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June 9, 1994
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Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96~00789R003200200001-4 SAICMP94.009 Copy ~ of Proposed Downgrading of Classified Documents for Cognitive Sciences Labora-tort' Volume 1 of 2 (U) June'9,1994 SG 1 J Presented to: Contract MDA908-93-C-0004 Submitted by: Edwin C. May, Ph.D. Science Applications International Corporation Cognitive Sciences Laboratory P.O. Box 1412 Menlo Park, CA 94025 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-00789ROOS20,0'?~00 ~~ ~ .~ ,~ May 1982,,;';;::,: Final Report _ . ; f, Covering the Period October 1980 to October 1981 TARGETING REQUIREMENTS TASK (U) pp 'ved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ' .~, Approved For Release 2000/ Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96~00789R003200200001-4 LIST OF TABLES. iii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY iv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I OBJECTIVE. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II INTRODUCTION 2 III PROZ~OCOLS . 4 A. General Protocol. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Viewer Selection. 4 C. Distribution of Trials Across Session Conditions. 5 D. Transcript Evaluation ~ ~ ~ 6 IV RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Trial Collection. ~ . B, Data Summaries . . C. Overall Findings . .. 8 1. Evidence for Remote Viewing. .. 15 2, Distribution of Results across Targeting Modes 15 3. Effects of Mid-Session Feedback. 1; 4. Caveats . 18 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS. 21 REFERENCES . 24 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP~'6-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 1 Distribution of Trials in Targeting Study, 5 2 0-to-7 Paint Evaluation Scale for Target/Transcript Correspondence 7 3 Summary of RV Data for Viewer 557, 9 4 Summary of RV Data for Viewer 753. , 10 5 Summary of RV Data for Viewer 688. 11 6 Summary of RV Data for Viewer 807. 12 ? All Data from 48 RV Trials, with Mean Values for Each Viewer and Each Session. Category 13 8 Summary of Coordinate RV Trials with Mid-Session Feedback. 14 Approved For Release 2000/(~~~08 CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08: CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 In this report we present the results of a four-month investigation, .carried out by SRI International, to determine the relative effectiveness of various targeting procedures in use in remote viewing (RV). Three such procedures were investigated: (1) .Beacon targeting, in which the viewer has had some personal contact with, or is given the photograph of, an individual at the target site. (2) Coordinate targeting, in which the viewer is given the geographical coordinates of the target site. (3) Abstract targeting, in which the viewer is only told that there is a target site to be described. In our experiments with four remote viewers, three of whom performed reliably in the RV task (RV of San Francisco Bay Area sites), we did not find any overall significant differences in the efficacy of three targeting modes, subject to some variation because of individual preferences. In- stead, reliable RV functioning with results of comparable accuracy was obtained with all three techniques. As an additional task, we investigated the usefulness of giving the viewer limited mid-session feedback as to the general nature of the target site. We found that this procedure did not result in increased accuracy of description. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 'v Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 The objective of the "Targeting Requirements Task" was to determine the relative effectiveness of various targeting procedures for use in remote viewing (RV). If differences in relative effectiveness were found, SRI International was also to determine whether such differences depend on the characteristics of individual remote viewers or are widespread in nature. Approved For Release 2000/08/0~ :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Appro-ved For Release 20C~p ,,_ ~~~1~P96-007898003200200001-4 II INTRODUCTION In t ~SRI~ studies in RV over-the past decade, several methods have bee11n use to target the remote viewer on the site. Much of the early work used a person located at the target site as a target for the remote viewer .l-3 rYe refer to this as Beacon RV, .because in some sense the individual at the site can be said to act as a "homing" beacon. A second technique, which has often been used in ~ RV, and around which a trailing program is being developed ,4 is Coordinate RV. In this procedure, the target site coordinates (latitude and longitude in degrees, minutes, and seconds) are given (with no further information) to the remote viewer who is to view the site. A third technique, which has been used occasionally with good success both in laboratory work and in viewing, we call Abstract RV. In this approach, the remote viewer is simply told that there is a target site to be described; no further infor- mation is given. These three techniques, with variations ,t have been used success- fully, at SRI, and elsewhere. However, no systematic comparison of their relative effectiveness has been made to date. This study compares the results of the use of the targeting techniques as described above under otherwise uniform RV conditions. The results are examined to determine whether significant quantitative differences exist as far as the quality of the RV product is concerned. These three tFor example, in Beacon RV, the remote viewer may be introduced to the outbound person who is to act as a beacon, or simply be shown his Approved: For J~elease 2Q4~~~1.~~- ;CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 t..~ ~._ photograph.. representative techniques were chosen for this study because they span the range, from the concrete to the abstract, of the targeting techniques required in~~tasks. typically Specifically, the targeting mode is varied over the three techniques. These techniques are designated here as Techniques A, B, and C (for Abstract, Beacon, and Coordinate, respectively). A variation of Technique C, designated C', is also incorporated into the study to examine whether modest feedback given to the viewer at mid-session about the general nature of the site increases accuracy in the remainder of the session. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 r r representative techniques were chosen for this study because they span the range, from the concrete to the abstract, of the targeting techniques typically required in tasks. Specifically, the targeting mode is varied over the three techniques. These techniques are designated here as Techniques A, B, and C (for Abstract, Beacon, and Coordinate, respectively). A variation of Technique C, designated C~, is also incorporated into the study to examine whether modest feedback given to the viewer at mid-session about the general nature of the site increases accuracy in the remainder. of the session. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 A. General Protocol The general protocol for the study is to closet a remote viewer with an experimenter at SRI, and, at a prearranged time, have the viewer describe an undisclosed remote site using the required targeting technique. The target site, one of sixty located in the San Francisco Ba.y Area within a 30-min driving radius of SRI, is selected by random number access to a target pool by a second experimenter in charge of overall protocol. For each viewer,Itarget sites are used without replacement as the series progresses, so that no individual viewer has the same site twice. In all cases, the interviewer is blind to the target so that he is free to question the remote viewer to clarify his descriptions without fear of leading. During the prearranged viewing period lasting 15-min, the viewer makes drawings of and records on tape his impressions of the target site. At the end of this viewing period, the interviewer collects the data for the file., finds out from the protocol experimenter what the target site was, and then takes the viewer to the site for feedback. B. Viewer Selection To evaluate fairly the effects of varying the target conditions, we chose to carry out the study with four relatively inexperienced SRI viewers, as opposed to the more experienced viewers who exhibit strong preferences for certain targeting techniques. