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Approved For Release 2000/08/1'1 : CIA RDP96-??~~i~00320001-8 Final Report October 9982 PSYCHOENERGETICS RESEARCH IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (1982) (U) By: HAROLD E. PUTHOFF Prepared for: DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY WASHINGTON, D.C. 20301 CONTRACT MDA908-82-C-0034 SPECIAL ACCESS PROGRAM FOR GRILL FLAME. RESTRICT DISSEMINATION TO ONLY INDIVIDUALS WITH VERIFIED ACCESS. WARNING NOTICE Intelligence Sources and Methods Involved 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, California 94025 U.S.A. (415) 326-6200 NOT RELEASABLE TO Cable: SRI INTL MPK FOREIGN NATIONALS ed For Rely' 20~5%~~)~1 ~f04~1A-RDP96-007s9~QQ~4Q,Q~0001-8 ' ""' ` '~"r Approv ~ F~di- ~e~e 2000/ 81~f'FO1~I~ RDP96-0 7`92`i~F64~Y~C?0'`R 1?~~`27,~82 t318 067 SQ:~ 4f~8 C~ #T4 I Fi3'~1 RepOTt "FfBi ResP.Breh SIG~T+U~RE~~^, ( ~, ~ ;~31~1 ? ~' 1 1 V~/ 4J ~ ~, ~- 1 TITLE ? ? ?4I V~4 tV6 litJ ~~ s ~~ ~~~ SR. 180281: UN~~~S~?S~~o~~~~~~d~O~Q~g~~~EO1EN~~1:,~~P96-007928000400320001-8 RECIPIENT'S COPY oved For Release 2000/08/11 :CIA-RDP96~~7~21R(~~0320001-8 Final Report October 1982 Covering the Period October 1981 to October 1982 PSYCHOENERGETICS RESEARCH IN THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (1982) (U) DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Contract No: MDA908-82-C-0034 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20301 SRI Project 4028 Attention: DT-5A SPECIAL ACCESS PROGRAM FOR GRILL FLAME. RESTRICT DISSEMINATION TO ONLY INDIVIDUALS WITH VERIFIED ACCESS. ROBERT S. LEONARD, Director Radio Physics Laboratory DAVID D. ELLIOTT, Vice President Research and Ana/ysis Division Intelligence Sources and Methods Involved CLASSIFIED BY: DT-5A REVIEW ON: 31 October 2002 SECRET ~'~ Copy No . .............. This document consists of 68 pages. SRIfGF-0201 NOT RELEASABLE TO FOREIGN NATIONALS 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, California 94025 U.S.A. proved For O~~a~ X00?/08~aa1~: CI~RDPRJ&a'08R~921~f~b40~0~}~K~6 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 :CIA-RDP96-007928000400320001-8 SECRET I BACKGROUND AND OVERVIEW (U) . 1 A, Chronology of Major Events (U). 1 B. Official Policy (U) 3 I I EAST-WEST EXCHANGE (U) 7 A. China Psychoenergetics Tour--Introduction (U) 7 B, Institute of High Energy Physics (Beijing) (U). 8 C, Shanghai Meeting with Editorial Staff of 'Nature' ('Ziran Zazhi') (U) 10 D. PRC Representation at Cambridge Conference (U), 12 III ASSESSMENT AND CONCLUSIONS (U) 17 A. Assessment (U) , 17 B. Conclusions (U) 18 REFERENCES . 21 APPENDICES A EXCEPTIONAL HUMAN BODY RADIATION (U), 23 B STUDY OF THE EXTRAORDINARY FUNCTION OF THE HUMAN BODY IN CHINA (U) . 37 C PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ON CHINESE WORK ON EHBF (U), 49 Approved For Release 2000/08/1'I~ ~I~IE6~00792R000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 :CIA-RDP96-007928000400320001-8 SECRET (U) In this document we review the recent (1979 to present) rapid escalation of interest and research activity in psychoenergetics phenomena in the People's Republic of China. This includes evidence of large-scale screening far talented individuals, officially-sanctioned pursuit of research at the national laboratory level, continuing publication of results in leading scientific journals, and official PRC representation at international conferences on psychoenergetics phenomena, (U) Definition: Human-mediated effects consisting of (1) the acquisition of information not presented to any obvious sense, (2) physical effects not mediated by any obvious mechanism. the generation of Approved For Release 2000/08/115 ~ 6T00792R000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000~p~~~A~~~Q9~~00400320001-8 A. Chronology of Major Events (U) (U) Although interest in exceptional human functioning has historically been part of China's tradition, "parapsychological" or "psychoenergetics" studies have until recently been unacceptable as a subject of inquiry under Marxist rule. As recently as 1975, for example, the official journal of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Scientia Sinica, carried an article critical of increasing U.S. and Soviet interest in psychoenergetics.l (U) A reversal of this viewpoint can be traced to a report in the March 11, 1979, Sichuan Daily, which apparently acted as a trigger for renewed interest and exploration. In that report it was claimed that a 12-yr-old boy, Tang Yu, was able to read written material placed in physical contact with his ears. Although this claim was soon being criticized as unscientific in, e.g., The People's Daily in May 1979, reports began to sur- face from all over China that children elsewhere were duplicating this feat, (U) In September 1979, a major monthly science journal, Nature (Ziran Zazhi), carried a report entitled "Observation Report on the Non-Visual Recognition of Images." This report, written by a correspondent of the journal on the basis of his own personal observations, provided support for the claims.2 The journal then followed up in its October-December issues with additional reports on experimental observations by scientists at Beijing (Peking) University and elsewhere, which provided additional evidence for authenticity of the claims.3-s ~k (U) "Peking" is translated as "Beijing" in the newer Pinyin transcription system, declared the official system of the PRC in 1958. Approved For Release 200~~`!'