE 20 Terme, ppl 3714N .067161. 79,KM Slcpnogorsk uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42.43 tars 37 56N 066 346 45 Sterlitamak ppl S3 37N 05558E 56,RM ppl 4933N 025351/ 79,KM Stolbonoy. Ostrov is] 74 051, 136 OOE R M admd 49 30N 02S 301'. 79 Strelka ppl SO (151, 093 01 E RM oilf 62 33N 073 261/ 16 S(r8ea .soon 54 48N 024 15E 50,67 mts 42001, 08000[ RM Strczhcvov pp1 6042N 077 34E 16,17,19,RM ppl 45 SIN 04(1071 21,32,56,RM Sukhona stm 6046N 04624F. RM Tikhvin ppl 59 39N 033 311: 56,RM Sukhumi ppl 4300N 041 02E 56,79,RM Tiksi ppl 71 36N 128 481/ 57.59,RM Suiak still 43 20N 047 34E 50,67 rdge 65 OON 051001/ KM Sulwngulovo off 53 33N 052 47E 20 reg 65 OON 0S6 001/ 14.20,25,32 Suitukta coal deposit coal 39 SIN 069 35E 34 ppl 45 37N 038 571 RM Sumgait ppl 40 36N 049 38E RM Timpton still 58 43N 127 126 I 1 Sunsar rip, 41 18N 071 191 RM Tiraspol' ppl 46 SON 029 376'. RM Sunsar uraniun) deposit u/t NA NA 42,43 ppl 55 451, 088 191 60,RM Sunislkay,, Oblast' admd S I OON 034 006......... 79 Tkibuli coal deposit coal 42 21 N 042 596 34 Sunty ppl 50 54N 034 48E 56,79,RM Tkvarcheli coal deposit..... coal 42 SIN 041 411 34 Samar ppl 62 ION 117 40E 57,59,RM still 58 ION 068121 RM Sups" Dill, 41 SIN 04200E 21 ppl 58 12N 068 161 18,32,56,K M Sara stilt S6 06N 04600E RM ppl 42 52N 07S ISE KM Surgut 61 14N 07032F. 16,17,18,19,31, Toktogul'__. hydp NA NA SO,SI,67 32,33,55,56,RM Tol'yatti ppl 53 31 N 049 266. K M Surgut-I thep tiA NA 49,67 Tolum oilf .60411, 065101/ 16 Surgut-_2 thep NA NA 49,67 Torn' still 56 SON 084 271/. 60 Surk hundar'in.ska sa Oblast' admd 38 001, 067 30E 79 Thep NA NA 49,67 Susuman rip, 6247N 14810E 57,RM ppl 58 581, 126 191/ 57,RM Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 I.c vk I snit,1 I(hi,, dihul ba Ilnzbuk I1.nn S1bc11an It.ulro,ld 11,n,s..l u, ,uus , d and ga. rcg,on 11.1 list meatus I otter stelim 11.unt.nlcnu, I i,m,nnlc Kcglnn I1ekh,vculolc I nikJ\ nik,lA I 'smsk I nnlsk I iou'Lo I'i' h?r.k Iwn14u IN h?r,k Tomsk osc sclumgl ,ul I,dun,gr.ul,kat 1 I(List IS hlnclh uap.. u.l pst I ugursklt /,1hr I sk.ll I ulAk.n .1 I lbl.nt ula 1111.1 :,111 dcpusil ulun Viii roll do In?n I unglnk.l coal 1 ism I u siukll 1111.1 Iu1.1 11n.1n 1111 1t, I I?I.I lid 1111g.1t 1111 gat i,,.ll I,a,~n I m g.n I'Lllc,nl 1 111 g,lt ,k,n,1 ObL1>I- 11111 ilk u1n Rig I In k.l I ulkcs I,I II I nik nlca SS1 IT sr II a do I inikh,nrsk 15 5 Is lk Ln ,,Ind. dclxsll I utillsk.n.1 St 1t, ills( n Itb\u tgd.l It ,tskml Itndl Ii ui' shlk t uk.lllnsk s ulncd s11nu I t Inncn, k.n.l I'bLuf It ln,l \11nun I1.In n do 1"1111 I I Is 'I \I oscncrgu e Veal and Potter I Is '.