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November 4, 2016
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March 22, 2000
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January 1, 1978
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Approved For ReleW 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078W00200010003-8 1, C , c 131 to P AG E I riI Y Of, Ct?Id's:AIN S:'B i~INCLY J 3T C t tiA. 't t 3 A.'1 tqS AND TRANS ."OHIls'ITIONS C.. C:1.u; }tai;d . Pec:hiney Uq.i,ne KurhIIva ns s, and I:P,ey AlitISI iialn F?eW.eatch of a Inetal_ to "w p tocc without t e r4 ' .;i:krexz . intervention ,r_R. fcrce1P u< 3. ter, Vore :.tpe ai y'' .as n'Pechiaicy-Ugine"--Kuhlmann. We would like to thank those of our coilabor.atct s who were willing to help us ira the delicate study of this ccij:ttcve-rEial area, in la:rtic::ular Mr. J. Rauch, tr? G- Joliant, and Mr m B. Du bost.> We would also like to acknouledgE J?rcfessor J. U. Ha tech professor of physics ta;t U beck. College of the Urriversity of London, for agreeing to ,{l.cnsor a test in his lfahcratorya Descrjption of Tests In order to make it irpcssihle for J PL- zicard to surreptitiously lead a test piece, aae often used, bare with a a:ather large cross section lade of various nietais: in particular, aluminum and light alloys (test pieces 250-350 nira long and B-1-0 u rr in di.anaeta r) , but alsc czcpper, soft steel, stainless steel,,, and magnesium. I?c--! determined the forces (bending ircr..~entsy necessary to bend our test. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea p 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078 ,000200010003-8 IOC r- 1314 PAGE 6 pieces by measurements and calculations,. Zn order to be able to compare the values of tle resistance of the test pieces to the forces which they could have withstood if faking .ty surreptitious bending occurred, we determined the maximum nclnent &hich a man can create u lien seizing a test piece in two hands using all of his strength- which could not go unnoticed! For this rurrese, we used a dynanrcmetric key with handles 400 mm long, which we tested with many individuals.. The maximum ricments vary with the individuals from 20-38 Nmm; J. P. Girard created 26 Nam with a}- visible etfor:t. These values mere confirmed b) d sect tests cu bars; an example of this uiil 1rliow (session of 27 October i76) Since our purpose here was neither to describe all of these tests nor to make a critical review, :e seicctE.d the two most t.y i:icl sessions for this article: Session of 31 March 1976 at the Alas: rlug: Technical Center.. Experimenters: i. 1aucli and G. Joi.lan.t,, with tl,e aid of a video recording assistant:, Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078W000200010003-8 DCC w 1314 PAGE 7 During this session, in a rocra adjacent tc the room a. P. Girard as in, G. Jollant, an experimenter, tack a tar of hardened dura.lur inur of alloy AU4G, state T4 (i.e. i hardened, aged) 250 nim long and 8 ium in diametEr. Its high critical moment (15 Nam) rr.alte:+ it it pcssih1e to tend without a vis;itle Effort. G. Jollant rciled it cn a desk, stated that it was not out of round, marked it, and placed it himself in a class tutu which he closed with a stopper. This is the only time which we were able to arrange it so that 3 P.. Girard did not touch tb4E test bar to he beast ];efor:e it was enclosed in a tube. Jo11aAt brought the closed tube to J. Bauch, who immediately ga've It to J. P. Girard, and everything was fil ed from then on. L,lthe:, the stopper, the tar in the tube, ox both were always visible. After concentrating and. that he felt something, J. P_ Girard gave the tube, still. clcser3, to ,J. Eauch. Mr. 1Rauch uncorked r6moved the bar, which was visih: y Lent, and placed it on the desk,, then on a flat bar in order to bring cut the bend, which was t:13us rade very obvious. Thi tend isas 2 mm. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0074 R000200010003-8 DOC = 1314 PAGE 8 Session of 27 October: 1976 at Grenchle hx r.eri menters: J. 13ouvaist and B. Eutost? Here we will. describe the test made on tte thickest bar? This was a. tar 17 mm in diameter and 300 nal long made of alloy Xt32 (2e.05g/o cct:p(--r) Ln state T4 (hardened in cold taater and. aged for cne year). Reference marks were engraved ip th? mass of this bare and the placement of small charact?r:ist.ic flaws are-re acted It was taken to the eretir(entai site in a different car frcm tt:e in one which J. P. Girard was transported, and it was the cgl.y one of its kiard in the ?x :Er. mental batch. This bar was