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December 1, 1975
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SECRET Final Report Covering the Period January 1974 through February 1'1 d5 PERCEPTUAL AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES Part Two: Research Report By: HAROLD E. PUTHOFF and RUSSELL TARG Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory Classification Determination Pr, ding. Protect as though classified SF ='RET. Certain individual pages of this document are UNCLASSIFIED Ilowever, the association and com- pilation of this material may indicate defense information, ih, unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause serious damage to the ,,itional security; hence, an overall classification of SECRET is warranted. This document consists of 153 pages. Copy No. .........?:. STANFORD RESEARCH INSTITUTE Menlo Park, California 94025 - U.S.A. SECRET December 1, 1975 Covering the Period January 1974 through February 1975 By: Harold E. Puthoff and Russell Targ Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory SRI Project 3183 Classification Determination Pending. Protect as though classified SECRET. Approved by: Earle Jones, Director Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory Bonnar Cox, Executive Director Information Science and Engineering Division Certain individual pages of this document are UNCLASSIFIED. However, the association and compilation of this material may indicate defense information, the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause serious damage to the national security; hence, an overall classification of SECRET is warranted. SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release 2003/0TE HT96-00788RO01300030,001-5 Page iii I ABSTRACT II PROGRAM RESULTS--APPLIED RESEARCH EFFORT A. Remote Viewing 1. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: Sponsor-Designated Targets (Exploratory Research) a. West Virginia Site (S3) b. West Virginia Site (Si) c. Urals Site (Sl) d. Summary of Exploratory Research 2. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: Sponsor-Designated Target (Operational Target, Semipalatinsk, USSR) 3. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: SRI-Designated Targets (Exploratory Research, Costa Rica Series) 4. Short-Distance Remote Viewing (Cipher Machine Analog) 5. Short-Distance Remote Viewing (Technology Series) B. Detection of Secret Writing Target Material 15 17 A. Screening Tests 35 1. Remote Viewing of Natural Targets Under Standard Protocol 36 Conditions a. Subject Sl (Experienced) b. Subject S4 (Learner/Controls) c. Subjects S2 and S3 (Experienced) d. Subjects S5 and S6 (Learner/Controls) e. Sponsor Subjects (Learner/Controls) f. Summary of Remote-Viewing Experiments (Standard Protocol) 2. Four-State Electronic Random Number Generator a. Machine Description b. Data from Experiments B. Identification of Measurable Characteristics Possessed by Gifted Subjects SECRET 38 40 46 49 49 53 66 67 69 Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For RelejspS4~/Q9/g0sS1- I~8tp0788RO01300030001-5 2. Psychological Evaluation a. Evaluation by Clinical Psychologist Administering Tests b. Evaluation by Chief Clinical Psychologist 3. Neuropsychological Evaluation Page 79 -80 83 88 C. Identification of Neurophysiological Correlates That Relate 94 to Paranormal Activity 1. Remote Strobe Experiment 97 2. Mid-Experiment Monitoring of Physiological Parameters During 103 Routine Experimentation in Remote Viewing D. Identification of the Nature of Paranormal Phenomena and Energy 106 1. Experiments with Physical Apparatus a. Experiments with Geiger Counter b. Experiments with Laser-Monitored Torsion Pendulum c. Experiments with Superconducting Differential Mag- netometer (Gradiometer) d. Discussion of Physical Perturbation Effects 2. Discussion of Possible "Mechanisms" in Remote Viewing 3. Communication Theory Approach to Channel Utilization 4. Soviet Efforts 5. Conclusions 106 106 107 108 113 117 121 129 130 IV PROGRAM SUMMARY 132 A. Remote Viewing Transcript for Subject S6, Learner/Control, A-1 First Experiment B. Instructions to Subject: EEG Experiment B-1 C. Universal Randomization Protocol C-1 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Releas- -2QQ3~~11 t I~~ Q5788R001300030001-5 F IT 1. Maps of West Virginia Site Drawn by Subject S3 2. Map and Detail of Site Drawn by Subject Si 3. Artist's Rendering of Site 4. Costa Rica Site Drawings and Photographs 5. Abacus/Clock Drawings and Photograph 6. Video Terminal 7. Typewriter 8. Xerox Machine 9. Drill Press 10. Procedure for Card Sorting by Sequential Sampling 11. Swimming Pool Complex (Si) 12. Pedestrian Overpass (S4) 13. Bicycle Shed (S4) 14. Tennis Court (S2) 15. Palo Alto City Hall (S3) 16. White's Plaza, Stanford University (S6) 17. Merry-Go-Round 18. Windmill 19. Four-State Random Number Generator Used in This Experiment 20. Data Summary for Subject S2 21. Drawings and Interpretations by Associative Visual Agnosia Patients 22. Shielded Room Used for EEG Experiments 23. Occipital EEG Frequency Spectra of Subject S4 24. Polygraph Data from Subject S4 25. Superconducting Differential Magnetometer (Gradiometer) 26. Gradiometer Data 27. Enhancement of Signal-to-Noise Ratio by Sequential Sampling Procedure 28. Operating Characteristic Curve for Sequential Sampling Procedure 29. Average Sample Number for Sequential Sampling Procedure UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For ReIUN2 j/M t1 TQP6-00788R001300030001-5 1. Subject, Target Selection Procedure, and Figure Numbers for Tech- nology Series. 