` NI iscnrg? Ilcal ,Ind Ibttcr I t s' 1 \Io c nergl, I(cal ,Ilid Ibwcr I bczhcnskose h1n had,h, l,ku Juk 1 c hkuduk ur,lmum delssu hktl char dl Jechmt 1 dnuuhka>,1 \sNK I doh 1 1.11 s.lnds di1>,n0 clcn 1 I;1 1 Yu N u. I-hen lkuvsk I,1 N,mu t lunskn I.1 \1:1 rt? 11111 skit l glcgursk I glegorsk I gl cgcrsk l gligonk coal i :glen I khl.1 I kh1., I kr,1111c I,II ,1114 ;.IS 1cglun I kl.unc I cont... 1c Region l Li.uu.ln SSK t I\.Inutsk t tanutskat.l Ib1as1' an 1 '' lugkhem coal basin I ngiut I pl>c'r 6,1111,1 I I land a I?,11 \lnunlams lal'sk I lal'sketa Oblast' lilt Ir, scr st slcm lilt I'.,,nnnuc Kcglnn t 1.11 (leng?) I ring?t 1l'n gilt I Tgal 1 Tgcm 1, 1 T I., hul,lk x111,. u,lrot n sPmsk s.l I sh,lkotd, ((viii t I smsk I smsk Aol tc S1blrskutc svnl 1 still t sk I AI K.uncnogo,- k A1' &Ilsk Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 ppl 56 101 084 5X1! 16,60.79,R N1 U (continued)'-Barguzin ppI 51 27N IOx Sol KM admd 511 (1(1N 081 001 16,24,79 list'-Ilimsk pp1 59 03N 102191: SS,S 1.KM gulf 40 JOIN 1159 271 21 Ust'-Ilimsk hsdp yq NA 50,117 oilf 45 SON 1151 13x: 2_1 Ust'-Kamchatsk ppI 56 ISN 1621(11' KM ppI 57 OSN 1114 501' 12,RM (Jst'-Kureyka ppl 66 ION 1187 151'. KM rr 57 SON I I I IOI I I,KM Ust'-Kut pp1 S6 46N 105 401, 57,K\1 reg 411 (1(1N (1411001' 14._1,25,(2 Ust'-Maya ppI 60 25N 134 121 K M reg 41 (((IN 046001 46.55 Ust'-Hera pp1 6414N 141 12F 57,50,19 M reg 41 00N 046001 1 79 Ust'-Olenck ppl 71 0ON 1 19 4811 K M odd hll ?ON 1)114 571 16 Ilst'-Omchug ppl 61 (19N 149181'- 57,KM ppI SOWN 010 41111 0\1 list'-Ordynskiy ppI 5249N 104451' KM Ihep N> NA 49.67 Ust'-Ordynskiy Buryatskiy AOk admd 51 30N 104001 ( 79 ppl 14116N Ohl 151 SS-S6,R\1 Ust'-Port pp1 6940N 11X4261. KM Ihep N5 NA 49.17 I Ist'-Taskan pill 62 40N 150 5211 57,0\1 ppl h'_ 42N (151111( KM 1st'-Uda ppI 54 24N 1111 171 S7, R M g.lsf hl ()ON 016011 : 21) I stinov ppI S6 SIN 1151 141 20,711.0 M ppl 52 SON 0X441(1 KM [sty urt Plateau upld 41 11ON I(S6 001: 0 M ppI 51 l1N 1)71 1110 55,56.79,0 M Lzbek SSR admit 41 OON 064001 21,79 adnxi SI ((ON 107011(11 79 L zen' pp1 43 27N 051 101 21.56,KM ppI 4714N 1(41 S70 KM 1,zen' Dill 41 20N 1152 S91: 21,29.66 ppI 440SN 019(161 S6.KM I'zhgorod ppI 4817N 1 1 2 2 1 X 1 111, 11, 11,79,0 M pclr NA NA 11,66 Uzhur pp1 55 ION 1189 501. K M its 5400N 117 OOt' 61 Dill 54 SIN 1177 2St: 16 adlnd S4 ION (117 111x. 79 ppI 541_N 017171 79,KM Vakh slit, 60451 1176451. 16,19.0\1 curd 51 S1N 017 411 14 Vakh colt 60 52, 117X 16[ 16 ppl 54 1SN 100111: 57,60,RM Vakhrus6cv pp1 48 SON 142 S81 57.5`1.12 \1 coal 54 ION 100411 (4 Vakhrushev coal deposit ,:d 4901N 1424X1 14 co:ll 64 ((ON 1(1(1 0111 14,15,40 Vakhsh ,fill 17 06N 1(60 101. 