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January 18, 1976
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Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 74- 11777., 4*- , ? 4 THE SHIFTING PATTERN OF NARCOTICS ? ? - ? ' - TRAFFICKIN: LATIN AMERICA :1 eZ.:. 1,4 .41i1 .3-- 1- ,I* : : ? ? P.- ?? .? . act ?.,.? .rels" .K.4.1.1 ???., ? ??? ? ??:: . ? .1 ? J 141.9ite 't ? ?It.-1 .1 ? .kkVt: REPORT OF A STUDY MISSION TO MEXICO,:: COSTA RICA, PANAMA, AND COLOMBIA ? JANUARY 6-18, 1976 ? t. MAY 1976 .. I 4 ? JUW 2 Copy '. ifT/E: , Printed for the use of the Committee on International Relations - - ? - ? U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 68-0960 WASHINGTON: 1976 ILLEGIB 4.; ILLEGIB STAT Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 !lemort:40. I..' '1.- t L , f''''''+`"` INTRODUCTION ' :Six pars . after. the . U.S... Government declared .f`war" on - illegal . narcotics traffic, irtig abuse is once again Teaching epidemic propor- tions all across the Nation: This time, however, the widespreadabuse of heroin_is iaot confined to our major cities but reaches into small towns as well. The drastic increase in narcotics traffic and abuse in this country and the deep concerns of President Ford, the. U.S. Congress and the American people prompted a study mission;to the critical areas of Mexico,,Cosja, Rica, Panama, and Colombia. . - On December 22, 1975, President Ford called a special meeting of a U.S. congressional task force on international narcotics control to put into perspective United States-Latin America interests in at- tacking this worldwide menace which threatens to destroy the youth of our nations. At this meeting President Ford pledged he would do "whatever it takes", including tough diplomatic measures to stem the flow of illegal narcotics into the United States. . Armed with these Presidential assurances and having conducted many hearings and investigations into narcotics traffic and drug abuse, :we undertook this vital mission of exchanging ideas, views and information with representatives of those countries critical to stemming the flow of narcotics into the United States. To this end we held a series of conferences at the highest levels including in-depth discussions with President Echeverria. of Mexico, President Oduber of Costa Rica, President Lakas of Panama, and President Lopez of Colombia. Through these open and frank discussions a clear, although fright- ening picture has emerged of this common enemy we all face. Last year alone, it has been estimated that drug-related crime in the United States amounted to over $17 billion. One must realize that this deadly traffic does not provide "one single dime" to the treasury of any of the nations involved and seriously threatens the good re- lations and good will existing between the peoples of Central and South America and the United States. The major sources of the most threatening of illicit narcotics have been directly traced to Mexico and Latin America. Recent estimates reveal that over 90 percent of all heroin seizures in the United States had their sources in Mexico, establishing Mexico as the center of a billion dollar a year narcotics business. Latin America now supplies almost .all of the cocaine abused in the United States. Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia are all significant producers of marihuana and provide key links in the cocaine smuggling chain. The trafficking of cocaine through Colombia alone, has an estimated street yftliie.m the United States of over $500 million- annually. . ? r . These statistics clearly reveal the tremendous Size and scopt? .Of illegal narcotic traffic to the United States. Attendant massive crimi- nal activity by highly sophisticated and powerful organizations accom- panies drug trafficking. Thelucrative nature of drug .trafficking. has _ _ . (I) to. - OA- - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - 1---) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ' ? - ? led to the increasing_involv_ement_ of_otherwise legitimate businesses. ? normally engaged in international air and sea? traffic. The producers and traffickers are heavily armed, often possessing inside information on the government eradication and enforcement programs which suggests the ?possibility of high level political tie-ins or protection.' The efforts to control this, traffic are even further complicated by _ the enormous physical magnitude of geography, production and transportation. The- rugged topography of the growing areas, ,the thousands of miles of unpatrolled? coastline (both here and abroad) and the thousands of _remote clandestine airstrips, are all factors that, provide tiemendous 'obstacles to effective enforcement' efforts... . ?. ' . Clearly, we have been losing this war. With the breakup of the so-called "French connection" and the temporary ban' on opium- owing in' Turkey, new :circuitous lines of supply have been'estat ed. As a result of massive .U.S.. efforts the estimated number of iiarcOtics-iddicts -dropped from 600,000-in 1970 to 1974: - But now the total has once again risen to over 500,000., ? . ? a ler" . : - & ? ? ; tli . 1 ? int,q -? c? .?? ? ???? ? -. .? a ? - ? ? ' ? ? t. , - ? .'???? e?t?? ,A???" %.* 7.4.?4fi."4 ? if:rirr14. ? ? ? . ? " :! --I- ? ?,` ? ..,'? .:- ' .....577:1??t. -.:2 . ?'. l. , ,. _. 44. ,..t...14.4....4.,.:",????,--???", ''',?''?ri.?'; ???????:,t, ? .1.. ,....,,,,, ? ?,. ,..,?1.;' ?:`, ?,..5..,:.':.`'`''.-,_-;ti,:. ....1.1.!&_e. . ..: .'"ii? 3 A .? .?.44,, .. ......,,,.... ?.,.t.. ?'5,- , - ..,??.4i.4.4,?::!-A::i , ' _1 ..,..;?0- , ? ! - 4....-e-lre? -'..' ',- ? 4,,???%.,,, ' ..,"?''-':'"" NfrAi:??^." ,.-'. ,!..,g' ..A4.r. '-e? ? .ki.r.. ? , ! ;,..%:. : , ?:.---.7=-*; - '-'4*-:??????iX2,5 4 ? : ? ? i'?????? ? 4, i?? i?f? , els - . , ' : : ? . .1., ? ? . , ? ? 4 ; ? : ; : . 7 ? b : . - ???? ' -,- ? ,3." 3 .1/11Uff . J `3.? ?C.!! e..... . ?r 11.4".7Ir;??4.,ij.,!)5?' 'ct ii If '2.21 7." ?' r ? 4 ? ??-?-- ? -c 3/4 3/44 pQ ?Nii?;? PAR'. - t "?.? -Tram 1.The has ,bei Turkey crack& the tid have b the tit inspeeti , The the Tin The dc vast UI combin trafficki -'had has con put on being s: the con responsf narcotic effect provide Central derstant factors - The') of diver Complex applied in then ns Prior tc heroin s in Euro 8 0-9 0 Mexico. have o_o obvious, trafficke that sit prevail. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 _ _ Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06 : CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - , ---?-??????????? imate businesses 3. The producers side information programs which is or protection. ? complicated by production and ming areas, ? the tere and abroad) ? ? ?ll factors that it efforts., ? ?- t breakup of -the ban on opium- have been estab- . nated number of , 300,000 in 1974... 100: .:? ?? t ? I : ? . ? -? I , 771p't 7*. ;IP7." (Ts: 7'44, ti Pr ? \5*. -.); ? ? ? . ? p*r t: WORLD NARCOTICS TRAFFICKING AND .THE U.S. GOVERNMENT RESPONSES . . ? . , ? . j',..+?? 1, ? ? ?Kaitt,c= "2 ? . Transitional History Of Narcotics Production and Trafficking : .1? ?? ' sni,13 The traditional .route of. illicit heroin tiaffic= to the United States has :been-;through Europe .- With the Advent-of-the "United-States- Turkey opium t?anl,and:,as' the .'US. iGovernment 'began t..serious Crackdown accompanied by initial cooperation from the Europeans, the tide began to .turn on drug trafficking. These efforts; however, have been 'countered by the narcotics traffickers who have shifted the trafficking routes to 'and through Latin America where customs inspections and anti-smuggling efforts have been less than thorough. , The successful efforts of the U.S. Government in bringing about the Turkish ban forced the traffickers to look for new source countries. The close proximity to the United States of the new growing areas, Vast unpatrolled borders, long coastlines, and rugged topography combine to ,provide excellent ?conditions for the manufacture and trafficking of heroin, cocaine and marihuana. ? - :In addition, the historic uncontrolled traffic of smuggled contraband has complicated the problem. Many Latin American countries have put on blinders to the traffic in cigarettes, whiskey and other goods being smuggled from the United States. This attitude has led to the corruption of many officials on both sides of the border who are responsible for smuggling control. The transition from cigarettes to narcotics is simple by itself, but enormous in its profit potential and effect upon society. Lacking an 'indigenous addict population to provide a visable reminder,. cooperation in the past from Latin and Central American nations has been half-hearted at best. A lack of un- derstanding of the depth of the problem is one of *the contributing factors to continuing traffic. _._` : ' _ The results of the U.S. failure to seriously attack this pattern of diversion to the Western Hemisphere has resulted in the increased Complexity of the problem. New agricultural methods have been applied to .the narcotics crops resulting in larger yields and an increase in the number of crops per year. The area production percentage of U.S.: narcotic suppliers reveals how drastic the change ,has been: Prior to 1972 and the Turkey production ban, 90 percent of all heroin seized was of the high quality fluffy White variety originating in Europe and Asia. The test 'seizure statistics for 1975 reveal that 80-90 percent-of7-all -heroin now originates or 'transships through Mexico. In four short years 'the vultures?Who ply this 'nefarious trade ? have outmaneuvered and outclassed. meagre control efforts. These obvious, halfway Measures cannot work: To be effective, `the traffickers' moves must be anticipated. We are dealing with a problem that attracts the )nost devious?we must be decisive if we are to pre?vail;:.?:, 31 ..111.-Aw.)(41- it.:; .11 t$ ? i)ri vi, (8) ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - _ ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 -?