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Y Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 C. Distribution of Trials Across Session Conditions Each of the four remote viewers chosen was asked to contribute twelve trials. apiece, three trials each for each of the four techniques, A, B, C,-and C`. This method provides a total of 48 trials, 12 in each of the four categories, distributed as shown in Table 1 below. Each of the viewers used the four techniques in a balanced, random intermixed order (e.g., BACC`ACB ...) as is usual in psychological studies with several stimulus categories. ~ISTRI$UTION OF TRIALS IN TARGETING STUDY Category Viewer A B C C' 557 3 3 3 3 753 3 3 3 3 gp7 3 3 3 3 ggg 3 3 3 3 L The protocol experimenter tells the interviewer at the beginning of the session which technique is to be used. For Technique A, the interviewer simply informs the viewer that there is a target site to be described; no further information is given. For Technique B, the viewer is either introduced in person to the outwardbound experimenter who will act as a beacon (Beacon Trial One), or is simply shown a photograph of an otherwise unknown outwardbound experimenter (Beacon Trials Two and Three). The reason for this inter- trial variation is to obtain additional information about the amount of Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 viewer/beacon contact required. 5 ~, Approved For Release 2 -RDP96-007898003200200001-4 For Technique C and C', the viewer is read the coordinates (in degrees, minutes, and seconds) for the site. For Technique C', the interviewer obtains from the, protocol experimenter before session start an envelope containing general information about the site (e.g., "target site is a building exterior," 'target site is an open outdoor area," and so forth.) In mid-sessio.~~~ ter the viewer has described the site to the best of his ability~~ interviewer opens the feedback envelope and gives this additional i or;mation to determine whether it stimulates increased accuracy and detail in the viewer`s subsequent images of the D. Transcript Evaluation In early programs, transcript analysis was carried out exclusively on the basis of blind judging (matching) of transcripts to target sites,l~a' This technique, although excellent with regard to demonstrating the presence or absence of a viable RV function, did not provide a uniform measure from transcript to transcript of the quality of RV functioning. In the previous program, SRI, developed a 0-to-? point rating scale to be applied "nonblind", post hoc to the evaluation of transcripts.a For no .correspondence between transcript and target site, a 0 is assigned; for excellent correspondence a ?;, and for intermediate correspondence an intermediate rating. The precise criteria for each rating is shown below in Table 2. A comparison (in the previous program) of the ratings produced with this approach against the ratings produced by the blind-judging approach for a 36-trial series showed sta- tistically significant positive correlation between the two techniques. Furthermore, application of the 0-to-7 point scale to randomly matched transcripts and targets from that study yielded chance results. These two findings taken togethex establish that application of the 0-to-7 point scale provides a reliable, objective measure of RV quality. This 6 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 ~ C1aRDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 20 -RDP96-007898003200200001-4 O-TO-7 POINT EVALUATION SCALE FOR TARGET/TRANSCRIPT CORRESPONDIIdCE Point , Value Assigned to the Point 7 Excellent correspondence, including good analytical detail (e.g., naming the site by name), and with essentially no incorrect information. 6 Good correspondence with good analytical information (e.g., naming the function) and relatively little incorrect information. 5 Good correspondence with unambiguous unique matchable elements, but some incorrect information. 4 Good correspondence with several matchable elements intermixed with~ihcorrect information. 3 Mixture of correct and incorrect elements, but enough of the former to indicate viewer has made contact with the site. 2 Some correct elements, but not sufficient to suggest results beyond chance expectation. 1 Little correspondence. 0 No correspondence. method was, therefore, chosen for evaluation of the transcripts for this ~,, Approved For Release 2000/08/0~ :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 A. Trial Collection In accord with the protocols outlined in Section III, a total of 48 trials were carried out, 12 with each of four remote viewers. As summarized in Table 1, each viewer contributed three trials for each of the four techniques. B. Data Summaries Data summaries for each of the four remote viewers are tabulated in Tables 3 through 6, and a collective summary is provided in Table ?. Listed in the individual viewer Tables 3 through 6 are the trial numbers (1 through 12) and associated sites, targeting techniques and 0-to-? point- scale accuracy ratings. (Two columns appear in the accuracy ratings for. Category C~. Ratings in the first column were assigned on the basis of material produced before feedback only, while those in the second column applq to the transcript as a whole, including material generated following feedback. The effects of mid-session feedback are treated in detail in Table 8, in which we present a detailed session-by-session summary,) C. Overall Findings Most of the findings of this study are obtained by examination of Table 7. We, therefore, turn our attention for a moment to a detailed examination of this table. The transcript ratings for each of the remote viewers, for each of the session categories, are shown in the individual boxes in the table, The techniques, listed acxoss the top, are Abstract (A), Beacon (B), Approved For Release 2000/08/g8 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 m ~~a~ M ~ a,.iv ~~~ M M N M M ~ ~ N +- +'~ ~ O C.' E~ E"' of d ~ i~ m ~ ~ M O ++ v ~ d0 i~ .d d rl r--I l O ~~ o ~ r t~ rl tr M N ?aj ~ ~ ~ u] ~ ~ et' N .-~ Q~ .iC .ri '~"~ A ~ O ~ U U U y +~ b ~ .ci d ~ ~ ~ Q7 ad +' No ~ Tai ~ O ~ ~ r-1 r-1 Approved For Release 2000/0$08 : CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 prove For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~7 ~~ ~ ,. ~ +~ ~ ~, ~ ~, ~, ~, a~ 9F ~ eo t" ~ ~ +~ ~ - ~ U ad ~ V N ~ ~ V ~ 3W W ~ U ~ I d ~ H a o w Q o 0 y N A H r' t ~y E d A a .V .~ d a' A a' n r~i i bo .o N U H H it I ~ ~ ~ a4 rn ~ ~ w ~ cfl r-/ t[7 O M n ~ ~ ca ~ Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 T M ~ Q d1 N 00 l~ .F ~ M M N N aE V .Q 'O G! d W Q ~ ~ J~ O .~+ U ,'a~ dl C0 ~ ~ N ? q u] ~n ~D Cfl M 1~1 M M M M N to ~! M M ~ N ~l] M N bn ~ A ~ .,.i c' ,,,' ~~ ~ ? ~ Oq W W U U U 1 ~ U U U U ~ ~H H ii d ~ d d ~ U ~ ~ ~ ~ U ~-+ ~ ~ j ,..~ CL C~ >+ G~i ~ .~~+ .~ ~C . W U eo m i, v~ _ E ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ m ~ O , -~ i , N b + n E ~ ~ O v Q x O ~ t~ E m W ~+ v~ p ~ ~ a ~ a~ N M W ~ N ~ M ~ 01 d' O~ ~ 8 H z T M ~ -~' L10 ~i M O +~ W d x A H ~ A ~ > V a w w a 0 0 U Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~~ ~' ~`~ Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~ M ~~ d N M ti M at ~rl 'Q ? ~ V ?+ ~ to V o a y G1 ~ 04 iti V ~ O O M M M ~ ~~ t0 N ~9 M N O M O O M Ifs M M M tt~ M ~ M ~ bD ~ ~ Q . rl ~ d Q d G4 Oq GO U U U U U U ~ o ~., F ~ ~ ~ N ri m o s ~ b w d F m v, O o, ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ r~ ~ ~ ~ x, ~ a~ ~ ~ N N O ri O ~ M 'C~ 1f~ CO pp ~ ~ z Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~ or a ease 00/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 n ' M M ' ~ ~ as a n b ~ A 1k tIC k. p ~ ~ h n n ~ V~ l7 N N h M lh V~ N V b p p V ~ C9 ay? ~ ~ a n t K C A t IC N M b ~ ~ty n p n ~ _. _. ~ .. m cn n n N c 0 Lq U A n ~n t0 N O N O tp M a h M l7 M N a a ~x N P7 N N h N N ~O N ~"1 O M eo 01 M ~ ~ T ~ 0~0 m ~ .~i ~ e01 C pmt G 3 t~ U ~ V ~ y Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 +~ .~ d ++ a+ U ~ ,, c v v c?1, Q IC M ~'. ~ ~ d ~ 3 vo] O W 00 rl m a ~o o 4 ~++ n n a s. ~ m A 'O m F p r+ 7 A ~ M ~ ~ z? m u ~O A ,4C ~ o u a m +~+ b ,fir m ~o d ~ H ~y 8 p rl U v~l 'O O ~ m tl 91 +i M v u o ,~ ', ., ~, a .?. w a ~+ m ~ R ~ ~ ~ a v v ?o a v m ~ c. ~ d a M .f. (~' N O b d Q O F ~"~ ~ 'O N 0. b W M Q Q 'o O V O h o a ~ a ~ .-1 M (.L .a+ O ao 3 C I ID a+ O '~ Op I M 9 N a'i0 N w v a s+ o O M O .. o d u w rl M 'O d M o m a v? c4 n n n ~ d' N W C L d a 0 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96- OOb01-4 ~4 111I !I `'~ ed For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 r r r Coordinates (C) and Coordinates with Feedback (C~). The latter (C~) technique has two columns of transcript evaluation numbers; those made on the basis of material up to the point of mid-session feedback (first column), and those made for the entire transcript, including material generated after feedback (second column). The bottom row shows the mean transcript numbers for each targeting technique averaged both for all four viewers and for the three viewers who showed evidence for reliable RV (discussed below). The right-hand column shows each viewer's twelve-trial mean. For Technique C~, the numbers before feedback only are used in the calculation of these means so that they are not contaminated by the effects of feedback. 