50,51..67 stilt 67 ION 115 _'41' KM Valdal Hills hlls S7 O(1N 031101 KM ppI 6417N 1)10151. KM Vallniera pp1 S7 11N o 2s 241 SO,KM sun 57 I_'N 066S61. RM Valuyki ppI 50 14N I30 081'. 0M ppI _'_ (ION 1191551 KM Van"5 egan oilf 61 SIN 077 III' 16 pin 42 ION 1161 001: K\1 N' a new is grit 67 41N OS4 021' rPl a91XN On11Ill 56.RM Vanino pp1 49 ISN 140 151. RM ,,,11 5 1 1101 1165 0111. 14,15.40 N' an La re iii ppl 67 SIN 17S SOW KM plat 10 ION 001 101. KM Var'ycgan ("It 62 ohN 07714x. 16,66 adni'l 50 '_1)N 066 001 79 N'artino pp1 hO 21N 01X211 S6,KM ppI 511 01N O(,1421'. KM Vashka Still 114 SSN (145471'. 20.0\1 ppI 45141 111 5X1 KM Vasil'kov gall 110 lOIN Os l 461'. ppI S' SIN 11)0 111. KM Vasil'sevskoye oil l SS 211 1155 561'. 20 ppI 412(11 068 1S1': 56.RM Vasyugan stm S9 07N 0811401. 16. KM admd 40 0111 060001 . 21.71) Vat'oegan oilf 62 19,N 074 SSI'- 16,66 ppI 1s ION 0110 141. So,RNI Vata oilf 61 I2N 07110511 16,66 ppI 115 491 087 Sox RM Vaygach, Ostruv is] 71) OON 0S91(11. KM Luis 66 I I N 1189 '_91 45 Vel'.sk PH 61 l1SN 04'_ 081 KM Adn,d S 11111 1195 11111. 79 Vel'yu ,,Of 6117N 056161'. 20 Dill 54 42N (151 221 20,66 Velikiy Ustyug ppI 60 48N 046101. S6,( M gas( 62 01% 0561611' 20 Velikiye I-uki pp1 56 20N 010 121. KM ppI 51 O7 N 1 26 1101. 57, 0'11 Ventspils p51 57 34N 021 11 E 12S6.RM ppI SO SIN 142_191: KM Vcrkhne Dill 63 37N 1151 061 20 ppI 5S 101 1'_4411` I I,S7,K11 Vcrkhne-Anabar tar sands deposit tars (9 SIN 112 221. 45 udf 4411N OSO 59x 21 Verkhnegrubeshor Dill 66 SIN 1154 450. 2(I ppI SS S2N 1172 121 RM Verkhncly amen of if 62 14N (170 271. Ih ppI 57 01) N 1165 261 I X,565 8.59,79. Verkhnesuly in oilf 6001 N 071 1111. 1 KM Verkhneshasha Dill 110 SIN 07(1_(11 16 coif hl )6N 078 0X11 16 Vcrkhniy Tagil pp1 57 22N 019 S61 KM admd 610((N 072(1(16: 15,16,17,'_4,79 Vcrkhniy Tagil thep St, sA 49,67 all 42.43 Verkhnyaya Saida pp1 SX (12N 116011x. KM Ihep ~~ Nn 49,67 Verkhnyaya T ay'my ra ,in, 74 ISN 099481'. KM Ihep N4 N5 49,67 V er khoya nsk PH 671SN' 131271'- 57,19M diet, NA NA 49 67 Verkhoyansk Range nits 67 00N 129 0111 KM , Vesenneye Veslyanka Dill of lf S9 22N 57 12N 1176 241: 056 411 16 20 Vidim pp1 S6 2SN 103 121'. RM ,)Ill 45111 N ((41 2111. Vikhorcvka ppI 56 (ISN 101 151' KM Dill 611 5611 064 481'- I6 Vikhorcvka uranium/thorium deposit u/I Nn NA 4_'.41 gasf 111 111N 1162 501. 21 Vlktorlya, Ostrov i,l 0O I ON 036451 KM ppI 42 I ((N Ohl (I I. RM Vikuluvo ppI S6 49N (17(1371'. S6.KM 11 NA NA 42.43 Vil'kitskogo. Proliv ctrl 77 SSN 1(1300x. KM g:Isl 40 OIN Ohl OOP 21 Vilnius ppl 5441 N 02519x. 5h,79,RM stn, SS 48N 1 10151 11,0 M Vils uy ,in, 64 24N 1211 261. SO,11, KM sun 5442N 115141 R \1 Vilyuv hydp NA NA SO ppI 112 31N I I I Six: S7, S9, KM Vilyuvsk ppI 634SN 121 351 KM ,ulmd 57 I(((N 1151 ((Ill' 20.79 Vilvuvskuve Vodokhranilishchc resv 62 SSN 1 1 ) 1 1 1 ( 1 ' . KM ( a r t 70 I IN 117 401. 