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Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET STAR GATE PROJECT: AN OVERVIEW SHORT TITLE: DTI-S-1056-SL Date of Publication 30 April 1993 This document was prepared by the Directorate for Scientific and Technical Intelligence, Defense Intelligence Agency. REPRODUCTION REQUIRES APPROVAL OF ORIGINATOR OR HIGHER DOD AUTHORITY FURTHER DISSEMINATION ONLY AS DIRECTED BY DT OR HIGHER DOD AUTHORITY WARNING NOTICE-INTELLIGENCE SOURCES OR METHODS INVOLVED CLASSIFIED BY: DIA/DT DECLASSIFY ON: OADR NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS SECRET Approved For Release 2000/08/08: CIAORM904WA9R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET (U) PREFACE: (U) This document provides a broad overview of the three main activity areas, (foreign assessment, external research, in- house investigations) of the STAR GATE program. It is intended to provide background for the upcoming briefing on 5 May 1993 to, the DEPSECDEF. (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) Primary focus of the STAR GATE effort is on anomalous phenomena, to include parapsychological and related biophysical interactions (e.g., telepathy, remote viewing, psychokinesis). Historical material and current activity updates are included, with back-up details in the appendix. This material supplements the briefing charts and related documents that are also supplied for background. (U) A discussion of terms and definitions useful for review of this area is in Appendix A. SECRET/NOFORN/WNINTEL/LIMDIS STAR GATE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 UNCLASSIFIED PAGE I PREFACE ..................................... RECENT DIA DIRECTION ........................ i 1 II BRIEF HISTORY OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH .. 2 III APPLICATION INVESTIGATIONS .................. 10 IV FOREIGN ASSESSMENTS ......................... 14 APPENDIX A. TERMINOLOGY ................................. A-1 B. SCIENCE PANEL REPORT ........................ B-1 Approved For Release 2000/08/08: ( MOWN R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 UNCLASSIFIED LIST OF FIGURES No. TITLE PAGE 2. CLOSE LOCATION - REAL TIME BEACONING..... 5 3. CLOSE-IN SHIELDED VIEWING 6 4. LONG DISTANCE-RETROCOGNITIVE ............ 7 5. LONG DISTANCE-PRECOGNITIVE .............. 8 6. RECENT REVIEWS .......................... 9 7. PROJECTS WORKED (1986-1989) ............. 12 8. OVERALL DATA CORRELATIONS ............... 13 9. SPECIAL COUNTERNARCOTICS TEST-1990 ...... 15 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET STAR GATE PROJECT: AN OVERVIEW I. (U) RECENT DIA DIRECTION (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) In the FY 1991 Defense Authorization Act, the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) was identified as executive agent for initiating a new program to investigate parapsychological/ anomalous phenomena. A funding level of $2 million was authorized for DIA to undertake specific research and other activities relative to this activity. Objectives of this authorization were to enable a systematic and scientifically sound approach to the R&D effort, to permit wider and more systematic review of potential intelligence applications, and to assess foreign developments in this area. (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) Consequently, DIA developed a scientifically rigorous research and investigative program. Basic and applied research projects were initiated with the objectives of phenomena understanding and improving application capabilities for potential operational areas. Collection requirements were levied and foreign data bases were compiled in order to assess and better understand foreign achievements and their potential impact on U.S. security interests. Limited applied research projects were also conducted. This activity was formally established as a limited dissemination (LIMDIS) project early-on and given the official project name, STAR GATE. (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) A variety of project reports were subsequently published that documented key STAR GATE activities, foreign assessments, research plans and protocols, proficiency testing procedures and other methodological needs. A Congressionally requested Long-Range Comprehensive Plan was prepared. This report identified near- and long-term activities for optimizing research and application investigation in this phenomenological area. (S/NF) A plan for external assistance was also developed and an external contract for basic and applied research in this area was negotiated with the Systems Applications International Corporation (SAIC). (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) The FY 1992 Defense Appropriations Act provided DIA with an additional $2 million