--. ; - ? . A? changes in tfiffiCking Viittern?s"ar- e net confined to her one; sa cocaine and Marihuana, both of Which are traditional ,proi ?a smuggled ,thronghOnt Mexico and Latin America, the i?ateS of ased use and abuse of these drugs of choice by American youth have led to increased' South American production and traffick- -----' f- Conte the ,smIgghng hnkare E6ohneeted, "the 'product 'trafficked . . is of little importance as long as the great profits .and low risks exist. The traffic in 'cocaine istraditicinalty -based in the northern Countries . ? of South America where-itlias -been 'Cultivated and used? by the Indian population for generations. The distinguishing factor for consumption is :,that theIndiena.ltraditionally used, the coca leaves le- &MY while the ARCA U.S. market,is -cocaine. As the 'markets in the United States,,:theinconiitiies haVe increased in 'recent --- years; so has ,the move toward increased firoduction. The vast majority . of t:cocainer, traffickers T-bakie -developed .; from within the traditional family-tied smuggling, operati:ans thinughont Latin. America. It has been - an; easy, transitionAo"meve ifrom .contraband to cocaine and marlivana:f - _-r:13:.ctruto Using present controlmethOdS,-,the outlook-for a total control of all narcotics traffic through ?M.exico ;an-d Latin,America is not good. The success of growers and traffickers hf theie.present locations- provides little hope that any greater degree of Success can be attained:. .! ? . Many of the elements involved in-the 'Upsurge of narcotics traffic are new ones: Unfortunately, many have been knoivn and understood for years. This report will delineate 'areas we feel have the potential for solving one significant aspect of the problem. ? .(1. ? -- . ? We are greatly encouraged by ;the .meetings we held and are .oriti- mistic of the results of this mission; ? . ? . ? . ? I :J.:" ? ' '-i? , U.S. Worldwide Control Efforts......... . ? : ? '? = . In response t,o1 a better ,nnderstancling of the problem at home, a recognition of the need for international cooperation and more directly as a result of some success in certain areas, our governmental efforts in ...the control of illicit narcotics traffic has changed over the years. An. explanation of the role, of the,Department of State in nar- cotics control is attached to this report in the appendix (p. 48). As the drug 'culture-in--the United States -tame to fruition in the" 1960's the need for an all-out effort, at control became apparent. Pre- liminary .investigations led .to lajbetter understanding of world traf- ficking and in turn its 'effect upon our, Nation. This new pursuit led to an agreement with Turkey to -ban the production of poppies which dried -pp the source of most of. the illicit heroin entering the United States. This highly .successful program resultedin. the recent shift in traffic `to Mexico -and I..atin.Amenca. Here, where problems are not restricted to combating the' traffic,: but also,includes production, ,our pOveinment's effort has ,been.inodified,?..?--? ,, r,. The Federal narcotics program has .as its_log-term:goal the control of "all illicit narcotic production, processing, and trafficking through the intemational-:conimunity. A? more immediate and realistic goal is to itontrol. all U.S. bound Araffic?particularly heroin through interdiction and eradication efforts. ? ,i; ? ' t c. There has been -a failure of the Department g Statetojeadin guidance and innovation. It is quite apparent that neNtiniti, (E ; *' t ?;4. ' atives must be exhibit: This', by the Murphy , ? 'Imaginative the CIA. or the initiated :by Ali provided su stab IDEA provided i ? "Most; lioive-s its traditional Al approach, thoui quired Many ye; i.L The Peters ay ,"Maif in the 1970s'am issues relating ti policy will incre sary to predict f behavior of im dependence will ; 'The State Di answers to issue: national securiti reason to view ti A unilateral r( national problen The most sign ness in the drug is a mutual probl national nareotic could and has le( To help stem tration has static in a liaison and f ment. In additic received -narcoti, highest priority strengthening of and mexpenena three quarters c :enforcement assi: 1 Excerpts from "El Subcommittee on Fut national Relations, 941 r..' . ? np,ciassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 're net confined to ch are traditional lmerica, the rates lice by American Aim and. traffick- )roduct 'trafficked id low risks exist. iorthern countries . and used by the ishing factor for I the ,cooa leaves' ae markets in the ricreased in recent . The vast majority n the traditional America. It has d to cocaine and total cinitiol of all is not good. The locations provides attained:. -? ? rarcotics traffic are ad Understood for the potential for ield and are opti-, . ? ; ? n? home, eration and more our governmental changed over the it of State in nar- ix (p. 48).. to fruition in the rue apparent. Pre- ing of world traf- is new pursuit led of. poppies which itenng the United the recentshift in problems are not ?.s production, our. , m_goal the control rafficking through nd realistic goal is ly heroin through .1 f ;Stateto ,lead in 3nt that new ? ? atives must be employed to show the same creativity that traffickers exhibit';' This was evidenced in a draftreportIvhich-was not-published- ? by the Murphy Commission and written by Mr. Tom Peters:.' ' '"Imaginative tactics could have come from the State Department; the CIA or the DEA. Within the Department, they could have been initiated by AID or the Senior Adviser. None of these organizations, brovided Sustained 'OreatiV-6 -ideas. The CIA -and DEA provided many tactical 'approaches. ? - . "Most, however, were not * AID reacted with its traditional approach in response to the narcotics program. This' approach, though quite fruitful in many contexts, would have re4 quired many years for successful implementation. - ? fi I. The Peters appendix concluded: . - ,"Most new issues ? confronting_ the- U.S.- foreign ? policy- machmery in the 1970s and 1980a will be like drugs in that they_will deal with issaies relating to domestic problems. Implementation of U.S. foreign policy will increasingly require an understanding of the'levers neces- sary to predict and potentially influence internal economic and social behavior of important allies and adversaries. Socio-economic inter- dependence will continue to increase rapidly. "The State Department should take the lead in suggesting creative answers to issues in areas which have traditionally been peripheral to national security analysis. Response to the drug case gives us no reason to view the future with optimism" A unilateral response by the United States cannot solve the inter- national problem of narcotics. The most significant effort in the short-term is to bring an aware- ness in the drug producing and trafficking countries that this problem is a mutual problem. Not only are these countries risking an increasing national narcotic problem of their own, but the element of corruption could and has led to political instability internally. To help stem this problem, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Adminis- tration has stationed over 200 agents in 40 different countries to serve in a liaison and advisory role with their counterparts in drug enforce- ment. In addition over 10,000 foreign enforcement personnel have received narcotics enforcement training from U.S. agencies. The highest priority in the present U.S. program continues to be the _strengthening of the capabilities .of the relatively_new, ill-equipped _ and inexperienced foreign narcotics enforcement agencies. Almost three quarters of the current U.S. budget is devoted to bilateral 'enforcement assistance: 'Excerpts from "Effectiveness of Turkish Opium Control," Part I, bearings -before the Subcommittee on Future Foreign Policy Research and Development. Committee on Inter- 'national Relations, 94th Congress, 1st Session. 47, .eoit .1, ; t ithti- : ' ? It! j!", _ _ . -t_. f'ryrt /: ?? .;'2 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 .1 ? - PART II: INDIVIDUAL COUNTRY SITUATION REPORTS MEXICO ? , ? In our view, the,most critical issue confronting the Governments of Mexico and the United States is the continuing traffic in illegal narcotics, primarily heroin. In the last 18 months, Mexico has emerged as the primary source of narcotics destined for the United States. As much as 90 percent of the heroin seized in the United States by the Drug Enforcement Administration now comes from Mexico. At the present time, $1 billion in Mexican wholesale heroin is coming into the United States on an annual basis. (A recent estimate by a high Mexican official places this figure at nearly $2 billion.) The emergence of Mexico as the primary source of heroin in the United States is the result of the effec- tive disruption of the I rench connection and their "White heroin" traffic. These efforts created a heroin shortage on the east coast. Mexi- can narcotic suppliers recognized the opportunity and diversified their resources to meet an increased demand. By decentralizing their distribution organizations, Mexican traffickers were able to expand their activity to smaller U.S. cities, but it also began to appear in almost every city in the United States. Despite claims by the Mexican Government that more and more narcotics are seized and hundreds of defendants are arrested each year, the Mexican share of the U.S. narcotics market rose from approximately 38 percent in 1972 to 90 percent in 1975. A review of these efforts indicates that much more is needed to bring about the reduction of Mexican narcotics flowing into the United States. How- ever, 1976 offers great promise for an effective program of joint United States and Mexican enforcement efforts. Mexican enforcement and eradication programs have been in effect in Mexico for more than 30 years. These heroic efforts have unfortunately been accompanied by the increased availability of brown heroin, marihuana, and other dangerous drugs. It is not difficult to understand how the early efforts in eradication and enforcement failed. Increasing arrest and seizures have not stopped the flow of narcotics from Mexico. In 1947 aerial surveillance of an area north of Culiacan revealed a total of 4,000 opium fields. In 1975 a similar survey again located almost the same number of fields in the same areas. Years of development enforcement expertise and technology have had little effect on reducing production. In the late sixties the United States unilaterally initiated Operation Intercept, which brought about long lines of automobiles at border points of entry. This bold stroke by the Nixon administration resulted m Operation Cooperation, the beginning of our joint enforcement programs. 