~~~=RBP^J~ ~~210000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 :CIA-RDP96-007928000400320001-8 UNCLASSIFIED (U) These reports caught the attention of scientists throughout China, many of whom assumed that some form of rudimentary biological functio n was at cause, since early reports typically involved "reading" through the skin, As a result, the initial approach to the phenomenon by the Chinese scientists parallels in many respects earlier similar work of Romains on "eyeless" sight? and Soviet investigations into so-called "dermo-optic" perception,e From this beginning, such functioning in China goes under a rubric that translates as Extraordinary Human Body Function (EHBF), From its griginal association with "skin-reading," this phrase has now been broadened to include the entire range of phenomena that in the West are called "parapsychological" or "psychoenergetic," since it was not long before the reading of Chinese characters, numbers, etc, extended to experiments involving noncontact forms of the phenomenon (e.g ? use of sealed containers, long distances, and so forth), (U) As a result of growing scientific interest, in February 1980 .the "First Science Symposium on the Extraordinary Function of the Human Body" was held in Shanghai, sponsored by the editorial department of the journal Nature. Participants from over 20 colleges and research institutes were in attendance, along with 14 children purported to possess EHBF skills, which they demonstrated at the conference ,e As a result of these demon- strations a number of observers returned to their institutes to set up research programs, and rigorous investigations began in earnest, '(U) These efforts were followed by a "Second Science Symposium in the Extraordinary Function of the Human Body," held in Chongqing in May 1981, At that symposium a professional group,. the "Preparatory Committee of the Chinese Human-Body Science Institute," was set up to act as an (U) Throughout the 1980 to 1981 period a continuing series of papers on EHBF work were published in Nature, some of which have been translated Approved For Release 2000/0>~'F~~F6~~400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/48,~1~~~~~~~~0400320001-8 (u) and are available in English .1o The first presentation of EHBF research results to a professional audience outside of China took place at the 24th Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association affiliate of the AAAS, held at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, August 1981. There, Professor Zheng Rongliang, Division of Biophysics, Department of Biology, Lanzhou University, on sabbatical to the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, gave an overview of results reported to date. (U) In October 1981 the State Science Commission set up a special group to study EHBF phenomena, and in February 1982 the Chinese Academy of Sciences sponsored a public hearing on the phenomena. In both formats a wide spectrum of viewpoints was aired, including discussion of examples in which it was concluded that deception had occurred.ll B. Official Policy (U) (U) Despite criticisms from some quarters (notably, sociologist Yu Kwong Yu) official acceptance of the potential importance of the study of EHBF phenomena can be inferred from four key events in the 1981 to 19.82 frame. One is the appearance of an entry on EHBF in the China Encyclopedic Almanac of 1981 in its column on science and technology. Although carrying a cautionary note that "there are still some people holding skeptical attitudes with respect to the authenticity of the extraordinary function of the human body," the development of the study of EHBF is discussed. (U) A second indicator of official acceptance was the granting of permission for a visit to China in October 1981 by a delegation of American and Canadian parapsychologists, expressly to meet with Chinese researchers in the EHBF area. While in China members of the delegation had an (U) American Association for the Advancement of Science. 