45 Vinnitsa ppl 49 14N 020 291 56,79,KM ppI 116 ]ON 161) 48W RM Vinnitskaya Oblast' admd 49 OIIN (129 001' 79 ppI 54 44N OSS Sh1: 20.12, 79.R M Vishcra ,fill 59 SSN (156 2211: KM 1, ctr NA NA 11.66 V is h ndvogorsk ppl S6 OON 000401 '. KM petr N4 NA 11,66 Vishncvogorsk uranium deposit u/t NA NA 42.41 pelt NA NA 31,66 Vitebsk PH SS 12N (110 111'- 5l,79,K M ppI 49 (ISN 142 1(21. 57,0 M Vilebskaya Oblast' admd SS ()ON ((29 fill' 79 Ppl 48 19N 018 171. S6,RM VitiIn ppI 99 20N I I'_ 14l KM ihep s4 NA 47,49,67 Vtlim sun S9 26N 112 141'. KM roil 49 OON 142151 34 Vizc, Ostrov is[ 79 ION ((7711(11 K\1 pPI 11111N 11514111. 20,32,56,59,0 M Vladimir ppl S6 ION (14(1251 5(74,0\1 pelt 11 11 31,66 Vladimirskaya Oblast' :Idmd 56 ooN 040 tor 79 reg 49 1111N 010 O01' 14,1 5,23,25,32 Vladivostok pp1 410ON 111 541 57,59,79,19 M reg 44 OON 111'_ 1101. 79 Vol'sk pill 52 02N 047 211 KM admd 49 OON 012 1101: 79 Volga slm 45 SSN 047 S21'. 20,2 1.50,5 1,67, ppI 54 211N 048 24E 20,79,RM KM admd 54 0((N 048 001. 79 Volga at Tol'yaIO-7higulcvsk hydp NA NA 511.67 ppI SI SON 107 371. 57.79,K \1 Volga at Volgograd hydp sA NA 50,5 ',67 coal 51 ISN' 094101_ 34,40 Volga 1conomic Region reg S2 00N 046001 79 ppI 47 I_N 027 401'. 56, 0 M Volga Upland upld S2 ()ON 046001 _ KM upld 511 LOON 054 001'. RM Volga-Urals oil and gas region reg SS ()ON 0S (101'. (4,11 20,"'512 dill 61 211N 1176115E 16 Volga-Vyalka Economic Region reg S7 00N 048 (1111 79 ,n,t 47 00N 051 401' 20,0 M Volgodonsk ppI 47 32, 042 091 52,5 1,R M tins 60 JOIN ((6001(x 2O. R M Volgograd ppI 484SN 044 21ST 21,5' SI.SS,56. PPI SI 14N 051 221 110,56,79,0 M 59,74,0 M ad (I SO (ON 050 001 20,79 Volgograd pelt NA NA 11,66 rug 57 0ON 1162 0111 . 46.55 Volgogradskaya Oblast' admd 49 IIO,N 044 1101 79 reg 56 IO(N 059 001. 79 Vulkhov ppI S9 SSN 1112100 KM PPI 60 OON (164 481. 16,17,KM Volochayevka Vtoraya ppI 48 3SN 1 34 141 KM ppI 6S SON 07X 251' 16,17,56. R M Vologda pp1 S9 I IN 019 S41 51,79,12 M gaaf 66 S4N 076 451. 10,1 1, 15,16,17, Vologodskaya Oblast' admd 60 (ION ((42 (101'. 79 1X_'1,12.33,66 Vulynskaya Oblast' admd S I ()ON 025 (101 74 Ihip NA II 49,67 Vulzhsk ppI 5S SIN 040 2_11x KM ppI SI 12N 112 581 KM Volzhskiy ppI 48 49N 044 44x KM PPI 41 SIN 06018x: S6,79,KM V ur kuta ppI 117 SIIN 064 001 16,5o.59.09 M gist 11) ONN 0641'_1. 21,66 Vurkuta coal deposit coal 67 11N 1161 SSI' 34 i,1 46 DON 1501111E KM Voronezh ppI SI ION 01') I_'1 56,74.0 M ppI S(1 4'N 042 (101 KM Vurone,h AST nucp NA NA S 1,67 6S 57N 0511 551 16, 10,R M Vorunc,hskaya Oblast' admd SI OON 1140001 79 eel 8048N 0792_51. KM Voroshilovgrad pit 411 54N 1114101 74,19 M ppI 6S SSN' (157_51'. 