subjected tc ber;ding tests by ve).y stxon . niert, and only one ma.r. baeighiatg 140 kq was able to mace a slight, but significant, de?cru:atici after ittear:ing his hands witil t:.agnesiurr, (a bend of O.6 corn corresponding tc art applied moment of 33 Nam). Then the beg}ding Ilane was marked by :ciatches made on the two ?t th a Previous tests made it possibi< to ccnfi.vr that evert usirtct a fixed half-length suppctt, an average man ccu:ld not even increase Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : 4;-RDP96-007RO00200010003-8 ,D OC - 1 3 1 ' 4 F h G E 9 this deformation by applying his entire weight (65 kg) to both ends. During the tests, the two experimenters sat at about a meter away on either side of J. P. Girard, whc aacrked in shirtsleeves, with his sleeves rolled up, ui.thcut contact. J,- F. Girard deformed this 1:ar four times in succession by holding o..nE egad in his right hand and i .gbtiy touching the free Fart Faith his left hard (bends 1 and 2) or k y Flacing his left liana five cm above the tipeeiraen (bends 3 and 11). After: each deformation, cne observer tcck tl.e r.rofi.le of the test tat, ,while the other rerain(d next tc J. P. Girard. The two largest deffcrrz,ati_ons .(3 and 4) could be seem with tl:E eye; both were produced toward the be ttom during a time on the order of 10-20 seconds. After each de-formation, it was verified that no heating up could be detected by touching the air with the land, and that the bends made vjthout force by J. P. Girard ere all in the same Plane (inclifted by 340 relative to the initial bending plane mentioned above) , marked by the grooves indicated atov?. l ese grooves alsc made it possible to verify that the save,, bar. was being used at all times.. Immediately following the experiment, the r-ecir.eaas- wecc' :3acad in a briefcase and taken to the laboratory. We will slow descriLc t2.e lahcratcry -tcatS-~ Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea a 2000/08/10 :CIA-RDP96-007aR000200010003-8 CCC = 13111 PAGE 10 First, in the labctatory we verified tLat all of the rrmarks, groov-es and flaws which were originally made cn the bar ware present en the bar returned frog the experiments This rxade it possible unequivocally confirm that there was no sufsti.tution of the specimen. Figure I shows a picture of the bar after the experiment. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relee 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0071000200010003-8 ,uoc = 1314 p 1-G E 11 Fig. 1. Phctograph of AU2 bar 17 mss in di.amcter after bending. Scale Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Rele a 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007 8000200010003-8 rcC -- 1314 PAGE 12 The following tests were made for the nondestructive characterization of the charges tnadc ixl the :bar - more specifically, in section A - corresponding to the maximum curvature. We can see: a significant increase in the hardn? s cf the two grains iccated in the bending flans, reaching a maximum of 11 points Vickers or 27o/o) in section A, which correslcnd.s to the maximum curvatur(,--'. The 1L:ngth of the lone in which the hardness exceeds the initial value is around 12.0 mm (6C win on either sl de of section A) the hardness measured on the circumference of sec .ion A errendieular to the bending t,lane is the , axi.rcum in the bending plane and varies l,ineariiy aaith tLe side relative to the neutral .line, as in the case of siuilie bending- In order to determine the moment which must be applied to the bar by, mechanical bcr d.irg, it order tc; the permanent bead cbscrved, aye mechanically bent a which was identical to the p-cceding one with a distance of "2C0 raar between the fixed suigarrts4 The variation in the residual hending measured as a furcti.on of the moment applied is given in lig. 24 From this we can conclude that in order to cttaira the bond chserved on the bar bent by .1a 1)a Girard (f r = 13-5 nu i) , it uouid be necessary to apply a moment, Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Rele4 a 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007$;R000200010003-8 .IJOC 1314 PAGE 13 f9 cf ground 75 Nem, or two and a half tines tkc critical moment Mc 3C Vow, and twice the mcinent exert?-d by th? strcngest man whom we tested." The total detorera.ticn energy can ,be calculated at 11 J. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relee 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0074,7,R000200010003-8 Doc = 1314 P A G E 14 Fig. 2. Diagram of bending as a function of the moment applied to a ccnt.rpl bar identical tc that i n Fig. 1. .E`1: (1) Moment applied. (2) Exferiment. (3) Calibration curve.. (4)t Eends. (5) Max for men. (6) glean for men with the fcrce of to hands. (7) Residual bending at half-l#rtgtbd EXPERIENCE AU2-T4 ( ~3) courbe d`e'tlo) naafi : 50 0, X13 =17mm L = 300 mm R? = 63 UPI R a = 162 UPI Mc 30 Cm Ati= 2618 % - - - ~ 7 5 MiaT 70 Rm J ) tt icrtt i 2 main; Vi IS!thI6tIle i hi layreur O 0,6 3 6 SO 13,5 20 CO (": Y) Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea p 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078 000200010003-8 The preceding results make it possible to completely exclude the hypotheses of surreptitious de.formaticns pf muscular origin which might have escaped notice by the observers. Furthermore, the fact consolidation of the defcrmed zc re is observed makes it rc sible to exclude the surreptitious use of thermal or chemical means to decrease the local mechanical strength of the alloy. n conclusion, the sot of observations made during and after the experiment on the duraluminum bar deformed ky j- P. Girard during the experiment of 27 October 1976 make: it [mssible. to conclude: that the successive deformations reali ;e.d 'ore not and ?, not have been produced b.y the normal muscular force of tha subject,, that the final deformation obtained was in all ways comparable to that which would be obtained by applying a point force of 1500 N in the middle of the bar ulkn resting or itlt.=c sugport.s. Tests cm Stainless Steel in Closed 1u1 e y Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0074WR000200010003-8 tac =; 1314 later; als and Working Ccnditicns Luring the setssion at the Aluninun Technical Center on 25 March 1936, three experimenters (C. Crussa.rd,, J. Laucb and G Joliant) and fczrr other spectators otserved mar:ter.siti.c tratzforma.tiofs, with or without deformation, of test pieces made frcu- a cast of austenitic stainless steel with a pec.ia1 ncncc-;-nerci.a1 cc-rpositinf which had Frevi,pusly been used for studying the mart?.nsitic tr_a.nsfora--atict4 by c3eforr; at.iof. This cast ?sseLtially ccr tai.ned: Cr. . '17.6%, Ni. _> 7.4',I,>, En = 1.56`'11, Si = 0.36,'/o, C = 0-050'7c, IN' Two test pieces left aver fro-c this study were used for this pu.tpote. These were cylindrical test pieces (7 m-s7 in diameter and 35 un, with smooth heads 12 ram in diamete.L. T1 ey ; ?;r:?e subjected to hardening in air at 1050?C (one hot;e in,-a. ;alt Lath), finishing t eatner-t,, and nitroflucric cogros.icf, sih.ick, gave the body of the test piece. a matt:o look. The resultant structure is nonmagnetic, except for several par:tz of the machirncd surface layer. The vaxtenSitic t?ansi ormaticn joints in this state are: Vis = 14000 and Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea p 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007841000200010003-8 r.0C = 1314 PAGE 17 I",d = t 900C. These two test pieces were given to J. P. Girard for several days. At the (beginning c.# the session, they wcxc marked Isom 2 and :3 in large numbers circled with ar irregular circle. Another test rieceg marked No. 1 in the same manner, has us??d for another test which was not significart and will. ie used again later for a simulati.azi counter-test. It : Mark can he seen in Fig. 5. This was the flirt time that test pieces of this type wc1:e t!scd with J. P. Girard and that they were marked 1i3;e this. Ti ?sv were the same test pieces, marked in this maniner;?, u ich were taker at the end of the test under the conditions thich we will, see; there was no (possibility of . Eubstituticn? after marking , one of us (Co Crussard) verified the straightness of these test pieces (Ncs~ 2 and 3) by rolling them; they were not ,cut pf round-" He also verified their, wagnct: c state. A quick and rcpie method of evaluating point-to-[~oillb Ragnc-tism for this purpose ccr)sists of using a small pctaerful hhcrsesho? Magnet made of Ticonal. 