in R&D research funds to further enhance Project STAR GATE research and other activities. The Act stressed that DIA develop an even balance with foreign assessment, research, and operational activities. Foreign assessments should emphasize Russia, China, and other country efforts, and operational activity should identify specific users, to include special operational areas. SECRET/NOFORN/WNINTEL/LIMDIS STAR GATE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET (S/NF) The FY 1992 Act--called for an effort to identify possible foreign weaponization activity in this area. This is a new requirement that is receiving high priority, and is approached from the viewpoint of unconventional or non-lethal weapons technology. (S/NF) The FY 1992 Act directed DIA to realign 10 civilian billets so that project staffing could be continued in order to satisfy all project objectives. It also called for a 2-year architecture plan that was subsequently prepared. II. (U) BRIEF HISTORY OF PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH (U) In the mid-late 1800's, investigations into anomalous mental phenomena were initiated by a very limited number of researches working essentially independent of one another in various countries. The early investigators were motivated to examine this area due to evidence suggested by a wide variety of anecdotal accounts of spontaneous occurrences. Many of these early investigations focused on case study collection and analysis; some were aimed at phenomena demonstration under controlled conditions and were based on the psychological perspectives of that time-period. Formal research efforts were initiated by leading physicists, and investigation societies were established in 1892 (London) and 1896 (New York). (U) Figure 1 lists the major U.S. research efforts on this topic and their time-frame of activity. The most well know early U.S. researcher was Dr. J.B. Rhine at Duke University, Durham, N.C.; he explored proof-of-principle of extra-sensory perception (ESP) by use of simple experimental targets (5 symbols) and well- established statistical methods. His work led to considerable publicity and to a general acceptance that laboratory experiments had in fact reasonably demonstrated the existence of "telepathy, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis". His laboratory eventually moved to a private foundation (Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man (FRNM)), in Durham, N.C. (U) In the 1960's, new U.S. work began in New York, N.Y., and San Antonio, TX that examined psychological variables and psychological states; this new work incorporated a wide variety of target material in the experimental set-up. Emphasis was on a "free-response" (not forced choice card guessing) approach that examined how well a subject could draw concealed pictorial material. Various psychological conditions (altered states), such as deep relaxation or sleep, were explored and methodologies for evaluating results were developed. A different statistical approach was required, since the target possibilities were no longer from a small fixed set that could be easily evaluated. SECRET/NOFORN/WNINTEL/LIMDIS STAR GATE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDF%6-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 KEY US RESEARCH EFFORTS 1930-1960 1950-PRESENT 1960-PRESENT 1960-PRESENT 1970-1980 1970-1990 1980-1990 1980-PRESENT DUKE UNIV, DURHAM, NC PARAPSYCHOLOGY FOUNDATION, NY, NY FRNM, DURHAM, NC MIND SCIENCE FOUNDATION, SAN ANTONIO, TX MAIMONIDES MEDICAL CENTER, NY, NY SRI INTERNATIONAL, MENLO PARK, CA PSYCHOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LAB, PRINCETON, NJ ANOMALIES RESEARCH LAB, PRINCETON UNIV, PRINCETON, NJ OTHERS: SEVERAL UNIVERSITY RESEARCHERS PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS FIGURE 1 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET (U) Results from these efforts were publicized and led to a greater awareness of some of the psychological factors that are conducive to enhancing parapsychological effects. The most productive research team (Miamonides Medical Center) eventually moved to the Princeton, N.J. area and formed the Psychophysical Research Laboratory. New work also began in an academic setting when Dr. Robert Jahn, Dean of the Aerospace Science Department, established a small parapsychological team at Princeton University, N.J. His effort continues to this day and explores psychokinesis, precognition, and remote viewing. (U) However, none of the early research examined application potential of this area, and very little of it examined distance effects of the phenomena. (U) Some of the early parapsychological effort (i.e., remote viewing) at SRI International and at Princeton University did, however, examine the potential for describing