2. Rank Ordering Match of Drawings to Target Locations (Blind Judging, Technology Series) 3. Critical Values of Sums of Ranks for Preferential Matching 4. The Probability of M Correct Guesses of N Distinct Items 5. Key for Secret Writing Experiment 6. Raw Data Call Sheet for Secret Writing Experiment 7. Distribution of Rankings of Transcripts Associated with Each Target Selection for Subject Sl, Experienced. 10. Distribution Location for Distribution Location for Distribution Location for Distribution Location for of Rankings Subject S4, of Rankings Subjects S2 of Rankings Subjects S5 of Transcripts Associated Learner/Control of Transcripts Associated and S3, Experienced of Transcripts Associated and S6, Learner/Control with Each Target with Each Target with Each Target of Rankings of Transcripts Associated with Each Target Sponsor Subjects, Learner/Control 12. Summary--Remote Viewing of Natural Targets 13. Four-State Electronic Random Number Generator Summary 14. Randomness Tests for Machine Ml Output during Successful Experimental Series 15. Randomness Tests for Machine M2 Output during Successful Experimental Series 16. Randomness Tests for Entire Machine Output During Successful Experi- mental Run 17. Subject S2 Selections on Machine Ml during Successful Experimental Series 18. Subject S2 Selections on Machine M2 during Successful Experimental Series 19. Neuropsychology Test Battery 20. EEG Data for Subject S4 21. Geiger Counter Experiment Summary 22. Five-Bit Code for Alphanumeric Characters UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release 2 3 tl q : ?It IV-6788R001300030001-5 UN EE As a result of exploratory research on human perception carried out in SRI's Electronics and Bioengineering Laboratory, we initiated a program to investigate a perceptual channel whereby individuals can access by means of mental imagery and describe randomly chosen sites remote from their physical location. This ability appeared to be sufficiently well developed in certain individuals to allow them to at times describe cor- rectly--often in great detail--geographical or technical material, such as buildings, roads, laboratory apparatus, and the like. In this final report (Part Two--Research Reportt), we document in detail the 12-month study at SRI of this human information-accessing capability which we call "remote viewing," the characteristics of which appear to fall outside the range of well-understood perceptual or information-processing abilities. This phenomenon is one of a broad class of abilities of certain indivi- duals to access, by means of mental processes, and describe information sources blocked from ordinary perception and generally accepted as secure against access. The phenomenon we investigated most extensively was the ability of individuals to view remote geographical locations (up to several thousand kilometers away), given only coordinates (latitude and longitude) or a person at a location on whom to target. The development at SRI of suc- cessful experimental procedures to elicit this capability has evolved to the point where (a) visiting personnel of the sponsoring organization without any previous exposure to such concepts have performed well under controlled laboratory conditions (that is, generated target descriptions of sufficiently high quality to permit blind matching of descriptions to targets by independent judges), and (b) subjects trained over a two-year period have performed well under operational conditions (that is, provided data of operational significance later verified by independent sources). Our accumulated data thus indicate that both specially selected and un- selected persons can be assisted in developing remote perceptual abilities to a level of useful information transfer. The primary achievement of the SRI program was thus the elicitation of high-quality remote viewing by For ummary, see Part One--Executive Summary 1 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For ReIVISIVL0AS.S 000788R001300030001-5 individuals who agreed to act as subjects. In carrying out this program we concentrated on what we considered to be our primary responsibility--to resolve under unambiguous conditions the basic issue of whether this class of paranormal perception phenomenon exists. At all times the researchers and SRI management took measures to prevent sensory leakage and subliminal cueing and to prevent deception, whether intentional or unintentional. All experiments were carried out under protocols in which target selection at the beginning of experiments and blind judging of results at the end of experiments were handled inde- pendently of the researchers involved in carrying out the experiments, thus assuring evaluations independent of the belief structures of both experimenters and judges. The program was divided into two categories of approximately equal effort--applied research and basic research. In Section II we summarize the results of the applied research effort in which the operational utility of the above perceptual abilities was explored. In Section III we summarize the results of the basic research effort, which was directed toward identification of the characteristics of individuals possessing such abilities and the determination of neurophysiological correlates and basic mechanisms