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For Release 2000/08/07 :CIA-RDP9 - 0 8 8001300170001-0 Final Report June 1980 Covering the Period 1 May 1979 to 31 March 1980 SPECIAL ORIENTATION TECHNIQUES (U) By: RUSSELL TARG HAROLD E. PUTHOFF BEVERLY S. HUMPHREY EDWIN C. MAY CLASSIFIED BY: Msg, HQDA (DAMI-ISH) dated 7 July 1978 REVIEW ON: 7 July 1998 ~~~.~~. NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS For Relea~e1~4~0,1~/0~7enuCl/Ac~DP~l6-O~fl0~d~00~1~~001-0 (415) 326-6200 Cable: SRI INTL MNP TWX: 910-373-1246 Approved For Release 2000/08/07 :CIA- 888001300170001-0 Final Report SPECIAL ORIENTATION TECHNIQUES (U) By: RUSSELL TARG HAROLD E. PUTHOFF BEV~9LY S. HUMPHREY EDWIN C. MAY SPECIAL ACCESS PROGRAM FOR GRILL FLAME. RESTRICT DISSEMINATION TO ONLY INDIVIDUALS WITH VERIFIED ACCESS. 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, California 94025 U.S.A. {415) 326-6200 Cable: SRI INTL MNP RELEASABLE TO For Rel~~~ ~6~.~/9$~@eT :CIA- 001300~~nQ NATIONALS Approved For Release 2000/ ~P96-007888001300170001-0 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (U) v LIST OF TABLES (U) . vii I OBJECTIVE (U) . 1 II INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY (U) 3 A. Basic Program Structure (U) 3 B. Task Summary (U) . 6 C. Report Organization (U) 8 III BACKGROUND (U) 9 A. Screening (U) g B. Remote Viewing Protocols for the Description of Local (San Francisco Bay Area) Target Sites (U) 11 1, Basic Procedural Design (U). 12 2., Remote Viewer/Interviewer Roles (U). 14 3. Target Pool Selection (U). 14 4. Target Storage and Access (U). 15 5. Remote Viewer Orientation (U). 16 6. Interviewer Behavior (U) 17 7, Target Person ("Beacon") Behavior (U). 18 8, Post-Experiment Feedback (U) 19 9. Evaluation Procedure (U) 19 IV ORIENTATION PROGRAM--PHASE ONE (U) 25 A. Remote Viewing of Local Target Sites (U). 25 B. Summary of the Six Series (U) 26 The individual titles on this page are UNCLASSIFIED. However, the compi- lation of these titles may indicate defense information and material, the unauthorized disclosure of which could reasonably be expected to cause serious damage to the national security; hence, an overall classification of SECRET is warranted. Approved For Release 2000/0 96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20 RDP96-007888001300170001-0 1, Viewer No, 155 (U) 26 2, Viewer No, 292 (U) 29 3, Viewer No, 372 (U) 34 4, Viewer No, 468 (U) 36 5, Viewer No, 518 (U) 39 6, Viewer No, 690 (U) 41 C. Analysis of Trans cript'Correlations (U) 43 D, Summary of Judging Results for Local Target Sites (U) 47 A, Remote Viewing (RV) of 35-mm Slides (U) 58 1, Viewer No, 372 RV '(U) . 59 2, Viewer No. 518 RV (U), 60 3, Comparison of Blind Judging and Accuracy Ratings for 35-mm Slides (U) 67 1, Viewer No, 468, RV and FRV of 35-mm Slides (U) 70 2, Viewer No, 292, RV and FRV of 35-mm Slides (U) 74 3. Viewer No, 155, RV and FRV of 35-mm Slides (U) 7S 4, Viewer No, 155, FRV of Local Target Sites (U), 79 C. Extended Remote Viewing (ERV), Viewer No, 518 (U) 83 1. Background (U) 83 2, Pilot Effort (U) 83 3, Formal Series (Six Trials) (U) 83 4, Discussion (U) 92 E, Coordinate Remote Viewing (CRV) with Immediate Feedback (U) , 94 Approved For Release 2 -RDP96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/ 6-007888001300170001-0 1 Stanford Art Museum Target (a), and Response (b), by Viewer 372 (U) 2 Beacon Tower in Vicinity of Control Tower Target at Palo Alto Airport (a), and Response by Viewer No. 292 (b) (U) . 3 Windmill Target and Responses by Viewers S5 (a) and No. 468 (b) (U). .. 4 Redwood City Cross Target, and Responses of Viewers 372 (a) and 155 (b) (U) . .. . 5 Pedestrian Overpass Target, and Responses of S4 (a) and No. 155 (b) (U) . 6 Distribution of 36 Target/Transcript Correspondences for Local Target Sites (6 subjects, 6 transcripts each), Showing More than 50% First-Place Matches (U). . 7 Comparison Between Blind-Judge Rankings and Accuracy Assessments (U) . 8 Ultra Modern Dome House--Target, and Viewer 372 Drawing (U) . 9 Mount Alverno Conference Center, and Viewer 372 Drawing (U) . 10 Stanford Shopping Center--Target, and Viewer 372 Drawing (U) . 11 Varsity Theatre Arcade--Target, and Viewer 518 Drawing (U) . 12 Victorian House--Target, and Viewer 518 Drawing (U). . 64 65 13 Glass Slipper Motel--Target, and Viewer 518 Drawing (U). 66. 14 Stanford Shopping Center--Target, and Response of Viewer No. 468 (U) 72 15 Target Slide, and Viewer 292 Response Fifteen Minutes Before Random Selection of Target (U) , 16 Target Slide, and Viewer 272 Response Fifteen Minutes Before Random Selection of Target (U) Approved For Release 2000/0 6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 200^~R~ ^n*~QDP96-007888001300170001-0 :_ _.._ . 17 Copper Pitcher and Viewer No. 518 ERV Response (U) 85 18 Food Mill Target and Viewer No, 518 ERV Response (U) gg 19 Straw Hat Target and Viewer No. 518 ERV Response (U) gg 20 Tripod Target and Viewer No, 518 ERV Response (U), 21 Antenna and Viewer No, 518 ERV Response (U). 22 Globe Target and Viewer No, 518 ERV Response (U) gg 90 Al Approved For Release 2 - DP96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000 P96-007888001300170001-0 vim.-~.~~ 1 Results of Transcript Concept Analysis of a Remote Viewing Experiment (U) 22 2 0-7 Point Accuracy Rating Scale for Target/Transcript Correspondence (U) 27 3 Total Scores for Each of the Six Viewers in Phase-One Orientation Program (U). 52. 4 Distribution of CRV Target/Response Matchings (U). 98 5 Program Summary (U) . 100 Approved For Release 2000 96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000 P96-007888001300170001-0 (S) The objectives of this program are the optimization of remote viewing (RV) protocols, the orientation of selected individuals to reach enhanced levels of ability, and the establishment of screening procedures to enlarge the population from which individuals are selected. Approved For Release 2000/ 96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/ 6-007888001300170001-0 II INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY (U) (S) In this report we present results and assessments of a one-year program for the optimization of remote viewing with client-selected individuals. The objective of .this program was to familiarize these individuals with the SRI remote viewing protocols, to produce enhanced levels of ability, and to establish screening tests anal procedures for enlarging the population from which such individuals are selected. (U) For the past seven years SRI International has been investigating a human perceptual/processing ability called remote viewing (RV). This is the subject matter of the current study, and it pertains to the acquisition and description, by mental means, of information blocked from ordinary perception by distance or shielding and generally considered to be secure from such access. (S) At the start of this program, six individuals were chosen by the client organization to participate in an RV technology transfer, With the exception of one of-the six who had participated i?n an ESP study several years earlier, these participants when selected were inexperienced with regard to paranormal perception in general, and RV in particular, A variety of different training protocols were examined with the goal of helping the participants familiarize themselves with the SRI RV techniques, Formal assessment and transfer series were carried out with each of the six participants, in which they were asked to use mental imagery processes to describe distant geographic locations (bridges, roads, buildings, etc.), hidden 35-mm slides of similar sites, and objects placed in a controlled- access location. Several other information series were carried out, These are all described in later sections of this report. Approved For Release 2000/0 6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20 DP96-007888001300170001-0 (U) Four of the six participants each produced results that de- parted significantly from chance expectation in assessment series that were formally judged by very strict criteria. The other two produced results in the assessment series that were also suggestive of paranormal perception.- Overall, this result constitutes highly significant per- -5 formance (p 4 X 10 , or odds of one in 25,000 of su ch a result occurring by chance). (S) We are including in this introdu ction one illustrative example of an RV trial for a real-time San Francisco Bay Area outdoor target. The viewer, No. 372, who contributed this data, produced a mixture of responses, some excellent and some noncorresponding, in his two series at SRI, Several of his descriptions were among the best obtained in the program, and his overall consistency in-performance resulted in both of his individual series reaching statistical significance. (U) Current and proposed programs are directed at training partici- pants to bring their RV ability under more conscious control, and to learn to recognize and overcome the factors that limit RV reliability, These limiting factors center around the generation of erroneous data by the viewer from his memory and imagination. An example of the successful resolution of such noise is the following. (U) The viewer was closeted with an interviewer in the laboratory at SRI to await the target team's arrival at their destination. The target was the Stanford Art Museum on the Stanford campus. The viewer made several tentative outline sketches of different shapes that he said were "associated with the face of a building," Finally, he made a careful perspective drawing of the building he was visualizing. A photograph of the target is shown in Figure 1(a), and the viewer's drawing is shown for comparison in Figure 1(b). The viewer's narrative described the face of the building as follows: "There is a white and black pattern, a white Approved For Release 2~ DP96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release ~~~'81p~ ~I~iF~FE9?00788R001300170001-0 FIGURE 1 STANFORD ART MUSEUM TARGET (a), AND RESPONSE (b), BY VIEWER 372 (U) Approved For Release 20~1~'~1~7~~1~?RD~P96~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20 P96-007888001300170001-0 (U) and black striped pattern." ... "It's like an inverted rectangle, with a square fastened to the back, or a rectangle laid down behind it," "Like two buildings in one. One building..." "I have the sense that there is dirt by the walls ..,," He went on to talk about trees, flowers, and bicycles, all of which can be found directly in front of the target building. B. Task Summary (U) (U) In the following we briefly summarize results of the various ? (U) Bay Area Target Site Remote Viewing... In the Phase One activities, six RV trials with local San Francisco Bay Area sites as targets were carried out with each of the six viewers. In these six series, four of the viewers each produced results that were independently significant (p < 0.05), making the series as a whole strongly significant (p = 4 X 10-5; odds of one in 25,000). ? (U) Remote Viewing of 35-mm Slides. These trials were carried out under varying conditions for five viewers in Phase Two. One viewer, who generated significant results in Phase One, was again independently significant in his description of distant slides. A second viewer, also producing significant results in Phase One, produced drawings in Phase Two that were formally judged to have significant correlations with the slide targets, although his verbal material did not. A third viewer was asked to describe slides before they were chosen, that would be shown to him at a later time. His results were suggestive of success (p = 0,1) but not statistically significant, Similar trials with two other viewers were also encouraging but nonsignificant. (S) Remote Viewing into a Secure Area, A viewer who was successful in the slide viewing trials also carried out a series using extended remote viewing, in which he spent more than an hour on each o:f six attempts to describe objects held in a secure location, and chosen by the SSO Approved For Release 200 DP96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/0~~~96-007888001300170001-0 controlling that facility, Two judges evaluated this viewer's responses: one judged it significant (p = 0.05), and one just missed significance. ? (U) Alphabet Targets. A viewer successful in both Bay Area remote viewing and slide trials also participated in a series in which he attempted to describe alphabet letters in a distant location, This was not a formal series, since the protocol, which was exploratory in nature, was changed several times during the series. However, the percentage hits result indicates that the viewer was in contact with the target letters at a rate higher than would be expected by chance.. These-data, taken in conjunction with data generated on another program, show promise that this ability can be developed. ? (U) Correlated Responses. Tn the course of the year's work, targets were repeated from time to time as