geographic targets at various distances. Figure 2 and Figure 3 are San Francisco Bay area targets that showed a remote viewer could produce reasonable overall description of features at near-by geographic locations. Some experiments showed that a remote viewer could also describe the interior contents of target facilities. These descriptions were usually reliable when only shape/form correlations and not analysis/interpretations were considered. Figure 4 and Figure 5 are examples of Dr. Jahn's remote viewing investigations where long distance (thousand of miles) and time factors (prediction, past event description) were explored. (U) Research findings in this area are sometimes not readily accepted, regardless of adequacy of experimental controls or integrity of the investigators. Consequently, a variety of views can be found concerning the same data. Some of these have had a retarding effect of the field and on funding. Part of the controversy lies in the difficulty of agreement between "proof- of-principle" and "reasonable demonstration" demands. A listing of recent publications that illustrate various perspectives on this research is shown on Figure 6. (U) The Behavioral and Brain Sciences (1987) publication presented a balanced view of the research; some of the articles presented reasonable cases for "anomaly demonstration". A National Research Council (NRC) report in 1988, however, took a negative stance in general, even though it reviewed a very limited aspect of the field. Recent publications (Statistical Science (1991) and Psychological Bulletin (1993)) provide good evidence that paranormal/parapsychological effects have in fact been demonstrated and are replicable. SECRET/NOFORN/WNINTEL/LIMDIS STAR GATE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDPA96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 CLOSE LOCATION - REAL TIME BEACONING VIEWER'S DESCRIPTION 9 "SOME KIND OF DIAGONAL TROUGH UP IN THE AIR" WALKWAY "BUILDING IS AN AEREATOR" SYLVANIA FACILITY Approved For Release 200% /082: CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 CLOSE-IN SHIELDED VIEWING VIEWERS DESCRIPTIC: "THIS IS AN ENERGY EXPANDER. IT HUMS. irs SOME VERY STRONG ELECTRICAL ENERGY GOING AROUND THERE .... PURE ENERGY CIRCULATING." BERKELEY BEVATRON Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 FIGURE 3 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 LONG DISTANCE - RETROCOGNITIVE (14 HRS) V:EWER'S DESCRIPTION " . , ROCKS ... UNEVEN HOLES.. .9 ON MOUNTAIN OVER WATER ....A LIGHTHOUSE?... TALL STRUCTURE WITH CONICAL ROOF.... SIMILAR TO A CASTLE i .. MUSTY .. . HIGH LARGE CAVERNOUS HALL... A CASTLE." TARGET PHOTO URQUARDT CASTLE, LOCH NESS, SCOTLAND Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 LONG DISTANCE - PRECOGNITIVE (24 HRS) VIEWER'S DESCRIPTION " .. (BEACON) IS SOMEWHERE NEAR WATER . . .. MAY BE BOATS... SEVERAL VERTICAL LINES, LIKE NARROW POLES... A LARGE ROUND THING, LIKE A DISC ... WITH HEIGHT ... BUILDINGS ON ONE SIDE ... LIKE A BOARDWALK ... VERTICAL LINES ALONG THE WALKWAY TARGET PHOTO DANUBE RIVER AREA, BRATISLAVA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA Approved For Release 2066685 CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 RECENT REVIEWS ? '"THE ANOMALY CALLED PSI: RECENT RESEARCH AND CRITICISM'; BEHAVIORAL AND BRAIN SCIENCES, NOVEMBER 1987 ? 'ENHANCING HUMAN PERFORMANCE', NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL; 1988 ? 'REPLICATION AND META-ANALYSIS IN PARAPSYCHOLOGY'; STATISTICAL SCIENCE; VOL 6, No. 4; 1991 ? "DOES PSI EXIST? REPLICABLE EVIDENCE FOR AN ANOMALOUS PROCESS OF INFORMATION TRANSFER'; PSYCHOLOGY BULLETIN (PENDING) Approved For Release 201pp6ffe86: CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET (S/NF) Several important basic and application-related findings resulted from the later SRI investigations. These were: (1) distance/shielding do not effect results; (2) some people have an innate capability to perform well; (3) goal orientation is more important then psychological factors/states or the nature of the target; and (4) a potential'correlation between remote viewing capability and certain brain area activity may exist. These findings were based on research procedures and techniques that received critical review by an expert nine-person scientific Oversight Committee. The research approach and procedures were judged scientifically sound. Some of the procedural problems associated with early work in this field had been resolved and corrected. (U) Appendix B contains specific comments from a research panel that reviewed some of this work in the 1983-1984 time- frame. This Science Panel review led to later research efforts that included a variety of basic and applied research objectives. (S/NF) The effort at SRI was discontinued in 1990. However, as