involved in such functioning. With an eye toward selection of future subjects, individuals possessing a well-developed natural ability in the area under investigation underwent complete physical, psychological, and neuropsychological profiling, the results of which suggest some hypotheses for developing a screening procedure. The program summary is presented in Section IV. With regard to understanding the phenomenon, the precise nature of the information channel that couples remote locations is not yet under- stood. However, its general characteristics are compatible with both quantum theory and information theory as well as with recent developments in research on brain function. Therefore, our working assumption is that the phenomenon of interest does not lie outside the purview of modern physics and with further work will yield to analysis and specification. Finally, it is concluded by the research contractor (SRI) that the development of experimental procedures and the accrual of experience in UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Releas(1N(1A fO&IF 0788R001300030001-5 three years of successful effort constitutes an asset that could be utilized in the future, both for operational needs and for training others in the development and use of the remote-sensing capability. A. Remote Viewing As mentioned in the Abstract, the phenomenon we investigated most extensively was the ability of individuals to, view remote geographical locations (up to several thousand kilometers away), given only coordinates (latitude and longitude) or a person at a location on whom to target. Individuals exhibiting this faculty include not only SRI participants but also visiting staff members of the sponsoring organization who par- ticipated as subjects so as to critique the protocol. As observed in the laboratory, the basic phenomenon appears to cover a range of subjective experiences variously referred to in the literature as autoscopy (in the medical literature); exteriorization or disassociation (psychological literature); simple clairvoyance, traveling clairvoyance, or out-of-body experience (parapsychological literature); or astral pro- jection (occult literature). We choose the term "remote viewing" as a neutral descriptive term free of occult assumptions or-bias as to the mechanisms involved. We begin our report in subsections 1 and 2 with experiments under the control of the sponsor. These experiments were designed to provide a vehicle whereby the sponsor could establish independently of SRI, some degree of confidence as to the existence of the long-distance remote viewing faculty. 1. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: Sponsor-Designated Targets (Exploratory Research) So as to subject the remote-viewing phenomena to a rigorous long-distance test under external control, a request for geographical coordinates of a site unknown to subject and experimenters was forwarded to the sponsor's group responsible for threat analysis in this area. In response, an SRI experimenter received a set of coordinates identifying UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Rele Nf (3/e9~0c S1.t~~0788R001306030001-5 ftLf what is hereafter referred to as the West Virginia Site. The SRI experi- menter then carried out remote-viewing experiments with two subjects on a double-blind basis, that is, with target content blind to experimenter as well as to subjects. (Following the experiment both subjects claimed unfamiliarity with the West Virginia area.) The experiment had as its goal the determination of the utility of remote viewing under conditions approximating an operational scenario. a. West Virginia Site (S3)* Date: 29 May 1973, 1634 to 1640 hours, Menlo Park, Cali- fornia. Protocol: Coordinates 38?23'45"to 48"N, 79?25'00"W, described simply as being in West Virginia, were relayed to experimenter Dr. H.E. Puthoff by telephone, who then relayed this information to subject S3 to initiate experiment. No maps were permitted, and the subject was asked to give an immediate response. The session was recorded on video tape. The oral response is reproduced here from the tape: This seems to be some sort of mounds or rolling hills. There is a city to the north (I can see the taller buildings and some smog). This seems to be a strange place, somewhat like the lawns that one would find around a military base, but I get the impression that there are either some old bunkers around, or maybe this is a covered reservoir. There must be a flagpole, some highways to the west, possibly a river over to the far east, to the south more city. The map in Figure l(a) was drawn by the subject. On the following morning, S3 submitted a written report of a second reading, dated 30 May 1973, 0735 to 0758 hours, Mountain View, California: Cliffs to the east, fence to the north. There's a circular building (a tower?), buildings to the south. Is this a former Nike base or something like that? This is about as far as I could go without feedback, and perhaps guidance as to what was wanted. There is something strange about this area, but since I don't know particularly what to look for within the scope of the cloudy ability, it is extremely difficult to make decisions on what is there and what is not. Imagination seems to get in the way. (For example, I seem to get the impression of something S3 identifies a subject. A key to numerical designations for subjects is available from the sponsor's Contracting Officer Technical Repre- sentative (COTP,). 