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March 26, 1984
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STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 UN 1TE.U F=65 INTERNATIONAL 26 March 1984 EX-CIA LATIN AMERICA CHIEF' SAYS INTERVENTION INEVITABLE MOSCOW,, IDAHO Former CIA Director William Colby Monday defended American covert activities in foreign nations, saying the alternative at times is to "send in the Marines. " "The alternative of using a small covert action operation in Guatamela in 1954, in the Bay of Pigs in Cuba, or assisting Guatamelans or Cubans who try to achieve a change in their government, is to send in the Marines, " Colby told a University of Idaho audience attending a symposium on the CIA's Involvement in Latin America. ' Now you can say we shouldn't send the Marines -- I can understand that -- but does that mean you can do nothing?'' he asked. "I think the question is the wisdom of a particular action and not a general denunciation of the activity, '' Colby said. Colby said the CIA's budget for covert activity is now rebounding toward its Cold War level. There was a tremendous surge of covert action during the 1950s Cold War, " he said. "Roughly half the budget during that period was devoted to covert action. That declined by the end of the 1960s and early 1970s to about 3 or 4 percent of the total budget. "Obviously it has gone back (to more covert action) to some degree since then,. because of, for one thing, the change in American attitudes as reflected by the defeat of the Carter administration and the ascension of the Reagan administration, which has a different attitude about these things. " Earlier Monday, a man who once headed the CIA's operations in Latin America said no president can avoid authorizing clandestine intervention into the activities of other nations. 'American presidents, generally speaking, are going to elect to use covert activities to further their goals,'' David Phillips said. ' 'Obviously, it depends on the president, but any president, I think, wall use it under certain circumstances. Continued Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Phillips said Jimmy Carter used covert activity less frequently than previous presidents. "I think Jimmy Carter probably used covert action less than anyone who has been president since the CIA was founded in 1947. But if someone had gone to Jimmy Carter and said, 'I know of a covert action that will get the hostages out from Iran,' I think Jimmy Carter would have said, 'Go.'" Phillips said he left the CIA in 1975 after 25 years with the agency because he thought the intelligence establishment as he had known it was going to be abolished. He said he later formed an association of former intelligence officers to demonstrate support for a continued strong U.S. intelligence operation. Phillips and several other former CIA officials were scheduled later during the two-day Borah Symposium on the Moscow campus to debate U.S. intelligence activities in Latin America. Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA- RDP91- ________. STAT 00901 R000500060008-2 L March ?964 CASPER, WYO. COLBY Former CIA Director William Colby has told a Casper audience the American public has benfited from a transition in the CIA from the cloak and dagger days to modern electronic surveillance.. Colby told a seminar at Casper College Thursday the intelligence agency also has been strengthened by laws passed in the 1970s which give Congress more authority over the agency. ''We have changed the sytem of intelligence,'' he said. ''We now work under the constitution. Thanks to this new concept ... we don't slink out of Hong Kong and sneak through China to see what is going on on the Manchurian border. We look down to see where the tanks are massed or where there is troop movement. " Colby said sophisticated intelligence operations mean the country will get nol strategic surprises from the Soviet Union. ''We may get surprises from Iran, but not from the Soviet Union,'' he said. There is no chance the Korean commercial airliner shot down over Soviet air space last year was being used as a spy plane, Colby said. Reflecting on the history of the agency, he said after the disaster at Pearl Harbor the intelligence community began recruiting scholars from universities. ''The key was scholarship and study,'' Colby said. ''This was a revolution. He said cooperation among scholars, chemists, and scientists made possible the high altitude spy planes that spotted nuclear missiles in Cuba. Colby said during the agency's early stages Americans were willing to have spys more ruthless than our adversaries', but that has changed. ''When Congress, in a united voice said stop we stopped -- which we did in 1975 in Angola,'' he said. ''The Congress controls the power of the purse." Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Ex-CIA chief offers overview on diplomacy and finances William Colby on the intelligence ' A year or so before, there had been community, the bid for detente and some very distinct cutbacks in logistics, and the Vietnamese were forced to 'fight a ;the worlds monetary problems. poor man's war. You don't train someone Former CIA Director William Colby I in American tactics and give them ,Says the most troublesome challenge to . ? American weapons and then deprive them -peace today is the "World War I scenario;' of American ammunition. under which a relatively small event pro- Q; Do you think tit a intelligence com- pels an unstoppable chain of military munity has recovered from its travails? events. He thinks the intelligence commu- was. Yes. Essentials it's back to where it pity has recovered from its trials, sees w_ V -me, the real mark of the recovery cautious hope for detente in the arrival in - was w eii on ress vvery._properly power