a result of Congressional direction in FY 1991 for DIA, new research in this area was established with the Systems Applications International Corporation (SAIC), in Menlo Park, CA. III. (U) APPLICATION INVESTIGATIONS (S/NF) In the early 1970's, U.S. researchers at SRI- International, Menlo Park, CA, also initiated research into phenomena understanding and application pursuits. This work, centering on "remote viewing (RV)" came to the attention of the CIA. CIA then provided funding to SRI for continuing RV research. Then funding was discontinued in 1975; subsequent funding for RV investigation at SRI was provided by DIA and some of DIA's service support elements with occasional support from SECRET/NOFORN/WNINTEL/LIMDIS STAR GATE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET various R&D organizations. DIA's interest in funding this area was primarily from a threat assessment point-of-view in order to help understand the Soviet work. (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) The successful long distance SRI remote viewing experiments from the 1970's generated interest in operational pursuits with in-house government personnel. In the late 1970's, HQDA/INSCOM established a small unit for "development of a community capability' in RV. This unit was transferred to DIA in 1986 when 12 billets were authorized in the GDIP budget for this activity. A Special Access Program (SAP), SUN STREAK, was established in order to protect identity of the individuals and due to the nature of some of the projects examined. (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) A variety of potential operational projects were investigated over the next few years; in 1989 the Military Intelligence Board (MIB) agreed to examine the utility of the project under field conditions involving counternarcotics projects. The MIB reviewed results of this test period in September, 1990. Subsequently, STAR GATE was established to expand on earlier efforts and to permit systematic and scientifically sound investigations to continue. All STAR GATE activities are conducted in accordance with appropriate scientific procedures and methodologies. (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) Over-all, STAR GATE activity is based on both a concurrent research and application philosophy. It is recognized that formal scientific proof of this phenomena may yet be available, even though "anomaly demonstration" may be granted in some academic areas. Although formal scientific acceptance could be helpful, the history of application investigations in this field demonstrates that at least some level of application reliability can be achieved for some types of projects. The issue is how to improve overall data quality/reliability so that wider use can be made of this potential capability. (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) In addition to recent research reviews (Figure 6), formal reviews of operational potential or activity have also been conducted. One review examined a four-year investigation period and was summarized in a briefing given to the Military Intelligence Board (MIB) in 1989. Overall findings are shown as figure 7 and Figure 8. Key points from this review were: - Potential applications exist for certain projects types: -- Counternarcotics (CN) -- Counterterrorism (CT) -- Counterintelligence (CI) NOFORN/WNINTEL/LIMDIS STAR GATE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDAc36-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 m 1i i ? EM PARTIALLY KNOWN NOT KNOWN CONTENTS PROJECT TYPE PROJECTS WORKED 1986-1989 TOTAL PROJECTS = 192 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 FIGURE 7 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 u =1;1:4 WN I Lei i s PRECONTENTS PROJECT TYPE SMALLSCALE. (TEST FACILITY, AIRFIELD) (LASER TEST, ANTENNA DISH) NOFORN MUM Approved For Release 20ppffl P8g: CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET - Limited potential exists for detailed data: -- S/T parameters -- Precise locations - Low potential exists for predictive tasks - Individuals' performance: -- Correlates with project tasks -- Can improve with high demands/needs and strong goal orientation. (S/NF/SG/LIMDIS) Another review occurred in 1990. This followed from an earlier MIB recommendation that operational investigations focus on counternarcotics projects. Figure 9 shows results of this effort. Overall, about one third of all projects were judged to have provided data of good quality. This was based on evaluation of 32 projects. Although 104 projects were conducted, weather/operational constraints prevented follow- up for ground truth on the majority of those projects. IV. (U) FOREIGN ASSESSMENTS A. (U) INTRODUCTION (S/NF) The FY 1991 Defense Authorization Act identified DIA as executive agent of a