611-098 0 ? 76 - 3 (7) Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 8 Our joint programs began with years of diplomatic discussions, .. informal conferences in Mexico, Canada, and the United States which . pointed out many desirable options and ideas. Finally in 1974 all the years of rhetoric resulted in positive actions. For the first time Mexico officially acknowledged that it was a source country, for opium, ? marihuana and dangerou dru'gs 4 F---- .4 The Mexican Government further gave recognition to the fact that . its country was a transshipment country for European heroin and South American cocaine. A number of illicit amphetamine tabletifig operations surfaced in Mexico in the early 1970's. - Although several serious issuemmerged during our discussion, the one underlying characteristic that prevails throughout the top level ? ranks_ of the :Mexican,.Gpvernment_js a willingness-to, create new. programs to eliminate the problem" .-, ? !7; , ? After our arrival in Mexico City,on January 6, 1976, we began with a meeting with Mexican Attorney General Pedro ,Ojeda-Paullada. By Executive Order the, Office of Mexico's Attorney General was placed in charge of the eradication campaign, and the overall enforcement efforts Therefore the -views of Attorney General Ojeda regarding .narcotics enforcement were of considerable. importance to our investigation. ? Attorney General Ojeda stated that each of our respective countries ,must do its part to continue improving our efforts. He stressed that it would be helpful if jointly desired programs of narcotics control, such as effective exchange programs of, intelligence information were established. We both?mustattack this problem with complete respect ',for each others *sovereignty. As an example of this, he said U.S. officials must be in contact only with his office concerning narcotics problems. However, narcotics control is not, he said, a large or in- surmountable problem?we both have to be flexible to meet the needs of circumstances. - - The Attorney General disagreed with the U.S. white paper on drug abuse that it tends to reduce the importance of the need to control marihuana. He feels the question of marihuana control and current legal changes, including decriminalization of marihuana in the United .States, should,be regulated by the legal requirements of the 1961 'Single Convention. ,He feels we must treat marihuana -is an illegal ;substance. To explain this, he said heroin and marihuana traffickers are usually the same groups and Mexico is obliged by international treaty to handle marihuana violations the same as other illicit nar- cotics. Both countries, he said, must increase efforts at all -levels to ?conibat narcotics traffickers as well as increase the exchange of infor- mation. He praised the statement of President Ford concerning the need for increased activity in narcotics control. , The Attorney General recounted steps taken by the United States and Mexico during October and Noyember of 1975 that have resulted in increased cooperation and increased ;efforts directed at narcotics Icontrol. ? . ),. _ -,4?1 .,? He said the problems ;--O-f the current -eradication campaign are especially in the areas of planning and execution. There was 'concern over equipment needs and -organizational problems at the beginning, but now they.have been largely overcome. Some, but only a few poppy 1.;* 't ? ? .:11.1/. ? -1"" ."t; 'ft 7.7 fields have been campaign. and th are some specific out with the U.S - -The Attorney.-' the the poppy- growi-- current . campaigi coordination, Tb ? is the use of her the problems fot i using this more- experiments and, herbicide cotildil_ - :On January 7, eral. He explain( began July .1974 this year's camp its expansion asp, ? The Attorney( of herbicides beg pp on 'all fronts: . November 20 to her 23, to Januar: field being one-ha When asked at there was- estimt if we use the lat marihuana.. Of th when would the plantings were m the earlier planti isolated fields eon) ,- When asked ab General said prei and personnel ma put. The Govern aircraft that can Mexican officials - several local coral We recognize t with: the sophistif able to see firstha the:difficulty that . Attorney .( for the-field inspe( 'eradication prowl :town of Altamirai shown fields "that couraging to. vieNi effort -of eradicat time. It waseasyi of destroying the Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 omatic .discussions, Linited States which ally in 1974 all the 'le first time Mexico \, ? ountry for opium, tion to the fact that. _ iropean heroin and ? . ? :4 thetamine tableting our discussion, the ghout the top level nessvto, ? .f.:?.'Je`t;' 1976, we began With ,Ojeda-Faullada. By 'General was placed overall enforcement al Ojeda. regarding mportance to our respective countries ts: He stressed that )f narcotics control, ce information were ith complete respect this, he said US. oncerning narcotics said, a large or in- la to meet the needs white paper on drug the need to control 'control and current huana in the United ements . of .the 1961 ihuana . as an illegal iarihuana traffickers ed by international as other illicit nar- orts at all levels to exchange of infor- Ford concerning the y the United States 15 that have resulted ltrected at narcotics ; Cajon campaign are . L There Was concern_ b-s it the beginning, nit only a few POPPY 1" fields. have?been-harvested. lie Li 'content 'with the pr- oiss'of the . campaign and the assistance rendered by the -United States. There are some .specific needs of the campaign that are still to be worked mit with. the U.S. -Government. ? : The Attorney. General described the remote .and rugged aspects of the poppy growing areas. He. confirmed the augmentation of the current campaign and the steps taken to improve efficiency and Coordination. The most important feature of the current campaign is the use of herbicides. -He explained the political sensitivities and ' the problems for both governments that delayed a practical.Means of using this more ,effective tool. He went on to describe the necessary experiments and demonstrations before' final decisions on the 'type of herbicide could be. made: ? '2 . .-On January.?, a;second meeting was held with the Attorney Gen- - eral. He explained that. the plarthirT for the -eradication campaign began _July .1974 but .general discussions -concerning development of this year's campaign in the sense of selection of Mexican- states and its expansion aspects began only in Jahnary 1975., - ;?? The Attorney General said the eradication campaign without the use of herbicides began November 13, but it did not automatically start pp on all fronts. In early December the intensive phase began. From November 20 to December 22, 273 fields were destroyed; from Decem- ber 23, to January 6, 646 fields were destroyed, the average size of the field being one-half acre. ? ? When asked about the total acreage, Attorney General Ojeda said there was estimated to be approximately 15,000 ? ,to 20,000 fields; if we use the latter, about 6,600 hectares. This is both poppy and marihuana. Of. these, an estimated 12,000.fields are opium. We asked when would the opium be harvested? The Attorney General said plantings were made in September, October, and November. Some of the earlier plantings were ready to harvest in December, although isolated fields could have been ready earlier. . , When asked about the effectiveness of reconnaissance, the Attorney General said present phototechniques were limited by aircraft speed and personnel management problems, resulting in some reduced out- put. The Government of Mexico is considering the use of Lear jet aircraft that can fly higher, faster, and map much greater areas. Mexican officials are now discussing this possibility of rental with several local companies...1 We recognize the enormity of the enforcement problem. Dealing with the sophisticated trade is indeed a complex problern. We were able to see firsthand during an overflight of the remote growing areas the difficulty that enforcement personnel encounter. . ; ? . ? - ? -; ? The Attorney General was most cooperative in providing assistance for the field inspection. Dr.-Alesandro Gertz Manero, head of Mexico's eradication program accompanied us on the helicopter flight near the town of Altamirano. During an overflight of the growing area, We were :shown fields' that had already been destroyed. Although it was *en- touraging to view tangible results, it was quite obvious the overall effort of eradication, was not achieving, the desired goals -at-that time, It was easy to see how impractical is the "stick-beating" method of destroying the. crops. It was -reported that on -some.occasions the _ ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 10 soldiers would; even niiss -fields next to them. Hopefully,. with the spraying technique- "how being instituted, greater progress can be accomplished. The herbicide gramaxone should provide a constructive difference in the' eradication program. This reduces drastically the manpower effort which was originally required. The Mexican Govern- ment should be commended for adopting a more realistic approach in their eradication efforts.