in Moscow of Konstantin Cher- passe that law_to-protectthe names of nenko, and is enthusiastic about:the sources and agents. chances of democracy in Latin America. Q: A ou testified, there obviously But he believes that the rift between poor were some excesses in the -past. Do You and rich countries will be only solved if think they_eould_occtlr aua-n? the World Bank adopts more realistic loan .i? A: No, not at present. There's a control policies and "gets more capital moving:" machinery that we dcu - have Mr. Colby spoke to Times diplomatic t_ually, I'd say the excesses were very few correspondent Russell Warren Howe. i, and far between, for an organization Q: Tell me something about the book you're writing. Hasn't everything been said about Vietnam? A: No, I don't think it has. It's a very imperfectly understood event in our his- tory because it's dominated by a few rather dramatic episodes, which in many cases were not typical and often were misinterpreted or, as with the Tet attack, reported just plain wrong. I am really one of the very few Americans who went through the entire experience in a posi- tion of responsibility. Q: What is your basic theme - missed opportunities? A: Yes - the things I think went well and the things I think went badly. My the- sis is fairly simple: that we actually won the guerrilla part of the war. The apt com- parison is between the attacks of 1968 and those of 1972 and the final fall: 1968 was a large guerrilla attack supported by military forces which actually failed, but achieved a real psychological victory. The 1972 attacks were.a purely military as- sault at three points on the border, ,and the (South) Vietnamese held them off. They fought North Vietnam to a standstill with the help, not of American forces, because we'd removed almost all of them, but with the help of American lo- gistics and air bombardments. In 1975, you again had a sheer military assault from the North Vietnamese at three points on the border. A few tactical fail- ures, and collapse. wtth all that mystique._Nowadays, it's clear that you_have a good system of-re view and a_-good legal control. Q: What are your feelings about the. new "young prince" in the Kremlin? A: I think he's essentially a bureaucrat. He came up by being a loyal assistant to Mr. Brezhnev, which has one good feature in it, because Mr. Brezhnev, I think, was really interested in the whole detente pro- cess. While the Soviets are very difficult to negotiate with, I think there was a com- mitment to detente on Mr. Brezhnev's part, to try to make it work. I hope that Mr. Chernenko has inherited some of this. Q: At least, Mr. Chernenko is not really an unknown quantity, as Mr. Andropov was. A: Well, he's an unknown quantity as a chief, and, let's face it, he's controlled by the fact that he depends upon the people under him. In order to retain power in that college of cardinals, you have to as- semble a consensus, or at least a majority, and that means you have to get the mili- tary. Q: If detente doesn't work, and events go from bad to worse, can you see any logical scenario leading to World War III? A: I'm not concerned about a Hitler- style sudden launching of a war, because that's impossible. Anyone who has been near nuclear weapons, which includes the leadership of both our great powers, STAT theless, the scenario that bothers me is the World War I scenario, where the var- ious powers get in a tense situation, and then they gradually depend more and more on the planning and the pre- organized actions of the military. How World War I broke out is very clear - they got into a situation where they couldn't turn it off, and the powers found themselves in a four-year war with 50 mil- lion people killed, and nobody really knows what the devil the war was about. Everything depends upon an enormous degree of communication between the po- litical command of the two countries, and a degree of rationality. Q: What are your feelings about Leba- non, and the attempts to relaunch the Reagan Mideast peace initiative? ; A: What you will get in Lebanon, it seems to me, is a kind of informal parti- tion, which will: go on for quite a long time, because the requirements of the different parties are so incompatible. I. think we should bring Syria in. The Syr- ians see Lebanon as their protege and feel it ought to be under their protection. And they're naturally concerned to make sure that nobody else has a dominant in- fluence, whether it's the Israelis or the United States. And unless you begin to fo- cus on the Palestine homeland problem, you are not really focusing on anything. If you focus on Palestine, you have a focus for solving the Lebanon thing. In Israel, there's an increasing growth of the Peace Now movement. The Labor Party is talking gingerly of some kind of resolution of the conflict, and you are get- ting greater realism in Israel about the long-term implications of continuing to provoke hostility. Q: What incentive could we offer to move Israel forward? A: The incentive of a better relation- ship with the Arab world. With every year that goes by, more Arabs are learning to drive tanks, and sooner or later, that pre- ponderance of numbers is going to be det- rimental to Israel. Q: What do you think about the Gulf war? A: I think the best comparison, again, is with World War I - masses of people being slaughtered in trench warfare with modern weaponry, and without much gen- eralship, and no use of technology on ei- ther side to achieve a breakthrough. The rendous that they couldn't withstand them, and they'd be very cautious. None- I rNm1kZWD Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 2, real danger, in my mind, is in the Gulf Arab states, given the kind of plots the Iranians have been involved in - coup at- tempts and things of that nature. There's a threat to