new program for examining parapsychological phenomena. As part of this program, DIA was directed to develop an integrated foreign data base on parapsychological activities SG1A SECRET/NOFORN/WNINTEL/LIMDIS STAR GATE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RD16-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SPECIAL U.S. ARMY COU NTERNARCOTICS TEST- 1990 SECRET ON-SITE SUPPORT:~TO JOINT TASK FORCE (JTF) Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 FIGURE 9 SG1A Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Next 10 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 Y Jf9 0789R002800180001-2 APPENDIX A TERMINOLOGY (U) The investigations described in this report involve a class of human capabilities generally referred to as parapsychological or paranormal phenomena. There are two general types, informational and energetic. (U) Informational aspects include the ability to describe remote or concealed data without the use of known sensory systems. This aspect is generally referred to as remote viewing (RV) or extrasensory perception (ESP). Another term, anomalous cognition (AC), is also currently used by researchers in this field. The ability to predict future events is usually referred to as precognition. (U) The energetic aspect refers to the mental ability to influence material or biological systems via unknown mechanisms. This aspect is sometimes referred to as psychokinesis (PK). (U) Soviet researchers generally use the term "psychoenergetics" to identify this research area. Chinese researchers prefer the terms "extraordinary human body functions" or "somatic science" for similar functions. (U) A variety of other terms have, and probably will, be used to describe specific aspects of the basic phenomena. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : 6A1 -RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 UNCLASSIFIED Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SEI c RI, 71!j SCIENCE PANEL REPORT SRI STUDIES IN REMOTE VIEWING: A PROGRAM REVIEW 1 MARCH 1984 Approved For Release 2000/ A l 100789ROQ IMOIIV'2CE ---SENSITIVIE 114TEL.LIGETW ISAU OEE AND METRODS I VOIX'ZID Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :~C~A=~ i 6-00789R002800180001-2 SRI STUDIES IN REMOTE VIEWING: A PROGRAM REVIEW For the past eleven years, a small group headed by Dr. H. Puthoff has sought evidence that would support the case for extrasensory perception. In recent years, the focus of these studies has centered on "remote viewing" by subjects claiming to visualize the scene at a point beyond the field of vision, and in many cases, in a remote part of the world, typically not known to them by actual experience. The implication of success in remote viewing, if it exists, are revolutionary; since as described to the review team, it is mani- festly incompatible with currently accepted scientific principles. Remote view- ing of future events--"precognition"--evidently violates causality; real time remote viewing clearly requires a transmission mechanism other than any known process: electromagnetic, gravitational, etc. The lack of a physical model should not be taken to preclude the existence of the capability to view a remote location. However, this circumstance has thus far limited application of the classic methods of scientific investiga- tion to less cogent issues, such as controls for inadvertent cueing, statistical evaluation of the incidence of positive findings, estimation of false-positive and false-negative responses, and in particular, the design of experiments that would limit as far as possible intrusion of extraneous factors relating to personal interaction and observer biases. The evidence shown to us is too impressive to dismiss as mere coincidence. Certain similarities between the SRI and Princeton results, obtained in very different circumstances by unrelated investigators, are particularly compelling. The Princeton work is somewhat more quantitative than that at SRI and leads to an estimate by Dr. R. Jahn that the phenomena he has observed could be Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CTA='1 96-00789RO02800180001-2 NOFT CE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : C.Ti = d-00789R002800180001-2 explained by a transfer of information above noise at a level of about one bit per thousand. This of course raises the question of how much information is required to construct the impressions gained by remote viewing, a question which the investigators cannot presently answer. Therefore, the review team feels that remote viewing is either real or due to some sort of experimental interference from one or some of the participants; something one might describe as "inadvertent cueing." Although, on the basis of our brief exposure to the SRI program, we found no obvious evidence of