15.00 (polar surfaces of 7x4 rm-2, 0.5 am aopazt) suspended at the end cf a chai.n- To make the mea. urenient, CIE chan9?5 from a position in vhich the magnet is in contact with the test piece, with, vertical. .suspension; the test piece is grads;ally w .t. d-caun until the magnet is Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Releja a 2000/08/10: CIA-RDP96-0078000200010003-8 IqC 1314 PAGE 18 Fulled away. Measuring tre tcrizontal distance from the magnet to the teft piece at this. point D, and kncwing the mats of the magnet (22 g) and the length of suspersi?r, ve can calculate the pulling force F. During this verification in the middle of tfe two test rods and on the heads, the distance 1) d(-fined atcve did tict exceed 2-3 Min., This ccxreslends to a pulling force F on the or(Icr icf O-O1 Na due to some traces of surface mar;tensit? caused Ly machining. After this check, the test rods were placed on the desk behind which J. P. Girard was working in rclied-up shirtsleeves) in the field cf view of the video camera, vhich rI1d nct turn away from them (while J. P. Girard worked with other test i:i.e.c;es and made an attempt. at a light-alloy bar without leaving his seat) until the following cxje :..vents were begun: a) J. P. Girard carefully grasps test Lar No. 2 by one head and 'ithot t exerting force (tie fii.u makes it is si tle to corafi.r)n this)" (laces it in a. tube and stchs it with a cork (always ia front. of the camera), taken the corked tube squarely i_n .I is hand (the left hand, with the cork always remaining visible), and cc incentrates. Ile then gives the tube to C. Ctr.ssard and does not tou=ch the test piece fr.ons this time on. C. Crus=ard reanovc:s the test piece frcm -the tube: it has a Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For ReleqW 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078Z3000200010003-8 DOC = 1314 PAGE 19 slight bend, but very close to one end, visible to the eye, and which be verified by rolling the ie;ce. TIC verification with a magnet indicates very strong local magnetism near this same end (see Table 1). Since the entire operation was filmed, ro substitution. could have taken Aare. C. Cr:ussarc returns tle test bar tc its box for future study; b) J.. -?. Girard taker. test bar Nc. 3`, which has remained visible tbrcughout this time. The same operations as fcr No. 2 are performed, except. that one spectatcr, at one tige, blocks the camera. After J. F. Girard had concentrated, C- Crussard took tL corked tube back, xencved the test piece from it,, and rolled it. This test piece remained straight, but nev?ei4J~eless its local magnetism was similar to that of test piece Nc. 2, but this time vithhout deformation. It was returned to the box, aisc for study. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007aW000200010003-8 ,DQC = 1314 Table 1. KEY: (1) Measurement. (2) Test p ec?,. (3) Bending of one side. (4) rending of thc- ctler side (5) :> e:an bolding.. (6) Pulling icrce t of the magnet (N). (7) one head. (8) cnd of cylindrical Ehaft (9) middle. (10) cther end of cylindrical shaft. (11) other bead,. (12) Maximum valuca (IZ Mesure Fleche ( J g.iLprouvettel -~f prouvette n?2 n'3 2,5 < 0,3 1 I'autre cOtc y2 1,7 < 0,3 Flc- the de 6; ('leche d'un cote y I (mm) cylindrique 0,02 0,02 nutre tote 0,05 O,OS (*) Va!eur maximale. (Ia-~ ~t milieu 0,02 autre extremite du fut yf A- y2. 2 ('orce d'arrachement f do I'aimant (N) une trite P) extremite du fut cylin- Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007$000200010003-8 LOC = 13111 PAGE 21 I itial Measurements The next day, Cw Crusserd evaluated tt.? zacneti sm ani defcrinationso The same uagn?t was always :used tc evaluate magnetism; the pulling forces F defined above are ind:icatEd in Table 7 (at close to 0.01 N) . In order to evaluate tl,e defortcaticr.s X,, one of the heads was placed against a ruler znd the distaxlce L?tween the other head (inside) and the ruler was measured. We coilfi.rtrcd that the test pieces "ran true", at the Lecizxrirq cf the test,. The bend close to cnc lead car: he Beet very clearly in rig. Pig- o photograph: of stainless steel test- [-1tce No. 2 after the ex per meat. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea a 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0077rR000200010003-8 ,Doc 1314 PAGE 22 Laboratory Tests Various tests, aisc destructivca were made on test piece No. 2. The bar was Electrolytically cut even with the magnetic head. Thus, it as possible to insert the magnetic Ea d cf tt.e cylindrical cart of the b6,.r into the spool of a Siginatest devicc: the specific saturation ragnetization is 2.8 which correstcnds to { prcport.ion. of 1, 9?/0 of the rnayneet is phase (all). For test piece No 3, the nondestructive X-ray study rcaveal.ed carte zltes a' and r. in the magnetic zone, the latter in a high I.,roportione in addition to Microphotographs (test piece No. 2) c,n a surface: polished vechan.ically, then (Fig. 4a and !4b) reveal a mixture cf Mar, E. and a.'. Ccrz;arcd witb Ix.ev:icu: studies made of this 1-0 we can confirm that these structures have aeither the of a xa :tensite obtained by cooling,, not that cf a itartensite :.roduced by the densitizaticn of at_-tenite ,Ly heating it. This could only be tnaitensi.te from' (with scmc traces of marten-isi_te clue tp the preparation of tle ground surfacc) a The martensite density appears to be rather_ unifcrr over the ertiLc cxcss section.