the Gulf states' independent alignment with the Western world. Q: So, it would be in the interest of the Gulf states for Iraq to continue the war indefinitely and keep Iran tied up? A: Very much so. And it's very much in their interest to go ahead with the devel- opment of the Gulf Cooperation Council, and get their own internal and external defenses, because of the possi- bility of intervention from across the water. Q: Latin America: Do we have a clear policy and is it the right one? A: Once again, we're having a period of interest in Latin America, largely brought about by crises there. Tb me, Latin America is in a period of enormous op- portunity right now. You have a trend to- ward democracy. The big nations - Bra- zil, especially Argentina, and there are even some stirrings in Chile and Uruguay. These are major developments, and could set Latin America on, the right path. The problem there is an impacted social oligarchy. But there are some trends noted by the Kissinger Commission - with whose recommendations I agree - where we can help make changes in the social scene, improve the rule of law, which is absolutely essential, and do it positively. Q: Has there been too much of ten- dency in the past for us to support all the George Ills against all the George Washingtons? A: No. Sometimes we have, but some- times we have supported some good peo- ple down there. We have supported the democrats in Chile. We supported the free government of Costa Rica. We caused change in the Dominican Republic' when the military tried to steal the last election. We've had some impact on Cen- tral America. If you look at the five Central-American countries, in the last two years you've had elections in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras and even in Guatemala, although the election there was stolen later. You have not had one in Nicaragua, and the government's official position is that it's not ready for elections until 1985, if then. You have, in other words, a general understanding among most of those coun- tries that you have got to go to the voters. That is the'real difference between the democratic process and the others, and I think that trend exists (in Latin America) and it's on a growth pattern. It's some- thing that should be supported, and might really be productive, so that it's plain to the lowest peasant that there's more pro- gress in this direction than there is through any of that foolish revolutionary stuff. Q: Do you believe the spread of educa- Nakasone sort of personifies- this. I think tion has brought about the demand for de- it was going to happen to Japan sooner or mocracy? later. It was going to have to take the posi- A: To some degree. It's the spread of in- tion that its power gives it. But he has formation. Even the Soviets can't keep done it and I think done it quite well. He's information away from people. They have aiming for a true East Asian co- the freedom to talk now that they didn't prosperity sphere. have two years ago. Our own culture is But the Japanese will take pains not to surprisingly becoming. more interna- ' be too dominant, because they know the tional. Some people complain about this fear. I don't see, at any time, what the old because of the overwhelming idiosyncra- demographic studies suggested we worry sies of some cultures. But it's behind the about - Japanese industriousness and or- curve. We haven't figured how to run poli- ganization based on top of China's re- tics in a way which corresponds to the sources and population. It didn't happen. reality of the economy and the sociology The Chinese can maintain themselves. of the world we live in. They're mainly interested in their own af- Q: I was trying to think of some part of fairs. They're not going to be much of a the world where outside influences don't threat to the rest of the world. have much impact. Have you given Q: You mentioned co-prosperity. The much thought to North Korea? Japanese see the North-South conflict as A: There are those godawful tunnels. more long-lasting than the East-West con- There are obvious intentions to conduct flict, and economic aid as a factor for attacks on the South. They started dig- peace. ging at the same time they were talking A: Yes, but that formula, is never going about better relations. It was only the to keep the peace alone. They give about good sense of the Chinese that stopped 1.3 or 1.4 percent of their GNP as aid. We North Korea from attacking in 1975, give about 0.1 percent. So they're giving a lot more than we are. But they won't go when the Americans were pulling out of over 1 percent of their GNP for military Vietnam. North Korean President Kim Il- (expenditures) compared to our 6 or 7 ' sung went to Peking, and it s generally percent. Peace isn't going to be solved by " " thought that he was saying: Now, boss? And they-told him to go home, and not to attack. He could start anything totally ir- rational. Q: And there are 12,500 American troops in the invasion corridors? A: I think we could stop them, that's the point. And I think, if he started it, he would probably not be supported by the Chinese or the Soviets. Q: So we would have to be careful not to go too far into North Korea? A: Yes, we learned that lesson once, and we applied it in Vietnam. We never went beyond the 13th Parallel, except to bomb.. We had that very much in mind. Q: But they would be able to bombard Seoul with short-range missiles. So, pre- sumably, the war would have to be carried over to Pyongyang, with missiles. A: And by bombing. ? - Q: But you don't see the likelihood of World War III happening by mistake there? A: No, it would be in the interest of all the great powers to contain it. Q: What do you think about our rela- tions with Japan? Do you agree with Am- bassador Mike Mansfield that it's the most important ally we've got? A: No, it's not the most important ally. It's a very important ally, but I would maybe think of Germany as the most im- portant ally, if I had to cast around for one. But Japan is the center of economic activity, and I think a lot of other action is moving eastward. And the Japanese are beginning to play a role with their power in political and economic terms. Mr. aid, even if they spend 2 percent of their GNP on aid. The thing I worry about right now is that all the banks seem quite happy about having solved the (Third World's) debt crisis. They haven't solved it at all. They just put it on the backs of the workers in the little countries, and you have a terri- ble shortage of capital for growth. Yet, population growth is continuing. Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 ARTICLE 1,r NEW YORK TIMES ON PAGE_J C' 2I February 1981+ t this background, she tw e ~ ' ican connection is vital. Ties between America Be Patient n Filipinos and Americans exceed our Mfith t e links with most other peoples in the Philippines world. Millions of Filipinos look warmly to their relatives in the United States and to their American democratic heritage. many Amer- By W111iam E. Colby cans feel a responsibility for the suc- cess of the colony they freed to start WASHINGTON - The scenario un- the process of decolonialization in the folding in the Philippines looks de- ire Moslem insurgent effort is Jim- third world. Economic relationships Pressingly familiar. Vast protest ited. to a single region and does not are intense. The Philippines' military movements fill the streets of Manila. ; threaten the state, although it will re- dependence on American strategic , An authoritarian President shows main a continuing security infection -support is matched by America's signs of physical deterioration. requiring long-term political s and need for the military bases made 'Armed Moslems and Communists security attention comparable killto a available to our forces at Clark Field battle the military in the countryside. Northern Ireland or Basque problem. and Subic Bay. The security forces had some, unex- llil~ Communist effort is only the Americans must make a Position serious ef- Plained role in the murder of the op- nut recent of many guerrilla_ cam- fort to understand Philippine politics. gns; -in Position leader Benign S. Aquino Jr. ;~ the Philippines since the We must be patient with its tempo- ositirate opposition leaders call for ,1950 s = campaigns that the Phi- , careenings and look beyond the the removal of American military bureaucracy and security. limited question of support or resist- bases vital to the strategic balance in . l fog have learned to certain if pot ance to the.Marcos reort 'bases vital Asia. The national debt is eliminate. The opposition to Mr. Mar- the Philippines to meet imets real hele more than $25 billion and an snot cos may be strident and sincere, but it nmic and social chap mows payment or reluctant resche- "fragments whenever it has an oppor- this kind of assistance, tengbaa doles- duting must take this year. tuaity to take power, and is thus Jim- cent nation can go through its present Y to place It is easy in its effect. cry havoc -- to believe The real struggle under way is to trials to reach a maturity that will that the regime of Ferdinand E. Mar- make its sponsor proud. cos is toffs ring and that the Philip- revive the Philippine political system . ; pines will turn as hostile to the united and insure a smooth process of suc- States as Iran or Nicaragua. But a cession after the Marcos regime. William E. Colby, Director of Central cooler and closer look at the Philip- Rhet bosses orical hyperbole, regional politi- Intelligence from 1973 to 1976 and a pines reveals more differences than cal and wealthy establishmen- lawyer, is senior adviser to Interna- similarities to those unfortunate tartans will continue to play a role on tional Business-Government Counsel- countries. It may be that the Marcos the Philippine political scene. We can fors, an organization that analyzes regime is coming to an? end, but the anticipate a series of crises and tur- :ountry, risks for investors. moil as Mr. Marcos struggles to re- cultural, political and social funda_ mentals of the Philippines argue for a tam Power against those who oppose better result than occurred else, him or as his wife, Imelda, backed by whgre. some (but not all) of the military, Even in the short term, it can be strives to succeed him. said that president Marcos is han- But, most importantly, all Fili- dlit}g the situation with considerable skill. t op Marcos authoritarians to . By officially ignoring but not su- the s stridetion ionists, beli eve that pressing the noisy demonstrations in resolution of Philippine political the streets, he allows an outlet for the conflict must ultimately be reviewed irrepressible Philippine personality. the ballot box. Philippine demo- He-has forbidden police' and security cratsc practices bear a remarkable forces to use ammunition when fac- ."resemblance to those - the western ing.demonstrators, thus avoiding an United States during the 1880's and escalation of violence in a symbolic 1890 s, with problems of vigilante incident. His gradual concessions _ groups, corrupt political bosses and in the formation of the commission in- intense factionalism. But the basic vestigating the murder of Mr. Aqui- reliance on the voter, however much no, ,changes in the constitutional effort is made to manipulate him or strpcture to revive the office of vice her, insures that the outcome will be president and agreement to revise acceptable, if not ideal, to_the Phi- voting lists for coming legislative .lippine people as a whole. elections - do. not satisfy opposition demands for an end to his authoritar ian rule, but they