3 Approved For Release 2000~~~[~~OO~f3~00400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 :CIA-RDP96-007928000400320001-8 SECRET (U) opportunity to meet; with EHBF research groups at Beijing (Peking) Uni- versity, and at the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of High-Energy Physics (also in Beijing), and to discuss at length reported research results and publication policies with the staff and Editor-in-Chief of Nature. (U) A third indication of official interest was the decision by the PRC government to send two official representatives to the annual inter-- national convention of professional parapsychologists held in Cambridge, England, August 1982, These representatives, both Deputy Directors of the Institute of Space Medico-Engineering in Beijing, presented an authorita- tive summary of Chinese work in a Special Symposium on PRC Studies, chaired by Dr, H. E. Puthoi'f of SRI International, (U) A fourth indication of official support for investigation of EHBF is provided by a statement by the Secretary-General of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Hu Yao-pang: "This so-called Exceptional Human Body Function is not yet gncluded in tY~e different lines of present science which have been accepted, Therefore, before the real truth has been discovered, there should be no propaganda work on this subject, and for this reason there should be no antagonistic publication either, I think my two points are clear and fair. On this subject a group of a limited number of scientists should form a moderate-size research center to study and carry out experiments, and the results of their research work published for all those who are interested in SG1B this new line of science." Approved For Release 2000/08/11: ~~Dl~~b'q`l92R000400320001-8 SG1B Approved For Release 2000/08/11 :CIA-RDP96-007928000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 :CIA-RDP96-007928000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/0~/a~~RQP~~Q7~~F~OQQ400320001-8 0 ? ~ ~. ~ p,O" F iii w ~ a .c a fl, c a V W ..? .O y w ~n ~1 C7 ++ E ~ q ~ d ~ pp a ++ ?~ ~ SOi 0. q ~V O 'O M cO. F3 +> d~ - i7 41 I F N O 40 ~'] x O ~ ++ ~' F ttl ~ A a m m ++ ~ v~ m O 41 q .+ G N W N v~l q ++ O ltl ~ A 0. 7 4L + + b ~tl a d w a +~ m ~ N N O O O CL ~ V d O " y y F~ V O .?I.,I e n ~ ~ o. ++ U c, W d O O to pAy U m ~ r0 P h O 4Ni O ~ x p A + ` N Fri P. I a Fa3 ac Y co d ~"a M A Approved For Release 2000/~'1T~~~~~b~P~g0o10400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/0~/~~~F~F~~R~g0400320001-8 A. China Psychoenergetics Tour--Introduction (U) (U) In October 1981 a group of 18 American and Canadian scientists, physicians and educators had an opportunity to visit the People's Republic of China, specifically for the purpose of meeting with Chinese researchers working in the EHBF area. The twelve-day stay, which took the group to the cities of Beijing (Peking), Xian, and Shanghai, was organized as a collaborative effort between a well-known American parapsychologist, Dr, Stanley Krippner, Dean of the Faculty of the Humanistic Psychology Institute in San Francisco, and Mrs. Shuhyin Mar, a retired University of Maryland mathematics instructor interested in EHBF phenomena, with family ties in China. Others in the group professionally involved in psychoenergetics research and members of the Parapsychological Association affiliate of the AAAS were, in addition to Dr. Krippner, Dr. H, E. Puthoff, researcher at SRI International; Dr. Marcello Truzzi, sociologist at Eastern Michigan University; Dr. Thelma Moss,. psychologist/researcher in private practice; and Mr. Jerry Solfvin, Ph,D, candidate at Rijksuniversiteit, Utrecht. (U) During the China stay, five formal technical meetings were held with scientists, physicians, and journal editors working in the EHBF field, The first was at the Friendship Hotel in Beijing; the second at the Beijing Medical College; the third, at Beijing University; the fourth at the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of High-Energy Physics in Beijing; and the fifth at the Yanan Hotel in Shanghai with the editors and staff of Nature. Approved For Release 2000181''1'f'~RI00~~1C000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : ~~I L ~. R L 1 928000400320001-8 (U) The first discussions,. held at the Friendship Hotel in Beijing, brought the visitors together with researchers and educators from the (1) Beijing University physicists and biologists (2) Institute of High Energy Physics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) (3) Institute of Biophysics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) (4) Institute of Automation (Chinese Academy of Sciences) (5) Beijing Astronomical Observatory (Chinese Academy of Sciences) (6) Institute of Semiconductors (Chinese Academy of Science:; ) (7) Institute of Physics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) (8) Physics Department of Beijing Teachers' College (9) Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine of Beijing (U) This was followed up by visits to Beijing Medical College, Beijing University, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of High~Energy Physics, (U) Note that those interested in psychoenergetics are primarily from the hard scif~nces, rather than from the psychological sciences as in the West. This is in large part because of the weaker position of the latter as a result of the excesses of the "Cultural Revolution," which led 'to suspension of Acta Psychologica Sinica and the closing of all