4 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For ReleasLYIM j1A SI5II Q88R001300030001-5 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Releek2~ /~09~10 If 9~00788R001300030001-5 underground, but I'm not sure.) However, it is apparent that on first sighting, the general location was correctly spotted. The map in Figure 1(b) also was drawn by the subject. b. West Virginia Site (S1) As a backup test, the coordinates were given to, a second subject, Sl. The task was presented to the second subject independently of the first subject, both to prevent collaboration and to prevent any sense of competition. Date: 1 June 1973, 1700 hours, Menlo Park, California. Protocol: Coordinates 38?23'45"to 48"N, 79?25'00"W were given (with no further description) by experimenter Dr. H.E. Puthoff to subject Si by telephone to initiate experiment. On the morning of 4 June 1973, S1's written response (dated 2 June 1973, 1250 to 1350 hours, Lake Tahoe, California) was re- ceived in the mail: Looked at general area from altitude of about 1500 ft above highest terrain. On my left forward quadrant is a peak in a chain of mountains, elevation approximately 4996 ft above sea level. Slopes are greyish slate covered with variety of broad- leaf trees, vines, shrubbery, and undergrowth. I am facing about 3?to 5? west of north. Looking down the mountain to the right (east) side is a roadway--freeway, country style--curves then heads ENE to a fairly large city about 30 to 40 miles distant. This area was a battleground in civil war--low rolling hills, creeks, few lakes or reservoirs. There is a smaller town a little SE about 15 to 20 miles distant with small settlements, village type, very rural, scattered around. Look- ing across the peak, 2500 to 3000 ft mountains stretch out for a hundred or so miles. Area is essentially wooded. Some of the westerly slopes are eroded and gully washed--looks like strip mining, coal mainly. Weather at this-time is cloudy, rainy. Temperature at my altitude about 54?F--high cumulo nimbus clouds to about 25,000 to 30,000 ft. Clear area, but turbulent, between that level and some cirro stratus at 46,000 ft. Air mass in that strip moving WNW to SE. 1318 hours--Perceived that peak area has large underground storage areas. Road comes up back side of mountains (west slopes), fairly well concealed, looks deliberately so. It's cut under trees where possible--would be very hard to detect flying over area. Looks like former missile site--bases for launchers still there, but area now houses record storage area, microfilm, file cabinets; as you go into underground area UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release 2003/1SIECP96-00788R001300030001-5 through aluminum rolled up doors, first areas filled with records, etc. Rooms about 100-ft long, 40-ft wide, 20-ft ceilings, with concrete supporting pilasters, flare-shaped. Temperature cool--fluorescent lighted. Personnel, Army 5th Corps Engineers. M/Sgt. Long on desk placard on grey steel desk--file cabinets security locked--combination locks, steel rods through eye bolts. Beyond these rooms, heading east, are several bays with computers, communication equipment, large maps, display type, overlays. Personnel, Army Signal Corps. Elevators. 1330 hours--Looked over general area from original location again--valleys quite hazy, lightning about 30 miles north along mountain ridge. Tempterature drop about 6?F, it's about 48?F. Looking for other significances: see warm air mass moving in from SW colliding with cool air mass about 100 miles ESE from my viewpoint. Air is very turbulent--tornado type; birds in my area seeking heavy cover. There is a fairly large river that I can see about 15 to 20 miles north and slightly west; runs NE then curves in wide valley running SW to NE; river then runs SE. Area to east: low rolling hills. Quite a few Civil War monuments. A marble colonnade type: 'In this area was fought the battle of Lynchburg where many brave men of the Union and Confederate Armys (sic) fell. We dedicate this area to all peace loving people of the future--Daughters G.A.R.' On a later date Sl was asked to return to the West Virginia site with the goal of obtaining information on code words, if possible. In response, Si supplied the following information: Top of desk had papers labeled "Flytrap" and "Minerva". File cabinet on north wall labeled "Operation Pool..." (third word unreadable). Folders inside cabinet labeled "Cueball", "14 Ball", "4 Ball", "8 Ball", and "Rackup". Name of site vaguely seems like Hayfork or Haystack. Per- sonnel: Col. R.J. Hamilton, Maj. Gen. George R. Nash, Major John C. Calhoun (??). After obtaining a reading on the West Virginia Site, Si s i e volunteered that he had scanned the other side of the globe for a Communist Bloc equivalent and found one located in the Urals at 65?00'57"N, 59? 