do drain some inten- sity, from the struggle to depose him. STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 zu reuruary .L 2 + Experts raps, d~~en- d ?1)____ evil empire, benevolentxorce By JAMES FfODGE sary, but that it should be controlled to to the ;financial d-ata of hundreds of A former. CIA chief, an ex-KGB avoid abuses. He said Watergate was a people. agent, a Watergate burglar and an j 'prime example of how it was used for He would then be in position to take author on international espionage political purposes, advantage of'someone who fell on hard came in out of the cold Sunday night to "This is 1984," said Wise, .and times and may be willing to help the talk about-undercover operations: .Americans should beware. Soviets. Speaking at a Tulane University He said a Senate report on assassina Colby said be thinks the difference Direction '84 program, espionage bons shows the. CIA also tried 'to kill between the two agencies is that the author David Wise characterized CIA Congo -(now' Zaire); leader Patrice f CIA 'bas reliable but, few sources of operations as rather ominous. He sair Lumumba"by poisomr g his toothbrush information about the Soviets, while elected officials need to control the Colby admitted .tbe CIA had"consid '. the. KGB has .an -abundance, of infor- agency to prevent foreign assassins erred an assassination program" there; i mat ion about .the United States but bons and domestic spying. but scrapped if doesn't know which pieces are correct.. Former CIA Director William Colby Liddy backed.Colby in` downplaying Colby also said he thought Ameri- said the agency is "not an evil, empire." the CIA's intentions'tOW assassinate cans have "sobered up fm ro the binge" It was founded to be "more ruthless opposition leaders,.asking Wise if he in the 1970s of being distrustful of the than its enemies," he said, but the believes?the CIA gave-"Chairman CIA: agency's abuses "have been few.-and Andropov his bad cold." Colby confirmed Wise's allegation far between." Liddy said the CIA is more of a, that the CIA once screened 28 mil- Colby said the CIA has been too con= benevolent force than the KGB. 'The 1 ion letters `of Americans in violation trolled, that it does not engage -in j difference is that the KGB would throw federal law, but said the letters assassinating enemy. leaders, although a little lady. into an oncoming train,, were only those coming from the admitting that in Fidel Castro's case it and the CIA wouldpush,her out of the ..U.S.S.R.. was not for lack of trying." way "They weren't your letters to Aunt _He referred to the CIA :attempt to Vladimir Sakharov, a: orffier XGB- ` Minny,".tie told the audience, have the Mafia poison the Cuban dicta- . turned-CIA a ent,'said?`the difference .. Wise then rebutted Colby's conten- tor as one of its more stupid miscalcu- tretween.the ve; intelligence' opera tion that the CIA has operated-within lations. ;# ns is one of method. ,the law in the last 10 years y'also said he would-.-, Kaye r ? The CIA is a think tank, he said, "How do we know?" Wise said. He cheerfully carried a bomb into Iittler'r .witereas the KGB;spends .most 'nfits said President Reagan -has issued an bunker:' time setting up communication. executive-order allowing covert -'Add .to Hitler, Libya's Moammar t Sakharov who was at the heart of domestic operations and has revamped Khadafy, said G. Gordon Liddy, con KGB operations in the Middle East, the declassification system so that doe- victed Watergate conspirator and laid his job was largely public rela? uments don't automatically become former general counsel to Richard .:?ons; "selling the Soviet-point of public after a certain period of time.. :Nixon's Committee to Re-Elect the? " Niew. Wise also said the CIA is involved in President 1-vide-spread covert operations around The-'end sometimes justifies The Soviet agents' try . to- make the world, most notablyi.n Nicaragua. means. when it comes to breaking the. Jfiends and establish ties,.especially:in Because it's "an. election year, Wise law, Liddy said. This is as true in spy- f`hird World countries. said, Reagan has discontinued the use ing as in the case of the husband who le ' He said the. greatest danger to. the of lie detector tests on federal employ. goes through a red light to get his ?t1nited States is the computerization of .ees. pregnant wife to the hospital quicker, nformation. If-he were still a KGB he said. agent, be-said he would open up a car .' "Spying is the oldest or at least the ;cle lership that would allow him access second-oldest profession," he said. The Bible gives evidence that Moses car- ried on economic and military spying, he said. Man spies to determine the capabili- ties of his enemies and their inten- tions, he said. The only way to end the business would be to "change the nature of man," he said. Wise, author of "The Invisible Gov- ernment," said that spying is neces- STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 TMTTTrf PRESS TNTFPMATT(Th AT. Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 NEW ORLEANS SPIES A former CIA chief, an ex-KGB agent, a Watergate burglar and an expert on international espionage got together but the meeting was anything but secret. The four men discussed the achievements and the dangers of the CIA during a forum Sunday at Tulane University. Former agency director William Colby and Watergate burglar G. Gordon Liddy spoke in defense of covert operations, while author David Wise characterized such goings-on as ominous. Vladimir Sakharov added to the picture with memories of his KGB days. Colby said the agency was not an ''evil empire.'' It was founded, he said, to be "more ruthless than its enemies, " but its abuses had been few and far between. The former director insisted the CIA does not engage in assassinating enemy leaders though in the case of Cuba's Fidel Castro it was not ''for lack of trying.'' Liddy, former general counsel to Richard Nixon's Committee to Re-elect the President, said the end sometimes justified the means when it came to U.S. agents breaking the law. 