university psychology departments as well as the Institute of Psychology,12 B, Institute of High Energy Physics :(Beijing) (U) (U) It was at the Institute of High-Energy Physics that the first opportunity for detailed discussion of specific experiments occurred. Approved For Release 2000/08/11: G~A~~ ~O~I92R000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/Q8J~~~1-F~~~7~1~00400320001-8 (u) Invitees to the Institute were Dr, Krippner, tour leader; Dr, H, E. Puthoff, and Ms. B. H. Humphrey, researchers at SRI International; Mrs, Thelma Moss, who had done research in Kirlian (corona discharge) photography; and K. Zirinsky, MD, radiologist. (U) The group was welcomed to the Institute in an opening meeting by Institute Deputy Directors Ho Lung and Li Yi. They expressed the opinion that EHBF work was important and relevant to physics, and indicated that a small group of researchers, led by Zhao Yun-Je and Hsu Hung-Chang, spent approximately ten percent of their professional time researching EHBF, This was followed by a seminar in which the work and its results were presented by Zhao. (U) Their basic experiment, apparently replicated many times under widely varying conditions, consisted of the remote viewing of Chinese characters or numbers sealed in an opaque bakelite container, inside of which was also some form of detector to register possible physical effects corollary to the perceptions, The detectors used in this format included X-ray, nuclear emulsion, and photographic films, photoelectric tubes, thermoluminescence dosimeters, and biological (plant/polygraph) detectors. The claim made (backed up by raw data materials shown the visiting re- searchers, published pictures, and, later in the trip, motion picture film of the experiments) was that physical effects were registered during perception, and absent in the absence of perception. These included fogging of the films, and pulses on the electrical output devices of the various detectors, A summary paper describing these experiments was pro- vided the visitors;: it has been translated13 and is provided here as Appendix A, (U) Xu Hongzhang in Pinyin transcription. 9 Approved For Release 2000~I'A~K~RB~P9~~~00400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/0$/~R~P~;~l~$aR~0400320001-8 I(U) Technicall evaluation of efforts such as those presented at the Institute of High Energy Physics is, of course, difficult on the basis, of a hort laboratory visit and the exchange of a few publications, O~ one sYde of the ledger the individuals carrying out the experiments were physi',cists, well respected in their own fields, and using standard tech- nique's and procedures familiar to them, Such factors, coupled with the degree of official sanction that exists, tend to lend de facto credibility to their claims. On the other side of the ledger, however, details as 'to countermeasures against the possibility of fraud, methodological procedures used,'. and the statistical treatment of the data are notably lacking in the brief'.. publications to date, a weakness noted in general in the response of Weistern scientists to published reports on EHBF work by the Chinese.l~ Definitive conclusions as to the technical quality of the work must there- fore await further development of information exchange. C, Shanghai Meeting with Editorial Staff of 'Nature' ('Ziran Zazhi') (U) ',(U) Later in the trip the group of Western parapsychologists met at length over a two-day period with the staff and Editor-in-Chief, Mr. He Chongyin, of Nature (Ziran Zazhi), and from them obtained an overview of the experimentation, results, conferences and publication of the Chinese efforts. It was clear from these discussions that the Nature group played a seminal role in 'bringing together researchers in the Shanghai and Chongqing conferences of 1980 and 1981,. and in providing space in their journal for the publication of results. (U) In addition to discussion, an hour of filmed EHBF research was shown, The film, made by Shanghai Science and Education Studio for tele- vision distribution within the PRC, showed a wide-ranging series of investigations, including mass screening of schoolchildren with regard to the capacity to "skin read," standard telepathy/clairvoyance tests over room-to-room distances, apparently successful "dowsing" to locate buried 10 Approved For Release 2000/0~~ 6~ ~OA4400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/~'~:`G`~-~~~~00400320001-8 (u) cisterns, the Institute of High-Energy Physics experiments on the detec- tion of EHBF radiation, and attempts to apply EHBF techniques as tools in medical diagnosis and healing, (U) Generally speaking, the observations reported are in accord with what has been reported in the West, Specifically, from the work that had gone on, the Chinese condluded that ? Extraordinary human body functions do exist, and they include in addition to the skin reading phenomenon first observed, other classical psychoenergetics functions such as telepathy, clairvoyance, and