a result of random selection from a target pool of sixty. In some cases we obtained strikingly similar responses (even when incorrect) from the different viewers who encountered these repeated targets, These responses also correlated well with responses obtained from other viewers over past years of research, The observation of such a result indicates the possibility that given target stimuli trigger charac- teristic responses, which could be tabulated in a "dictionary" of site attributes. ? (S) Coordinate Remote Viewing (CRV). Three of the viewers took part in CRV exercises in which they were asked to describe distant locations anywhere on the globe, given only the geographical coordinates of latitude and longitude, This is an ability that has been well demonstrated by some of our experienced participants, and similar encouraging. results were obtained in these .trials with client personnel, One exercise which was sufficiently lengthy to justif y analysis was found to be statistically significant at p = 0,0083 (odds of one in 120). (S) From these studies we find evidence that the SRI RV technology is transferable; one of the client viewers turned in clearly superior performances, and three others produced successful (statistically signifi- cant) remote viewing at a level to indicate useful information transfer. Approved For Release 2000/0 ~ -007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/ 8 ? C - DP96-007888001300170001-0 C, Report Organization (U) (U) In Section III we describe the SRI RV protocols, including results from the past, and our expectations for the present program. We also discuss the screening procedures used to select viewers and the judging procedures used to evaluate the results of the investigations carried out in the current program. (U) In Section IV we describe the first phase of the study, in which we systematically carried out RV trials with the participants to obtain baseline data from each under similar experimental conditions. (S) In Section V we present the exploratory work carried out in Phase ~vo in an effort to extend the repertoire of RV tools available to client personnel, (U) Our conclusions and recommendations are presented in Section VI. Approved For Release 20 DP96-007888001300170001_-0 Approved For Release 2000/0 96-007888001300170001-0 vr~v:~~' (U) With the overall objective of improving the reliability of psychoenergetic functioning, we have in the past investigated several different screening procedures, familiarization/training protocols, and judging techniques, both with the goal of developing procedures useful in identifying gifted remote viewers, and of providing the most optimal strategies to permit individuals to exploit the RV phenomenon to useful ends. In this section we provide background data on each of these areas. A, Screening (U) (S) One of the goals of the program was to pursue the question of the establishment of screening procedures to enlarge the population from which individuals are selected for RV work, (U) In the psychoenergetics field in general, two approaches to screening have been pursued; screening by profile, and screening by performance. Both have been examined to a limited degree in this program. (U) In screening by profile, one attempts to establish physiological and/or psychological parameters which differentiate high-performance from low-performance individuals, In an early program SRI carried out an extensive profiling program on gifted individuals and controls. The tests included a comprehensive medical evaluation, including X-ray scans of the brain, and comprehensive psychological and neuropsychological profiling. The following list of tests administered gives an idea as to the thorough- ness of the evaluations: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Test, Benton Visual Memory Test, Wechsler Memory Scale, Luscher Color Test, Strong Vocational Interest Blank, Minnesota Approved For Release 2000/0 6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/ 0 -RDP96-007888001300170001-0 (U) Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Edwards Personality Preference Schedule (EPPS), Rorschach Inkblot, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Halstead Category Test, Tactual Performance Test, Speech Perception Test, Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test, Trail Making Test, Knox Cube Test, Raven Progressive Matrices, Verbal Concept Attainment Test, Buschke Memory Test, Grooved Pegboard Tests, Gottschaldt Hidden-Figures Test, and the spatial relations subtest of the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test, The overall result of this testing was that no clear profile parameters emerged on which an a priori screening procedure could be based. (S) In contrast to formal testing, however, several years observation of remote viewers by SRI researchers has led to an informal guide based on subjective evaluation of the personality traits of successful viewers, This rule-of-thumb guide is based on the observation that successful remote viewers tend to be confident, outgoing, adventurous, broadly successful individuals with some artistic bent. With this as a guide, the sponsor considered a population of 250 potential candidates for the RV program. Of these, 117 were interviewed, resulting in a pool of 30-35 individuals for potential active use in the program, With regard to the SRI orienta- tion program, ten of these were selected for interview by the SRI team, of which six were chosen for active participation in the SRI program. This constitutes the level of screening by profile, (U) In screening by performance, a number of unselected or pre- selected individuals are given a psychoenergetics task to perform. Those performing successfully are then said to be screened by the task, and are then graduated to further tasking, (U) H. Puthoff and R, Targ, "Perceptual Augmentation Techniques (U)," Final Report, SRI Project 3183, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (December 1, 1975), SECRET. Approved~For Release 20 __ _ DP96-007888001300170001-0 :r. ~~~~ ^ Approved For Release 2000/08/ 96-007888001300170001-0 (S) In this study, the six individuals pre-screened by interview were then screened by performance on a six-trial RV series involving local San Francisco Bay Area locations as target sites, Four of the six participants produced results that individually were statistically sig- nificant. Since this overall result is itself statistically significant we take as evidence that the interview selection (screening) procedure based on the SRI-supplied informal guidelines was successful, keeping in mind that the sample is too small to make an absolutely definitive statement, (S) Furthermore, taking the initial six-trial series as a performance- screening instrument, we found that the four high-performance individuals in this series continued to perform with good success in additional tasks, while the two lower-performance individuals were also less successful in later tasks. We consider this to be an important finding, (U) From these overall results we conclude that pre-screening on the basis of interview, following the informal SRI guideline criteria, and screening by performance, using the SRI Standard RV Protocols, both constitute basic screening tools that in this program provided reliable indicators of success in psychoenergetic performance, B, Remote Viewing Protocols for the Description of Local (San Francisco Bay Area) Target Sites (U) (U) As a result of efforts over the years to develop an optimum psychoenergetic task appropriate for screening and training, we have settled on a standard remote-viewing (RV) procedure which is a refined version of that described in our Proc. IEEE paper. The elements of the (U) H. E. Puthoff and R. Targ, "A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research," Proc, IEEE, Vol. 64, pp, 329-354 (March 1976), Approved For Release 2000/0 6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~Q4Q~08/q~7~~1~[~P~-00788R001300170001-0 (U) protocol, each of which is addressed below,. consist of (1) basic procedural design; (2) remote viewer/interviewer roles; (3) target pool selection; (4) target storage and access; (5) remote viewer orientation; (6) inter- viewer behavior; (7) target person behavior; (9) evaluation procedure. 1, Basic Procedural Design (U) (8) post-experiment feedback; (U) As carried out at SRI, the general procedure is to closet the percipient, hereafter called the viewer, with an interviewer, and at a prearranged time to obtain from the viewer a description of an undis- closed, remote site being visited by a-target team, one of whose members is known to the remote viewer and who thereby constitutes the target or "beacon" person. The target team is assigned their target location by random entry into a list of targets located within a 30-minute driving time from SRI, The target pool consists of sixty target locations chosen from a target-rich environment. The target location selected is kept blind to both the viewer and interviewer closeted at SRI. The protocol is thus of the double-blind type, (U) In detail: At the beginning of atrial, a remote viewer is closeted with an interviewer in an isolated windowless room of the Radio Physics Laboratory in the SRI complex to await an agreed-upon start time. At the same time a target person is sent, without communication with the remote viewer or interviewer remaining at SRI, to a target location somewhere in the San Francisco Bay Area (-,500 square km), The target is (U) The target person is designated a "beacon" rather than a "sender" because the evidence to date points to the remote viewer exhibiting an independence of viewpoint and mobility at the target site which takes the phenomenon beyond simply mind-to-mind information transfer, Approved For Releas~1~8~7~ ~~~~~6-00788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~f{~~~~~~[~0788R001300170001-0 (U) determined by random-number access to a target pool of travelling orders previously prepared by an experimental team (not including interviewers) and kept locked in a secure safe. The target pool consists of 60 target locations chosen from a target-rich environment, (U) During a predetermined viewing period of 15 minutes duration, the remote viewer is asked to render drawings and describe into a tape recorder his impressions of the target site being visited by the outbound target person, The interviewer with the remote viewer is kept ignorant of the target and is therefore free to question him to clarify his descriptions without fear of cueing (overt or subliminal) as to the particular target. (U) When the target person returns to SRI following the remote viewing period, the subject is then taken to the target site so that he may obtain direct feedback. Following a series of such trials over a several-day period, a formal blind judging procedure (described below) is used to evaluate the data and quantify the results, (U) There is, however, a confounding factor that needs to be taken into account, Since general knowledge of the San Francisco Bay Area target region on the part of the remote viewer and interviewer must be taken as a given, and since particular knowledge of the contents of the target pool is revealed as a series progresses, in evaluating the results one must take into account the possibility that any particular description may be artifactually sharpened.. (Such sharpening can in principle in- crease the apparent quality of the result only if there is functional RV to begin with; it cannot in the absence of RV produce an inflated result.) This sharpening possibility in the presence of an already functioning RV capability is handled in the statistical evaluation of the results by conservatively assuming the worst at the outset, and treating the series as belonging to that class of studies in which the elements of the target pool are known a priori to both remote viewer and interviewer, as in studies involving numbers or cards as targets. Approved For Release 20~/~~~R~D~~A-l'll7/88R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/~A~,10,7~Gl~BDP96-007888001300170001-0 2, Remote Viewer/Interviewer Roles (U) (U) An important methodological aspect of the SRI RV protocols is based on the fact that the remote viewer/interviewer team constitutes a single information gathering unit in which the remote viewer's role is designed to be that of perceiver/information source, and the interviewer's .role is designed to be that of analytical control. (S) This division of labor is designed to mirror the two primary modes of cerebral functioning; namely, the nonanalytic cognitive style (related to brain function) that predominates in spatial pattern recognition and other holistic processing (and is hypothesized to pre- dominate in psi functioning), and the analytical cognitive style that predominates in verbal and other analytical functioning, (Only very experienced remote viewers appear to have the ability to handle both cognitive styles simultaneously,) The interviewer role, removing as it does the burden of analytical functioning during exercise of the RV faculty, appears to be a key element in generating the level of success required in operational programs, and we attribute the success of the SRI RV protocols in large part to this innovative design which appears to provide an appropriate match to the required functioning. 