'Spying is the oldest or at least the second oldest profession, '' said Liddy. Sakharov, a former agent for the Soviet intelligence department who later worked for the CIA, said the difference between the two was a matter of method. The CIA is a think tank while the KGB spends most of its time setting up communications, said Sakharov, who worked at the heart of the agency's operations in the Middle East. He warned the greatest danger to the United States was the computerization of information. If he were still in the KGB, he said, he would open up a car dealership that would allow him access to financial data on hundreds of people. Wise, author of ''The Invisible Government," said spying was necessary but its abuses should be curtailed. He said Watergate was the prime example of how the mechanics of espionage could be used for political purposes. ' 'This is 198411 he warned. STAT STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 ARTICLE AI E USA TODAY ON PACE 17 February 1981. Update ^ US. intelligence agencies should share their information with the public, former CIA Di- rector William Colby said. Reported by Bill Nichols and Richard Benedetto STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 UNITED PRESS INTERNATIONAL 16 February 1984 BOSTON Colby U.S. intelligence agencies should give up ''the old myth'' of secrecy and share their information with the public, former CIA Director William Colby Says. Colby, the CIA chief under presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford, said Wednesday the agency could use its information to correct erroneous information in Congress and the news media. ''Intelligence can contribute to the public debate,'' he said in a speech at Simmons College. ''The functions of intelligence have to be shared with the people. This is very much a change in the operation of intelligence. ''It's an old myth of intelligence that everything should be secret.'' Congress and the media are already receiving more information from the CIA than 10 years ago, he said, because of a greater congressional oversight. ''We have another meaning to the initials CIA -- Constitutional Intelligence for America," Colby said. He defended covert CIA operations in Nicaragua and other countries, saying the agency has followed U.S. laws. ''That's the way the American system works," he said. Colby said it was "fact of life' that other nations are attempting to interfere with the U.B. government through covert activity. Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 MOSCOW CIA UNITED PRFSS TNTRP TTnmTAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 STAT The CIA's Latin American operations will be studied at the 55th annual Borah Symposium on War and Peace scheduled for March 26-27 at the University of Idaho in Moscow. Ralph McGehee, former case officer on covert operations who left the agency after 25 years, will be a featured speaker. Former CIA director William Colby and Larry Birns, editor of a bi-weekly publication on Latin America, also will speak. McGehee said he left the CIA after becoming disillusioned with the agency. He said his decision was largly based on his last four years with the organization, when he had access to almost all information about its worldwide intelligence and covert operations. McGehee, who had assignments in Japan, Thailand and Vietnam, said he decided the CIA is primarily a covert arm of the presidency. In that capacity, McGehee said the CIA generates ''intelligence'' operations in foreign countries to overthrow or support a government. Symposium officials sa Birns y publication, "Washington Report on the. Hemisphere," is often used as a source on Latin America. The annual symposium brings American and foreign government officials, diplomats, scientists and political analysts to Moscow to examine causes of war and solutions for peace. Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 ARTI. CLE APPEAFM M0TH JONES ON PAGE / f February/March I P84 DID THE CIA TOPPLE THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT? In the red moonscape desert of central Australia last November, 116 women climbed a chain-link barrier and invaded a spy-satellite base run by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. The women. who had traveled hundreds of miles to stage their action, said they were expressing solidarity with British women camped at Greenham Common in England to protest the deployment of U.S. Cruise missiles at that site. But the facility in Australia was targeted for another reason as well. As a major CIA base, it is a reminder to Australians, who elected a Labor party government Just one year ago, that the last Australian Labor government was thrown out in what the Aussies call '-the Constitutional Coup." The Australian women who climbed the fence at Pine Gap-like most of the country's Labor party supporters-believe the CIA has never been brought to account for its role in that coup. Born in Australia, Phillip Frazer is now a freelance writer living in Croton Falls, New York. Support for this story was provided by the Mother Jones Investiga- tive Fund. To Henry Kissinger. Aus- tralia was just another minor annoyance in November of 1972. The president's national se- curity advisor had spent most of that month in Paris desper- ately trying to sell "pease with honor" to the Vietnamese. while rebel forces closed in on Saigon. Back home, stu- dents were plotting revolution in col- leae dormitories. In Chile, a Marxist president had expropriated American banks and copper mines. And in the Middle East. our