1, Evidence for Remote Viewing The first overall result of the study is obtained by noting each viewer's twelve-trial mean (Table 7, right-hand column). The twelve-trial means for the four viewers are 2.3, 3.3, 4.0, and 4.1, respectively. Reference to the rating-scale definitions,in Table 2 indicates that the last three of the four viewers in Table ? produced weans high enough to constitute evidence for relatively reliable remote viewing, while Viewer 557, the first viewer, did not do so. (For this viewer evidence for RV was not totally lacking because five of the twelve trials rated a 3 or higher; rather, trial-to-trial reliability was lacking.) We conclude, therefore, that robust RV was obtained with three of the four remote viewers. 2. Distribution of Results across Targeting Modes To evaluate the results of using the alternative 'targeting techniques, A, B, and C, we examine the A, B, and C columns of Table 7. Examination of the means in the bottow row shows little difference between a ternative tar eting strategies. This is confirmed in detail by ~pproved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 15 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 cal statistical analysis of all the transcript rating numbers, both in the. three-cateoory Xfour-viewer matrix, and in the three-category X three- viewer matrix confined to the three remote viewers showing reliable RV functioning. Therefore, the results obtained for Target Techniques A, B, and C were essentially the same. As we examine the fine structure of individual viewer performance profiles, we find that the above conclusion for the group as a whole is especially reflected in the individual responses of the two stronger remote viewers, 688 and 807, who essentially did equally well with each of the three targeting techniques, as did the unreliable viewer, 557.1 Only .in the case of the remaining successful remote viewer (753) do we find significant differences in the alternative targeting conditions; the Beacon (B) ratings are elevated, and the Abstract (A) ratings depressed, as compared with mean performance.t In this case, the viewer expressed from the beginning a strong preference for targeting on a beacon person, which seemed "natural," as compared with the increasing abstraction of the Coordinate (C) and Abstract (A) targeting technique. This preference for a particular targeting technique, correlated with better performance for that technique, can be contrasted with the lack of expressed preference on the part of the other viewers plus their relatively stable performance using the alternative techniques, These results, taken together, lead us to conclude that there are no inherent differences in the use of Abstract (A), Beacon (B) or One-way analysis of variance: 3 X 4; dfl = 2, df2 = 33; F = 0.47 (F = 3.29 required for p < 0.05). 3 X 3; dfl = 2, df2 = 24; F = 0.95 (F = 3.40 required for p < 0,05). tone-way analysis of variance: dfl = 2., df2 = 6 (F = 5.14 required for p < 0.05). F(688) = 4.02; F(807) = 0.40; F(557) = 1.51; F(753) = 7.69. Approved For Release 2000/08/08ts CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 . ~" -, _1 For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 C~~ Coordinate (C) targeting techniques, but Personal bias or preference on the part of a viewer can skew the relative effectiveness of these alterna- tive targeting techniques in practice. Finally, no differences of note were observed in Technique B acon) between the first trial, in which the remote viewer is introduced (Be in person to the individual who is to act as a beacon, and the oto?naph third trials, in which the remote viewer is simply shown the ph ~ of an otherwise unknown beacon person. g~ Effects of Mid-Session Feedback ies of twelve Coordinate Trials (labeled C'), three each a r In se viewers were given rudi- contributed by~each of the four remote v ewe , roviding initial descriptions on the mentary mid-session feedback after p basis of coordinate targeting (as in a C Trial): The interviewer t en encouraged further response from the remote viewer. The feedback material used was prepared in advance by the ex- ~ erimenter in charge of overall protocol, and was unknown to the inter- P viewer until that moment in the RV session when he openedsa~o the viewer. t t en ntaining feedback i~orma,tion and disclosed its con co The type of feedback given was designed to be as "nonleading" as possible, meant only to give the viewer some verification if he we form of a single h e already on the right track. The feedback was in t hrase, such as "an expansive interior location'tfor an unde~e~ound P fora ceme garage, or "an outdoor open area with structures are The data from the twelve C' trials with mid-session on ofathe summarized in two columns of Table 7 and in Table 8. Comparis sis of variance : df 1 = 1 ? df 2 6; F = 0.25 (F = 4.96 One-way analy req'c~edpF~iral~i~ese 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 means in the bottom row for the results with feedback (second C` column) against the results, either of the same session before feedback (first C` column), or the Coordinates targeting without feedback (C column), shows no significant differences, either enhancement or degradation. This holds considering all the viewers, or ,)ust the three with reliable functioning. Specific session-by-session detail is presented in Table 8. It is clear from these data that feedback, presented in the form described, was not generally helpful in increasing the accuracy of postfeedback elaboration. Instead, in the ma~oritp of trials, the feedback appeared to trigger Analytical Overlay (AOL) of images from memory and imagination, resulting in some (though not significant) degradation of the description provided before feedback, at least in those cases where the initial description was good. In the few cases where the rating improved after. feedback, the improvement can be attributed to leading from the feedback, because the results in those cases still showed little evidence for RV functioning. Overall, then, there was no evidence that mid-session feedback led to improved accuracy. Instead, there was a trend (though statistically insignificant) toward degradation of the result by AOL. In regard to the effects of mid-session feedback dust described, care must be taken not to generalize that intrasession feedback in any form is aecessarily unproductive; only that there was no evidence that feedback in the form given was useful. Evidence is emerging in another All viewers, one-way analysis of variance: dfl 1, df2 = 22, F = 4,3 required for p < 0.05: F(C` before and after feedback) = 0.16, F(C, C' after feedback) =0.44. SChree reliable viewers: dfl = 1, df2 = 16, F = 4.49 required for p ~ 0.05: F(C` before attd after feedback) = 0.53, F(C, C' after feedback) = 0.03.' Approved For Release 2000/08/08s CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 (' `1 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 study,4 for example, that simple statements of "correct," given in immediate response to correct viewer statements can be helpful, parallelling similar evidence in computer "guessing game" studies in which immediate feedback appears to Lead to increasingly elevated performance profiles s We have shown, however, that descriptive statements of fact about a site, -given after a lengthy narrative by a viewer, may not be helpful. With regard to the effects of a different kind of feedback, post-session access to information about the site, the targeting study was designed to parallel as closely as possible protocols that hold under operational conditions. As such, because feedback to the remote viewer is often made available at some future time, in our study we also provided feedback. In~this case we took the viewer to the site following each session. Such post-experiment feedback provides, however, a confounding factor, both in our study and in ~ tasking in general: namely, the possibility of obtaining information via a precognition channel. At this point we have no data on whether a significant portion of the infor- mation is transferred via this channel in a typical RV session. It is only known, primarily from RV data generated in other laboratories ,g that a precognitive channel ca.n provide significant amounts of information in studies designed to focus on this aspect. To determine as best we could whether there was any evidence in this study for precognitive