59'59"E, described as follows: Elevation, 6200 ft. Scrubby brush, tundra-type ground hummocks, rocky outcroppings, mountains with fairly steep slopes. Facing SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release 2003i'-'-r-CRIETDP96-00788R001300030001-5 north, about 60 miles ground slopes to marshland. Mountain chain runs off to right about 35? east of north. Facing south, mountains run fairly north and south. Facing west, mountains drop down to foothills for 60 miles or so; some rivers running roughly north. Facing east, mountains are rather abrupt, dropping to rolling hills and to flat land. Area site under- ground, reinforced concrete, doorways of steel of the roll-up type. Unusually high ratio of women to men, at least at night. I see some helipads, concrete. Light rail tracks run from pads to another set of rails that parallel the doors into the moun- tain. Thirty miles north (5? west of north) of the site is a radar installation with one large (165 ft) dish and two small fast-track dishes. The two reports for the West Virginia Site, and the report for the Urals Site were verified by personnel in the sponsor organization as being substantially correct. The results of the evaluation are con- tained in a separate report filed with the COTR. d. Summary of Exploratory Research The observation of such unexpectedly high-quality descrip- tions early in our program led to a large-scale study of the phenomenon under secure double-blind conditions (i.e., target unknown to experimenters as well as subjects), with independent random target selection and blind judging. The results, presented later, provide strong evidence for the robustness of this phenomenon, one whereby complex remote stimuli can be detected by a human perceptual modality of extreme sensitivity. Before discussing these results, however, we consider further examples of both operational and operational-analog experiments. 2. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: Sponsor-Designated Target (Oper- ational Target--Semipalatinsk, USSR) To determine the utility of remote viewing under operational conditions, a long-distance remote viewing experiment was carried out on a sponsor-designated target of current interest, an unidentified research center at Semipalatinsk, USSR. This experiment, carried out in three phases, was under direct control of the COTR. To begin the experiment, the COTR furnished map coordinates in degrees, minutes, and seconds. The only additional infor- mation provided was the designation of the target as an R&D test facility. The experimenters then closeted themselves with subject Sl, gave him the SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release ttiff 11 W-R[ 96-00788RO01300030001-5 map coordinates and indicated the designation of the target as an R&D test facility. A remote-viewing experiment on the target was then carried out. This activity constituted Phase I of the experiment. Figure 2(a) shows the subject's graphic effort for building layout; Figure 2(b) shows the subject's particular attention to a multi- story gantry crane he observed at the site. Both results were obtained by the experimenters on a double-blind basis before exposure to any addi- tional COTR-held information, thus eliminating the possibility of cueing. These results were turned over to the client representatives for evalua- tion. For comparison an artist's rendering of the site as known to the COTR(but not to the experimenters until later) is shown in Figure 3(a), with crane detail shown in Figure 3(b). Were the results not promising, the experiment would have stopped at this point. Description of the multistory crane, however, a relatively unusual target item, was taken as indicative of possible target acquisi- tion. Therefore, Phase II was begun, defined by the subject being made "witting" (of the client) by client representatives who introduced them- selves to the subject at that point; Phase II also included a second round of experimentation on the Semipalatinsk site with direct participa- tion of client representatives in which further data were obtained and evaluated. As preparation for this phase, client representatives purposely kept themselves blind to all but general knowledge of the target site to minimize the possibility of cueing. The Phase II effort was focused on the generation of physical data that could be independently' verified by other client resources, thus providing a calibration of the process. The end of Phase II gradually evolved into the first part of Phase III, the generation of unverifiable data concerning the Semipalatinsk site not available to the client, but of operational interest nonetheless. Several hours of tape transcript and a notebook full of drawings were generated over a two-week period. The data describing the Semipalatinsk site were evaluated by the sponsor, and are contained in a separate report. In general, several details concerning the salient technology of the Semipalatinsk site ap- peared to dovetail with data from other sources, and a number of specific SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 WDIPPG~Q0788R001300030001-5 Approved For Releau it(1g9/7~p ssi O O .I. * W -XI. 19 1274 7M (b) SUBJECT EFFORT AT CRANE CONSTRUCTION FIGURE 2 MAP AND DETAIL OF SITE DRAWN BY SUBJECT S1 10 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release 2003/ISgt R "P96-00788R001300030001-5 SECRET Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For ReleU EAlS. SI ED00788R001300030001-5 large structural elements were correctly described. The results contained noise along with the signal, but were nonetheless clearly differentiated from the chance results that were generated by control subjects in compar- ison experiments carried out by the COTR. 3. Long-Distance Remote Viewing: SRI-Designated Targets (Explora- tory Research, Costa Rica Series) The experimental procedures of Subsections 1 and 2 were designed to provide a vehicle whereby the client could establish, independently of SRI, some