cueing or collusion between the viewer and the experiment monitors. The briefings strongly emphasized the investigator's ability to train others in their techniques. This training program has developed over the past five years through the dedicated participation of Mr. Ingo Swann. His diverse talents have been devoted to self-training which he now feels competent to impart to others. Approximately a dozen trainees have completed instruction to various levels of claimed competence. An important aspect of Swann's contribu- tions relates to his dissection of separate elements in the perceptual process. Under his guidance, the technique centers around the use of a coordinate method to describe the remote location, expressed in degrees of latitude and longitude. It is here that any attempt at a rational understanding of the perceptual process is lost. Since the significance of the coordinates so expressed is unknown to the viewer in most instances, it is impossible to understand why such a method should be translated in the viewing process into a precise delin- eation of geographic characteristics of the target site. The arbitrariness of this approach has not escaped the investigators, but repeated attempts to Approved For Release 2000/00/0$; CJfk RPP9 S,; 207 9RpQ~800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : .kfthf"00789ROO2800180001-2 elicit a rational basis for this procedure, or to secure definitive informa- tion about possible success or failures with other methods that they may have tried, were uniformly unsuccessful. The investigators' attitude was that since they had found the coordinate method to work, they were not disposed to query the mechanistic basis of its applications, nor to seek an appraisal of other potentially successful methods. Mr. Swann has distinguished three phases in his subjective interpretation of his viewing capabilities. The initial percept appears very rapidly with a latency stated to be as short as 1/50 of a second. Thereafter, for a period that may persist for several minutes, increasing detail may be added. There- after, and only after as much material has been added to the initial percept as possible, is the subject encouraged to examine his subjective image in a crit- ical way, or to make syntheses or judgments about the significance of the perceived material. Swann pointed out that intrusion of a judgmental or inter- pretive attitude too early in the building of the percept was generally destructive, and to be discouraged in the course of training others. A considerable variety of material was presented with photographic backup in support of the validity of the perceptual method. Much of this was highly impressive. The data showed the effects of training on the success rate, which typically reached a sustained plateau at a level higher than prior to training, both for groups of subjects as well as for individual trainees. What then may be anticipated if the program is continued? In the absence of a physical model for the perceptual process, no predictions are possible about higher success rates in larger groups of viewers concentrating on the same target, nor about the effect on success rates to be expected if the qsi- u; twig Approved For Release 2000/08/p8 :.CIA-RD.P9.6-0A.7a9R0O.2300180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : G1A..RMP98-00789R002800180001-2 technique were extended to those with special intellectual abilities or professional backgrounds. Exploration of the phenomenon should not be restricted to specific applications. Rather, remote viewing should be studied as a scientific research program aimed at establishing the existence or non-existence of the phenomenon. In this way, a comprehensive and credible evaluation of the phenomenon should be available from continuing effort over the next five to ten years. The potential impact of this phenomenon is clearly profound. Therefore, a mandatory requirement would be the existence of independent but related programs conducted by others, with the free exchange of techniques and results. Only through independent reproducibility can a phenomenon so unconventional ever become accepted. It is our conclusion that Dr. Puthoff's team warrants cautious continued fiscal support, and that the research should be conducted as much as possible in an open unclassified mode so that its reproducibility and accuracy can be independently verified by others. W. ROSS ADEY DONALD M. KER / % _7 F. ZACHARIASEN Approved For Release 2000/08/08 CIA-RDP96?00789JRQ@2800180001-2 t? ;L SG1G Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Next 2 Page(s) In Document Exempt Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2 SECRET SECRET/nOFORn/LImDIS/WIlIfTEL STAR ' GATE Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CIA-RDP96-00789R002800180001-2