effects, we examined the transcripts and flagged references to future site visitation that might in principle trigger use of a precognitive channel. An average of approximately one reference per transcript met this criterion (49 references in 48 transcripts). To determine first whether any potential effects of feedback precognition might be distributed unevenly across the session categories, and thereby possibly compromise the effort to compare targeting techniques, a statistical analysis of the distribution of future feedback references Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-0078,98003200200001-4 r Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 C~~ in the transcripts was done. (The number of references totalled 16, I1, and 14 for Targeting Techniques A, B, and C, respectively.) No evidence was found far an uneven distribution across session conditions, indicating no evidence for compromise caused by an uneven distribution of future- feedback references. To check the matter further, we investigated whether there was any evidence that references to future feedback resulted in higher individual transcript ratings, because a positive carrelation between references and ratings might indicate that triggered precognition played a mayor role. Altogether, with 49 such references distributed across 48 transcripts, we found by statistical test that the correlation coefficient between number of references per transcript and transcript ratings was not significant (r = 0.08, p = 0.70). Thus, we find no evidence that statements that might in principle encourage use of a precognitive channel had any effect, either for indi- vi dual transcript ratings or for the differential comparisons between targeting conditions. The possibility of precognitive influence is, therefore, limited to the global possibility that a significant amount of information comes via the precognitive mode when it is available, simply because it is available. A separate study with feedback withheld on a random basis is required to resolve this global question. One-way analysis of variance: dfl = 2, df2 = 33, F = 0.52 (F = 3.29 regt~i.preprOV@d-rOr K@~~ase 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 r r V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS r In this study, "Targeting Requirements Task", we investigated the relative effectiveness of three alternative RV targeting techniques in use at the present time. The techniques are: (1) Beacon targeting, in which the remote viewer has had personal contact with, or is given a photograph of an individual located at the target site at the time of viewing. (2) Coordinate targeting, in which the remote viewer is given the geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude, in degrees, minutes and seconds) of the remote site to be described. (3) Abstract targeting, in which the remote viewer is told only that there is a site to be described. In addition, as a secondary task we also investigated the efficacy of giving the remote viewer limited mid-session feedback as to the general nature of the target site whose more detailed description we were seeking. To address these issues, we collected a total of 48 RV trials over a four-month period, using San Francisco Bay Area locations as the target sites. These 48 trials, twelve from each of four remote viewers, were divided into two groups: thirty-six trials evenly distributed across the three targeting techniques (Beacon, Coordinate and Abstract), and an additional twelve coordinate trials in which mid-session feedback was given, to be compared with those coordinate trials without mid-session feedback. Relatively inexperienced viewers were used to minimize a priori bias with regard to the efficacy of one targeting technique over another. Before discussing the specific results of the study we note that the fin~~l"~f~ G1m~a~~aS~~t.O@?~fl$~lfl.BrisC~~-~I~i3~3~~788~:~0u-29~0~~4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 typical RV sessions, which include the possibility of eventual future feedback to the viewer as to "ground truth." The results obtained in this study, as in manq 'tasks, are, therefore, subject to the caveat-that a global precognitive channel could be operative, and it is recommended that this issue be examined separately in future work. The results of this study are ,summarized as follows: ? Three of the~four viewers exhibited reliable RV functioning. ? For the viewers as a group (and for the successful viewers as a subgroup), no significant differences as to the efficiacy of one targeting technique over another emerged; all three techniques provided useful data o$ comparable accuracy, indicating that there is little, if any, intrinsic difference between the modes. ? For one of the successful viewers, who quickly developed an order of preference for targeting techniques, sig- nificant differences were noted, aligned with the expressed preferences; we take this to indicate that the apparent intrinsic equality of the technique evidenced in the overall results of the study can be modulated by personal preference or bias, and so the choice of targeting must be tempered by this factor. ? In the case of Beacon Targeting, no significant difference between personal contact and the use of a photograph was evident. ? Mid-session feedback in the form given (limited feedback as to the general nature of the site, following the development of a coherent 15- or 20-min narration by the viewer) yielded no significant improvement in accuracy, and some (though statistically nonsignificant) evidence for degradation of accuracy, at least in the better transcripts. We, therefore, conclude that remote viewers can describe remote sites of interest with equal accuracy, using Beacon, Coordinate, or Abstract Targeting Techniques, subject only to their individual preferences. Attempts t~~ increase the accuracy of such results by providing mid-session Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 22 Approved For Release 200 8/08 :CIA- P96-007898003200200001-4 descriptive feedback as to the general nature of the site, are, however, not likely to be successful. Approved For Release 2000/08/(~ :CIA R~DP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/(~81~8 : CIA-R9~,96-007898003200200001-4 1. H. E. Puthoff and R. Targ, "A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: His torical Perspecti ve and Recent Research," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 64, pp. 329 -354 (March 1976) , UNCLASSIFIED. 2. H. E. Puthoff, R. Targ, and E. C. May, Implications for ~ ysics," in The Role "Experimental Psi of Consciousness Research: in the Physical World, Ed. R. Jahn, AAAS Selec ted Symposium 57 (Westview Press, Inc., Boulder, CO, 1981), UNCLAS SIFIED. 3. R. Targ; H. E, puthoff, B. S. Humphrey, and E. C. May, " Sp cial Orientation Techni~tues (U)," Final Repor t, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (June 1980 ), 4. H. E. Puthoff, "RV Reliability, Enhancem ent, and Evaluati on (U)," Final Report, -SRI In ternational, Menl o Park, CA (February 1982) 5. C. T. Tart, LearniYig to Use Extrasensory Perception (Univ ersity of Chicago Press, Chicago, I1, 1976), UNCLA SSIFIED: 6. J. P. Bisaha and B. J. Dunne, "Multiple Subject and Long- Distance Precognitive Remote Viewing of Geographi cal Location," in Mind At Large: Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Symposia on the Nature of Extrasensory Perception, Ed. C. T. Tart, H. E. Puthoff, R. Targ (Praeger Press, New York, NY, 1979), UNCLASSIFIED. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 2~IA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CI 003200209001-4 Final Report Covering the Period 1 May 1979 to 31 March 1980 SPECIAL ORIENTATION TECHNIQUES (U) or Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 s Approved. For Release 2000/08/0 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 CONTENTS (U) LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (U) . . . v LIST OF TABLES (U), vii I OBJECTIVE (U), , . . . 1 II INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY (U) , ? 3 A, Basic Program Structure (U) ? . g B. Task Summary (U), , ? 6 C. Report Organization (U) ? . g III BACKGROUND (U) . A. Screenin - ~ 9 g (U) B. Remote Viewi 9 ng Protocols for the Description of Local (San Francisco Bay Area) Target Sites (U) ? . 11 . Tar g t e P ool Selection (U), 4. Target Storage and Access (U), ~ ? 5. Remote Viewer Orientation (U), ~ ~ ? 6. Interviewer Behavior ((T) 7. Target person ("Beacon") Behavior?(U), ~ ~ ? 8, Post-Experiment Feedback (U) ~ ? 9, Evaluation Procedure (U) 1. Basic Procedural Design (U), , 2., Remote Viewer/Interviewer Roles?(U), 3 12 14 '14 15 16 1 "7 18 19 19 IV ORIENTATION PROGRAM--PHASE ONE (U) A ? 25 . Remote Viewing of Local Target Sites (U), ? 