psychokinesis. + EHBF appears to be a universal inherent, though latent, function in all humans (based on Beijing University studies on induction of the phenomena in children), ? EHBF phenomena are not shielded by materials such as paper, plastics, the human body, layers of soil, and metal, and so resist interpretation in terms of the present scientific paradigm., + EHBF "perception" extends beyond the visible range into the inf rared and ultraviolet portions of the electro- magnetic spectrum, and the sign of magnetic fields can be discriminated, Power levels on the order of 100 mW can be generated in EHBF functioning, as determined by psychokinesis experiments, There appear to be interrelationships between EHBF functioning and elements of traditional Chinese concepts, as evidenced by shifts in dermal temperature and electro- dermal potential at acupuncture joints, interference with or strengthening of EHBF by gigong* meditational techniques, and the like. (U) Pronounced "chigong," an ancient system of deep breathing and move- ment exercises said to promote health and well being. Approved For Release 20001~811'I 'GTQ-RQP5~~0~9'21~000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/O~l~'~~gl'IAFR~e6E0r~~400320001-8 ? The use of EHBF phenomena in Chinese hospitals was found to be somewhat effective as a tool in medical diagnosis, and in helping the blind to sense their environment, ? Several of China`s well-known scientists have involved themselves in the increasing activity in psi studies, including H. S. Tsien, Bei Shi-Zhang, Zhao Zhong-Yao, Wang Gan-Chang, Wang Da-Heng and Tan Ja-Zeng, (U) In the above list, H, S, Tsien, who has been a driving ford behind establishing EHBF science, is singled out as an individual who has played a key role in legitimizing the investigation of EHBF in China, Tsien is one of China's most respected scientists in the field of military rocketry, and is thought to have had a major role in developing China's first nuclear bombs, Before emigrating to China from the United States in 1955, he was Goddard Professor of Jet Propulsion at Caltech and Director of the Rocket Section of the U,S. National Defense Scientific Advisory Board, At Caltech, he was well known to Richard D, Delaur, now Under- secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, who characterizes Tsien as an "elder statesman" in China's scientific development, D, PRC Representation at Cambridge Conference (U) (U) Each August the Parapsychological Association (PA) holds its annual conference, where about 150 professionals meet over a three-to-~our- day period to present papers and exchange research information, In 1982 the PA meeting was cosponsored by the British SPR (Society for Psychical Resenrch) and held at Trinity College, Cambridge, England, as the Centenary Conference to commemorate the founding of the SPR 100 years ago in 1882, To parapsychologists in the West, the 1882 date in a certain sense marks (U),Qian Xue Sen in Pinyin transcription, Approved For Release 2000/O~~Ch~FRDP~.~041~~b~0400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/11~F~~0792R000400320001-8 (U ) the beginning of formal investigation of psychoenergetic phenomena by the scientific/academic communities. (U) In preparation for that conference, one of those involved in the China tour, Dr. H, E. Puthoff of SRI International, chaired a special session on the Chinese work. Puthoff sent invitations to several of the leading Chinese scientists, met on the China tour, to attend the conference and report on their progress. Of those invited, none were permitted to attend. In their place, the PRC government sent to the conference two highly placed scientists to represent the Chinese work. They were Chen Hsin and Mei Lei, both Deputy Directors at the Institute of Space Medico- Engineering, P,O, Box 5104 , Beijing, an institute of over two decades standing, the last 15 years under the present name. (U) Hsin and Lei reported that they were involved with the PRC space physiology program, There, as neurophysiologists, they are studying various techniques to combat space sickness, including biofeedback training (of the type employed by NASA for their astronaut training program) and the use of meditational/breathing exercise/martial art techniques from their gigong martial art tradition. Because the latter are said to enhance spontaneous EHBF abilities, their involvement in EHBF studies evolved from this source. (U) They reported their present involvement includes research efforts in their own institute, and their funding and monitoring of research outside the institute, all under the administrative leadership of Hsin, who, in addition to being Deputy Director of the Institute of Space Medico- Engineering, is also Chairman of the Space Medico-Engineering Professional (U) Chen Xin in Pinyin transcription, Approved For Release 2000/08/11 ~~ATZDP96'U0792R000400320001-8 Approved For Release 2000/08/11 : ~~1 L ~. R C ~92R000400320001-8 (U ) Committee of the