degree of confidence as to the existence of a long-distance re- mote viewing faculty. Although the results were indicated to be positive, from the standpoint of SRI personnel who could not participate in the evaluation phase, it was considered necessary to supplement the above experiments with a similar set under. SRI control. Therefore, SRI-controlled experiments were undertaken to enable the experimenters to participate directly in the evaluation phase of the remote-viewing experiments. Two subjects (S1 and S4) were asked to participate in a long- distance experiment focusing on a series of targets in Costa Rica. The subjects said they had never been to Costa Rica. In this experiment, one of the experimenters (Dr. Puthoff) spent ten days traveling through Costa Rica on a combination business/pleasure trip. This information was all that was known to the subjects about the traveler's itinerary. The experiment called for Dr. Puthoff to keep a detailed record of his location and activities, including photographs, each of seven target days at 1330 PDT. A total of 12 daily descriptions were collected before the traveler's return: six responses from Si, five responses from S4, and one response from an SRI experimenter, who acted as a subject in one experiment on a day in which S4 was not available and the other subject arrived late. For its illustrative value we consider first the single response submitted by the experimenter filling in as a subject. The response, a drawing submitted for a day in the middle of the series, is shown in Figure 4 together with photographs taken at the site. Although Costa Rica is a mountainous country, the subject unexpectedly perceived the traveler at a beach and ocean setting. With some misgivings, he described an UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Releas J 1A SSII I)788RO01300030001-5 AIRPORT IN SAN ANDRES, COLOMBIA, USED AS REMOTE VIEWING TARGET FIGURE 4 AIRPORT IN SAN ANDRES, COLOMBIA, USED AS REMOTE VIEWING TARGET ALONG WITH SKETCH PRODUCED BY SUBJECT IN CALIFORNIA UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Rele jy1gt!/Q9A05 @Ii ffl96~p0788RO01300030001-5 airport on a sandy beach and an airstrip with the ocean at the end (correct). An airport building also was drawn, and shown to have a large rectangular overhang (correct). The traveler had taken a one-day unplanned side trip to an offshore island and at the time of the experiment had just disem- barked from a plane at a small island airport as described, 4000 kilometers from SRI. The sole discrepancy was that the drawing showed a Quonset-hut type of building in place of the rectangular structure. The above description was chosen as an example to illustrate two major points observed a number of times throughout the program. First, in opposition to what might be expected, a subject's description does not necessarily portray what might reasonably be expected to be correct (an educated or "safe" guess) but often runs counter to even the subject's own expectations. Second, individuals other than those with putative "paranormal ability" are able to exhibit a remote viewing faculty. The'remaining submissions provided further examples of excellent correspondences between target and response. (A target period of pool- side relaxation was identified, a drive through a tropical forest at the base of a truncated volcano was described as a drive through a jungle below a large bare table mountain, a hotel room target description, in- cluding such details as rug color, was correct, and so on.) So as to determine whether such matches were simply fortuitous, i.e., could rea- sonably be expected on the basis of chance alone, when Dr. Puthoff re- turned he was asked to blind match the 12 descriptions to the seven target locations. On the basis of this conservative evaluation procedure, which vastly underestimates the statistical significance of the individual descriptions, five correct matches were obtained (two each of subjects S1 and S4, and the single submission by the experimenter). This number of matches is significant at p = 0.02 by exact binomial calculation.* * The probability of a correct daily match by chance for any given tran- script is p = 1/7. Therefore, the probability of at least five correct matches by chance out of 12 tries can be calculated from 12 P i 5 i!(12!i)! ()1(6)12-i = 0.02. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Releasq a/ tOA l 88R001300030001-5 Therefore, this pilot study, completely under control of SRI, provided confirmatory data supporting that obtained under sponsor control, indi- cating the existence of an apparent long-distance remote viewing faculty. 