3, Target Pool Selection (U) (U) Target locations in the San Francisco Bay Area are selected by a team of two Radio Physics Laboratory personnel who are not involved (U) See, e,g,, J, Ehrenwald, "Cerebral Localization and the Psi Syndrome," J, of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol. 161, No. 6, pp, 393-398; R. Ornstein, The Nature of Human Consciousness, San Francisco, CA: Freeman, 1973, Ch. 7 and 8; and R. W. Sperry, "Cerebral Organization and Behavior," Science, Vol, 133, pp. 1749-1757 (1961), Approved For Release 20 P96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~~7A~~~~{6~'90788R001300170001-0 (U) as interviewers in the experiments (to prevent direct knowledge of the target pool by the interviewers). The locations are chosen to satisf y the following criteria: (1) Target sites must be within a half-hour drive of the SRI Menlo Park complex so that a uniform target access time exists for all experiments. (2) The target pool is constructed to contain several targets of various types--that is, several fountains, several churches, several boathouses, and so forth--specifically to circumvent analysis strategies of the type '}there was a fountain yesterday, so it is unlikely that there is a fountain today." Furthermore,- targets of different types are not chosen to be particularly distinct from each other, so that overlapping features exist. In this manner the content of a given target, determined by random entry into the target pool, is essentially independent of the contents of other targets ("open-deck" design). (3) The definition of what constitutes each target is established in advance of the entire RV series by written descriptions on a set of 3" X 5" target cards. (Ex: Four Seasons Restaurant, on E1 Camino Real, just north of San Antonio Road. Stand under the entry arch and feel the bricks.) These cards constitute the outbound team's instructions at the beginning of the trial, and the judge's target list during the evaluation phase. 4. Target Storage and Access (U) (U) The target cards are numbered and placed in individual envelopes, similarly numbered., by the target selection team, and then stored in a GSA-approved secure container not available to project remote viewers. (U) At the start of an RV session the interviewer, remote viewer, and target person rendezvous in the laboratory and establish the trial start time (30 minutes hence). The target person then leaves the Approved For Release 20~~~~.~I~t~~;~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~1~8~~~~~~6-007888001300170001-0 (U) laboratory, generates a random number by the use of the random-number function on a Texas Instruments Model SR-51 hand calculator (whose randomness has been verified by a separate test), obtains the associated envelope from the safe, and departs for the target site. 5. Remote Viewer Orientation (U) (U) During the period that the target person is enroute to the target, the interviewer and remote viewer have a period to relax and discuss the protocols. The goal of the interviewer during this period is to make it "safe" for the remote viewer to experience remote viewing. For the initial orientation of a new remote viewer, this typically includes a discussion as to how remote viewing appears to be a natural rather than abnormal function, and that many people appear to have done it successfully. (U) The ::emote viewer is told that memory and imagination constitute noise in the channel, and therefore the closer he can get to raw uninterpreted imagery., the better.. He is encouraged to report raw perception rather than analysis,. since the former tends to be correct while the latter is often wrong. (U) Since remote viewing is a difficult task, apparently similar to the perception of subliminal stimuli,. it takes the full attentive powers of the remote viewer. Therefore, the environment, procedures, etc., are designed to be as natural and comfortable as possible so as to minimize the diversion of attention to anything other than the task at hand. No hypnosis, strobe lights, or sensory-deprivation procedures are used, since H. F. Dixon; "Subliminal Perception and Parapsychology: Points of Contact," Proc, of the XXVII Annual International Conference of the Parapsychology Foundation, Inc., New York (1979). Approved For Release/~~:~~~-~t~~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/0 96-007888001300170001-0 (u> in our view such (novel) environmental factors would divert some of the subject's much-needed attention, 6. Interviewer Behavior (U) (U) The interviewer arranges ahead of time to have pen and paper available for drawing, and a tape recorder, The room lighting is somewhat subdued to prevent after-image highlights, shadows on eyelids, etc. (U) When the agreed-upon RV trial time arrives, the interviewer simply asks the remote viewer to "describe the impressions that come to mind with regard to where the target person is." The interviewer does not pressure the remote viewer to verbalize continuously; if he were to, the remote viewer might tend to embroider descriptions to please the interviewer, a well-known syndrome in behavioral studies of this type. If the remote viewer tends toward being analytical ("I see Macy's") the interviewer gently leads him into description, not analysis. ("You don't have to tell me where it is, just describe what you see,") This is the most important and difficult task of the interviewer, but is apparently necessary for good results, especially with inexperienced remote viewers, (U) It is also useful for the interviewer to "surprise" the remote viewer with new viewpoints. ("Go above the scene and look down-- what do you see? If you look to the left, what do you see?") The remote viewer's viewpoint appears to shift rapidly with a question like this, and the data come through before the viewer's defenses activate to block it out, (S) The interviewer role described here, applicable to the familiariza- tion/screening task at hand, is appropriately modified for an operational task involving an experienced remote viewer. In the SRI operational procedure the interviewer is typically more "muzzled" in general, although, if not blind to the target, supplying positive feedback at certain key points for correct target-related responses. Approved For Release 2000/0 6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~~Qp~g8~7s ~~~tp~6-007888001300170001-0 (u) The shifting of viewpoint also obviates the problem of .the remote viewer spending the entire session time giving meticulous detail on a relatively trivial item, such as a flower, which, even if correct, generally will be of little use in assessing the session. .(Once a remote viewer feels he sees something, he tends to hang on to this perception rather than commit himself to a new viewpoint.) It is important to recognize again that with the division of labor between remote viewer and interviewer it is the interviewer's (not the remote viewer's) responsibility to see that the necessary information to permit discrimination among the range of target possibilities is generated, the remote viewer's responsibility being con- fined to exercise of the RV faculty. (U) The remote viewer is encouraged to sketch what he sees, even over his objections that he is not an artist, can't sketch, etc. He may do so throughout, or wait until the end of the session if inter- mittent drawing would distract his concentration. Since drawings tend to be more accurate than verbalizations, this is an extremely important factor for good results, 7. Target Person ("Beacon") Behavior (U) (U) After obtaining a target card in the manner described earlier, the target person proceeds to the target site indicated. (U) He is asked to come upon the target location at the starting time so that his view of it is fresh at the beginning of the remote viewing period. He is to then simply pay. attention to the environment as dictated by instructions on the target card. At the end of the agreed-upon target viewing time of 15 minutes the target person returns to the lab. Approved For Release/~~75:~~~~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~~1C~7A(~~~~fi?0788R001300170001-0 8. Post-Experiment Feedback (U) (U) When the target person returns, and after all the raw data has been filed,. the interviewer, remote viewer, and target person proceed directly to the target site for feedback, This helps to develop the remote viewer's sense of which aspects of his mental imaging process are correct, which are incorrect, This appears to bring the RV trial to .closure for the remote viewer, so that when he has a following session, his mind is no longer involved with wondering how he did on the previous one. Only a very experienced subject can function well time after time without feedback, so this is done for each trial to optimize the potential for success, 9. Evaluation Procedure (U) (U) In a sense,. the most critical part of the standard remote- viewing procedure is the evaluation procedure.. Any single experiment in remote viewing.,. even if perfect.,. could .in.principle be dismissed as possibly a coincidence.. Further.,. any result less than perfect might be called into question as a generalized ".grass is .green., sky is bluer' transcript that fits every target, Strictly speaking, only blind differ- ential discrimination of transcripts across a series of targets can provide a basis to discriminate between these dismissals and the RV interpretation, although,. as we shall see later, certain post hoc transcript-by-transcript evaluation procedures are found to correlate well with blind differential matching procedures. (U) To obtain a numerical evaluation of the accuracy of a standard six-trial remote viewing. series with a given remote viewer, the results are subjected to judging on a blind basis by an SRI research analyst not otherwise associated with the series he is to judge. To be specific, two project personnel acted as interviewers (R. T, and H. P.), Approved For Release 20~I~~7~~I~t~RD~~Q~d~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~~~s ~1~~6-007888001300170001-0 (U) and two others (E, M, and B, H.) interchanged roles on alternate series as target. person. and blind judge.. When acting as a judge for a given series, that individual was isolated from the viewer and others involved in the series so as to prevent contamination, (U) In preparation for judging,. the remote viewer's tapes are transcribed. The resulting transcripts are then edited only to the extent of deleting information which might act as artifactual cues to a judge, such as references to other targets, or phrases which might indicate the temporal order of the transcripts. (U) The transcripts (including associated drawings) and target cards, each arranged in their own random order different from the order of target usage.,. are then turned over to the judge.. The judge is instructed to visit the target locations on the basis of the target card instructions, and to blind rank order, on a scale of 1-6 (best to worst match), each of the six transcripts against each of the six target sites, generating a 6 X 6 matrix. (U) In order to carry out this task, the judge must assess quantitatively the degree of correspondence between a given transcript and target, We have recently developed a concept analysis procedure that provides for just such detailed comparisons, In this new procedure, we begin by analyzing each transcript for its specific content. To accomplish this, the transcript is divided into a list of specific concepts, where a concept may consist of a single word or phrase from the transcript (e,g., "red"), or a single word or phrase that summarizes a lengthy idea (e.g., "shady"), A list of concepts is made for each transcript in a series to be judged, The analysis proceeds by having the judge, who is blind to which transcripts actually match which targets, stand at the first target location on his target list, and for each transcript make an assessment, Approved For Releas~~~7~~~1~61?6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~~~F~~~i~0788R001300170001-0 (U) concept by concept,. on a rating scale of 0 to 10, A rating of zero implies no correspondence whatever between that particular concept and. the target site in question,. and a 10 implies complete correspondence, Intermediate scores are given in pr.oport.io.n to the extent of the corres- pondence..... ..Having done this for each of the concepts., one by one, in the first transcript,. the judge repeats the assessment as independently as possible for .all the concepts