2;5 B. Summary of the Six Series (U) ? 2 ~6 Approved For Release 2000/08/O~~:iCIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~~~- " Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP~ 0200001-4 1, Viewer No . 155 (U) . 2. Viewer No. 292 (U) 3. Viewer No. 372 (U) 4. Viewer No. 468 (U) 5. Viewer No. 518 (U) 6. Viewer No. 690 (U) C? Analysis of Transcript Correlations (U) D. Summary of Judging Results for Local Target Sites (U) . E? Phase-One Conclusions (U) ? V ORIENTATION PROGRAM--PHASE TWO (U) A. Remote Viewing (RV) of 35-mm Slides (U) . 1. Viewer No. 372 RV (U). 2. Viewer No. 518 RV (U). 3. Comparison of Blind Judging and Accuracy Ratings for 35-mm Slides (U) . B. Future Remote Viewing (FRV) (U) . 1. Viewer No. 468, RV and. FRV of 35-mm Slides (U) 2. Viewer No. 292, RV and FRV of 35-mm Slides (U) . 3. Viewer No. 155, RV and FRV of 35-mm Slides (U) . 4. Viewer No. 155, FRV of Local Target Sites (U). . C. Extended Remote Viewing (ERV), Viewer No. 518 (U) . 1. Background (U) 2. Pilot Effort (U) 3, Formal Series (Six Trials) (U) . 4. Discussion (U) D. Remote Viewing of Alphabet Letters (U). E. Coordinate Remote Viewing (CRV) with Immediate Feedback (U) . VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS (U). iv Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96 0001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ILLUSTRATIONS (U) 1 Stanford Art Museum Target (a ), and Response (b), by Viewer 372 (U) . . 5 2 Beacon Tower in Vicinity of Control Tower Target at Palo Alto Airport -(a), and Response by Viewer No, 292 (b) (U) 33 3 Windmill Target and Responses by Viewers S5 (a) and No. 468 (b) (U). . . 45 4 Redwood City Cross Target, and Responses of Viewers 372 (a) and 155 (b ) (U) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5 Pedestrian Overpass Target, and Responses of S4 (a) and No. 15~ (b) (U) . . . 48 6 Distribution of 36 Target/Transcript Correspondences for Local Target Sites (6 subjects, 6 transcripts each), Showing More than 50~ First-Place Matches (U), 49 7 Comparison Between Blind-Judge Rankings and Accuracy Assessments (U) . 51 $ Ultra Modern Dome IIouse--Target, and Viewer 372 Drawing' (U) . 6i 9 Mount Alverno Conference Center, and Viewer 372 Drawing (U) , ? . . ? 62 10 Stanford Shopping Center--Target, and Viewer 372 Drawing (j7) . 63 11 Varsity Theatre Arcade--Target, and Viewer 518 Drawing (U) . ~ . . 64 12 Victorian House--Target, and Viewer 518 Drawing (U). 65 13 Glass Slipper Motel---Target, and Viewer 518 Drawing (U). 66 14 Stanford Shopping Center--Target, and Response of Viewer No. 468 (U) . 72 15 Target Slide, and Viewer 292 Response Fif teen Minutes Before Random Selection of Target (U) 76 16 Target Slide, and Viewer 272 Response Fifteen Minutes Before Random Selection of Target (U) 77 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 v ed For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-00789R00~200200001-4 onse (U) 17 Copper Pitcher and Viewer No. 518 ERV Resp onse (U) 18 Food Mill Target and Viewer No. 518 ERV Resp ? ? onse (U) 19 Straw Hat Target and Viewer No. 518 ERV Resp ? onse (U)? 20 Tripod Target and Viewer No. 518 ERV Resp . onse (U) 21 Antenna and Viewer No. 518 ERV Resp onse (U) 22 Globe Target and Viewer No. 518 ERV Resp Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~ ~ , Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 TABLES (U) 1 Results of Transcript Concept Analysis of a Remote Viewing 22 Experiment (U) ? 2 0-? Point Accuracy Rating Scale for Target/Transcript ? 27 Correspondence (U) ~. ? 3 Total Scores for Each of the Six Viewers in Phase-One 52 Orientation Program (U) . ' ? 98 4 Distribution of CRV Target/Response Hatchings (U). ? 100 5 Program Summary (U) . Approved For Release 2000/08/0$~,i~lA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~~~ Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 CrJ I OBJECTIVE (U) The objectives of this program are the optimization of remote viewing (RV) protocols, the orientation of selected individuals to reach enhanced levels of ability, and the establishment of screening procedures to enlarge the population from which individuals are selected. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/ : CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 L II INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY (U) A, Basic Program Structure (U) In this report we present results and assessments of a one-year program for the ,optimization of remote viewing The objective of this program was to familiarize these individuals with the SRI remote viewing protocols, to produce enhanced levels of ability, artd to establish screening tests and procedures for enlarging the population from which such individuals are selected. (U) For the past seven years SRI International has been investigating a.human perceptual/processing ability called remote viewing (RV), This ' is the su bject matter of the current study, and it pertains to the acquisition and description, by mental means, of information blocked from ordinary perception by distance or shielding and generally considered to be secure from such access , At the start of this program, six individuals were'cho sen ~ to participate in an RV technology transfer, With the exception of one of the six who had participated in an ESP study several years earlier, these participants when selected were inexperienced with regard to paranormal perception in general, and RV in particular. A variety of different training protocols were examined with the goal of helping the participants familiarize themselves with the SRI RV techniques, Formal assessment and transfer series were carried out with each of the six participants, in which they were asked to use mental imagery processes to describe distant geographic locations (bridges, roads, buildings, etc,), hidden 35-mm slides of similar sites, and objects placed in a controlled- access location, Several other information series were carried out, These a~pprov~~~~~~e~`a~~t20~'6: ~I~~?F~6o66789R003200200001-4 ~~~ ~ %08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 (U) Four of the six participant's each produced results that de- ted si nifica,ntly from chance expectation in assessment series that par g were formally judged by very strict criteria. The other two produced estive of paranormal results ;in the assessment series that were also Bugg significant per- perception. Overall, this result constitutes highly = 4 X 10 5, or odds of one in 25,000 of such a result occurring formance (p by chance). We are including in this introduction one illustrative example Area outdoor target. of an RV trial for a real-time San Francisco Ba.y The viewer, Ho. 372, who contributed this data, produced a mixture of onding, in his two series responses', some excellent and some noncorresp at SRI. Several of his descriptions were among the best obtained in the program, and his overall consistency in performance resulted in both of his individual series reaching statistical significance. ro osed programs are directed at training partici- rrent and p p C (U) u pants to bring their RV ability under more conscious control, and to learn These to recognize and overcome the factors that limit RV reliability. . limiting factors center around the generan of erroneous data by the viewer from his memory and imagination. An example of the successful resolution of such noise is the following. (U) The viewer was closeted with an interviewer in the laboratory at SRI to await the target team's arrival at their destinati~e v~wer target was the Stanford Art (Kuseum on the Sdifferentashapes that he said made several tentative outline sketches of he made a careful Finally, were "associated with the face of a building.~~ A photograph of of the building he was visualizing. perspective drawing the target is shown in Figure 1(a), and the viewer's drawing is shown for com arison in Figure 1(b). The viewer's narrative descried the face of P the building as follows: "There is a white and black pattern, a white Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 "~ 4 r--- Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 (u) and black striped pattern." ... "It's like an inverted rectangle, wit square fastened to the back, or a rectangle laid down behind it." two buildings in one. One building." "I have the sense that there i dirt by the walls ...." He went on to talk about trees, flowers, d bicycles, all of which can be found directly in front of ,the target ? (U) Remote Viewing of 35-mm Slides. These trials were carried out under varying conditions for five viewers in Phase Two. One viewer, who generated B. Task Summary (U) significant results in Phase One, was again independently (U) In the following we briefly summarize results of the var~?u perceptual tasks that were undertaken: ? (U) Bay Area Target Site Remote Viewing.. In the Phase One activities, six RV trials with local San Francisco Bay Area sites- as targets were carried out with each of the s'ix ?