ally-of-preference. Israel. stood on the brink of another war with our Arabian allies-for-oil. The fact that Australian voters might elect their first Labor party gov- ernment in 23 years would, however, .create a diplomatic vexation for Kis- singer. Under a succession of pliable conservative administrations, Aus- tralia had sent 50.000 troops to Viet- nam. If Labor won and carved out its campaign promise to withdraw, the U.S. would lose one of its handful of allies in Vietnam. Had Kissinger been able to pay more attention to Australia, he could republic but of one of its major allies. . Canada. Australia and New Zealand. CQ NrTEV W_V have channeled a few million dollars exclusive and powerful club on earth to conservative candidates, and they -tied together by what is formally might have won. But Kissinger be- known as the UKUSA Agreement. lieved the prediction from his embassy James Bamford, author of the recent in Canberra, the nation's capital, that study of the U.S. National Securita, Labor would lose; and in the years Agencyf The Puzzle Palace. describes that followed, a minor vexation be- UKUSA as "quite likely the most Be- came a diplomatic nightmare.. For cret agreement ever entered into by probably the first and only time in its the English-speaking world." The history, the United States felt com- pact was signed in 1947 by the SIGINT pelled to meddle in the electoral poli- (for signals intelligence) organizations tics not merely of a small Third World of the United States. Great Britain, Ten miles west of Washington. D.C., at the Langley. Virginia. head- quarters of the Central Intelligence Agency, James Jesus Angleton had his own reasons to fear a Labor victo- ry in Australia. Angleton had spent 29 years with the CIA. On Australian election day in 1972 he was in charge of the agency's most secretive divi- sion, counterintelligence, and he had a good many friends in Australian iq= telligence. The Aussies were mem- bers of a spy elite-perhaps the most STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 r ,,,,,...,,Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 ARTICLE MIDDLETOWN (CT) r I N PrsKr C,7 7 IDEA Current research ? CHEMISTS SYNTHESIZE SPY POISON Wesleyan University chemists have announced a laboratory synthesis for a natural substance once gathered clandestinely by the Central Intelli- gence Agency as a potential suicide pill or a weapon because of its ex- traordinary toxicity. Less than a milligram of this poi- son, called saxitoxin, can kill a per- son in under an hour. It is produced by red tide algae and is responsible for shellfish poisoning when red tide invades beaches. But for Peter Jacobi, associate pro- fessor of chemistry, and graduate stu- dent Michael Martinelli, saxitoxin's vice is its virtue: The powerful paral- ytic effect it has on nerve impulses makes it ideal for the study of nerv- ous disorders such as multiple scle- rosis. Until now, however, the scarce supply of saxitoxin has limited its Winter 1984 by Wesleyan faculty. laboratory use. Saxitoxin is impos- taking no chances with their danger- ingly difficult to isolate from clams- and is kept ous product. The minute quantity of one ton of clams yields one gram- saxitoxin they have on h and has proved to be equally trouble- secure. Not until the latter stages in some to make in the laboratory. the synthetic process does the sub- Jacobi and Martinelli say their syn- stance become poisonous, so they thesis, although not the first, is a plan to keep the bulk of their supply practical one that with further devel- in a non-toxic form, ready for conver- opment promises to make saxitoxin sion to saxitoxin only when needed. ,available to the medical community. The achievement has brought Mar- The project, supported by the Na- tinelli a. coveted fellowship sponsored tional Institutes of Health, took seven by Proctor & Gamble Corp. and years to complete; Martinelli took awardad ann over the problem 3'/2 years ago. Society uallyt he A to fouz students Chemical The CIA was not pursuing medical nationwide. research when it began experimenting with saxitoxin in the 1950s at Fort - A curious footnote to the saxitoxin Detrick, Md. The CIA reportedly used story is provided by the puffer fish, the poison in suicide pills provided to which inhabits waters near Japan and its own agents (including U-2 pilot contains a closely related and equally Francis Gary Powers); ? the Agency deadly neurotoxin. Far from being also reportedly developed dart guns feared, however, the puffer fish is and other clever means to deliver the considered a delicacy when prepared poison to troublesome guard dogs by specially licensed chefs. They when entering embassies or other know how to reduce the toxin level .buildings. so that it produces merely a tingling destroy its supply of saxitoxin to con- Almost all of Jacobi's projects are form with the draft convention of the concerned with naturally active prod. U.N. Disarmament Conference, but ucts. Another of his students, Hal in 1975, CIA Director William Colby Selnick, recently completed the first , revealed to Congress that 10.9 grams laboratory synthesis of a substance of saxitoxin remained in agency labs known as gnididione, derived from 2 in downtown Washington. Since the CIA held nearly the en- tire world's known supply of saxi- toxin, the scientific community breathed a sign of relief when the agency decided to distribute the sub- stance to researchers. Much of the supply went to scientists at Yale University. Jacobi and Martinelli are, of course, plant native to Kenya that produces a number of biologically active sub- stances. Gnididione is toxic to living cells and is therefore of interest to medical researchers as well as chem- ists. An advantage of laboratory syn- thesis is that controlled modifications can be made easily to alter