- ? . - While the sincere intentions of the Gavernment of Mexico deserve praise, the bottom line results at the time of our visit -were poor, for by January 197-6 there were feports of 4ess than 5 percent poppy eradication out of 20,000 Acres. Although the decision to utilize the helicopter spray equipment had been made in December 1975 the entire system did not become operable until the end of January 1976. This was not the fault of the .Mexicans but poor planning and make- shift equipment delayed the operatioriq r. ? - ? The present campaign.-has taken. On ' a. sense of permanency, and resources will be inaintainenn-the field ? on a year round basis to identify and destroy opium fields. The intensive eradication phase is not expected to be completed until late April 1976. Current informa- tion provided by the Department of State indicates that, as of March 18, 1976, using for the most part, aerial sprayed herbicides, over 18,000 poppy fields representing some 1,500 acres have been destroyed in a 12-state area of Mexico. The current campaign for the first time was extended to include new growing areas in the southern region of the Sierra Madre Mountain chain. The. 12-state area represents over 600,000 square miles .in the western part of Mexico extending some 1,200 miles from north to south.. A major breakthrough in the control of heroin came as a result of two meetings we had with President Luis Echeverria-Alvarez. It was after a 6-hour meeting chaired by President Luis Echeveriia-Alvarez that finishing touches were put to a recommendation that for the first time would establish formal organizations that will coordinate, in their respective countries, the entire spectrum of the narcotic regulatory educational, rehabilitative, and informational agencies. The proposal will lead to the creation of an action oriented, permanent joint working group that will present recommendations to both the Mexican and United States organizations to .bring about effective action and coordination of all drug abuse related activities. For the first time, we are working from the premise that narcotics is a mutual problem. 1 ? ? . ? ? The parallel high-level commissions should be a high profile program of bilateral cooperation aimed at (1) sensitizing the public,' (2) um- ' proving and upgrading coordination between the two countries and among various public agencies within each country, (3) laying eco- nomic groundwork for turning drug growing peasants to a - more socially acceptable activity, and (4) monitoring the effectiveness of the enforcement program. . ? The Commission should be permanent, regularly staffed and bud- geted bodies bringing together experts in and outside the Government. The experts must be able to deal with both the enforcement and educa- tion aspects. President Echeverria indicated that the Mexican Commis- sion might consist of representatives from the Departments of Defense, Interior, Ed media, and -El each other. pi . President creating new who cultivit grams would; ment efforts:, . 'One outst: Mexican', Go and the coin the traffickei Of. the MeXici fOr:. the. oPhi , acceptance o :As our ell efforts find t System of* to the persoi proposed suc The Mexic our two natif cars and airp and the Unit should be?: Echeyenia .s portant but - as broad as t have more th they are full) To grasp ti stand the op I production .o., Mexican anc of the patter.; of knowledgc eradication p collected wit] opium intellii . The total .a Attorney Gei that there ar Mexico estim / Opium is g / area of Sinal the largest g into the seen] To meet, t Government. This new tact range has .on.1 effort. _cm, ?i .? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200_110002-4 opefully; ."with th-e i progress Can be vine a constructive lceS drastically the el Mexican Govern- realistic approach ? ? . of Mexico deserve ir visit, were poor, in 5 percent poppy? ;ision ? to utilize the )ecember 1975 the Ld of January 1976. Aarining and makeL ? f permanency, and ear round basis to ;radication phase is i. Current iiaforma- licates that, as of yed herbicides, over Lave been destroyed ;II for the first time , southern region of ,rea represents over ico extending some - ? came as a result of rria-Alvarez. It was Echeverria-Alvarez lation that for the lat will coordinate, Lm of the narcotic -mational agencies: niented, permanent lations to both the ing about effective activities; -For the arco tics is a mutual ugh profile program the public, (2) im- two countries and try, (3) laying eco- easants to a 'more the effectiveness of ly staffed and bud- de the GovernmentT? -- )rcement and educa- Le Mexican Commis- istments of Defense; 11' Interior, 'Educationi Health, the Attorney General, Congress, news inedia,-and sociologists. The National Commissions would meet with each other. periodically to strengthen collarboration. ? ? u?-?, ??!. President Echeverria noted the Commission might cooperate in ' creating new rural employment opportunities .for the poor compesinOs who _cultivate. the poppies for monetarygain? Income replacement pro- grams would .be explored along with .more conventional crop replace' - ,ment efforts. , . . , One outstandingm. 'of the Commission is that it woulcl?help the. Mexican.,Government in dealing with the problem of public apathy and the conipesinos' inability to resist the temptations proffered by the traffickers. A broader more intense public commitment on the part of.. the Mexican- Government could help bring about popular disdain TOFthe. opium grower and trafficker which? might lead to 'a --greater -- acceptance of income' substitution,- !.;.1 ? ? ? .. our enforcenrent, rehabilitation, ,educational, and diplomatic efforts find themselves breaking through. the ;years of development, a .system of ;inonitoring becomes more and More important. It is a credit to the personal commitment of the 'Mexican Chief Executive that he proposed such a vehicle. ? ; ? .-z ? The Mexican President is well aware of the mutual problems facing our two nations. The 2,000-mile border with the movement of people, cars and airplanes, is of major concern to the Governments of Mexice and the United States. Economic factors as Well as educational aspects should' brought to bear through a broader approach:. President Echeverria stated that enforcement and interdiction efforts are im- portant but this is not enough to cope with an international problem as broad as the traffic of narcotics. He stated that both Governments have more than demonstrated to the public from the highest level that they are fully committed to combating the dangers of drug trafficking. To grasp the overall problem of narcotic trafficking, one must under- stand the opium production and distribution system in Mexico. The production .of Mexican opium is illegal. It is apparent that both the Mexican and United States Governments are lacking in knowledge of the patterns of opium cultivation in the producing areas. This lack of knowledge is an important obstacle in bringing about in effective eradication program, This information is easily available and could be ? collected with -present Mexican ;assistance-What is needed is for? this, . Opium intelligence program to be given the needed priority. The total acreage of opium poppy grown in Mexico is unknown. The Attorney General of Mexico said that estimates for this year indicate.? that there are 12,000 fields of opium. The regional office of DEA in Mexico estimate that there may be as many as 15,000 to 18,000 fields. Opium is grown throughout many regions of Mexico. The tri-state area of Sinaloa, Durango, and Chihuahua is perhaps the oldest Jand the largest growing_ area.; The southern zone .has recently developed into the second area of importance.' ? 4:, ;- . k !',?; ? ; : meet this ,new.-challenge in the southern range, therMexican- GOverninent began ,its 'destruction 'operation near 'the - end -,4!)f: 1975: This new tactic should prove very' ithportant:. Up to now the ',southern range has :Onlyreceived token attention from the'Mexican eradication' effort.? .t.a? ? ?-? ? .v.q- 1.1. 4.. I. .? -:,3?);_41 f! : -4 t`, -47.f ; Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06 CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 The major *heroin groups which have been identified consist of families who have been associated with the heroin traffic for many years, some dating back to the beginning of World War II. There are well identified groups in the trafficking cities of Culiacan, Durango, Monterrey, and Tijuana.