in all of the remaining transcripts. He then proceeds to the next target site on the .list and repeats the concept assessment for all of the transcripts as applied to that site. Having finished all the travel sites in this manner, the judge computes the average rating score for all concepts in each transcript matched against each target. When there are six trials in the series, there are 36 such averages. (U) In a second step of the judging procedure., the judge displays. his results in a matrix with targets displayed as rows and transcripts displayed as columns< An example from an actual experiment (Viewer 690) is shown in Table 1, At this point in the analysis, the judge submits his results. (U) A precise measure of the statistical significance of the matrix of target/transcript relations is given by a direct-count-of- permutations .method of great generality. It is an exact calculation method requiring no appr.oximati.ons such as normality assumptions. Furthermore, the judging process that went into generating the matrix is not required to be independent transcript-to-.transcript nor target-to- target, Finally, the statistical evaluation procedure is general enough that, in addition to being applicable to the blind rank order procedure (U) C, Scott, "On the Evaluation of Verbal Material in Parapsychology: A Discussion of Dr. Pratt's monograph," Jour. Soc. Psych, Res,, Vol. 46, No. 752, pp. 79-90 (June 1972), Approved For Release 20~I~~7~~1~~~~~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releasq ~~Q~~/~7~ ~I~~-00788R001300170001-0 RESULTS OF TRANSCRIPT CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF A REMOTE VIEWING EXPERIMENT (U) (a) Ratings Transcripts Targets A B C D E F Shielded Room 3.55 5.55 2.20 3,80 2.90 2.20 Alta Mesa 3,40 4,00 6,05 2.85 3.00 4.70 Ely Chevrolet 3.50 2,60 1,75 2,00 4.45 4.30 Four Seasons 4.90 3.20 4,80 2.80 2.60 4,85 Methodist Church 2.15 2.60 3.50 3.20 4,70 6,45 Library Stacks 4,05 3,90 3.80 3,80 4,30 6,25 (b) Rankings Transcripts Targets A B C D E F Shielded Room 3 ~ 5 2 4 6 Alta Mesa 4 3 O1 6 5 2 Ely Chevrolet 3 4 6 5 O1 2 Four Seasons O1 4 3 5 6 2 Methodist Church 6 5 3 4 2 O Library Stacks 3 4 6 O 2 1 Circles indicate target/transcript key. UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Releas~~8~7S ~~~~~6-00788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~~~~6~788R001300170001-0 (u> in use at the present time, it can be applied to analyses in which numeri- cal estimates of target/transcript correspondences are made on the basis of other rank-order or rating scales. This includes arbitrary scale rating arrived at by some complex procedure involving many factors such as occurs in multiple-judge voting; cases in which., for a given target, several transcripts are .given the same rating,. all transcripts are rated zero, a few transcripts are assigned rank order numbers and the rest are assigned the mean of the remaining rank order numbers, and so forth. The only requirement is that no artifactual information is provided as to the order of targets and transcripts, In particular, it can be shown that if targets are used with replacement or are non-orthogonal, then the method applies even in the case in which there is trial-by-trial feedback and the target pool is known a priori to both remote viewer and interviewer. Thus the possibility of interviewer cueing or subject guessing based on a priori knowledge of the target pool is handled at a fundamental level by a statistical procedure that assumes the worst. The argument is as follows. (U) In the absence of knowledge as to which transcript was generated in response to which target, one observes that in setting up the target-transcript matrix there are n; possible ways to label the columns (transcripts),. given any particular order of the rows (targets), and vice versa. Thus, there are n: possible matrices that could be constructed from the raw judging data,. all of them equally likely under the null hypothesis that the viewer's remote viewing attempts produce nothing but vague and general descriptions and/or occasional chance correspondences with various target sites.. Each matrix has its associated sum on the matrix diagonal corresponding to a possible alignment of targets. Approved For Release 20~~1~~~I~R~RD'P~~A0788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release ~Q~~8/~7S ~~q,.F~pR$6-007888001300170001-0 (U) The significance level for the experiment is then determined by counting the number of possible matrices that would yield a result (diagonal sum) equal to or better (i,e.,, lower sum of ranks in the rank- order case.,_higher sum of scores in the correspondence-rating case, etc.) than that obtained for the matrix corresponding to the key., and dividing by n: This ratio gives the probability of obtaining by chance a result equal to or better than that obtained in the actual judging process, For the results shown in Table 1 we find, by direct computer count of the 6: matrices obtained by interchanging columns,. that the probability of obtaining equal or better matching by chance is p 1/6: 0.0013. (U) This statistical procedure, in use for more than two decades by many researchers, was specifically designed to handle narrative material of the remote viewing type.,. and it cannot be stressed enough that it is constructed sufficiently conservatively so as to apply even in the limiting case in which the target pool is completely known a priori to all involved, thus handling any possible contamination due to remote viewer guessing or interviewer cueing in protocols of the type used in the SRI RV procedure, (U) As an overall calibration of the remote viewing process, against which specific examples can be gauged., we can take as a background data base the lengthy collection of 51 remote viewing trials collected over a several-year period with nine viewers, and published in Reference 1, In these trials, viewers were targeted on local targets (bridges, swimming pools, theaters, airports, computers, machine shops, etc...) within a 20-km range of SRI, The quality of the results was such. that the judges, who had to determine in a blind fashion which viewer-.generated data packages (tape transcripts and drawings) were associated with which target sites, were able to blind match transcripts to targets in first. place in roughly half the cases, an exceptionally significant result..- As will be shown later, similar results (in fact, somewhat better) were obtained in this program. 24 Approved For Relea~~/Q8~~:~~~~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/ 96-007888001300170001-0 IV ORIENTATION PROGRAM--PHASE ONE (U) (S) In this section we describe the six remote viewing series carried out with each of the client-supplied volunteers. All series have been assessed as to the amount of remote viewing exhibited in each, Four of these series were found, by blind judging, to depart significantly from chance expectation. Finding four such significant series, in a group of six, is sufficient to make the group as a whole statistically signifi- cant (p = 4 X 10 5), A description of each trial in each of the series A. Remote Viewing of Local Target Sites (U) (S) During the months of May, June, and July, six one-week remote viewing series were conducted, one week with each of the six client par- ticipants, These series were carried out at-the rate of two series per month, The purpose of these initial training activities was to obtain baseline data on each of the participants taking part in a uniform series of trials, and to provide a basis for later evaluation and comparison of their performance in more diverse tasks. (U) The six remote viewing sessions for each participant were con- ducted at a rate of one per day, except for Thursdays, when there were two sessions. The project directors divided the interviewing tasks, with RT remaining with the viewer for the first four trials, and HP acting as .interviewer for the last two, in every case. Approved For Release 2000/0 96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20 RDP96-007888001300170001-0 B. Summary of the Six Series (U) (S) The following summarizes our impressions of the thirty-six remote viewing trials carried out in our laboratory, May through July 1979, by the six client participants. (U) In order to present a coherent assessment of the sessions in this summary, we rate each session individually by a measure we call Accuracy Rating. This is our evaluation as to the correspondences between viewer-generated transcripts and the intended target site. This assess- ment is carried out on a post hoc basis with knowledge of the target site and so is not intended to be the equivalent of "blind judging." Its utility is that it provides a relative measure from our standpoint as to the success of the various participants. We rate each transcript on a 0 to 7 scale, with a 0 for no correspondence, and a 7 for a transcript that shows excellent correspondence with essentially no incorrect infor- mation, and including good analytical detail (for example, naming the target by name), The scale is shown in Table 2. Again, the 0 to 7 rating is not a blind measure of the level of RV functioning, but rather a procedure for comparing the relative performance of the participants, As we see later, however, the correlation or agreement between our Accuracy Rating system and the results of formal blind judging is high. (U) Target 1: White Plaza at Stanford University, This trial was the first in the overall group of thirty-six, and also was in our opinion (and that of the blind judge) one of the very best in the series of six with this remote viewer, The viewer correctly identified .the main feature of the site as being a plaza with a fountain. He also had a tall column dominating the scene, which could be a match to Hoover Tower, a looming structure nearby.. Additionally described were a series of arches, Approved For Release 20Qi~ RDP96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~~~~(~1~~1~~0788R001300170001-0 (U) 0=7 POINT ACCURACY RATING SCALE FOR TARGET/TRANSCRIPT CORRESPONDENCE (U) 7 = Excellent correspondence, including good analytical detail (e.g., naming the site by name), and with essentially no incorrect information. 6 = Good correspondence with good analytical information (e.g., naming the function), and relatively little incorrect information. 5 = Good correspondence with unambiguous unique matchable elements, but some incorrect information. 4 = Good correspondence with several matchable elements intermixed with incorrect information. 3 = Mixture of .correct and incorrect elements, but enough of the former to indicate viewer has made contact with the site. 2 = Some correct elements, but not sufficient to suggest results beyond chance expectation. (U) which are a recurring feature in the buildings surrounding the courtyard. Accuracy Rating = 5. (U) Target 2: Stanford Art Museum. The viewer did not describe this large Greek-columned building at all. He did, however, mention nearby features, such as arches and red-tiled roofs, and indicated that he felt that it was again a "Stanford type" of target. Accuracy Rating = 3. (U) Target 3: Fire Circle. Among other things, the viewer correctly described a circular depressed. area, with descending steps, a squared-off far end, and something in the center. These features are Approved For Release 2000~~2'I~ ~Qb~~~OQ788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release~~9~/~ S(~i~~-007888001300170001-0 (U) descriptive of the target, However, the viewer also described and drew two other fairly coherent scenes that did not pertain to the target, Consequently the judge who eventually evaluated this series in the blind, ranked this transcript in fifth place, out of six, because of its corre- spondences to other targets. The viewer also accurately perceived the beacon's activities at the target by stating that, ".,, he was involved in-the movement somehow. He was on or thinking about something that moves, goes around in a circle. It seems to be a circular thing, Because I was getting the feeling of vertigo ,..," The beacon stated in his notes regarding his activities at the target that he ".., circulate(d) the fountain ,.." and "... did a sort of Indian whooping dance as I jumped around the thing ...." Simply rating the transcript and drawings to the actual target, our assessment was Accuracy Rating = 3. (U) Target 4: Logo, This target is a 6 ft X 12 ft orange metal sculpture on the grass lawn of a chemical company. It is symbolic chain molecule, consisting of four large diamond shapes connected together. The viewer did not describe anything that pertained to the target. His main features were of a gazebo structure. Accuracy Rating = 0. (U) Target 5: Valombrosa Conference Center. The main feature of his description was a fan shaped structure, somewhat matching the roof design of the principle element of the target, He pictured it as an "arched cave with bars," which led to the blind