activity. Selnick's synthesis of this compound (was the first and was supported by .the National Science Foundation. STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Y Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 UNITED PRESS INTERNATIONAL 31 January 1984 CASPER, WYO. 1.984 Former CIA Director William Colby will speak at a seminar on George Orwell's celebrated book ''1984'' scheduled for March 1 and 2 at Casper Collage. CC social sciences professor Bruce Iollefson says the seminar will examine intelligence gathering and the use of computers in today's society. t'We want to see if Orwell's predictions, premonitions and warnings or whatever are coming to pass,'' Tollefson said. Other speakers scheduled to address the seminar include Houston Police Chief Lee Brown; Frank Snepp, a former CIA analyst who currently teaches classes censhorship and journalism at the University of Southern California; New York Times reporter David Burnham, who specializes in computers and communications; author Leon Martel and Minnesota polygraph specialist David Lykken. Because the year 1984 has now arrived there have been extensive articles and discussions about Orwell's warnings of a totalitarian society, but Tollefson does not believe people are tired of the subject. On the cantrar'y, he said the books ''is really a major topic of discussion. I see a lot of things that show we are headed in that direction. it bothers me when we have central data banks, where we are listed in places we're not even aware of. And I see a lot of politicians doing a lot of what 1 would call 'doublethink' and 'newspeak.''' Tollefson said the seminar, funded by $18,000 in private donations, will be free to the public. STAT Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2 T cL : AP?EARED ( PAGE WASHINGTON POST 2 January 1984 Chiets Fff_'kLd--t_Ma'r By David Hoffman W.-shington Post. Stlff writer Three former directors of the CIA yesterday faulted the role of U.S. Marines in the multinational peace- keeping force in Lebanon and sug- gested that they should be moved from their positions at the Beirut International Airport. Adm. Stansfield Turner, CIA di- rector under President Jimmy Car- ter, James R. Schlesinger, who held the post briefly under President Richard M. Nixon, and William E. Colby, CIA director - under Nixon and President Gerald R. Ford, echoed the growing restiveness in Congress about the Marines' pres- ence in Lebanon. "I think the Marines are not on a mission which is a Marine mission at the moment," Colby said in a joint interview with Turner on "Meet the Press" (NBC, WRC). "You should not send superpower forces to a peace-keeping mission. The Marines are not a peace-keeping force." Colby said that 'tf the United States intends to support the gov- ernment ' of Lebanese President Amin Gemayel; "We should be doing it with a military aid system and advisers and not with Marines." Speaking on "This Week With David Brinkley" (ABC, WJLA), Schlesinger said that unless the United States is prepared to change the "balance of forces in the region," then the other option is to withdraw. "The worst of all policies is prob- ably simply to hang in there, because .under those circumstances the cost to the United States will rise. It is probably a blunder to have gotten in," Schlesinger said. President Reagan is under grow- ing pressure from members of Con- gress and senior military officials to reexamine the role of U.S. forces in Lebanon and possibly pull them out. Reagan is said to be "adamant" in his opposition to withdrawal, but administration officials, with Con- gress scheduled to return Jan. 23, are planning to intensify their dis- cussions about Lebanon this week after Reagan returns from his Cal- ifornia vacation. Rep. Nicholas Mavroules (D- Mass.), a member of the House Armed Services subcommittee that issued a report., critical of security measures in effect before the Oct. 23 Beirut terrorist, bombing that, killed 241 U.S. servicemen, -predicted yes- terday that. Reagan will face "many initiatives" seeking to pressure him to redeploy or withdraw the Marines when ' Congress.-returns. Democratic presidential candidate Walter F. Mondale called over the weekend for an immediate withdrawal of the Ma- rines. Many Democrats oon Capitol Hill, including Mavroules. and House Speaker Thomas P. (Tip) O'Neill Jr. (D-Mass.), supported a War Powers Resolution compromise with -Reagan, allowing the Marines to stay for.up to 18 months, but have begun to express doubts about the compro- mise since the Beirut attack. Both Turner and Colby suggested that some U.S. presence be main- tained -in Lebanon. Turner said Rea- gan could use' an option for pulling . out gracefully" by redeploying the Marines to ships offshore, rotating. some back to the airport-an option the White House has ruled out in recent days. Colby: suggested that. Reagan "step' =up" U.y ,training'' of the Lebanese army;,".sp*e-can show - that we're 'not withdrawing entirely. Last -week;.a'special Pentagon commission investigating-4he Beir bombing -crificized;,LIB..eutbacks:in :so-called"`hirmaii"' iii' ! genee-path- .ering capability, as compared'tri1hab,R- using -jechnology -such as satellites,,.. and :presidential 'spokesman Laid;"' Speakes faulted the. Carter- -adiz istration for these cutbacks.,- Turner said the Carter adminit= '"tration had -"cut some of the-'#1$, - out".of the CIA, for example,, birt' denied that the human .intelligenoe'' gathering capability had been weak- ! sue. ened. Yesterday, one member ;of mfr??a commission, former undersecretary of the Navy Robert Murray, said he believes. that "there' was never 'a; great.possibility of courts-martia.lrat;i least .a successful prosecution; b: cause of the enormous extenttating circumstances." Approved For Release 2008/04/28: CIA-RDP91-00901 R000500060008-2