- .These major traffickers apparently are drgariized to perfOrni-nicist of the processing and distribution functions. The chemists who process the heroin are reportedly oftenjealously guarded by the organizationg. Although the chemical process and laboriamies are quite unsophisti- cated it appears that they may present a choke point in the supply and distribution system. After processing, the heroin is distributed in small amounts by courier to the border areas. At the border numer- ous smuggling _groups rmay be contacted, to transport the hei oin. It is at this stage, after the heroin has left the processing areas, that it is much more difficylt to intercept. The number of persons involved in the distribution system within Mexico is incredibly large. It is unlike the traditional pattern of distribution in the eastern United States, where New York served as an import center for almost all French heroin reaching the United States. Rather, the Mexican heroin distribution system is decentralized, so that small weekly shipments are made to individual cities in the United States from within Mexico. This decentralized distribution system makes inter- diction in the United States or at the border an almost impossible task. Individually these small operators are a vulnerable target for law enforcement. However, their large numbers pose a problem,. given current enforcement resources, making effective neutralization of these groups an unlikely near-term prospect. Protection and corruption are the traditional means by which the major trafficking groups have been able to operate and to eliminate competition. The pattern of payoffs and protection has been reported at all levels of government and in all related government agencies. This is particularly true of state governments in the tristate area, where government involvement in the traffic has reportedly been established for many years. However, much evidence has recently surfaced That illustrates the sincerity of the officials of the Mexican Government, who have pledged their total commitment to solve this problem. Recent efforts' at joint prosecution indicate the dedication of the enforcement and judicial branches of the Mexican Government. We have been informed that the .Mexican Supreme Court has recently disciplined three judges on charges of taking some $600,000 in bribes from a northern Mexican heroin smuggling gang. Their dismissal follows an investiga- tion by the office of the Mexican Attorney General. The dismissal of these officials is positive proof that a campaign against corrupt officials has been launched in Mexico. The Mexican authorities make no distinction between hard narcot- ics and marihuana enforcement. The heroin trafficker who corrupts a government official, regardless of rank, is no different than the mari- juana dealers who also corrupts. Many officials of the GOM made it. known , to us that the Presidential release of the white paper de- emphasizing the importance of marihuana in the United States dis- turbed them. The current trend to decriminalize marihuana in the United States will create more problems for the Mexican enforcement officials. The increased demand that will result from further decrim- inalization and hence tunities for Joint Un began wit] "BNDD" : constantly only impro ment. Sini r 'presence" the increasi are current peak 13erio and the Mi 4- ? in Part - Sanitized CODV Approved for Release 2013/08/06 CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 t Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06 : CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 , identified consist' of oin traffic for many d War II. There are Culiacan, Durango ? :ed 'to PerfOrm iiist ? ;heinists. Who process ),y the orginization4. ire quite unsophisti- poinein the supply ieroin is distributed 11 the bordernumerL arisport the hei,oin. he processing areas, (number of ?pers'ons o is incredibly large. ution in the 'eastern' ort center for almost tather, the MeXican that small weekly United States from system makes inter- nost impossible task.' ?.rable target for law se a problem, given re neutralization of no. eans by wilich the ate and to eliminate on has been reported overnment agencies. in the tristate area, has reportedly been ? ? that illustrates the eminent, who have ibleni. Recent efforts' the enforcement and e have been informed' ly disciplined three ibes from a northern follows an investiga- neral. The dismissal iign against corrupt retween hard narcot-' ficker who corrupts a' erent than the marl- )f-the GOM made it. the white japer ? de- .e United States dis- marihuana in 'the dexican enforcement rom further decrim- . ? , ,r1.3 inalization of marihuana will increase the production of marihuana and hence the traffic. More traffic in any drug equal ? more oppor- tunities for corruption. Joint United States and Mexican efforts to curb narcotics trafficking began with this involvement of U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency "BNDD" in Mexico in the 1950's. From the early days DEA. has constantly worked to develop operational procedures that will not 'pnly improve Mexican enforcement programs but also U.S. enforce- ment.. *ince, 1973 the Mexico Government ? has permitted , the 'presence" of several teams of DEA agents. Today m response to the increasing demands on our joint enforcement efforts, special agents ;are currently working in the producing area of Mexico. During these peak periods of ,narcotic production the relationship between DEA and the Mexican colleagues is vetyimportant. ?? ? ? - ? ? ' 1.t .;" . ? tk- ? 1. t?? ? ? .1... _ ?3:11r47 .1 7-1. , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ipmenzwellaz=16i Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 He reportedly. has, _1972. In February_ Ition by Colombian cy. He is presently at of Colombia has 3Ct to the military are getting faster iericans,are serving lig charges:. '? ? .ere, Colombia finds mizations. Traffick-7, utori and -contacts: . now enierging as e: 'S own. enforcement 3 four governmental the Department of eral)., Bureaucratic n effective program: sources conducting . Shooting incidents ,f ? :. :-?, ? .. J he Colombian Chief ir a single command. it is hoped that an iovernment appears ; their enforcement at Colombia intends ntry willingness and :Government. The rs and the seizrre of oca'r e. The Depalt- 1975 seized nearly 30 and 19 kilograms of by our Colon-bian met with drawbacks State Department retie regulations to Development balked a at a lath date pro- seless in Colombia.) events the complete ires that would deal programs have also .c..) ing:- The Colombian )ercent of secondary ig abusers. The city 'bk. A study in 1974 .uilizers are preferred ups.. This study was ients.../The future 'of s increased traffic by umbers of .People for t - t.. r ? '01/5ttrriT4'..M.ettstl tit dortank Lterfir),Dire. fraS' LP,(% jt '40 " .11: 1.10...-1, fv? tv." +41;31.01i.arlar,44711Z;3.ill.tritij.k../.4,14:_e11 ?-? ?e1m1.41 4Lforl-tg1o11 tvil IC b.....briL;c wni e-, ? th:vs:Jilug If-- .1 4. fIrtj'.1 r2hCl' PART 1111 CONCLUSIONS AND'"' .RECOMMENDATIONS,,,,:_,?? .ti 4L-11b1 ..?(, 4j. 7117: . P:'-4 ? r'Y'. 1,1 17 f5,,trgrir-, , ?Mexicii, Central . and :South America represent .the ,niajor Source and. trantit.'route for 'illegalnarootic? entering the United. States:, Most 'recent 'estimates reveal 'that over 90 ,percent of the heiciin...and. docairie Seized -in theynited States' has its .origin'Or ,transits. through Mexico and COlombikrespeCtively.,Yirtually, all countriet throughout .the'region'itre being used .for the transit of illegal narcotics and the h of Marihuana.' Theleit few seen dianiatie-incieasei'. -- in'the'adtiiiities Of narcotics growers and' raffickert 'as the traditional sources Of tipPly ffiim Europe and Asia have been 'C:onabated,.:, , Because of the proximity of the region; the' hundreds Of Clandestine airstrips and thousands of miles of unguarded coastline, efforts to stop the illegal traffic at the U.S. border would be virtually impossible in the short, term. With the encouragement of enormous profits and the backing of sophisticated and ,wellfmanced 'organizations there is midi encouragement for local involvement in drug trafficking... Throughout the region, inhabitants have .great difficulty, in :under.; standing the serious implications of ,this threat to their society. ?In recent years the government of those countries in which the largest amounts of illicit narcotics are produced have begun to under- stand the need for effective international control. This understanding which has been generated from the highest levels of government has led toward increasing cooperation and assistance with out own objectives and goals. Most notable among these has been the creative initiative from President Echeverria calling for bilateral commissions with a joint both Costa Rica and Panama where a major problem lies in the transiting of narcotics, recent statements by President Oduber and President Lakes have been extremely encouraging in their support for joint efforts to control this problem. Colombia's :President Lopez has undertaken a significant reorganize,- tion of narcotics control agencies that his resulted in mbre effective ? interdiction operations and joint working efforts with' U.S: enforce-; ? meat teams.?!, - ? ? : ? E. ? -..!, ;:9..? f!. These significant steps represent a new determination on the part of .those countries we visited to take the effective measures necessary to combat drug traffic. ? Much more: is needed to 'achieve :our goals of bringing an end to the use and 'abuse of illegal narcotics, at there are many major obstacles that remain ,inrtheir path. 'Let me discuss.: .thete,problema.!tolr: t7. -6. - DS q,. !yr:: :5 t Rf; Amp!: 11;t7.4,1 litertbi,4!ii50i13.0=-7-77,-4frs -11001.17 rz.G I L tyi ti;f1 i)14 '44 6;112V,E iin:(41?:-'7'.:a 7-16i,Lf",tikif,i;t6-4;a14,-whit .it Iixctisidpab ti ; dd.223;e4.6. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ?4,3034,, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ...1,-.401104 1 ? ? -14ettirtedV, h8t-7-# 7' 1972.1n Februaxy; tion-byColombian i ' He s presently' ? ',I t of Colombia has ?A`to the military are ? getting faster 3ricane,are serving ig ? Colombia* finds nizations..TraffickL,; tore and cr,ontacts., tow enierging ea' ra .owkenforcement four governmental he ? Department of. xaD. 'Bureaucratic effective prograin; lourced ? Conducting Shooting incidents I,' lid) re 'Colombian Chief a single command. ; is hoped, that an oveminent appears their enforcement t Colombia intends ttn. -willingness and -Government: 'The and the seizure of 'dare. 'the DcpaTt- 75 nearly 30 ,nd 19 Idlograirs of by -Our ?Colon-.bian net with drawbacks State Department atic regulations to levelopment balked at a late date ytro- eless in Colombia) vents' the Complete res that would deal irogritma have also '0)1 ^ The Colombian trcent 'of secondary ; abusers. The city As,. A study in 1974 tilizers are preferred ps.,This study was tnts:v The .fiitureLof increaded traffic by ?- . - =bars Of People for P ESS.' Orb: CUM: II 07,410- 4:rer . Th( Otittato- thy- ^I-1'4T ? 41.71-.1 jati. 110 iltitr4 s SIM 1104 :101a.! "Pith/it II. fr.; hnf? 7701 Ck.fiN7" rpouiforl I rr. 101,4 Cr. ?:.