~ viewers. In these six series, four of the viewers each produced results that were independently significant (p < 0.05), making the series as a whole strongly significant (p = 4 X 10-5; odds of one in 25,000). building. significant in his description of distant slides. A second viewer, also producing significant results in Phase One, produced drawings in Phase Two that were :formally judged to have significant correlations with the slide targets, although his verbal material did not. A third viewer was asked to describe slides before they ~ were chosen, that would be shown to him at a laver time. His results were suggestive of success (p = 0.1) but not statistically significant. Similar trials with two other viewers were also encouraging but nonsignificant. ?Remote Viewing in' a f~DOwl A viewer who was successful in the slide viewing trials also carried out a series using extended remote viewing, in which he spent more than an hour on each of six attempts to describe ob jects held in a rb p,?y~ Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-00~89R003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/0~/08.: CIA-R.Q,P96-007898003200200001-4 Two judges evaluated this viewer's responses: one udged it significant (p = 0.05), and one just missed significance. ? (U) Alphabet Targets. A viewer successful in both Ba.y Area remote viewing and slide trials also participated in a series in which he attempted to describe alphabet letters in a distant location. This was not a formal series, since the protocol, which was exploratory in nature, was changed several times during the series. However, the percentage hits result indicates that the viewer was in contact with the target letters at a rate higher than would be expected by chance. These data, taken in conjunction with data generated on another program, show promise that this ability can be developed. ? (U) Correlated Responses. In the course of the year's work,%tprgets were repeated from ti me. to time as a result of random selection from a target pool of sixty. In some cases we obtained strikingly similar responses (even when incorrect) from the different viewers who countered these repeated targets. These responses also corr ated well with responses obtained from other viewers over past years of research. The observation of such a result indicates the possibility that given target stimuli trigger charac- teristic responses, which could be tabulated in a "dictionary" of site attributes. ? "`Coordinate Remote Viewing (CRV). Three of the viewers took part in CRV exercises in which they were asked to describe distant locations anywhere on the globe, given only the geographical coordinates of latitude and longitude. This is an ability that has been well demonstrated by some of our experienced participants, and similar encouraging results were obtained in these trials One exercise which was sufficiently lengthy to justif y analysis was found to be statistically significant at p 0.0083 (odds of one in 120). From these studies we find evidence that the SRI RV technology is transferable; one of the ~ viewers turned in clearly superior performances, and three others produced successful (statistically signifi- cant) remote viewing at a level to indicate useful information transfer. Approved For Release 2000/08/08 CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-R=6.007898003200200001-4 C. Report Organization (U) ~ (U) In Section III we describe the SRI RV protocols, including ~_ results from the past, and our expectations for the present program. also discuss the screening procedures used to select viewers and the ,judging procedures used to evaluate the results of the investigation'` carried out in the current program. which we Systematically carried out RV trials with the participants t obtain baseline data from each under similar experimental conditions. (U) In Section IV we describe the first phase of the study, in Phase lrvo in an effort to extend the repertoire of RV tools available s In Section V we present the exploratory work carried out it (U) Our conclusions and recommendations are presented in Sectic Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96800789R003200200001-4 Approved For Release 290/08/08 ~I_&~DP96-007898003200200001-4 III BACKGROUND (U) (U) With the overall objective of improving the reliability of psychoenergetic functioning, we have in the past investigated several different screening procedures, familiarization/training protocols, and fudging techniques, both with the goal of developing procedures useful in identif ying gifted remote viewers, and of providing the most optimal strategies to permit individuals to exploit the RV phenomenon to useful ends. In this section we provide background data on each of these areas. A. Screening (U) One of the goals of the program was to pursYe the question of the establishment of screening procedures to enlarge t1~e population from which individuals are selected for RV work. (U) In the psychoenergetics field in general, two approaches to screening have been pursued; screening by profile, and screening by performance. Both have been examined to a limited degree in this program. (U) In screening by profile,rone attempts to establish physiological and/or psychological parameters which differentiate high-performance from low-performance individuals, In an early program SRI carried out an extensive profiling program on gifted individuals and controls. Theme~ tests included a comprehensive medical evaluation, including X-ray scans bf the brain, and comprehensive psychological and neuropsychological profiling. The following list of tests administered gives an idea as to the thorough- ness of the evaluations: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Bender Gestalt Visual Motor Test, Benton Visual Memory Test, Wechsler Memory Scale, Luscher Color Test, Strong Vocational Interest Blank, Minnesota Approved For Release 2000/08~I08 : CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 (U) Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Edwards Personality Preference Schedule (EPPS), Rorschach Inkblot, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Halstead Category Test, Tactual Performance Test, Speech Perception Ted, Seashore Rhythm Test, Finger Tapping Test, Trail Making Test, Knox Cubs' Test, Raven Progressive Matrices, Verbal Concept Attainment Test, Busc3~e Memory Test, Grooved Pegboard Tests, Gottschaldt Hidden-Figures Test, o,d the spatial relations subtest of the SRA Primary Mental Abilities Test The overall result of this testing was that no clear profile parameters emerged on which an a priori screening procedure could be based. Tn contrast to formal testing, however, several years observati of remote viewers by SRI researchers has led to an informal guide baser o subjective evaluation of the personality traits of successful viewers. This rule-of-thumb guide is based on the observation that successful rr Go viewers tend to be confident, outgoing, adventurous, broadly successfu individuals with some artistic bent. With this as a guide, the sponsoi_- considered .a population of 250 potential candidates for the RV program Of these, 117 were interviewed, resulting in a pool of 30-35 individuate., for potential active use in the program. With regard to the SRI orien'~- tion program, ten of these were selected for interview by the SRI team, of which six were chosen for active participation in the SRi program. ~ This constitutes the level of screening by profile. (U) In screening by performance, a number of unselected or pre- selected individuals are given a psychoenergetics task to perform. Tho~sE~ performing successfully are then said to be screened by the task, and ~ e then graduated to further tasking, Approved For Release 2000/0$/08?~fA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 (December 1, 1975), (U) H. Puthoff and R. Targ, "Perceptual Augmentation Techniques (U),'? Final Report, SRI Project 3183, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA Approved For Release 2000/08/08: CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 In this study, the six individuals pre-screened by interview were then screened by performance on a six-trial RV series involving local San Francisco Bay Area locations as target sites. Four of the six participants produced results that individually were statistically sig- nificant. Since this overall result is itself statistically significant we take as evidence that the interview selection .