judge incorrectly matching it to the pedestrian overpass. Accuracy Rating = 2. (U) Target 6: Pedestrian Overpass. The viewer's initial description was of a "lacey arch," which is a very apt summary of this wire and pipe structure. He went on to describe his "confined feeling." His description then became that of a "narrow alley" and what sounded like a village scene with stucco buildings. His fourth drawing was a reasonable Approved For Releas~~l~ ~~F~~F~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/OR1A1'"''"`~D96-007888001300170001-0 (U) representation of the arched entra nce to the overpass.. Again, however, there were so many extraneous elements to the viewer's output that our judge ranked this transcript fourth out of six. Rating it only with regard to the individual target, we assigned it an Accuracy Rating = 3. (S) This remote viewing series was the first to be conducted with a client volunteer. It was judged in accordance with the detailed concept analysis described earlier, The final tally revealed only one correct first-place assignment, and all others fourth-place or less. The series was therefore statistically nonsignificant, according to our evaluation criteria. Our Accuracy Rating assessment agreed fairly well with the blind judging results, both being relatively low because of the viewer's frequent inclusion of erroneous elements along with strongly correct ones in a given transcript/drawing package, a combination that made judging difficult.. (Our sum of Accuracy Ratings was 16, the next to the lowest of the six.) In engineering terms this would be a good example of a signal-to-noise problem.. There were occasional good examples of signal,. but it was generally overwhelmed by the noise, 2. Viewer No. 292 (U) (U) Target 1: SRI Courtyard, The central feature of this large, enclosed courtyard is a fountain in a square concrete base. The viewer described a number of different architectual forms including domes and columns, which are not at the target site. He also described a small waterfall, however, which is in fact at the site, in a form well illustrated by one of his drawings, In addition, another drawing shows an eight-lobed circular structure that closely resembles the inner portion of the fountain. Because of the many nonapplicable elements of the description, however, this transcript only merits an Accuracy Rating = 3. Approved For Release 2000/0 96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release ~QQ~(Q8/~7S ~I,q~.~pP~6-007888001300170001-0 (U) Target 2: Varsity Theatre Arcade, The target is the entry to a motion picture theatre. From the street one sees a double colonnade running from the street to the theatre entry. To the left and right are stucco walls with movie posters behind glass,. and down the center is a row of striped umbrellas.. The viewer described a tunnel-like structure, receding away from him, and masonry walls, with bright reflec- tions, all relatively apropos. He also drew and described a kiosk struc- ture with a striped coolie-hat top, which bore no resemblance to anything at the target site during the viewing period.. When the viewer was taken to the site for feedback following the session, however, it was found that umbrellas matching the striped coolie-hat top had been set up, indicating the possibility of contamination from future remote viewing (FRV) of feedback.. Additional evidence along these lines is supplied by the results of the following session, (U) In general..,. in this session the drawings were more applicable than the transcript. Accuracy Rating = 5. (U) Target 3: Glass Slipper Motel, This target is a motel on El Camino Real.,. The facade is a representation of a fairy tale castle. The viewer didn't describe anything like the target, although he did give a detailed and coherent description of a place that he visualized. One of the consistent items in the viewer's transcript was his reference to big shade trees, an arbor-like effect, and horizontal yellow and orange bands of cloth,. supported on wires to make a horizontal awning. Accuracy Rating = 0. (U) Of some interest, however, is the fact that after taking the viewer to the target site, and confirming that it did not particularly match his description, the interviewer suggested that they have lunch at a new restaurant that had just opened up, several miles away. The restau- rant visited had all the features described above. Neither the viewer nor Approved For Relea~ ~0/e~~~~-~D~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~~1+C`7A(~F~~F~~6?0788R001300170001-0 (U) the interviewer had ever seen this, or any similar place before, so one can speculate that the viewer may have experienced FRV overlay from this site, (U) Target 4: Wallbangers Racquet Ball Court, The target building is situated in relatively open country, immediately adjacent to a pond with three fountain spouts in it, The outbound team initially parked in front of this pond, but then moved the car around to the side of the building because they were concerned that spending any time near the fountain might tend to focus the viewer's attention on this element, rather than on the racquetball club interior. (U) The viewer described two main elements; a body of water with two or three fountains in it, and a balcony looking down on a geo- metrical pattern of some sort. The viewer provided a coherent description of the outbound team's activities with regard to their stay on the balcony. However, he described the scene outdoors containing the fountain, as if it were visible .from the balconey (which it is not), apparently super- imposing the interior/exterior aspects, Accuracy Rating = 4, (U) Target 5: Airport Tower. The target was the control tower at a small local airport (Palo Alto Airport). Upon arrival at the airport, the target team drove down a short road, passing a tall, metal-braced beacon tower at the entrance, and parking by the smaller, stone control tower, The viewer gave first a description that appears to pertain to the beacon tower at the entrance to the Palo Alto Airport, and then appears to have shifted to the control tower (the. actual target) a quarter mile away. (U) The viewer made a careful sketch of a tall metal tower with diagonal bracing. He called it a mast, with a "plane" at the bottom, When the interviewer asked him about the plane, the viewer said it was a Approved For Release 20~1~~7~,.~-I~t~RDQ~~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~~jQ$/Q7 $~ i ~~6-007888001300170001-0 (u) "jack plane" of the type carpenters use to finish woodwork. (This type of symbolism--there were airplanes near the tower--is often seen in remote viewing transcripts,) The viewer then drew and described a globe- and-clouds emblem (FAA symbol) which is on the stone tower door, and was studied by the target team at the site. (U) Figure 2(a) shows a photograph of the beacon tower, and Figure 2(b) the viewer's initial response. The first paragraph of his comments includes the following: "At first I thought it was a ladder going vertical ... it slowly changed like it was a lattice TV tower. It appears to have three verticals, with diagonals and cross bars. I can't see the top of it, but logic tells me that it would have an antenna; but I see a bell shaped structure instead." This narrative shows a viewer successfully overcoming his analytical prejudice in favor of his actual pictorial images, (U) Although the control tower rather than the beacon tower was the actual target as far as the outbound team was concerned, we interpret this result as indicating that once in the vicinity of the target at the Palo Alto airport, the taller beacon tower caught the remote viewer's attention. We assigned this session an Accuracy Rating = 6, the highest of the thirty-six trials in this introductory orientation series. (U) Target 6: SRI Shielded Room. The viewer had a repeating view of an outdoor, turning disk, which condensed for him into a drawing greatly resembling a merry-go-round at a nearby park, a well known target described in our published work, Little of this description resembled the actual target. Accuracy Rating = 0. (U) Because of the variability of this viewer's results, the blind judging result was nonsignificant, In spite of two zero scores, however, this viewer. was fourth place among the six participants with Approved For Releas~~1~8~~:~~~~~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20~~~O~:~I~i~4~~~ ~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20~sa/6~7~~~Rd~88R001300170001-0 Approved For Releasq ~aQq~O,~/y~7~ ~I~~,q6-007888001300170001-0 (U) regard t.o accuracy ratings (his sum of Accuracy Ratings was 18), The nonsignificant blind judging result may somewhat underrate his ability (which is highly variable) to do remote viewing; we found his descriptions of the small waterfall, the Varsity Theatre entrance, the airport beacon tower, and th.e apparent FRV contamination taken together to indicate RV potential not yet under good control. 3. Viewer No. 372 (U) (U) Target 1: Stanford Art Museum, The viewer described a stone building with a higher central part,. and two wings, one on either side, He then drew the building in a careful pen and ink sketch which strongly resembles the target (see Figure 1, Section II earlier), However, there are several other less carefully executed sketches on the same page, and on other pages, including sketches suggesting tombstones, which resulted in this transcript being ranked first place match to a cemetery, The transcript itself had many elements that pertained to items in the museum entry, however, including column design. The judge gave this a second place rank out of six. Accuracy Rating = 4, (U) Target 2: Baylands Nature Preserve, For reasons yet to be determined, this is the target that in our seven years work is most often described excellently, and in a somewhat characteristic manner. The main feature at this botanical garden at the San Francisco Bay is a wooden walkway from the shore to an observation platform a quarter of a mile away in the salt marsh, This walkway is crossed at right angles by a similar one that follows a row of high-voltage transmission towers, Almost every viewer who has had this target has described a "large cross on the ground," This viewer was no exception. He also characterized it as an outdoor site with no other buildings. Accuracy Rating = 5. Approved For Releas~~J{~~:~~~ ~j~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~~~~~788R001300170001-0 (U) Target 3: Alta Mesa Cemetery. The remote viewer reported a recurrent feeling of "rough cut stone." "It feels like a church but it is not a church." He made a drawing of a small arched building that is at the site. "Very peaceful and relaxed," he said. He also had a recurring theme of some kind of stone overhang, which was not at the site, and which resulted in the blind judge assigning this otherwise coherent transcript to the Art Museum. Accuracy Rating = 4. (U) Target 4: Jungle. Gym, The viewer described a large box with curved edges, made of wire-like bent coat hangers. He also had a metal surface rippling and shining in the sun like a child's slide. (A slide was next to the jungle gym target.) He made schematic drawings of both the circular jungle gym, and the slide. He went on to say that the target is more like a sculpture than a building, and indeed the playground elements are in the form of metal sculptures (horse, car, etc.), Accuracy Rating = 5. (U) Target 5: Salt Pile. This target is a salt refinery on the San Francisco Bay. Its prominent feature is a gleaming white pile of salt about 100 ft high, and 200 ft long, which the viewer did not describe. He did, however, describe an outdoor site with birds and wind, which was correct. He also mentioned some machinery. An additional item that contributed to the judge's ability to correctly match the transcript to the target was his drawing of a large, orange, pillow-shaped structure. This was easily matched to a large rusted quonset but at the site. He also spoke extensively of a sharp, pointed object that the outbound person was especially interested in. (In fact, RT had picked up a very large salt crystal of this description, and brought it back to SRI.) Although we considered the transcript somewhat nonspecific, the judge was able to match it correctly. Accuracy Rating = 3. Approved For Release 20~~~G~~1~-~~P~~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~aQ?lq~8/Q7S ~I~~Fjg6-007888001300170001-0 (U) Target 6: Brickyard, There are initial descriptions of rectangular objects, and the first drawing looks like a drawing of a brick. The transcript also had discussions of being inside a building, and of views of towers, which are incorrect, He later sees things lined up that look like books on a shelf, Again and again he has "very precise geometric patterns," as "the most important aspect of the place," which is correct, The drawing package has six pages of curved objects and forms that do