* giv..j 11 c'11 PART ? , ,RECOMMENDATIONS ? ? i .1; IL' - ." c'.MexiCh, Central: and 'South America 'represent' the Major 'iointe and transit :roiite, for illegal ::riarCotics 'entering the 4United State-s:, Most. recent 'estiniatee reveal that over - 90 percent ..of the heroin' and. Pticaineeeiied-in-theTziited States has its origin or transits through Medco ind,Colombiarespectively. Virtually, all countries thithighout. the region are being usedjoi.?. the 'transit of illegal narcotics .and, the growth Of Marihuana/Thelasffeears have Seen dramatic increased' in the activities of nercotics.groivers and-traffickerd as the traditional sotirces of si- pply 'froth Europe and Asia have been Combated.' L Because of the proximity of the region, 'the hundreds of clandestine airstrips and thousands of, miles .of. unguarded coastline, efforts to stop the illegal traffic at the U.S. border would be virtually impossible in the .short term. With the encouragement ,of enormous profits and the backin. .g of Sophisticated and well-financed organizations there is.miich encouragement for local involvement in drug trafficking. Throughout the region, inhabitants have great difficulty. in .under- standing the serious implications of this threat to. their society. ? In recent years the government of those :countries in which ? the largest amOnnts of illicit narcotics are produced have begun to under- stand the need for effective international-control. This understanding which has been generated from the highest levels of government has led toward increasing cooperation, and assistance with out own objectives and goals. Most notable among these has been the creative initiative from President Echeverria calling for bilateral commissions with a joint working 'group. ? In both Costa Rica and Panama where a major problem lies in the transiting of narcotics, recent statements by President Oduber and President .Lakas have been extremely encouraging in their support for joint efforts to control this problem. Colombia's President Lopez has undertaken a significant .reorganiza- tion of narcotics control agencies that has resulted in more effective. interdiction operations. and. joint 'working .efforts with .U.S; enforce-, .. ment teams. . r? ? '1 These significant steps represent a new determination on the part , of those countries we visited to take the effective measures necessary to combat drug traffic. .Much more, is ?needed to achieve :our goals of bringing an end to the use ? and abuse .of illegal. narcotics, as there are many major obstacles that remain,in .their. path. Let me discuss these problems.;. ? t. brr7-' au';; tee'. k;a.- ? -(25y L.c.r.:.siyr `IS* 11`4,r 1:0,?!`: ? ".S:101,..Ift;Crt ir, ti!.! l'AT...7t;IT.;LLt; ;my 4.1'1;4 - ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ??,??{?} Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 4-.14 .17 - 7*; '' '. ... ?.', -- 7. '' . ..,,"2 . .., , 1. -(,1 ---3- ----- ? ,? ??? .28 ? - - . ' t.E..-34)01 fttrz.' it:A.1 r.t.1.....CORRUPTION :At . ett.- 110 47:"'"="4:'1!". hlt7 brought ;about - ' t .1this agreement'' ..-? - ???-? ,.,.!? - 1 n? T'vev.1. ?,r < ,, -.:;" 1'i ? ;f: 1..*.? ? 1 .:.? , .,r, / . ' ..-% --Z 0 Due to ,the enormous profits in ,narcotics trafficking and the rela-1endeavors ? lies .itivelyi low ?standard of living throughout these areas, corruption 4'? tcountried.1" .7.r- v remains , a \major problem. To the Mexican federal policeman who. . er: !,:-) earns the?mea,ger slim of $150 to $200 a month, the easy profits from the drug traffic 'provide a formidable temptation. This problem which 'persists throughout 'all the growing and trafficking countries is com- , II 9, % - ,pounded- as long as4;the, end results of this deadly traffic remain - - -- -thousands of rrnles away in the United States.- While this problem ' ? persists from the lowest to high levels of government, recent estimates ? ? suggest that the leaders.; of . these ?nationa have 'began to .recegnize ;the need, tO end this .eittiation.; Pursuant to a. pledge by the Mexican Government to eliminate corruption, we have been informed that the. Mexican ;Supreme reourt has, recently disciplined _ three. ;j4dgei . on cher$es 'Of takin,g Elothe $600,000 in ;bribes from_e;..nOrthern Mexican -- ? 11 heroin' 'smuggling gazig.'..- Their :dismissal, followed an investigation, WhiCh: had been launched ,,brthe 'Office of 'thee Mexican ' Attorney. General, These dismissals offer.positive,proof that a campaign against ?Corruption-is underway r -.INCOME SUBSTITUTION _ _ Many of the Same ills that led to corruption of.gornnient officials plague poor farmers and small distributors who .grow and traffic illicit narcotics. The need for ,economic development in' the rural areas of most growing countries has led to the cultivation of illicit drugs. By providing alternate income opportunities, whether it be through -crop substitution programs or the development of agri-, industrial projects it is possible to realize the reduction and elinfination of illicit cultivation at its source.'' ? " ' : . ,?!?:?2 ? ? , ? REGIONAL APPROACH ? V. . The problems ? of corruption, adequate intelligence gathering, successful eradication and interdiction are shared throughout the pro- ducing and trafficking nations. In order to effectively deal with each of these issues on an individual basis, it is necessary to coordinate the efforts of all nations -involved: We must initiate and encourage' cooperation between all nations affected by narcotics trafficking. More- cooperation -is needed 'in the extradition and joint- prosecution of narcotics traffickers. To enhance our coordinated efforts', we must es- tablish a narcotics intelligence sharing organization to provide the ? necessary up to date accurate intelligence on a regional basis. ? --,Most of these needed reforms .are contained in the innovative pro- posal of bilateral ?commissions as put forth by President Luis Eche- - ?yerria Alvarez of Mexico. For the first time, it calls for mutual co- ' operation not only in the area of narcotic interdiction and enforcement;'? but throughout the broad spectrum of the drug problem', including' regulatory, educational, rehabilitative and _informational agencies. _ 7- By the -creation- of if:joint 'working group, as , recommended bY. President Echevertia, we Will be able to - combme the resources and energy to attack this problem from both sides. Implementation of u.t?Ltur :'N,1)1:.?- 1 i - = t :" ? N ??V*_ ?VVV V; ',NJ= Orc't r.,-. 2 L._ ? otht: -Throughout element most a total output ai whether it be operations or overall efforts. :In Mexic(..1 .ythe use of herb _ he ite-CeiSarir controlling. na 'Personnel ? is 'a required the Ai 'agents involve this equipment the proper saf resulted in th( feasibility stt.k materials, the cured through delay between in Washington proper equiprn delivered durn begun and mill to note that wh tion the cost ol It is quite a.' inhibited in son in our program the Departmer initiative. Mor ionnel have b( out of fear of o- The effectiv( greatly hampet yproximately 2,1 providing a4e9 is cost prohibit planes, ships a. be unable to st During Worl patrol to prote a a ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - , Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - 4., , ? r_. .4% ? - , L 71,14%7 Kt. - Eing and 'the rela- areasi. corruption ? ii policeman who . easy_ profits from his problem which ? countries is corn- Ely traffic remain ? ?:.? ? bile this problem' t, recent estimates aguii_ to reeOgriizs., e by;thfi-Mexiceji '? northern "Mexicini ':investigation vIexican Attorney. I:can:1*dpi against - . : )feriiinerit ,grow and traffic nent in the rural iltivation of illicit Les, whether it be elopment of agri- on and elimination ? ? - _ ligence 'gathering, iroughout the pro- ely deal with each, sary _to _coordinate' ate and encourage. s trafficking. More int prosecution 'of fforts; we must es-' on to provide the onal basis. !i ? he innovative pro-: arsident Luig Eche ills for' mutual co'z ri and enforcement/ problenirincludirie national agencies. ,recommended the resources and fmplementation of ' ' ,S..? r! .this agreethentend the effecinatiOna e 'joint Working' group' must be -brOught.ehout.without delay. The 'ultimate Success of our 'combined tendeavors'f lies in the - 'enordination" of wiriouS? plans of our two countries.. ?? .1,- .1: ? L. .ifr" - c! 'BUREAUCRATIC OBSTACLES'"? _ 71.tiOrr: It, : ? Throughout-our international ndeo tics' control' pregrariKthe- Single ' e'leinent-most responsible, for preventing our maximum 'efficiericy and output are bureaucratic obstacles. Our 'need for ,a quick response,' Whether it be in providing vital 'equipment and supplies for our own operations : orkthat of a joint';venture is . -vital to the =success of our overall efforts. trutJg of'.1"11;;' 1)511:03t %/42 NE,E17,6414ifetrskiI511~1.?....EQUIPMENT SUPPLIffr.?M41.4 r, C?1` TIP re% ....On Mexico:the ultiniate success of poppy crop eradication dirough ,Tthe nseof herbieldes,lias been greatly affected by our failure to provide ;the necessary ;equipment in a7 timely fashion The effectiveness of Roritiblling narcotics .e'rORS,iie,Nell,;as the safety and , welfare of our Personnel- is at Stake'. A 'recent 'undercover operation in Colombia required the use of specialized equipment for the protection of the agents involved. Because .of bureaucratic delays in procurement of this equipment, the agents were forced to begin the operation without the proper safeguards. The bureaucratic response to these requests resulted in the dispatch of officials from Washington to perform a feasibility study on the request. After the selection of agreed upon materials, the requests then were required to be processed and pro- cured through local AID officials. This again resulted in a lengthy delay between time of request and response by appropriate official's in Washington. Further delays were caused by the shipment of im- proper equipment elements. The requested equipment was finally delivered during our visit some 2 months after the, operation had begun and only 20 days from the end of the program. It is important to note that while our agencies were subjected to this precarious opera- tion the cost of this much needed equipment was only $400. ? It is quite apparent that the Drug Enforcement Agency has been inhibited in some of its activities. There must be a fundamental change in our program approach directly from the State Department. Clearly, the Department of State has failed to provide overall guidance and Initiative. More than once the efforts of our drugenforcement _per- sonnel have been thwarted by AID and State Department efforts Out of fear of offending their host country or "rocking the boat." ? ? . ? rea .4u ?f.'r'. ' ' -? ? ; : . 