4. Short-Range Remote Viewing (Cipher Machine Analog) As a further test of operational utility of the remote viewing faculty, the COTR tasked the contractors with an experiment designed to duplicate as closely as possible an operational situation of current interest, the remote viewing of an abacus-type device. During a trip to the East Coast, the experimenters were to proceed to New York, where they were to purchase locally an abacus to be used as a target in a remote viewing experiment. (The abacus was to constitute a target anal- ogous to a cipher machine of particular interest.) Following the purchase they were to contact a subject who lived there (S3) by telephone with a surprise request to come to the experimenters' hotel room later that day to participate in a remote-viewing experiment. The above steps were carried out in preparation for the experi- ment. In this case the experimenters knew what the target was, an ex- ception to the double-blind rule followed in all our other work. There- fore, while awaiting the subject's arrival, a preamble for the experiment was prerecorded by one of the experimenters (Targ) and carefully checked to ensure against verbal cueing: Hal and I have brought a present for you. We wandered around New York this morning and we bought an object. This object is of the type that one interacts with, and Hal will use it for its normal purpose. Today is Friday, September 26, 1974. As in all our remote viewing experiments, we'd like to ask you to describe the object as you see it rather than attempting to give the object a name. When the subject entered the hotel room, this instruction tape was played by one experimenter (R.T.) while the other experimenter (H.P.) took a large locked suitcase containing the target object into an adjacent room, locked the door, and removed the abacus, shown in Figure 5(a), actions verified earlier as being inaudible. Thus the only available cue was an upper bound on the size. The subject produced the outline drawing I of Figure 5(b) in approximately one minute. (The large purplish-silver object corresponds UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release f4rQ9/A0SSj-Pgg8f.Q0788R001300030001-5 H c (Illlll UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For ReleasU 9UASSILDP &88R001300030001-5 to the suitcase interior and is not taken to be evidential.) The experi- menter remaining with the subject asked for more detail, and the subject produced the drawing II of Figure 5(b), describing the object as a "game box with little balls." The entire experiment was tape recorded and extreme caution was taken to prevent cueing of any kind. The experiment took place in five minutes total time. Considering the high-strangeness factor of the target item, and essentially total lack of restriction on the possibilities as far as the subject was concerned, the correlation of subject drawings and target was taken as indicative of a potential utility for remote viewing of tech- nological targets, and resulted in a decision to experiment further in this area. After the target was shown to the subject, a short follow-up experiment was carried out to determine whether the position of the balls on the abacus could be determined by remote viewing, but this degree of resolution was found to be beyond the subject's capability. 5. Short-Range Remote Viewing (Technology Series) So as to measure the resolution capability of the remote viewing phenomenon, a series of experiments targeting on remote laboratory equip- ment within the SRI complex was carried out. Thirteen experiments were carried out with five different sub- jects, two of whom were sponsor staff personnel. A subject was told that one of the experimenters would be sent by random protocol to a laboratory within the SRI complex and that he would interact with the equipment or apparatus at the location. It was further explained that the experimenter remaining with the subject was kept ignorant of the contents of the target pool to prevent cueing during questioning. (The remaining experimenter only knew that from time to time, on a random basis, previously used targets would be reinserted into the target pool to provide an opportunity for multiple responses to a given target, and that during sponsor visits the targets might be selected by sponsor staff personnel rather than by the established random protocol procedures.) The subject was asked to describe the target both verbally (tape recorded) and by means of drawings during the time-synchronized 15-minute interval in which the outbound experimenter interacted in an appropriate manner with the equipment in the UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Relep7N1ffXt:? B00788R001300030001-5 target area. In the 13 experiments; eight targets were used: a drill press, computer-driven flight simulator (Link trainer), Xerox machine, video terminal, chart recorder, four-state random target generator (used in screening tests described later), typewriter, and machine shop. Three of these were used twice (drill press, video terminal, and typewriter) and one (Xerox machine) came up three times. As an example of drawings generated by subjects, all of the subject outputs generated for the latter three (video terminal, typewriter, and Xerox machine) are shown in Figures 6, 7, and 8. A summary of subject and target selection procedure is given in Table 1. As is apparent from the illustrations alone, certain of the ex- periments provide circumstantial evidence for an information channel of useful bit rate. This includes experiments (Experiments 4 and 13) in which sponsor staff personnel participated as subjects to observe the protocol. To obtain independent objective judgment of the quality of the remote viewing of technological targets, various analyses based on blind judging were employed. In the first judging procedure, a judge was asked to blind-match the drawings alone (i.e., without tape transcripts) to the targets. Multiple subject responses to a given target were stapled together, and thus there were seven subject-drawing response packets to be matched to the seven different targets for which drawings were made. (No drawings were made for the Link trainer.) The judge did not have access to our