not apply, however, The viewer also stated, "when I look up I see red, red sky, the sky is all red for same reason ..." which appears. to correspond to the beacons' note about spending a significant amount of time "between two very extensive solid walls of red-orange brick." Accuracy Rating = 3, (U) The sum of Accuracy Ratings for this viewer is 24, the highest in the group, The blind judging with transcript analysis resulted in correct matches to the appropriate targets for four of the six tran- scripts, and an interchange of the remaining two, This gives four first place matches and two second place matches in the final judging matrix. Using the exact count-of-permutations analysis described earlier, the probability of obtaining by chance a result equal to or better than the one obtained is p = 2/6: < 0,003, Thus, the odds of obtaining a result of this significance by chance is less than 1 in 300, (U) The viewer's significant performance was repeated in his second training period at SRI, when he took part in additional trials, which again produced highly significant results, 4, Viewer No. 468 (U) (U) Target l: Merry-Go-Round, The target was a child's merry- go-round in a playground sand pile.. About 25 ft away is a spiral slide, The viewer's main descriptions were of a large multistory building in a courtyard. Inside this building he has a "free-floating staircase that Approved For Relea~QJ~$~~:~~c-~~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~1b~~~C{~788R001300170001-0 (U) is kind of suspended. It turns this-way, and then there is a chute," a . description that resembled somewhat the spiral slide. However, there was nothing in the drawings or transcript that pertained to the merry-go- round, and the multistory building concept was incorrect, so that a judge would not be able to identify the target from these data, We therefore assigned it an Accuracy Rating = 0, in spite of certain suggestive correspondences to a nearby feature.. (U) Target 2: Windmill. This target is a white-vaned windmill on a country road and has been well described by two previous viewers in past years, This viewer described curving stairs (incorrect) and a circular building like a water tank (correct). Our assessment was Accuracy Rating = 3, (U) Target 3: Stanford Art Museum. The item of main interest at this site is a 5-ft cube sculpture standing on its corner in front of a columned portico of a Greek-style building.. The viewer described a dark rectangular solid sticking out of the front of a building, and drew a careful sketch of pillars that support the front of the entry just behind the cube. The viewer also mentioned track lighting, heavy doors, and an "interior bridge," all of which show good correspondence to elements at the target site. His transcript also had office buildings and cyclone fencing, however, which do not appear at the site, We assigned it an Accuracy Rating = 3, based primarily on the two good drawings of the projecting rectangular solid and the columns, (U) Target 4: Methodist Church. For this target he described a building with a "sloping roof with windows set into it." He then drew a large sketch of a building with a pointed roof supported from the out- side by sloping roof beams, These features accurately represent the main features of the large stone church that was the target. The viewer also Approved For Release 20~}0'81~~~h4~4~P~~-b0788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releasq ~~Q~~/~~~I~~P~-007888001300170001-0 (U ) correctly described that the target team went inside the building, and then looked out through windows toward the end of the trial. Accuracy Rating = 5. (U) We also note that the viewer seemed quite tense to the interviewer during the first three trials. On Thursday, just before trial 4, our contract .monitor arrived at SRI to observe the protocol, and particularly the randomization procedure used in target selection. He also observed this trial by joining the outbound target team. From this point forward we noticed a dramatic change (for the better) in the viewer's performance, (U) Target 5: Four Seasons Arch. "I get the feeling of their walking through an opening in a-low wall." That is just what a target team does at an omega-shaped arch in front of a restaurant. The viewer had several arch shapes, together with a carefully drawn wall comprising 300 degrees of a circle, and correctly labeled as being white (although he had it lying on the ground, which is incorrect). The transcript is all arches .and walls for the first four pages, and then drifts into buildings and wooden structures which are not at the site. Accuracy Rating = 5. (U) Target 6: Mount Alverno Conference Center. This target consists of an assembly building with glass doors, and an overhanging shallow-pitched roof that resembles in many details the drawing made by the viewer. He also correctly described the approach to the site over a little bridge with hand rails, and said that the building was locked, so that the target team could not go inside (correct). Further, he described a bridge "that goes nowhere," in striking agreement with a stairway that rises up a hill, and appears to go nowhere, since all one sees at the top of the stairway is the sky. The viewer did not describe a tall stone tower surmounted by a gold cross next to the assembly building, which is Approved For Releas~J~~:~~~-~?6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20~~OL~f~~788R001300170001-0 (u> considered the main feature of the target site. Our assessment resulted in an Accuracy Rating = 5, because of the good drawing of the main building, and an accurate description of the place as being "quite like a church but not exactly a church itself," (U) Sum of Accuracy Ratings = 21., We note that this viewer's ability to make clear drawings of his mental images (he is a professional illustrator) is a great asset both to himself in describing his remote viewing experiences, and to those trying to evaluate his descriptions. Blind judging gave t.hi.s series 4 first, 1 second, and 1 fourth place match (p < 0,003, or odds of less than one in 300 for such a matching profile to occur by chance alone), 5, Viewer No, 518 (U) (U) Target 1: Stanford Shopping Center, The target is the central courtyard of the Stanford Shopping Center, It is a large rotunda surrounded by high arches and is paved with tiles in a circular pattern. The pedestrian avenues leading away from this hub have fountains and large planters with flowers, The viewer drew and described a round fountain with a spray, located close to a rectangular box with something dark in it, This transcript did-not contain a description of the central focus of the target, although many elements could be found in the nearby pedestrian avenues, Accuracy Rating = 3. (U) Target 2: Bowling Alley. The viewer described an outdoor scene with a large building with overhang (correct), with many curves and oaken doors (incorrect), Inside he had a complex structure like a throne, We found little resemblance to the target. Accuracy Rating = 1, (U) Target 3: Alta Mesa Cemetery, The viewer described and drew several buildings, which were not apropos, and described "a place Approved For Release 206~A'81~~:~hR~D~P~6~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~~~f~0~/~~~I~-00788R001300170001-0 (U) of fun and recreation," He had a recurring bicycle throughout the transcript which also could not be matched. Our Accuracy Rating = 1. (U) Target 4: Hoover Tower. The viewer had the feeling that he was "abnormally high," He also saw semicircular ends of a dark tunnel in which he was standing, The target team was on the observation deck of Hoover Tower. The deck is surmounted with a domed ceiling (that the viewer described) and each of the four sides is a large floor-to-ceiling arch, making the view outside much brighter than the space inside the observation deck, resulting in a tunnel-like aspect. The viewer clearly had the idea of shade, coolness, arches, and height, He also drew a "reddish inverted cone" and labelled it as such, which was a good match of the top of the tower. The beacon was slightly acrophobic during the ex- periment, and the viewer detected "tension, anxiety around me and below me ...." Accuracy Rating = 4, (U) Target 5: Swimming Pool Complex, The viewer described ? A~~ro~ed For Rlelea~se 200/08/07 : IA- 6-007$8R001300170001-0 a o-dimensiona rec ang a that is not a structure,' in a plaza sur- Approved For Release 20~~~~:~I~~;~$~~788R001300170001-0 (U) Target 6: Miniature Golf Course. The target team con- centrated their attention on a red A-frame schoolhouse at a miniature golf course. The viewer several times described teepee-shaped structures (some resemblance to certain structures- on-the course), but the main portion of his description pertained to the inside of a hall with much confusion, and a row of what looked like display cases (a possible match to a building at the site containing rows of pinball machines), Accuracy Rating = 2, (U) The sum of Accuracy Ratings for this viewer was 15, which is the lowest of the six participants, In spite of this low rating, formal blind judging resulted in separation of signal from noise, awarding these data 4 first-place and 2 second-place matches (p = 2/6; < 0,003), which is a statistically significant outcome for this series, Since these trials this viewer has returned to SRI for an additional two weeks of work. During that time he performed quite well on the remote viewing of slides, hidden objects, and distant coordinates, These additional trials are discussed in the next section, 6, Viewer No. 690 (U) (U) Target 1: Alta Mesa Cemetery. The viewer, on this first trial, had a very diffuse transcript--mainly outdoors, grass, reeds, and trees, in a natural, not man-made environment, The viewer had low cliffs nearby. The drawings were relatively nonspecific, Because of the outdoor naturalistic description, the Accuracy Rating = 2, (U) Target 2: Four Seasons Restaurant Arch. The target is a large white omega-shaped stone arch set into a wall in front of a restaurant. The subject described "a white dome supported by pillars," and also a fence. Throughout the brief .two-page transcript there was only a "gazebo" like structure that one can see through, and a fence. Accuracy Rating = 4, Approved For Release 20~1~7E~'CI~~fF~~J~ b0788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releasq 2Q49~1gr8/Q75 ~I~?F~6-007888001300170001-0 (U) Target 3: Shielded Room. The target is a small rectangular screen-room, about 4 by 8 by 7 ft high, The principal feeling of this target is one of confinement. The viewer said, "he seems inside a square something, looking out through a square. It's dark inside. It is not terribly high, 6 ft maybe," The drawing shows a rectangular structure marked "6 ft wide," Our assessment of the viewer's description is Accuracy Rating = 5. (U) Target 4: Automobile Showroom, The target is a hexagonal glass building with. a conical roof, The viewer's first impression was of "a glass battle with a thin neck." "I keep getting the impression of glass, lots of glass objects," "It is some kind of store." The viewer felt "bad vibes" from the place; it seemed threatening, It turned out that HP, the outbound person, was sent to an automobile showroom and was pretending to be interested in a new car, attracting the salesmen in the showroom, He came back reporting that it was one of the most unpleasant outbound experiences he has had. The drawings were diffuse, but because of the essentially correct, though exaggerated emotional perceptions, it received an Accuracy Rating = 4, (U) Target 5: Palo Alta Library, The outbound team stood between the shelves in the library stacks. The viewer did not describe anything about the library, and our assessment was Accuracy Rating = 0. (U) There was an interesting facet in connection with this trial, however. The viewer described a cornfield with rows of corn ready for picking, etc. When we heard the tape for this trial we could think of no such place in the city of Palo Alto, But in accordance with our usual protocol, we took the viewer back to the target site. As we were parking the car, the viewer looked out the left window of the car and exclaimed, "that's my corn field." Immediately adjacent to the public library, there is a community garden which this year is devoted entirely Approved For Releas~~~~8~75:~~~~~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~10~~~6~788R001300170001-0 (U) to corn. So, one may speculate that the viewer accessed this adjacent area as the target team arrived at their site, (U) Target 6: Methodist Church, All the images in this tran- script pertain to a one-story building with "an inverted V roof," The main feature of the target is just such a roof, The viewer also correctly identified the target as being a building in downtown Palo Alto, Since there were no identifying characteristics given, we assigned it an Accuracy Rating = 4, (U) The