(screening) procedure based on the SRI-supplied informal guidelines was successful, keeping in mind that the sample is too small to make an absolutely definitive statement. .Furthermore, taking the initial six-trial series as a performance- screening instY'ument, we found that the.f our high-performance individuals in this series cgntinued to perform with good success in additional tasks, while the two lower-performance individuals were also less successful in later tasks. we consider this to be an important finding. (U) From these overall results we conclude that pre-screening on the basis of interview, following the informal SRI guideline criteria, and screening by performance, using the SRI Standard RV Protocols, both constitute basic screening tools that in this program provided reliable indicators of success i.n psychoenergetic performance. B, Remote Viewing Protocols for the Description of Local (San Francisco Bay Area) Target Sites (U) (U) As a result of efforts over the years to develop an optimum psychoenergetic task appropriate for screening and training, we have settled on a standard remote-viewing (RV) procedure which is a refined ~iersion of that described in our Proc. IEEE paper, The elements of the (U) H. E. Puthoff and R. Targ, "A Perceptual Channel for Information Transfer over Kilometer Distances: Historical Perspective and Recent Research," Proc. IEEE, Vol. 64, pp. 329-354 (March 1976). Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/0$/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 2. Remote Viewer/Interviewer Roles (U) (U) An important methodological aspect of the SRI RV protocols is based on the fact that the remote viewer/interviewer team constitutes a single information gathering unit in which the remote viewer's role is designed to be that of perceiver/information source, and the interviewer's role is designed to be that of analyti cal control. This division of labor is designed to mirror the two primary modes of cerebral functioning; namely, the nonanalytic cognitive style (related to brain function) that predominates in spatial pattern recognition and other holistic processing (and is hypothesized to pre- dominate in psi functioning), and the analytical cognitive style that predominates in verbal and other analytical functionin g. (Only very experienced remote viewers appear to have the ability to handle both ' cognitive styles simultaneously.) The interviewer role, removing as it does the burden of analytical functioning during exercise of the RV faculty appears to be a key element in generating the level of success required in operational programs, and we attribute the success of the SRI RV protocols in large part to this innovative design which appears to provide an appropriate match to the required functioning. 3. Target Pool Selection (U) (U) Target locations in the San Francisco Bay Area are selected by a team of two Radio Physics Laboratory personnel who are not involved (U) See, e,g., J. Ehrenwald, "Cerebral Localization and the Psi Syndrome," _ J, of Nervous and Mental Disease, Vol, 161, No, 6, pp, 393-398; R, Ornstein, The Nature of Human Consciousness, San Francisco, CA: Freeman, 1973, Ch, 7 and 8; and R, W, Sperry, "Cerebral Organization and Behavior," Science, Vol. 133, pp, 1749-1757 (1961). Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : ~A-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 7 Approved For Release 2000f;9$/O~IA R~P96-007898003200200001-4 (u) in our view such (novel) environmental factors would divert some of the sub3ect's much-needed attention. 6. Interviewer Behavior (U) (U) The interviewer arranges ahead of time to have pen and paper available for drawing, and a tape recorder. The room lighting is somewhat subdued to prevent after-image highlights, shadows on eyelids, etc. (U) When the agreed-upon RV trial time arrives, the interviewer simply asks the remote viewer to "describe the impressions that come to ~~ mind with rggard to where the target person is. The interviewer does not pressure the remote viewer to verbalize continuously; if he were to, the remote viewer~ntight tend to embroider descriptions to please the interviewer, a well-known syndrome in behavioral studies of this type. If the remote viewer tends toward being analytical ("I see Ma,cy's") the interviewer gently leads him into description, not analysis. ("You don't have to tell me where it is, dust describe what you semi") This is the most important and difficult task of the interviewer, but is apparently necessary for good results, especially with inexperienced remote viewers. (U) It is also useful for the interviewer to "surprise" the remote viewer with new viewpoints. 0 w m b x. ca ~ ~ ~cs 5, m +~ a~i ~ U ~ A .Q ~ ~ ,, a n~ o u, O U U ~ a ~ ~ v i d a ~ V ~ 1] ~ N O ,[ U -.a O +~ ~, cd +~ ~ ~ rl ~ m Q w d ~ ~ is U b ,-~ Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA- DP9~~078 03200200001-4 Approve_ d For Release 200 `6=b0789R003200200001-4 With regard to screening: (1) The individuals chosen to participate in the program were pre-screened' from. a population of 250 potential candidates, using broad personality profile guidelines recommended by SRI, with final selection determined on the basis of interview by the SRI project leaders (R. T. and H. P.). The fact that the overall study was successful lends support to the effectiveness of this initial screening-by-profile procedure. (2) The details of the results of the program indicate that a half dozen local-site RV trials may constitute a meaningful s Greening-by-performance procedure to separate the more reliable from the less reliable viewers. In order for screening-by-performance to be successful, it is necessary that the performance of ti a viewer be relatively consistent. We find that those individuals who were the most successful in the Phase- One trials, were also the most successful in Phase-Two, even though different remote viewing tasks were pursued. Of the four successful viewers in Phase-One, two produced significant results and one near-significant (the fourth was not available for the Phase-Two study). The two viewers from Phase-One that were least successful there (not reaching significance) again did not reach signifi- cance in Phase-Two. Although the sample is too small to be definitive, it appears that the Phase-One local- site RV series itself offers evidence of constituting a useful screening-by-performance procedure. The data indicating that a viewer can describe an individual slide as it is shown on a screen shows that targeting on high-resolution transient targets (charts, maps, etc.) is not out of the question. This, coupled with our findings that a viewer may be able to describe and identif y alphabet letters is a most encouraging development, and one deserving of further work. Extension of the RV process to include high-resolution material, especially with a reading ability, would constitute a significant breakthrough I Approved For Release 2~ -F~DP96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/08/08 : CI ~tDP96-00 98003200200001-4 ~. Certain of the individual responses in the FRV (future remote viewing) series, both with slides and with local sites as targets, appeared to give striking evidence of contact with the target, However, the trial-to-trial reliability was low and no series reached statistical significance. Therefore, although individual results were encouraging; no definitive statement can be made on the basis of this short: study. Given its obvious applications potential, should its existence be capable of unambiguous verification, we consider it a high-priority item for further .exploration. In the extended remote viewing (ERV) trials a viewer was able in each trial of the series to identify significant elements of an object placed in various locations ~- In these experiments the remote viewer worked,. alone over extended periods of time (up to three hours). At a minimum, the good results indicate that the RV process is not so fragile that it must be carried out under rigidly-specified conditions, since in this case an alternative style was in use and the results continued to be reliable. Further work would be required, however, before a definitive comparison of RV and ERV could be made. Finally, the encouraging results obtained in the CRV (coordinate remote viewing) trials indicates that comparable accuracy and reliability can be expected from experienced viewers targeting either on the basis of a beacon person at the target, or on the basis of geographical latitude and longitude alone. As a by-product of the CRV study, which involved the use of special procedures being developed in another program for reliability enhancement, the high-quality output provided additional confirmation as to the effectiveness of certain new approaches .being