12, S6, 0 \1 Voroshilovgrad Ihep NA NA 44,6 7 hill 611 (('N 05711E 20,66 Voroshi lovgradskaya Oblast' admd 41) OIIN (119 (1(11 79 ppI S24SN 103411. RM Vuskrescnskoye uilf S1 14N (156121 sun 48 28N IS . IO N R \1 Vustochno-Kazakhstanskasa Oblast' ndmd 49 OI1,N 1104 (101 79 ppl 43 4ON lit 59x S 5,57,0\1 Vostoclmo-Pal'yu gall 62 30N OS6 SSI 211 ppI 49 SON (182401 5,56,79,0\1 Vustochno-Tarkosale gasf 64 S6N 07S 54x Ih ill 61113N 1172111' 16,66 Vustochno-Tedzhen gist 37 (1SN 061 (151. 21 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 V (continued) Vol kinsk Vol kinsk Voyvozh Vozcy Vuktyl Vuktyl Vyatka Vya,'mn Vyborg Vychegda Vyksa VYm' Vyngapur Vyshniy Volochek Vylegra West F::unchatka coal area West Siberia oil and gas region West Siberia Economic Region West Siberian Plain While Sea Wrangel Island Yablonovyy Range Yagodnoye Yagtydin Yakushkino Yakutsk Yakutskaya ASSR Yalta Ya nal Peninsula Yamalo- Nenctskiv AOk Ynmurovka Yamashi Y am burg Ywnsovey Yams Yangik;ieg:n Yangiyul' Yanskis Zaliv Yaransk Yuray ncr Yarega Yarega tar sands deposit Yaretvu Yarino Yarkino Yur slavl' Y'ar tsIavl' 1'a roslavskisa Oblast' Yasnogorsk Yaun-I or V etrenwv Yegindy bulak Yelcts Yclizarovo Yelizova Ye1kino VenrYegov Penises Yeniscvsk Yenoruskino Veralivev Yerevan Yergach Yermak Yermak Yermak Ycrnrakovo Yerntentau Vcsil' Vetspur Ycv paloriva Yevrcvskasa AO Ycvsk Voshkar-Ola Yubleynsy Yugo-Osetinskaya AO Yugomush V ugorsk Yurga Y urkharov Yushkozcro Yuzhno- Balvk Yuzhno- Mvl'dzhino Yuzhno-Russkaya YuzhnoSakhalinsk Yuzhno- Shapkina Yuzhno-Sukhokumskoye Yuzhno-Surgut Yuzhno- Tambey Yuzhno-Ural'sk Yuzhno- I]ral'.sk Y' uzhno- lhctvbav Yurhnys Rug pp1 57 03N 053 59E 56,RM hydp... NA NA 50,67 ppl 6421N ........055068............ RM oilf 66 42N 056 47E ............. 20,66 ppl 63 40N 057 208 ............. 59,RM gasf 63 49N 057 18E ........... 15,20,23,66 stm55 36N 051 30E...._..... 20,RM ppl 55 13N 034 18E RM ppl 60 42N 028 458...._....... 25,RM stn ............. 61 18N 046 36E 20,RM ppl 55 18N 042 H E ... 33,RM stn... 62 13N 050 25E ............. 20 gasf 63 ION 076 46E 16,23,66 ppl 57 35N 034 34E........ RM ppl 61 OON 036 27E 56,RM coal 57 30N 157 308............ reg 64 OON 075 OOE reg 60 OON 076 OOE pin 60 OON 075 008............ sea 65 30N 038 OOE isl 71 OON 179 30W mts 53 30N ppl 62 33N calf 62 38N oilf 53 54N ppl 62 00N admd 65 OON ppl 44 30N pen 70 00N admd 66 00N ppl 50 38N oilf 55 05N gasf 68 06N gasf 65 30N vim 71 31 N gasf 40 38N ppl 4106N gulf 71 50N ppl 57 19N oilf 63 09N oilf 63 24N tars 6543N gasf 67 59N oilf 58 26N ppl 59 08N ppl 57 37N petr Nn admd 58 OON ppl 50 51N oilf 61 27N ppl 53 09N ppl 49 45N ppl 52 37N oilf 61 27N ppl 53I1N oilf 57 37N oilf 61 58N stm 7150N ppl 58 27N oilf 54 56N pp1 43 12N ppl 4011N oilf 57 23N ppl 52 02N oilf 6047N thep NA ppl 66 37N ppl 51 38N pp1 51 28N gasf 64 01 N ppl 45 12N admd 48 30N ppl 46 42N ppl 56 40N gasf 66 05N admd 42 20N oilf 56 16N oilf 61 37N ppl 55 42N gasf 67 47N ppl 64 45N oilf 60 29N oilf 58 45N gasf 66 04N pp1 46 57N oilf 6711N oilf 44 30N oilf 61 08N gasf 71 37N ppl 54 26N they NA gasf 4315N stn 46 59N 34 14,15,16,17,18, 19,22,23,25,32,33 79 RM RM RM 115008............ RM 149 408.... 57,RM 056 18E_____ 20 ......051 31 E. 20 129 408............ 32,57,58,59,79, RM 130 008............ 79 034 IOE 56,62,RM 070 OOE 16.17,RM 076 OOE 17,79 11016E......... RM 051 47E. 20 076 18E 15,16,17,23,66 075 568........... 16,66 13632E RM 062 37E 21 069038 ............. RM 136008............ RM 047 548........... RM 077 48E 16 053 28E..... 20 056 41 E 45 055 15E 20 056 31E20 .099238 ............. RM 039 52E... 56,79,RM NA 31,66 039 30E ............. 79 115 45E_.. 57,RM 072 43E 16 03807E .............. RM 076 238....._.. 56,RM 038 308........_.... 32,RM 067 42E .............. 16 158 23F__... 57,RM 05656E20 066 06E 16 082 40E 16,50,51,60,67, RM 092 I OE 57,R M 050 45F 20 051 398 56, R M 044 30E 56, 79, R M 056 398............ 20 076 55E ............. RM 076 108.... 16 Na 49,67 086 138........... RM 073 10E RM 066 248............ 56.RM 077 428............ 16,66 033 22E 56,RM 132 OOE. 79 038 178 ............. RM 047 55E .............. 79,RM 075 568............ 16,66 044 OOE 79 05531E__....... 20 077 278............ 16 08451 E RM 077 19E ............. 16 032 078............ RM 072 28E 16 078 05E 16 080 36E 16,66 142 44E 11,57,59,79,RM 054 25E ............. 20 045 138........... 21,66 072 578............ 16 071 57E 16,66 061 158............ RM Na 49,67 052 09E 21 031 58E 50,51 Zabaykal'sk ppl 49 38N 117 19F. RM Zagorsk ppl 5618N .038088... 51,56,RM Zagorsk hydp NA NA 50,67 Zainsk ppl 55 18N 052 040 56,RM Zainsk they......... Nn NA 49,67 Zakamensk ppl 50 23N 10317E 57,RM Zakarpatskaya Oblast' admd 48 20N 023 OOE 79 Zamankul oilf... 4318N 04420E 21 Zapadno-Erdekli gasf 38 44N 053 33L 21 Zapadno-Izkos'gora gasf 62 55N 054418 20 Zapadno-Soplesk gasf 64 17N 057 14E 20 Zapadno-Surgut oilf 61 22N 073 040 16 Zapadno-Tarkosale.. gasf 64 47N 07749E. 16,66 Zapadnyy Tebuk oilf 63 42N 054 54F 20 Zapolyarnoye gasf 66 55N 079 140 15,16,17,23,66 Zaporozh'ye ppl 47 53N 03505E 79,RM Zaporozh'ye they.......... NA NA 47,49,67 Zaporozh'ye nucp NA NA 52,67 Zaporozhskaya Oblast' admd 47 30N 035 30F 79 Zarafshan ppl 41 31N 064 I5F 56,RM Zavolzh'ye ppl 56 39N 043 248 RM Zaysan ppl 47 28N 084 52E RM Zaysan, Ozero lake 48 OON 084 000 R M Zayskoye Vodokhranilishche resv 54 25N 127 451? I I,RM Zelenodol'sk ppl 5551N 04833E RM Zelenyy Mys ppl 68 48N 161 248 57,59,RM Zeya ppl 5345N 127 168 I1,55,RM Zeya stm_.. 