sum of the Accuracy Ratings for the six trials is 19, which is the third highest in the group. One of the main features that contribute to this viewer's comparatively high rating is that these tran- scripts are relatively free of incorrect material; the viewer does not have a lot to say, but what is said is largely correct, We consider this to be a very desirable characteristic, (U) The formal judging for this series yielded five first place matches. The probability of obtaining such a result by chance is p = 1/2: ~ 0,002. (The most significant of the study,) C, Analysis of Transcript Correlations (U) (U) Before summarizing the judging results of Phase One, we digress to discuss an interesting and potentially important observation, During the past seven years of research, we have carried out a total of more than two hundred remote viewing trials with several viewers. Since the target locations for these trials are selected by random processes from previously prepared target pools, individual targets will recur from time to time for different viewers, We have observed that certain targets are almost always described correctly, while certain others are described in a . consistent idiosyncratic fashion even when the description is incorrect. Approved For Release 209~O~U8~~:~d~~I7P~6~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2QQ41~8/p7S ~I,A~R?Pa6-007888001300170001-0 (U) For example, the Baylands Nature Preserve, which is a botanical garden in the marshes of San Francisco Bay, has been a target several times in the last two years. This large open area is reached by a wooden walkway about a quarter of a mile long. This walkway is crossed at its midpoint by another walkway under some high-voltage transmission wires. Nearly all viewers (including Viewer 372 from this program) describe this site in terms of a "large cross lying on the ground." (U) In the Phase One series, two large churches in the target pool were not described by V~,ewers 468 and 690 in terms of their rather prominent crosses; instead, attention was called to their "tall pointed roof" (correct). (U) The windmill target has never been described in terms of its four large white blades, but instead by reference to a circle with four quadrants marked off, and a feeling of circular motion, even though the windmill does not move. The responses of Viewer 468 and an earlier subject are shown in Figure 3. (U) We take these consistent perceptions as suggesting that viewers do not necessarily experience a target location in the same terms as they would if looking at the target visually. Instead, some kind of simplifying transformation may take place during the viewer's perception of the target site. (U) An example of such simplification is shown in Figure 4, in which the target is a large cross on a hilltop. Two viewers, 155 and 372, described and drew it as a tall isosceles triangle. (U) In a recent experiment, a viewer (No. 155) described a target as "squares within squares within squares." His drawing and description were quite parallel to a drawing made by a subject six years Approved For Relea~ ~~.0/p~Q~S ~I~~b~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~0~}1~~~788R001300170001-0 UNCLASSIFIED FIGURE 3 WINDMILL TARGET AND RESPONSES BY VIEWERS S5 (a-, AND No. 468 (b) (U) 45 Approved For Release 20~~~~.:~I~l~~~~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release ~~~ IV ~. L7/a~~J 11' ~~~0788R001300170001-0 FIGURE 4 REDWOOD CITY CROSS TARGET, AND RESPONSES OF VIEWERS 372 (a), AND 155 (b) (U) Approved For Releas~~~/~~ ~I~-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release ~Q~~8~7~~. ~IS1F~F~~o0788R001300170001-0 (U) earlier in response to the same target, a pedestrian overpass. The responses of both viewers are shown in Figure 5. (U) Since the subject in the laboratory is not perceiving the target visually, it seems unrealistic and unwarranted to assume that his experience (perception and conceptualization) of the target should necessarily always be photographic, In a different perceptual modality, if the only data a person obtained about a trumpet was its sound, he would be able to recognize it each time it was heard, but he would have little information about its visual or physical aspects, On the other hand, after he had received visual feedback on his perceptions of many different musical instruments, the viewer (listener) would be able to learn the particular transformation between the sound of the instrument -and its visual appearance, In a similar manner, the occurrence of simple, recurring and archetypical responses to a given target in remote viewing may signal the possibility that the underlying transformations can be learned and categorized. D. Summary of Judging Results for Local Target Sites (U) (U) We have described earlier in some detail how a judge arrives at a numerical ranking of the trials in a formal blind evaluation of a series, by use of concept analysis of the transcripts. The overall results of the formal judging are shown in Figure 6, Although in blind ranking one would expect one first, one second, ... one sixth place match for each person, or six of each for the six viewers combined,. we find in fact that over half of the transcripts were first-place matched to the appropriate target. The result recapitulates that obtained in our laboratory in our original study published in the March 1976 Proc, IEEE. (U) In addition, in order to arrive quickly at a trial-by-trial assessment, we made use also of a simple post hoc rating technique of a 47 Approved For Release 2~~W~7A4r1~-~~9~00788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2Ap~/A~IQ7~~~-~J~~6~p0788R001300170001-0 e Approved For Release ~~IQ8~0~~~1~~00788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2ggl_I~ti ~~T 1-C [~788R001300170001-0 INCREASING TRANSCRIPT QUALITY 6th PLACE MATCH (blind matching) 3rd Znd FIGURE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF 36 TARGET/TRANSCRIPT CORRESPONDENCES FOR LOCAL TARGET SITES 16 subjects, 6 transcripts each, SHOWING MORE THAN 50% FIRST-PLACE MATCHES EXPECTED NUMBER OF MATCHES Approved For Release 20~~G~~~~r-907888001300170001-0 Approved For Release. 20 RDP96-007888001300170001-0 (U) type devised by the client. In this approach one rates as "perfect" (e.g., 7 on a 0-to-7 scale) a transcript in which the target is unequivo- cally identified. If there is no apparent relationship between the transcript and the intended target, on the other hand, the transcript is rated 0. For intermediate results, an intermediate rating is assigned, as indicated earlier in Table 2, All transcripts were given a numerical Accuracy Rating., using the 0-to-7 scale, in the presence of the contract monitor, The summary data for the two judging processes are tabulated in Table 3, (U) We are now in a position to compare mathematically our Accuracy Rating of the transcripts (post hoc evaluation scale) with the formal ratings of the same transcripts by a blind judge. In Figure 7 we have plotted a comparison of the Accuracy Ratings (vertical scale) and the blind-judge rankings (horizontal scale).. We have also calculated the correlation coefficient between these two sets of ratings for the 36 transcripts/target pairs evaluated by both procedures. For the 36 pairs, the correlation coefficient is r = 0,59, The numerical probability of a correlation this high or higher occurring by chance between "uncorrelated" data over the same range of values is only one in twenty thousand (U) This important result shows that a post hoc Accuracy Rating technique similar to that used by the client organization to evaluate transcripts and viewer performance is very well correlated with objective blind matching normally used in psychology to evaluate data of this type. E. Phase-One Conclusions (U) (S) In the first phase of this technology transfer program we have Approved For Release 209 DP96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20~~~~1~~~~~-?7888001300170001-0 REGRESSION LINE CORRELATION r = 0.59 (probability p = 5 x 10-5) COMPARISON BETWEEN BLIND-JUDGE RANKINGS AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENTS. Blind judging provides objective support for the accuracy rating evaluation process, in that the high-accuracy-rated transcripts are likely to be first-place matched (in the blind) to the appropriate target. Approved For Release 20~~~~~I~~D~P~~ bQ788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2Q441gr8/Q7S ~I~?F~6-007888001300170001-0 (U) TOTAL SCORES FOR EACH OF THE SIX VIEWERS IN PHASE-ONE ORIENTATION PROGRAM (U) Approved For Releas~J~~75:~~~5~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2~~~~~788R001300170001-0 Table 3 (continued) Viewer No. 372 Accuracy Rating Stanford Art Museum Baylands Nature Preserve Alta Mesa Cemetery Jungle Gym Salt Pile Brickyard p ~ 0,003 Viewer No, 468 4 5 4 5 3 3 24 Target Accuracy Blind Place Match Rating Merry-Go-Round 2 0 Windmill 1 3 Stanford Art Museum 4 3 Methodist Church 1 5 Four Seasons Restaurant Arch 1 5 Mt. Alverno Conference Center 1 5 p < 0.003 21 Approved For Release 20EU~061~9~~IIh4~4P~~94788R001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000 DP96-007888001300170001-0 Target Blind Place Match Accuracy Rating Alta Mesa Cemetery 1 2 Four Seasons Restaurant Arch 1 4 Shielded Room ~ 1 5 Automobile Showroom 1 4 Palo Alto Library Stacks 5 0 Methodist Church 1 4 Note: The probability of obtaining 4 significant series out of 6 by chance is itself significant at odds of less than one in ten thousand. (S) the six client-supplied volunteers. All but one of these individuals had little experience with psychic functioning in general, and all had only limited-introductory experience with the remote viewing protocols of SRI in particular before their participation in the SRI program. The goal of this program was to familiarize the individuals with these protocols and attempt to achieve enhanced levels of functioning (as compared with chance expectation). (S) Of the six viewers taking part in the trials, four carried out series that showed success sufficient to reach individual statistically significant departure from chance expectation, as measured by blind matching of each of the viewer's six responses against the six target locations used in his series. Finding four participants out of six reaching statistical significance at p < 0.05 results in the entire group of trials Approved For Release 200 DP96-007888001300170001-0 ---~~-- Approved For Release 2000/0 DP96-007888001300170001-0 -5 being significant (p = 4 X 10 ), We therefore conclude from the Phase- Approved For Release 2000/ P96-007888001300170001-0 ;.. _:. - - Approved For Release 2000/Osti~e~oB~epA6-007888001300170001-0 (S) In this second phase of the orientation/training program, five of the six original participants returned to SRI for an additional two weeks of exposure to various remote viewing exercises. One of the con- tinuing questions in our examination of remote viewing is the determina- tion of what constitutes a target, of crucial importance in operational applications. To obtain data relevant to this question, we carried out two series of remote viewing trials, with twa individuals who were asked to describe the contents of 35-mm slides representing Ba,y Area locations. We wanted to determine whether the viewer would describe the slide itself or the target site of which it was taken. The results seem to indicate that it is the slide as opposed to the target site, that is perceived and described in this series. (S) A second area to be examined was that of precognition, or future remote viewing (FRV) in which a viewer is to describe a slide that will be shown to him at a later time, under conditions where the slide had not yet been chosen at the time of his description. This situation corresponds to certain operational trials, in which we have been asked to describe a remote geographical target as it would appear at some later time. We have found good evidence for the successful outcome of such trials, and our goal here was to attempt to obtain further information potentially useful in learning how to increase the accuracy and reliability of such functioning. Approved For Release 2000/e'S1'~~71IrJ6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~~0~/~~~I~~~-007888001300170001-0 A. Remote Viewing (RV) of 35-mm Slides (U) (U) The purpose of this series of trials, in addition to determining whether the slide or actual site is accessed, was to determine whether a remote viewer could describe the contents of a 35-mm slide of a target site with the same accuracy that he describes an actual target site, A slide trial constitutes afiner-resolution task and involves a more ephemeral target, as compared to an actual target site, and therefore some differences might be expected, (U) The protocol was as follows, The viewer was located alone in the third floor laboratory of the Radio Physics Laboratory Building, and asked to describe the contents of slides projected on the wall of an office trailer in a parking lot 300 ft away, The target slides for these trials were photographs of the 60 San Francisco Bay Area sites used in the remote viewing trials of Phase One. The use of this particular target pool allows us to compare the quality of the descriptions that are elicited in trials using the slides, with the quality of descriptions involving the actual targets. (U) Atrial series consists of six slides,. and the viewer is given feedback after each individual trial, before the start of the next, (This is done to avoid displacement,. known to occur in parapsychological experiments where trial-by-trial feedback is not provided.,; in which a viewer might tend to describe a target slide from elsewhere in the series, rather than the one specific to the trial of interest, i.e., just projected.) (U) The viewer is monitored via a one-way open intercom connected to the room in the trailer in which the slide is being shown to the series monitor. The session is tape recorded at the latter end of the link, (U) A second intercom to the subject can be activated by the monitor by a push-to-talk switch in the trailer. Approved For Releas~d$~ ~~F~~F?6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2(OL~~788R001300170001-0 (U To begin, after the viewer announces that he is ready, the monitor selects a slide by random number generator. No feedback is provided to the viewer until the viewer has indicated that he is finished and the monitor has gone to the room in which the viewer has been working and has collected his drawings. A session typically lasts about fifteen minutes. 