2- 4 ),? " 'CIVIL AIR PATROL The effectiveness of our interdiction' programs in this country is greatly hampered by the sheer size of our vast coastline and the ap- proximately 2,000 miles of border shared with Mexico. The task of providing adequate border-and =customs patrol for such a large area __IS cost prohibitive. ,Unless we are able, to stop the free movement .of._ _ planes, ships 'and land vehicles across our common borders, we will be unable to stop the flow of narcotics.. - ? ? During World ,War II, the Civil Air Patrol was used as a coastal patrol to protect our borders. While the present day threat is not Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? . . _ Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 , 1.t?;;7,4'k!:`4' ? r ; ? .? ? --?-?;:t;. y ;t? v : ?? ?"-? t 7?t' : v, ? . -.. direct, it is jilst as deadlyrThe CAP, which now carries out 80 percent Of all aircraft search and rescue operations in the United States today at a saving to .the Air Force of millions of dollars each year is equipped .and could be -used .m =a reconnaissance role in _this:war. The 50,000 .. .. 1 ,members of the CAP and their privately owned planes could be the . -. ...:I , - ? eyes and ears of the local enforcement personnel. By.merely reporting to narcotics .authorities or .local. enforcement organizations the 'sight- ? ,. . lug of clandestinsfbordencrosaings of aircraft Jailing to file flight ? ri ? ?? ...t*,..: plans or ships that are suspicious; they could- assist in. theinterdictioit . - of narcotics :,...Cfoltpe_nr:r.? :31,1zatilui,.,14-ir-;;;;-t Xi 4? .1.,qil ? ell; ..',..-i 'i. ? It.was..,pointsdlout the State?.Department officials . in a' recent meeting upon our Yitniiii-that -iinZe" all thii-planes iiiVaved7Were r, U.S.-Einbaa 'privately owned, governmental cost . would. be restricted to operating economic*:corn , S' briei expenses. :: 1 ' .7 "v..' ,?vr....... ,!%`??--:.'-v-;,, V. . WI:, i.0 j'? '.;-. ? :.! 1:'-e? .: .,? v v* andpecial Mr. Bert : it Here *AIM be another noose Sbotit.`the '&14. tiraffiCiters:.Since :few ..:-; Discussion 'la 'aircraft are available to DEA and ansteiiis this civilian foice'could be ,.. : ,i Also present v 'a great asset in apprehending the ' traffickers.' The CAP "Maintains a :and Special -Arelenatetati , PrrieBvmVeele one of the largest civilian radio networks in the Nation and this too _p could provide intelligence communications. . i Reception : We are in a war with the drug traffickers. Let us use every means ., officials of Go' ,? The Hon: P it our command to Combat this threat to our citizens. ' The Hon.. - v . Relations : ..4. 1: i ) i ? .The Hon::.i - Relations. . -? The Hon. -1 Relations. ? ? Dr. Guida 1 Dr. Alejand i General. Dr. Robert Mr. Richar. Abuse. The Hon. L The Hon. 14/. The Hon. J( , Mr. Francis. ? . . - 4., .....??. ...: . .,,...,-;.:7?............. too:4,r. ...... 2" h,?..,...,-,..!,,,:t-' 4 '..-; ".: 1 . Mr. Feman. Conference , 'J. 4 1.' :' -.. 1 ' f'......1 ....;FW .,--? 4! 41,00 ,o1-1. !, v?i'l ???-?;.;0; ?;:13!v.?:?...--sr le by Cabinet of Robles, Attor ,t n. .1..ttr :. a .::. i Tr.*: ... ,44..h.-o,r(1 E...... Ile.rvi., ?,.t? -... .'..14,n1-1,--).,112f. vwt Navarro Dias 'N:-.-..0-i.t;',.:.??? ? ..-,....!?.?,,, .?;,;- tti; i'l tit! ti??? 4?Lev;',. *tr1. ? `er,i.:(4,.. f -i,;:', -. lc V. ivq. . ?E:i.1"" of Govenimei .!?,. . ' T.,?Ths' ,7:-Avrat-.T..'!4';?:?". -T,IiiE '11..,!rt 1411!:,1* 1.7:-.-?.? vt-,....1-! %...':Erv?;? ? ? - -. of Mexican 0 Sanehez Lopes ' '? --.:if.,-..; ?-',, ;?;?.:,'..-i, ?,' -;,: 'i-. ?, .. Of' li,,td ? 1.; 0:: !,5. ? ; 1 ;;t? :11%6 ,. . ? _. ., ..? .. , . ? t / C011gre813131/1 1.31*P?tt%'-'!.70,1.7 It- ..'1," t tr...":?I.. ?,...1t.tiv,?.rve 1,-v.. r- ' ' ? r. .. ? 'vv.' Tar ./ . forFDielrudginAsbpeu: gasman Ale, t..141',?'Itii". I. :111.:1..01it-7 4...4 It. ...: ' ... a:521'1110i .g .., prul....,I .' .... - . b. ! ? .... 1.1 ?."1- ... 7 .-?. .;.:41;-LC,...t: I.. ..TI' 15,47 vi-tt _is741-.0. 1, 4:. e?: :16.,.Vr. . . .,41:7,0. 3fra,:itivzitf.: ",,...t47 . ,,i. ' ritrillt,;4;- :77,____4-* itm.:1.1::,.:: 514:17:1 ; 2,E7C4. . IL a:::: ' 7 :?:: 1641.1,: : r'L 1:-;'1. 1:-4 'f .:,? - . -- ... . the town of A Press Conf. '------- 114 4I....61-14.::'-?......4.4.:1-..1:?-;....I.I.ft....14,i.a4r. ' '? - ..':-C-t_. ..- -... _. , , - ? ..- ? . -... ?,-.- .reached on Jo: members._ .? 4i4 4.1. tigtiEtAl.e ;Irtga roll4c:=1} atxtr4..tritr.iht:rtm:?,"...11: 1.4i-Tttl'.4.4--.-zE3r4tiircA , ? , ,tv... E.: /II,14traWrIrtILfltp941?1411iiii*Ett-1411.1/7.24 .' -',,....-.i. r-..4.,? al ....a.E.,--.11/ r) ..:11a:fry7i.ia.1,4: yk:v.'1:1;.it' 7. (-4:7::!. '17.11.''???..!iflq-.4."rt 7 -1 U.S. Emba . ? - , .0, . '... r.vor- -.7.?c-1 re. A ivr :7- t .-tairizt>7:nriq F, 1... .0;11 t-,E?itv., (..1,4?-?,:itt .rii;:s:). ,. - r- Lane and DE Discussion ? -------Avtr-4.---i?xv-P4r?mt?tv.....-.4.;:44vi...11it__UAT- f 0- _1-t -.'" .-L,,11.1:141.71.1.,"9f171?1.t_a_. . ...,,,:-L Meeting wit . VIDL; 3,:ensi?... 7...4..b,1:11.32,-;:avvq+../il itlitti:// k.,4?72.-.0}ki.-F;. . -A.f!jr.,..7.0 .i.:, "I:. /.4'.1 ? 7:7 7 Facto Segreda . - ,:o? 7.. ..... .... --....7..,............- ???? N . . ? ' . ' l i? 7 ? 4 .47, ? ?.? ' orir :t I) ? " ftroltri.Wcro:r.rv, arttiriher bsis1ii?f?k?-? . ? t: 42 41, f.; -,;,?y; er.r 4?:144.:*- 4.1 v.triftIti i,iititt:Ilittekj,:; .g" 1."1.1.9711:.; t? n" c' ?? ? .7.77 ?E'; ? ; .?!.f V.k ? ? . t. ,"' ? ' ? :?? ? 2 ? ? I.... ? ?-? ? ? t?-i- ? ? ? . ?" vr:v ?? . t ? v ?? r.v?-? tr; ;it% ' t - :h.c; ".'""r -.? .0 1. 6." .1..1:./I.4,//1r I-1,?'?!' itrr , ?- :; ? r4-??,v I v., ? ' ? - V. ''???-????? ? ? ' 9-0 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? Declassified in Part-Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? .... .,-..-..-. ,......,...r7- .....7....-....-..-4.- s out-80.perdent -1 elti li. .0,rid) tratont. .00 xmtc5shIA 4,,taiL,,r48,1liz q48..?4:01?...7% tin 1 'XITI9,11. ed States -today ._ ;IIN,,,,mi-,V: f ' P :in -A! .1C1 Oh '../41r 1:1?einill. rt.ttv rilir:vifi6raTt(11*"4. year is equipped ' , .,421.,,f,t,t.,.-, ?.'?:,)!...,rmadts7/. ad: IL tra*,111" P:t2!"!"117.3'.7ftf.:14r, .ar, -..) . var. The 50,000 ;......1. r.r. .1. :...1,_ . .. , : ? 1 -..i, -...'r /..- 'a rl :? . ..: ' ..4_ . ?:' r! I ?, ;., . Y? Les could be the ....i .s fielfL, iew-Atir,...:1 l',,,vr 8. c nerely reporting . ... . g e; ...qP. AIS.T./..?IX Aida% Ltions .the Sight- ig to. Ele flight ' ? txrei.T.P.',-pribm,.1.. Lim p11:- 11.7.7C0/7)7TRy .Plictimujeig urri177 .;; ??*-.ed7..-1. ' ' ? "st ' ;?????aq'64 i ;J;; ; ,:,.... .i.e.? r ...) :-e,...z.? . , i"... ? -i-t ''. i . the interdicton -?'"',/ttainst.t...z:ta....i.... . Meileo.%-janilary .6-11;1976z.:21-ii!. t-..0i.:-.1.-.1...-.1?:."1 : # .7. _,.$- -.1 . " 1" ' ;ids m-di'reent ... ......* .SDELEGATION? MEETINGS :AND 'DIBOUSSIONG:1- 41T4-,.031.1. ;,,,.... (111 , i 1 stn. - ,? : .4 . ?:' t..: i ii3.17 olV ea !' were. - ,...,., ., 'V.8. Embasif hri. efineon United with 'officials from Led to ,Operating ., N 'economic, commercial, political and cultural sections,participating.- 1 .1T. ...% . ? -? ---- - ---, ? . _Special _briefing on narcotics matters. _Mr. Frank Alberti, .Mr._Edward.Beath ._ ' * . .. , . and Mi. Bert Moreno participating. ' ' , , : ? ,. . Ckgre?'Smci few . 4' Discussion with Mexican Attorney -General Licenciado Pedro Ojeda Paullada. n force could be Also present were: Dr. Alejandro Gertz Manero, Head of eradication program . CAP maintains and Special Assistant to Attorney %General.. Ambassador Joseph JrJova and ion and. this too representatives of DEA and Embassy ?narootios section.' .tt ;;;:, ? .?.-..w! 1:-tc4 -,:, ., -Private meeting with-President of Mexico Luis Eoheverrie, Alvires, ;Tikrt115'.'t ' Reception in honor of delegation by Ambassador Joseph J. Joys to meet with use every means officials of Government of Mexico: :.,?.:-E-_-,.: .-.. ?. -. : ? . ' :- c," :`, I. . . ;I, The Hon. Pedro Ojeda Paullada y Senora, Attorney General Of the Republic. ? - ? '?- ? ' The Hon. Fernando Castro y Castro y Senora, -Assistant Secretary, Foreign ,f Relations. .,.! ? '..-.. - ,. ? 1..:.. .`.?:. :. ..? . ? ;, ! - -.., i.,?: - - ? -540 .1:' The Hon.-Don Manuel .Tello Macias y Senora, Assistant Secretary, Foreign Relations. t. ( ,::: :. J .- ? The Hon.' Sergio' donzalez ? Galvez 3,- Senora, Assistant Secretary, -Foreign . fi; ,,i,:.:-,-..!?, Relations. .,,.., ,., ? 7, ?-, ?? ?.? .? ..,, _ -., , Dr. Guida Belsasso y Senora,'Director, 'Mexican Center on Drug Abuse Studies. - ?- ? Dr. Alejandro Gertz Manero y Senora, Chief of Staff, Office of the Attorney f'..* .: ? . General. _ .. ? ... . , ; , Dr. Robert DuPont, Director, National Institute for Drug Abuse. Mr. Richard Bucher, Assistant to the Director, National Institute for Drug : ' Abuse. . .:., , I' ??? The Hon. Luis Danton Rodriguez Jaime y Sra Member of the House. ? The Hon. Mario Ruiz de Chavez y Sra, Member of the House. :?: .? ? The Hon. Jose Humberto Mateos Gomez y Sra, Member of the House. ? ,?, ?.,?". 7 Mr. Francisco Cinta y Sra, Office of the President, National Council of Tourism. ? Mr. Fernando Gonzalez Parra y Sra, journalist Ovaciones. ' . .. :.. ? ? Conference convened by President of Mexico Luis Echeverria Alvarez attended by Cabinet officials and other representatives: Foreign Minister Alfonso Garcia ? .E.,_:,:v.......17 -;:t. Robles, Attorney General Pedro ?Ojeda Paullada, Minister of Health Gines ).14_,nr..-.:,.:: -el, -_. 1 Navarro Diaz de Leon Minister of Education Victor Bravo Ahija Under Minister I .of Government Garcia Rameriz, Chief of General Staff Brig. Gen: Alberto - ..,?