- in spite of the uncertainty which a:iuays accompanies micrography due to the Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007W000200010003-8 DoC .= 13111 PiGE 23 field selection, Figures 4a and h show comparatle appearances on the surface ar}d in the interior. The amount of trartensite observed on these micrographs cortesl.cnds to tlhcse uhich are obtained with this steel by tensile strain of !--107,); thus, it is much more intense than that which would corresl.cnd to the slight Lending observed (Fig. 3).a Its localization is very M-axprisincJ. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007874000200010003-8 toC = 1314 PAGE 24 Fig. tL Micrographs of the locally traisforned zone of stainless steel test piece No. 2 (a) near the surface (1) in the interior. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Releee 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007$ZR000200010003-8 rCC ~= 1314 PAGE 25 simulation `bests The local. magnetise cf the head cf test riEce No. 2 could not have been missed in the verificat.icr, .made at the beginning of the test, tahich was focused especially on the heads. Nevertheless, since two confirmations axc letter than one, ue asked ourselves if we could imagine a metallurgical process capable cf p:rcducing these, localized martens.ites while leaving the test pieces completely straight cr merely slightly bent. Since we are de?alinq with cold-rell.ed gartensite, tie must sork with d.efcrnation. The closest means of a oprx.cducing its localizatioua. v t.h this abundance near cnc Lead i..s aite-rvxat:ing bending. We c.caaclucted tests o1~ another test piece, Nos- 1, uhich was initially nonu,agnetic: it was necessary to place one i;ead in a vice, bend the tar by around 300, and straighten it. But due tc the special j L cper ti.ev of this steel., t 1-.,o test pi.c c? was vs ry visibly formed into an , (Fig. 5). In order to dtraighteta it back cut, it would he necessary to tool a die and re xtam f the piece cr a press! Another difference: cn test piece Nc. 1 thus treated, the ragnetisia on the ?nd of the, shaft was comparable to that of test piece No. 2, but the tead vas not rnagne,tic:? whicl; is obviously Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relsa a 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007$;R000200010003-8 E0 z---- 1314 PAGE 26 Fig. 5. Test piece of stainless steel Nc. 1 after a simulation teat. A i icrographic test made on another test piece which was bent. even more and straightened reveals. co1d-rc.lied nartensite, but with a er.y distinct heterogeneouE distributicnw tLe martefsit.e density is lower in the interior than eta the uiface jFigm 6a and bb), which is rcriral, but w1lich diffexs from test piece No. 2. In order to obtain uniform density in the cross secti-cn and in the amount observed, it toul..d to necessary to be al:-le tc create tensile strain deformation local jzed on the end of the shaft and in f.1}c head (on the order of 5-1O17b for test piece No. 2, and at least .10074 for test piece No. 3) , but which would not appreciably change t1r:e diameters of either the :haft or the head. ctnptea I For test piece No? 3, a slight decrease in the cross sectip.n (O 5~ G) was measured in the zone whi.clb l:ecaiue magnetic. We point out that we could have also con idexc.d. simulation by Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For ReleW 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078000200010003-8 DCC . 1314 FACE 27 tblistlnq~ but we could not :ee how this could i.csult in deformation localizEd near one head and in it., Etc : ooftctc t iou1d be nece 3ary to have a series of 1 aitsTCa Ling out and kneading cycles, al."14 done without leaving a zz,r:k on the test bar! Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007 000200010003-8 Fag. 6. :ii.croclraplis similar to those iyx 14i9- :;u1.jeeoted to a sa_r nlat s I t Iip~ } r r~ q c t }, t a 1 a;' : f, e? , b`.~ ~~.r~ '~!!.t" d .~ A. Y i ?.. t'~- "_ ~: H `'r_,. .-r ~s w~ ? ~\r~.'.. \,'iN I-) , .4 '*g?+ ~ Ft. ?r !ii`"_ .% ~a~ t {i~~1 ,a~:. r~~. ~? K Y ~+? d : `d`~.. p .a f' t~~~1.. : 'i~.~ ~' . "1 Sjn (f! i ~n Ka 9 4. & ati 1F:m .. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea ,e 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078R000200010003-8 ECC 1314 Fig. 10? Electron mi.creoctar.ts of mcdified sErf ace zone:- with t iiargement of 6'4 500 (trtoze cductio)n)'-I a) lest piece 11-I, test jith J. P. Girard, side 1. t) Test piece 11-I, test with J. P. Girard, side 1. c) Test piece for shot-peening kimulationm d) Test niece fcac simulation by ccawtression .i F m6` y 5Z i t M ~~,H. ~~ ~, dry/ ~ ~ y ? ~ t-~-- ~ i~ ,..t{ .'P!1 H }q~?p 4.k s.