photographs of the target locations, used for demonstration only (as in Figures 6 through 8), but rather proceeded to each of the target locations by list. While standing at each target location, the judge was required to rank order the seven subject-drawing response packets (presented in random order) on a scale one to seven (best to worst match), as shown in Table 2. The statistic of interest is the sum of ranks on the diagonal, lower values indicating better matches. For seven targets, the sum of ranks could range from seven to forty-nine. The probability that a given sum of ranks s or less will occur by chance is given by:1 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For ReleasUNCi``1A9--IffE(&88R001300030001-5 J z z CO M wM O a J M U) UNCLASSIFIED aQ m V >cc } W aw D cn 2 z 0 v w Cl) . C Z m 11 d 0 z m o 0 u 0 d w v) m U) D 0 L0 0 z o D 0 n c=n m LL _ W w C'Z cc . J M Z w O Y w u 0 0 X om a am O 00 Co v N O f 33N3la3S 3DVSS3W 13DEIV1 ?L? UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For ReleasfI 1A gSff f pEf'88R001300030001-5 exact binomial calculation*), the result indicates a tendency toward cor- rect labeling that could be explored further. With an increased number of runs, the probabilities for a and a errors can be reduced while still permitting a large percentage of labelings to be made. (For completeness we include the raw data call sheet as Table 6.) A second shorter series of 18 sorting runs through the 27 cards to choose the six pencil cards yielded chance results. Recognizing that the probability of a correct choice by chance is the probability that an SW card is sorted into the SW channel, or a non-SW card is sorted into the non-SW channel, we have 12 12 15 15 p(corr) = 27 x 27 + 27 x 27 = 0.506. From this the probability of at least 13 correct choices by chance out of 19 tries can be calculated from 19 p Z i!(l9-i)! (0.506)1(0.494)19-1 = 0.09 i=13 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Relems nan 1t:?I b00788R001300030001-5 TABLE 6 RAW DATA CALL SHEET FOR SECRET WRITING EXPERIMENT (SELECT 12 PER RUN) Card Chosen P P P B B P P P B B SW SW SW SW B SW B SW SW B SW SW B B SW SW SW 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Run # l x x x x x x x x x x x x 2 x x x x x x x x x x x x 3 x x X x x x x x x x x x 4 x x x x x x x x x x x x 5 x x x x x x x x x x x x 6 X X x x x x x x x x x x 7 X X X X X x x x x x x x 8 x x x x x x x x x x x x 9 x x X X x x x x x x x x 10 X X x x x x x x x x x x 11 X X X X x x x x x X X X 12 X X X X X X x x x x x x 13 x x X x x x x x x x x x 14 X X x x x x x x x x x x 15 x x x x x x x x X x x x 16 x x X x x x x X x x x x 17 X X X X x x x x x x x x 18 X X x x x X x x X x x x 19 x x X X X x x x x x x x 20 x x x x x x x x x x x x 21 x x x x x x x x x x x x 22 x x x x x x x x 'X x x x 23 x x x x X X x x x x x x 24 x x x x X x x x x x x x UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For Release OMM9 09 f.Ely 8ROO1300030001-5 In addition to experimentation carried out under conditions appropri- ate to assessing the operational utility of paranormal abilities, approx- imately 50 percent of the program effort was devoted to a basic research effort that included: (1) Identification of measurable characteristics possessed by gifted individuals, (2) Identification of neurophysiological correlates that relate to paranormal activities, (3) Identification of the nature of paranormal phenomena and energy. A. Screening Tests To meet the above objectives, the first prerequisite was the estab- lishment of criteria capable of differentiating individuals apparently gifted in paranormal functioning from those who were not. This pre- requisite was met by carrying out a series of screening tests under fixed protocol conditions. The tests were designed to ensure that all conven- tional communications channels were blocked, and that the outcomes could be sufficiently unambiguous to determine whether paranormal functioning occurred. Individuals gifted in certain areas of paranormal functioning could then be differentiated from those who were not on the basis of whether their results differed significantly from chance. Two experimental paradigms were utilized as screening tests on the basis that these tests had been useful for such purposes prior to this program (in the sense that certain apparently gifted individuals did exceedingly well in at least one of these tests, whereas the results of unselected volunteers did not differ significantly from chance expecta- tion). The tests were (a) the remote viewing of natural targets, and (b) the determination of the state of a four-state random target generator. The first type of test constitutes a so-called "free-response" paradigm in which the subject originates freely about contents of his awareness; furthermore, the channel in general may involve both direct perception of the remote site and perception of the mental contents of an observer at the site. In the second type of test, on the other hand, the target UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2003/09/10 : CIA-RDP96-00788R001300030001-5 Approved For RelNQpi/M S#Tr6-00788R001300030001-5 is more abstract (an electronic state), the target is blind to all par- ticipants, and the subject's choice is precisely constrained. For the purpose of screening, a result is considered unambiguously paranormal if the a priori probability for the occurrence of the result by chance, under the null hypothesis, is p