taken with regard to monitor/viewer interaction and control of the RV environment. Approved For Release 2000/08/08- : CIA-R4~96-007898003200200001-4 (~ Approved For Release 200 P96-007898003200200001-4 To take advantage of the most recent developments in remote viewing, and we strongly recommend further development capabilities in the following areas: ? Applications of Remote Viewing. A training procedure has been developed that appeares to greatly increase both the accuracy and reliability of remote viewing by coordinates. Thus technique should continue to be examined, and applied t`o targets of _ nterest ? Effects of Feedback. An extensive examination should be made of the necessity for providing feedback in remote viewing trials,- A systematic variation in the presence or absence of feedback should be used to determine the importance of this factor. ~ .Target Demarcation. Coordinate remote viewing experiments should be carried out in which the target is demarcated by means of various types of coordinates (e.g., geographic, and arbitrary). This should be done in order to discover the part played by the target coordinate in determining remote viewing accuracy. ? Audio Analysis. In an effort to separate correct from incorrect data available from taped subject descriptions of remote viewing target sites, the use of speech and audio analysis techniques should be investigated as a tool to provide selective editing. This should include semantic analysis, in which analysis of written transcripts area carried out to look for variations in .grammar, style, or vocabulary to help separate correct from incorrect statements in the RV transcript. ? Tracking. Further effort should be pursued to perfect the RV process whereby, instead of demarcating a location to obtain a target description, one provides a target description and asks for location SRI has under development certain strategies involving FRV feedback, computer averaging of multiple trials, and so forth, which appear from pilot efforts to hold promise. ? Spatial Resolution. A study should be carried out to determine the extent to which it is possible to aid Approved For Release 200 08/~ :CIA-RR]DP96-007898003200200001-4 i to achieve the goal of continuing to develop remote viewing Approved For Release 2000/ ~/08 : CIA-F~P96-007898003200200001-4 viewers in learning to read hidden and distant printed material that is blocked from ordinary perception. ? Temporal Resolution; An ERV effort should be pursued to determine the accuracy of remote viewing as a function of time for future targets. ? ELF Fbcperiments, Since one of the prevalent hypotheses for paranormal perception requires the use of an ELF electromagnetic carrier, we suggest carrying out definitive experiments Ito examine this hypothesis (e.g,, by using ELF generators as beacons), and to provide analyses correlating data from our past data base with the daily record of geophysical parameters known to affect ELF propagation. ? Theoretical Studies. Modern physics offers several mathematical descriptions of reality that may also prove to be testable descriptions of paranormal ~ perception in general and remote views in ,, ng' particular. We recommend work with leading physicists who have agreed to consult for SRI on these theoretical problems, in an effort to develop a physical understanding of the phenomena we observe in the laboratory and in the field, and to apply this knowledge to improve remote viewing functioning. ? Technical Meetings. SRI proposes to host private quarterly conferences to bring together selected U,S, scientists who are concerned with the technical issues in psychoenergetic research. Successful pursuit of the above priority items could be expected to result in an increased reliability and breadth of utility of the RV Approved For Release 2000/08108 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~~-~ Fina/ Report Covering [he Period October 1980 to September 1981 RV RELIABILITY, ENHANCEMENT, AND EVALUATION (U) ved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-RDP96-007898003200200001-4 ~, 200200001-4 February 1982 Approved For Release 208A 96-007898003200200001-4 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS . I OBJECTIVE . . II INTRODUCTION III RV ENHANCEMENT TASK . A. Tasking . 7 B. Coordinate RV (CRV) 7 C. Overview of the RV Enhancement Procedure. 8 D. Transfer of RV Enhancement Technology 11 E. 'Summary of the RV Enhancement Technique 13 IV RV TASKS -- 15 RV Tasking. A. 15 _ ~ B. RV Session Format ,~ C. Pre- and post ~Task Calibration. 15 D. FY 1981 ~ RV Sites . 1G E. Evaluation of the RV Task 20 V SUMMARY OF THE FY 1981 RV ENHANCEMENT TASK 21 Appendices A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF CRV PRACTICE SITES 23 B ~~ASK SI1MhtARY SHEETS - 27 C AN EXAIvIPLE OF A REMOTE VIEWING RESPONSE 53 D RV EVALUATION PROTOCOLS S1 E A SAh4PLE RETURNED EVALUATION PROTOCOL G9 Approved For Release 2000/0 8 : G~~i~- -007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/ 6-007898003200200001-4 1 RV Enhancement Program q 2 Schematic Representation of Remote Viewer Response to CRV Situation. 9 3 Stage 3 Remote Viewing (Wotje Atoll) 12 4 Presession Calibration Trial (Mount Kilimanjaro) (a) Site, (b) RV Response. 17 5 Postsession Calibration Trial (Canyonlands National Park) (a) Site, (b) RV Response. 18 1 Stages in Remote Vie~vi ng 10 2~ Remote Viewing Tasks (FY 1981) 19 Approved For Release 20 ~ 8/08 :"CIA-R 96-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/ -007898003200200001-4 The objective of the RV Reliability, Enhancement, and Evaluation .Task is to develop techniques to enhance remote viewing (RV), both to enhance i the potential for applications; Approved For Release 2000/0 8 : G~IA-R -007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/0 6-007898003200200001-4 II INTRODUCTION SRI International is tasked with assessing the potential of RV for enhancement techniques can be developed that will significantly increase levels of accuracy and reliability. applications. In this task, as defined for 'fiscal years (FY) 1981 through 1983, special emphasis is placed on the possibility that The three-year effort focuses on (1) the development of techniques to enhance the accuracy and reliability of RV, (2) the application of RV~ (3) the evaluation of such techniques and applications, ? ~~ The apportionment of these efforts over the three-year period is shown in Figure 1. and (4) the integration of RV Investigation of the RV phenomenon at SRI International over the past decade has ranged from basic research for proof or the lack of proof of the existence of the phenomenon to ~~ applications in which the existence of the phenomenon is assumed. The present study emphasizing applicability is the latter type--proof of the phenomenon is not explicitly .pursued here. Some pragmatic measure of demonstration of existence is provided, however, by assessment of the quality of results obtained in tests carried out under double-blind conditions. In this report we discuss the effort for FY'81. This effort con- r?j silted of RV is the acquisition and description, by mental means, of informs ion blocked from ordinary perception by distance or shielding. Approved For Release 2000/08/x.8 : CIQ~-RDP~6.P0789R003200200001-4 v Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA--~.DP96-0 _003200200001-4 INTEGRATION OF RV EVALUATION TASKING DEVELOPMENT OF ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES 19$2 FISCAL YEAR FIGURE 1 (U1 RV ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM Approved For Release 2000/08/08 :CIA-R 6-0~789R003 0200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/~ ~6-007898003200200001-4 (1) The development of a six-stage RV training procedure, which we hypothesized would lead to improved RV performance. (2) The beginning of orientation/application/testing of the procedure with four experienced and one novice remote viewer. (3) The generation of data by the experienced remote viewers (4) The development of a first-generation series of evaluation sheets (and an associated computerized data-base management system) for use by analysts in providing numerical estimates of various aspects of the RV product. ,,, Approved For Release 2000/p 9~-007898003200200001-4 Approved For Release 2000/0 -007898003200200001-4 A. Tasking SRI International is tasked with working toward the development of RV enhancement procedures Of~ particular interest are the development of procedures that can be transmitted to others in a structured fashion (i.e., "training" procedures), and that can be used in targeting on distant sites ~~ B. Coordinate RV (CRV) One targeting procedure, which we have been investigating at SRI since 1972, is an abstract procedure known as "coordinate remote viewing