-i.X ~f(? a) I:prou'Vette 11-I, ? -4 -, 4 t (SV,,, r 9e'f essai avec J.P. Girard, face 1. 0+1 {a* ~'~ Vw ?? Qi ~a3 ' er] ~ c) rprorrvette de simulation par grenaillage. ? , - /-. . oil a ,tztp Simulation par Compression b Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relee 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078000200010003-8 rCc = 1314 PAGI 1l3 gar test piece 11--1,, ccmparativc ccuriting cf the rings visible in the section (110) was realized a: g k [ 111]-c > 0. After measurincj the respective thicknesses cf the different plates, the results given in at1e IV were, found (acan for f i vc field ) .. Halle IV. KEY: (1) San?piiug. (2) Density cf visible rings. (3) density ccmparEd tc ccntrcl. (u) Cci:;tic1. (5) modified. zone. (6) Mid- th i.ckness. (7) Side. CO jF relevement 11-I Ut rnoin} RV = 1240 11-I ) face 1 zone modifiee HV = 1340 5J 11?f C5~ face 2 zone modifiee HV = 1290 11-I rni-eppiss eur Densite de boucles Densite relative P2- visibles (cm-3) rapport au temoin Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Releoe 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078 R000200010003-8 DOC = 1314 P1.GE 144 summing up4, we will note that the chanSes J. P. Girard produced in thO durraluninuui p1at(s which Caere given tc Haim revealj simultaneously: surface hardening on the order of 80/0 Iccated on the two sides of the plates over. a length which can reach 40 mm and a width of 1O-'15 mm; - the modification of the residual surf tc? strains in the cdif .ed zcne.; - the crcation of fart .cular rr,icro t ;uct rre in this zan : with a very high density of small dislocation rings (4'200 angstroms); - the absence of macrozcopic tending strain (except for test 1 -- e abcve) ,Pis in the case of stainless stccl, we -ought double -ont.i.rma-i.on. by tx_ying to figure out a simple means of dcforaation by whIch the Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relee 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007$ZR000200010003-8 DCC 1314 PAGE 45 preceding states could to simulated. First, we will point out that the eiectrcn micrographs indicate that tl,c Guinier-Prestcr zcres are nct dissclvcd and are the same at the end of the test as in tle original state. '? eliminates any simulation by heat treatment: in particular, ty surface heating (iz duction or optical radiation). Thus, we had to develop mechanical sirulaticI} tests. Alternating Fending Since hand contact was i.ermitted during the first phase of the cacp:er_lmerat, we might vender if a surr:eptit_icus alternating bending operation in the plastic range would be enctgh to cause the changes cbser'ved~ Alternating bending tests made cn `cont:x:ol s permitted us to see that j.t was necessary tc introduce tctal plastic flow of at least 5`10 by alternating bending in order to obtaii hardening on the order of that which was observed previously (-80/0).. Thi requires betiding the test piece very intensively until a radio of curvature of 50 mm is reachEd (which corresponds to a :bend o the crd?r: of 30, which is Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007& 000200010003-8 DOC = 1314 IAG1 46 irccmpatible with the otservations made), tien straightening it by bending it in the opposite directicn. Hcw=ever, this sinulaticn does not perpit us to duplicate the structural state Observed cr the test ;paeceE zrcditied by J. P. Girard. In fact, by electron microscopy we then observe mazes of dislocations in the hardened zones, but clot the significant increase in the number of dislocaticr: rings. tcur:ression Test on a Press A local compression test of ccntrcl plate -11-U conducted on a Fress at 300 MPa (de '=' 220 Fla) made it p.ossibls to obtain. hardening on the surfaces coming in ccrtact pith the ttain and the. table, reEFecti.vel.y, close to that which was sought g1 V = 140 MPa) with nicr:c:structure similar to t he microstructure chserved on the modified test pieces (rig. 10d), but with a icuek ring density. However, We ck erve a 13`18 decrease in thickness and a uaiiicrm change in the Cross section of the structure and in hardness, which is not true of the test pieces "hardened" by 0 a. P Girard. Furthermore, measurements of the thickness of the plate revealed a reduction in thickness on the cyder of 2% straight abcvc the modified ;ckc. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078 000200010003-8 Eh ct-Jeening Test A surface shot-peening test of the t.wc o :gcsing sides of the ccntrol (11--N) 1 made it Vos 'ib.le to simuiatE the essential r.,arts of the .tints which we were trying to reproducE: surface hardening IV cf 70 I1Pa? the absence cf permanent lending, arid analogous microstructure (heterogenects in thickness tith a maximum dislocation dean pity in the vicinity of the surfa.ceE) Fcotnpte: 'Working conditicrs: Matiasur 1 achsine, air pressure -- 7 bars, flora rate - 0.85 w //m r. glass falls 11-110 pro), duration 1 r in1< End footnote teanwhile4 in this tuan.aucr we ottain a depolish1Ed surface which looks very different from that of the test pieces modified by J. P. Girard, and additional po1_ishinc is necessary in rider to restore a ccrnraiable surface state. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea a 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078%R000200010003-8 L CC = 1334 PAGE 46 The set of observations and simulati,c;ns : hcw that it would he necessary to apply compressive force perpendicular to the surface of the plates, thus crEating icterogenecuk pia; tic flow in the cross sccticn, in order to duplicate the essential aspects of the physical properties observed on the netal_ plate locally and superficially hardened by J. 11. Girard. 7Le mechanical energy required for simulating such a modification can be estinated according to the ccmrress ior, simulation test: we find 1.6 `J_ dew can also produce rings of this type by neutron irradiation Conclusion The group of oJservat:icns made cn the duraluminum plates given to J. E. Girard makes it possible to state: -- that the required hardening was definitely realized four times during the test; that no simple metallurgical cpetaticn known to the authors crakes it pcssible exactly duplicate the different physical peculiarities observed in tL?e lccaily hardcred 2ones. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0078000200010003-8 DOC 1314 FAGS 49 Discussic.q and Coi cl.usicnn In this report, we described some deformations and transforma.tioils of metals cttained ua.der specific conditions. The places in which these tests were made and tke individuals who observed thorn were variEd the only coq start presence, common to all cf the tests, was that ci. J 17. Girard himSElf,. Thus, there was a. coi.relatio:n hetween his presence and the appearance of the particular effects observed. Therefore, it tap rears that we have the right to say that L. P. Girard is part of the "cause" of tlese effects. But during the-se deformations or tiansfor_ iitaticns, we a,eitl er observed nor reccrded any inteLventicn of muscular forces or physical effects on his part capable of causing them., t thus appears that we can ccnclude t 'e a1abnoriiaie" nature of these effects, especially if we consider" t1c fciiowing observations: for one of the d?fcx mcryd test pieces (s?? "Session of .27 Octcber 1976"), the nature cf the measures taken to mark the piece and the process of folicwing the deformaticL by successively tracing Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007878000200010003-8 the profiles proves that no sub stituticn occurtcd; we feel that the very high strength of test piece is encugh to exclude all. explanations by purely annual and muscular ecticn; for the other test piece deformed in the glass tube ("Session of 31 March 1976"), the wcrkiaag aroccdure s?eirc d to establish that the deformation, althoucb slight, as sufficiently clear and was made while the test piece was in the tube; - for cases of local structural. trans.fcrmation, by a martensitic ("Tests on Stainless Steal In Closed Tubes"g) or by the c.rcat,ion of many sr;all dislccatici rings ("Local ttodifi.catioa.s... retallic'") , the precautions descriLcd show that no substitution cccurred. The generation of these effects in the tube or upon slight cer)tadt eliminates any "norRal" explarati.ct. Sven if substitution (lid cccur, we must point that we found it IanppsSJ ale to either reproduce all of the physical peculiarities of the test pieces transformed in this .manner, or to imagine any simple metallurgical Qperatioa capable cf doing it. our simulaticn tests essentially ,pcrmitte.d us to duplicate the new structural element: cexcrated during the tests made with .j p. Girard. By combining several of these actions in a complex manner (actions which uculd ctl;erwi:?e have left traces an the -p.cci.rren), we might be able to simulate the local texture and arrangement, of these structr r:al. element:, bt.t we would