1. Viewer No. 372 RV (U) (U) The first series of six trials was carried out by Viewer 372 during his second two-week period at SRI. The six target slides were of the following targets: (1) Alta Mesa Cemetery (2) Ultra-modern Dome House (3) Pedestrian Overpass (4) Mount Alverno Conference.Center (5) Redwood City Cross (6) Stanford Shopping Center Pavilion. (U) Our post hoc personal impression was that three of the six descriptions were good matches to the target slides, as indicated by our Accuracy Ratings of 3, 4, 3, 4, 3, and 5, respectively. (U) The results were also formally evaluated by a blind judge using the concept analysis techniques being applied to the local target series of Phase One. As per standard procedure, the transcript/drawing response packages and target material (slides) were turned over to the judge, each in a separate random order different from the order of target usage. Again, the transcripts were edited only to the point of deleting information that could provide artifactual cues to the judge, such as references to other targets or temporal order. (Only five of the target/ transcript pairs were submitted for judging, since the judge had inadvertently ? 59 Approved For Release 20 ~ ~ ~~:~~I~DP~6~~788R001300170001-0 Approved For Releas~~Q8/J~7~ ~E~~@I~Q6-007888001300170001-0 (u> been exposed to one of the results [Target 4] presented at a briefing as an example of excellent slide viewing,) (U) The judge was asked to blind rank order, on a scale of 1 to 5, best to worst match, each of the transcripts against each of the targets, generating a 5 X 5 matrix of the five target/transcript pairings. Three slides and transcripts were directly matched, one was matched second place, and one was matched third place, The direct-count-of- permutations analysis of the matrix yielded a result significant at p = 2/120 = 0.017, or odds of one in sixty of obtaining such a result by chance matchings, (U) Three of the drawings and slide targets for this viewer are shown here as Figures 8 through 10, We conclude from these results that viewers can describe target slides, and from our analysis of the content of the transcripts it appears that they are describing the slides as projected, not the overall target location, 2, Viewer No, 518 RV (U) (1) Laundromat interior (2) Varsity Theatre arcade (3) White victorian house (4) Sylvania dome building (5) Glass Slipper Motel (6) A locomotive slide in a playground, The viewer made what we consider to be three excellent sets of drawings to correspond with the Theatre, the Victorian, and the Motel targets, These three drawing/target pairs are shown here in Figures 11 through 13. Approved For. Relea~ ~((Q/~~~ ~I~k~{p~6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 20QQ/~/1~7`:~I~~p~~~QQ788R001300170001-0 I~ ~ ~ C~ r-I ~ P ~ ~ U +~ +~ .rl 4~,1 Sri U ~ ~ o ~ F~ ?ri C~ ~ a~ O u, ~ .,~ O U U S~ .~ c~ +~ 0 m ?~ o +~ +-~ ~ ca +~ ,a ,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ FO-i U .~ bA 9-i ~ ? i 'C7 i-~ '? +~ . ?ri S~ r f=.' bA . .Q r-I ~ ?ri cd ?ri m +~ m ~ N .Q +~ cd ~ O ri ~ U ?ri >~ O ~ U ~ ~ GSA ?~ +~ cd ?~ w ?~ '~ ~u ~ ~ ~ ?~ ~ '~ .~ a ~ z? a ~ ~ Approved For Release 20~ DP96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/ 96-007888001300170001-0 (S) With regard to screening: (1) The individuals chosen to participate in the program were pre-screened by the client from a population of 250 potential candidates, using broad personality profile guidelines recommended by SRI, with final selection determined on the basis of interview by the SRI project leaders (R, T, and H. P.), The fact that the overall study was successful lends support to the effectiveness of this initial screening-by-profile procedure, (2) The details of the results of the program indicate that a half dozen local-site RV trials may constitute a meaningful screening-by-performance procedure to separate the more reliable from the less reliable viewers, In order for screening-by-performance to be successful, it is necessary that the performance of a viewer be relatively consistent. We find that those individuals who were the most successful in the Phase- One trials, were also the most successful in Phase-Two, even though different remote viewing tasks were pursued. Of the four successful viewers in Phase-One, two produced significant results and one near-significant (the fourth was not available for the Phase-Two study), The two viewers from Phase-One that were least successful there (not reaching significance) again did not reach signifi- cance in Phase-Two, Although the sample is too small to be definitive, it appears that the Phase-One local- site RV series itself offers evidence of constituting a useful screening-by-performance procedure. (S) The data indicating that a viewer can describe an individual slide as it is shown on a screen shows that targeting on high-resolution transient targets (charts, maps, etc.) is not out of the question. This, coupled with our findings that a viewer may be able to describe and identif y alphabet letters is a most encouraging development, and one deserving of further work. Extension of the RV process to include high-resolution material, especially with a reading ability, would constitute a significant breakthrough for operational applications. 101 Approved For Release 2000/ P96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 200 DP96-007888001300170001-0 (S) Certain of the individual responses in the FRV (future remote viewing) series, both with slides and with local sites as targets, appeared to give striking evidence of contact with the target. However, the trial-to-trial reliability was low and no series reached statistical significance. Therefore, although individual results were encouraging, no definitive statement can be made on the basis of this short study, Given its obvious applications potential, should its existence be capable of unambiguous verification, we consider it a high-priority item for further exploration. (S) In the extended remote viewing (ERV) trials a viewer was able in each trial of .the series to identify significant elements of an object placed in various locations, including an SI/TK tank under conditions of tight security. In these experiments the remote viewer worked alone over extended periods of time (up to three hours). At a minimum, the good results indicate that the RV process is not so fragile that it must be carried out under rigidly-specified conditions, since in this case an alternative style was in use and the results continued to be reliable. Further work would be required, however, before a definitive comparison of RV and ERV could be made. (S) Finally, the encouraging results obtained in the CRV (coordinate remote viewing) trials indicates that comparable accuracy and reliability can be expected from experienced viewers targeting either on the basis of a beacon person at the target, or on the basis of geographical latitude and longitude alone. As a by-product of the CRV study, which involved the use of special procedures being developed in another program for reliability enhancement, the high-quality output provided additional confirmation as to the effectiveness of certain new approaches being taken with regard to monitor/viewer interaction and control of the RV environment. Approved For Release 200 DP96-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 2000/ P96-007888001300170001-0 (S) To take advantage of the most recent developments in remote viewing, and to achieve the goal of continuing to develop remote viewing into a reliable operational tool, we strongly recommend further development This technique should continue to be examined, and applied to targets of operational interest, both with in-house and client-supplied assets. ? Effects of Feedback. An extensive examination should be made of the necessity for providing feedback in remote viewing trials. A systematic variation in the presence or absence of feedback should be used to determine the importance of this factor.. .... of capabilities in the following areas: ? Applications of Remote Viewing. A training procedure has been developed that appeares to greatly increase both the accuracy and reliability of remote viewing by coordinates. ? Target Demarcation. Coordinate remote viewing experiments should be carried out in which the target is demarcated by means of various types of coordinates (e,g., geographic, military, and arbitrary). This should be done in order to discover the part played by the target coordinate in determining remote viewing accuracy. ? Audio Analysis. In an effort to separate correct from incorrect data available from taped subject descriptions of remote viewing target sites, the use of speech and audio analysis techniques should be investigated as a tool to provide selective editing. This should include semantic analysis, in which analysis of written transcripts are carried out to look for variations in grammar, style, or vocabulary to help separate correct from incorrect statements in the RV transcript, ? Tracking, Further effort should be pursued to perfect the RV ss whereby, instead of demarcating a location to obtain a target description, one provides a target description and asks for location (as in locating a downed aircraft or foreign official). SRI has under development certain strategies involving FRV feedback, computer averaging of multiple trials, and so forth, which appear from pilot efforts to hold promise. ? Spatial Resolution, A study should be carried out to determine the extent to which it is possible to aid Approved For Release 2000/0 6-007888001300170001-0 Approved For Release 200 DP96-007888001300170001-0 .~w~w~ ^ viewers in learnin to read hidden and distant printed g --- mater~.~l that is blocked from ordinary perception. ? Temporal Resolution, An ERV effort should be pursued to determine the accuracy of remote viewing as a function of ti ms for future targets. +++++: a,uaN ci in,c u~~ , ,71111:0 Vile (~_ -Gne prevalent hypotheses for paranormal perception requires the use of an .ELF 'electromagnetic carrier, we suggest carrying out definitive experiments to examine this hypothesis (e.g., by ,using ELF generators as beacons), and to provide analyses correlating data from our past data base with the daily record of geophysical parameters known to affect ELF propagation. ? Theoretical Studies. Modern physics offers several. mathematical descriptions of reality that may also prove to be testable descriptions of paranormal perception in general, and remote viewing in particular. We recommend work with leading physicists who have agreed to consult for SRI on these theoretical problems, in an effort to develop a physical understanding of the phenomena we observe in the laboratory and ~in the field, and to apply this knowledge to improve remote viewing -~._. functioning . Tech~~,c~,1, N~eotings . SRI proposes to host private quarterly ,..~.~ fl~ .., Co11~.~ren~gS. to p1ax;illg together selected,..U..S, scientists an~,~ government representatives=iwhp,are concerned with the tecl~,ic~l issues in psychoener~etic research. ~S,) Succes~,ft~,l:,,~ursuit of .,the above ,priority items could be expected ~_ .4y to xesult in an increased reliability and breadth of utility of the RV function for operational purposes. 7'W.., ~' ~v`z-~' ner n ~ Approved Fpr Reuse 20 _ -RDP96-00~88R001300170001-0