50 15N 127 350 11,50,51,57,67, RM Zeya hydp NA NA 50,67 Zhanatala oilf 47 ION 0500911 21 Zhanatas ppl 43 34N 069 450 56.RM Zhanazhol oilf 48 35N 058 001. 21 Zhannetty, Ostrov isl 76 43N 158 OOE RM Zharyk ppl 48 52N 072 51L RM Zhdanov ppl 47 06N 037 338 RM Zhdanov gasf 39 16N 052 5811, 21 Zheleznodorozhnyy... ppl 62 35N 05055E RM Zheleznogorsk ppl 52 19N 035 1211 56,RM Zheleznogorsk-Ilimskiy ppl 56 34N 104 08E 57,RM Zhellyye Vody pp1 48 21N 033 328 RM Zheltyye Vody-Terny uranium deposit/ processing center u/t NA NA 42,43 Zhetybay oilf 43 20N 052 188 21,27,66 Zhigalovo ppl 54 48N 105 080 R M Zhigansk ppl 66 45N 123 20F R M Zhigulevsk oilf.... 53 27N 049 30F 20 Zhiloy oilf 40 21 N 050 350 21 Zhitomir ppl 50 15N 028 408 79,R M Zhitomirskaya Oblast' admd 50 30N 028 30F 79 Zhokhova, Ostrov is] 76 04N 15240E R M Zima ppl 53 55N 10204E 57,RM Zimniy.. gasf 6924N ....08508E 16 Zlatoust ppl 55 ION 05940E 56,RM Zmiyev (Gotval'd).... they NA NA 49,67 Zol'noye oilf 53 27N 049 46E 20 Zolotaya Gora ppl 54 16N 126 388 57,RM Zuyevka ppl 4804N 038 I511 RM Zuyevka they NA NA 49,67 Zvenigorodka coal deposit coal 48 58N 031 IOE 34 ZYryanka ppi 65 45N 150 50F RM Zyryanka coal basin coal 66 00N 146 000 34,40 Zyryanka coal deposit coal 6600N 150 20F 34 Zyryanovsk ppl 49 43N 08420E 56,RM Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Administrative Divisions ~ l , . r , , i h r i ? i ? ~ t n,~ni?r,. n , r , . ; ~ r s r , r i l h - , u ? i l S. ? i l r i i rsl b y lln " ' i ml,a I hrs.. ...ilrnn,v h.rvr tall(( Petroravodsk' 0 Approved For Release 2009/09/01 : CIA-RDP90TO1298R000200310001-8 Moscow 0 Krasnodar Stavropol Ryazan 1 Vilmus ,may Grodno - Minsk Smolensk 0 r..- et ti`, F7 Mogilev Kali LuskGomel. lr B Lvov ?Rovno ^^.~?nsk L izhgorod Zhito K ev Chernigov, Frankovsk Khmel nitskiy\ 'henlvtsy? 'Vinnitsa Voronezh garatnv `v,U K R A I NJAN Khar'ko ?Kirovdgrad Ki.vh mev~S S RDnepopetrovsk v (,~a ? Nikolayev ?Zaporozh'ye - Yaroslavl' Kostroma Kalinin RUSSIAN SOVIET FEDE10ATIVE Ustinov Gorkiy Yoshka r-Ola Vladimir + Novaya Zemlya Tyumen' Sverdlovsk Ashkhabad 0 Ulan - lide Scale 1 36.000.000 0 500 Kilometers Tselinograd KAZAKH Dzhezkazgan aR Union republic (SSR) o Autonomous republic (ASSR), oblast, or kray Autonomous oblast (AO) or autonomous okrug (AOk) Economic region (lower mop (Orly) Nice: An cubs) rs rrnrned only when its Orsini' drflers Irorrr that of Is a(Y rnnrrslnbve center A,isic with no ohl rsI-I -vet -1 nrnrslrut . 1 visr( rs who i' -Y-, arc under d...... t nyiubl -l ;d