produce, much Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007W000200010003-8 Lt-C = 1314 P2GE 51 greater changes in dimensicts than thcse cal;scrvEd, which are very :,light or nonexistent. The localized nature of these transformations issuxprising. These experiments are part of a group cf mi,ny more tests, Which we screened and subjected to an extensive cx:iticai study under the ccrdi i.cns described in the iuttoducticn. its r:oup of tests also .o mains those in which ricthing happened, and cther:s in which we clearly observed muscular inE:etus cculled witb 1.ositively "abnormal" cffcc is a good idea to erup#asi2e that the effects observed have a certa3,.rr degree of reproduc,itil.ity: the bends ire the bars were prcdu ed repeatedly, the local martepsitic transformations -- twice, and the local hardening.-- - four times. The. last of these four tests, the test spcnsorecd by Professor Bated, is the most significant, for it iraclud es the measurev nt of hardness betcre the tests in the zone which hardening subsequently vas real.i e c, ard because the increas in hardness was verified in`twc jr.dej:endent laboratories, thus an English laboratcr; y urrrking "blind,- ?i J. P. Girard did net produce unknown structures in any of the tests, The structural mcdif icaticnw cbser-vei: are of the type produced Ly certain types of defcr:mations- 'Ih.eir distribution is normal for Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relea' 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-007870000200010003-8 the case of simple bending, but abnormal fcr transformations without defcr;:r ation or with slight deforuaticn. T~f the effects had been produced by applying forces, the York which it would hav? been ncccs: ary t:c expend f~cx the largest test l:Iece wcuJ d have reached arcund. 12 J The ccrresponding increase in enthalpy would be from 2?-3 J. jai this article, we have no intention cf imposing our conclusions as complete scientific facts. tut we. felt it our duty to cblectively describe the conditions and the revults of these s~xrrtee.tit~ We found nc e:; fcr the effects observedp neither in current- physics, nor by pcssible trickery, but perhaps cthers aii1 be able to find them. Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Relee 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-0071000200010003-8 LCC = 13111 CCNCEFNING THE ARTICLE E Y CF. CHUSSAHD AND J. UCUYAIST 'The above a.rt: icle sas uritton fc1lcwin9 experiments which demonstrated the abnormal bchavior of rnetali E or alloys in the preserrc;e of J? P. Girard I can confirm that these experiments were made with considerable scicrtific trictneE:E, in order to eliminate any trickery as much as posf-:iblem fHcwevcr, cme of theta were not convincing, for the possiLility of trickery is always present. ;hearty phert.omena are re cctcd by th = educated world because they are rcnsidered to be it aticnai; but this i nicre the a priori refusal to try to observe and ccntrcl them for themselves, with corpce:rn for the truth, -Latter than giving , xccf of scientific 1 c. r,es.ty. Several scientists did not hesitate to participate in the, cxpcrjnents ei J P. Girard, s.iimply in cr_cicx to 'seep' them objectively. I myself had this opportunity-and .1 was sometimes t.roubledL by these experitrents, which, as cue of us pointed out, places us, the physicists, in a very uncomfcrta .le position. out of all. of these ex#e:r.ianents,, most cf which were v i.dpo Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/10 :CIA-RDP96-007$R000200010003-8 DOC 13114 PAGE 5L recorded with a considerable: abundance of ccntrclse C Crussarel and dm Bouvaist used only those which are the subject of this article. Until proven otherwise, it as not icssible tc find a rational ex1lanatior for the transformation cbserved and described - which naturally does not mean that. we will not find one later.. %he. authors of this article fcund itt interesting to publish their observations, knowing full well that they would come up against rather general. scepticism - but one must only view their actions as the desire to make known phenomena which a.rr e ckviously inexplicable in the, current state of cur kncw1edce. I myself agreed to add these few lir s, having had occasion to fcllom these experts i.ment rather closely, sinpl t in order to give, `ray advice about the scientific strictness with which they were conducted t y the authors,. Too many factors are still undetermined to make it possible to give a valid inter::ptctaticn? J. .1. Triila,t., Member of the Academy of Scienc:Es Approved For Release 2000/08/10 : CIA-RDP96-00787R000200010003-8