-.2 --4' - Sanchez Lopez, Ambassador to the U.S. Jose Juan de 011oquie, Director General of Mexican Center for Drug Abuse, Education Guido Belsasso'? ? I, ? ? "1...,43..e. --.. ic z.i : ' ! Congressman D. Mateos, Congressman Luis Danton Rodriguez Jaime, Con- gressman Alexandra Gertz, Ambassador Joseph John Jova, National Institute ; ,7??? , : ; ? for Drug Abuse Director Robert DuPont. ? Field inspection of current eradication efforts by Mexican Government near _ii,e'?rt.'-#N- f.(17) .. the town of Altomarino in the state of Guerro. ? Press Conference held at Presidential Palace to announce the agreement 4,,,-...-:.---L:-. xt,tt, .z.: reached on joint working task forces by President Luis Echeverria Alvarez and ?.?!. 47.1-qm,1-, . ... . members. ...1-4*i Airo.lsi.-'., ....1 , -_ _ , Costa Rica?January 11-18, 1976 r'f,,? 4.!:-/-1-,,:i _,.,.... ? . : U.S. Embassy briefing by Ambassador Terence A. -Tociman, DCM Lyle F Lane and DEA representative Bruce Van Matre. . . Discussion with Ministerof Public Security Mario Charpentier. . Meeting with President Daniel Oduber Quiros and Foreign Minister Gonzalo Fazio Segreda at the Presidential Palace. _ . -? ' b.1,14.1:7; yarit41. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ??? ? X.674 ,%.,4 `I.: .1, - '4?-? ??--- ? !Nei -4??:-.4...144 :?z?4?? ? ;.? ? '?ri .1S?, '"-???? i?-rt; ' ? , ? Meeting with President of Legislative Assembly.-Lic. Alfonso Carro, at the Assembly.'. ? ' ' ? Discussion with Minister of Health Dr. Herman Weinstock. U.S. businessmen's meeting at the Ambassador's residence. - ? ? Reception in honor of delegation by Ambassador and Mrs. Terence A. Todman to meet with Embassy officials. . ? . ? - ? ? ?-? ? ?? - ? Panaina--January 18-14, 1976 .` U.S. Embassy briefing with Embassy 'officials'inclnding Ambassador William ? Jorden, Mr. Raymond Gonzales and SAIC, Mr: Marcelino Bedulla. ? ? ? ?? ? Meeting. with ,President?-of. the ,Republic -of Panama, . His.Excellency. Demetrio B. Lakas. ? ? Meeting with Governor of 'the Canal Zone, Mr. Harold R. Parfitt, followed by a tour of Miraflores locks. ," ? . ? ? " Dinner in honor of delegation to meet with military retkiesentatives at residence of Lt. Gen. Dennis P. McAuliffe...; 1' - ? - ? - - r Heliocopter:overfiight of canal zone accompanied by Lt. Gen. McAuliffe. Tor-;:(7'0711-'13? Colombia?January 14-17, 1976 '7.1? 1 ?1131?I''''''11;Af'.111' . : -'ti '-'.r. U.S. Embassy briefing with '-imbassador Viron P. Vaky. Other participants Included DCM Robert W..- Drexler, Leonard .G. Shurtleff, Embassy Narcotics Coordinator, -Donald Johnson,, political counselor, Stephen Gibbon, economic Counselor. Zr t::-:Lt ? ; 7 7'4.. Z.! .1, *(.7?''' h Meeting with Foreign Minister Dr. Indalecio Lievano Aguirre. r ; Private meeting with President of Colombia; Alfonso Lopez Michelson at Presidential Palace in Bogota.- Meeting with Narcotics Enforcement Representatives including DEA Regional Director Louis Bachrach,- Octavio Gonzales, Mr. Hensgen ,(Bernard), USIS and Leonard G. Shurtleff, Embassy narcotics coordinator. ? Dinner in honor of Delegation to meet with Colombian officials given by Ambas- sador and Mrs. Viron P. Vaky. V....... tft-ot.),:2?1(.1 v.t.? no'7:1! .1 1_ tr. or t".7 .r.::r 11.44 0:1 ? "I ? I ? A?t? 3 ? V ? ? t ?? ? ,??? ? . .r ....* : ! . . i. . ? 1..! . ? ;)1:5,ar?,;"..: : r,...I?it'_ .:.:5-.!, -. ?.1?': t?., ? ,-1i . ....-? ..- , - ?, . .. '1 ''... ? ::.. i.; 3,:i .".0..?i .4 I.:- ' 1",..r. .: ?i.'::,...,...i'.? ,?,...,...-..- ... 111. 1".'. ' ??z.r r ly":i r 4.-....- ? . ? 1.-..? 67.-.1 .. .1.1..l. ,..1?.. ,?-r ?,_ ,...? ;',y, 1, : .t.. f...:?:,,-,:,,in,i; - 1.: --"V rs? ? ? -1 :ii -.. ??.? q-????.1-:.? !....:?'.-1i...1.:(- -.:1?4.....1 '-t. f? i i''.71. .1! ,,- -.,,,,O.:-?:" ,..:1 -.11..:r. :.h.?';() -%, 1- ?.?,.;.?_. ) -,?, --. ':.t. ..''...,... , -:. ?f./ .3 1.t;..-Li. ry, - riti -fro..:51 t3,...: r?? ,11:::. 1 ,T,.?i:tinil.". , nu i.1; r i..- L../ ... ' __L4 , -- ? ? e__'s __Li:.-2...,_.;:s.1_:,:_l.c.:_:.:!?"_, 2.:?? _htiJ).'....?',:'-';af, 1-.. ,im?Co -r.'re,-.'..1 ,,..);_."._??,...) 6'. .n....J 9e-_-'..r1;...1 ,r,?:: ?,' '-i . r.... .t..-.3 o'..q. ''.'-..., ..i..:. (' Coli.....,. ''. ' ,.....;,:e.I.I..(-i T. . .n. /J. ? ..., . -tic;.) ,,5,-v_i 1 1.--,91.7.i?n-fi.V 71:--,a(i ).,iti..1 rii.r..:????-.7.?,:nr:.1 .C.1.- ni.L.,,,, 1.-..nolit.1.'. ,e-.?ot. nac-1., 11,:.),,.. 1..4.? 4.1-1::1) ,r1-7,-11 ..117,..:.7.11t. .:11.:e--.N .1:-,..110.7i yrys110-...,-...Irt.:: !..4..4). ?p". a : a.: -:.-...tri...., 1n,..3:1,51.! v.d. f,:.`1,-:1 rc .....P.P!'.1 1 .7:?!,11?1[1:) 1?? n .::?,5c:.::? .S Tl? -'':..i .1.? 77.?*1 ' 7. fl. 4....17, ..71,"1.t. '1.1 fr:yr.4 ..:.:-i? .;:r..q._?,e.: ? tr:14.' s???f.i.1.1.7nr.; v.-., .,i.??? 7: .rrliv 1: ) ? -...I t..',..:-.... ?:-:...i bitr tru?-.1i.. crna'redta oitr.:3a5:11:sef--.. 7,1 !....17:41 is.1:: .1.-fl?d?nrOw 3/::-01. c? tl!-OD'It \ e!:ai .ti- I i r;ad.r. i;1?tvAli t ; t? -.3 .c1. 6.1?...1 k3C1 ,,,ruarrber ..1 our - f ;I* ltibut ?..tchilt. yCi ier.....;:rd Itiazdr..-,:a 1'1:7 ' . - .=.0111'14.. .7"..:* 0.4.311 r...-.-1-:'...av.....,: J ? .:?: 1-..'3.(1 4ptit---t-,.r...1-1 ? ,aht..../. 7.9.r..!v* ttiki,r`i 1.1 voiyirtili, ?..ifiu goo?-...:mai0 ckle.ta,..7Z.) 'ner..taltL im.wri-orl .tai. tostcV lst:c; '...1 1-.!:.:).,11 :in tt.$,--!41. "Atm stti.71,-314. i ...,.e.lei .1.41r-m..biwvrcx 1st', u. t.erlibt,, ch./.71 ? t. ,'???? - tr? ?-? ? ?4 4 7 , ? JOINT STA1 , piLlttiaN I The spiral: of President problem' has President task force ti this cancer - We attact verria in est ordinate Intl educational, ? , tonliet. ' 7, e propc States Ambi lead to an a present reco: action and c ? The succe rhetoric, del two nations Seeking ti nations, my' sentatives It national Na exchanging I Government In our me and active fa problem coni The meeti engaged in a Rented in thi Because cn be implemen this _plan.- ' My collea President E. commitment becomes rel President Mr. Presic and agenciel word of tha staffs have b We look I cannot fail:- .5 ofI4 giiga 1Z9S 4-1103 EERY' Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? . Alfonso Cerro, at the ? 4: ? ence. irs. Terence A. Todman ? ng Ambassador William . ;elino Bedulla. . ? . ? ifs Excellency DeMetrio old R. Parfitt, followed rose? ntativei a residence t. Geri.'McAuliffe: ? 1:-H: .; . aky. Other participants leff, Embassy Narcotics phen Gibbon, economic . ; ? vv.' Aguirre.' so Lopez. Michelson at - Including DEA Regional lasgen .(Bernard), .USIS r. .? ? officials given by Ambas- .) ? . ? ; tt?:. : Vr ?.' 4. I APPENDIX :2 .JOINT STATEMENT. OF HON. LESTER.L., WOLF HON. BENJAMIN S. 12;;.ftd.A.N., PRESIDENTIAL ,PALACE IN MEXICo ON 'JANTJAR'I"- 40, '1916 ' The spiraling incidence of drug abuse in the United States and the deep concern of President Gerald Ford and the U.S. Congress in finding a solution ;to. this problem' has prompted our visit to your great nation. 'President -Ford, three- weeks ago, called a meeting Of a ? U.S.. congressional ' task force to pa into perspective Mexican-United States interest in attacking this cancer which threatens the health and vitality of the youth of our two nations. We attach great firgnificance to the creative proposal by President Luis Eche- "Verria in establishing for the first time formal- organizations that will each co- ordinate in their respective countries the entire spectrum of the narcotic regulatory, educational, rehabilitative and informational agencies which are represented here tonight. -? V - ' The proposal initiated by President Echeverria,_ and contributed t6 by United States Ambassador Jova and Mexico's Attorney General Ojeda Paullada, would lead to an agreed mechanism, including a Joint working group that would also present recommendations to both organizations in order to bring about effective action and coordination of all drug abuse related activities. The success of our joint endeavors will be measured in results rather than rhetoric, derived only from the elimination of illicit drug traffic between our two nations and, ultimately, the eradication of drug abuse by our young people. Seeking -to overcome the menace of narcotic traffic that confronts our two nations, my colleague, Congressman Gilman, a -Member of the House of Repre- sentatives International Relations Committee, and I, as chairman of the Inter- national Narcotic Control Committee, have undertaken this vital mission of exchanging ideas, views and information with various members of the Mexican Government. In our meetings with President Echeverria he has demonstrated his leadership and active support and concern in finding a permanent solution to this dreadful problem confronting both of our nations. The meeting this evening Is a culmination of a 'series of conferences we have engaged in at all levels of the Government of Mexico, many. of which are repre- sented in -this room tonight. ? Because of the urgency of the narcotics problem, the plans outlined here must be implemented with all possible speed. This is a critical factor in the success of this plan. V ? -. ? ? ? ? My colleague, Mr. Gilman, and I will be taking back a personal message from President Echeverria to President Ford and to the U.S. Congress. The personal commitment of you, Mr. President, and all of us here tonight, that our plans become a reality, we consider a prime mission. Mr. Gilman and I will meet with President Ford upon our return to help implement our discussions here. ' ' . Mr. President, we thank you for the cooperation extended to us by your officials and agencies in making this a productive, momentous mission, with a special word of thanks to the Secretary of Defense and the Attorney General whose staffs have been most cooperative. - . ? ? ?-? " "'" " ' ? We look to the future with confidence because with Our united efforts, . we cannot fall ? ; ? `--f- - ? ? i??:'? ? - ? ' ? ?' r'r' t ?../ .? ?.?-. ? ii ,i.; str.lcrtn` (81) vv< '411a11:_';-- bt-:), ? .t.t" erott-iii(Dri? et). vt,ft4-.? ;r0.;1") !..1);? Vfigd L"',"?r!;O: ft.IW edi .3noet mt. e;I1c).1 Cd t I C ? .,:tr?tttty.1 vrtto d4t).3)^.:t? At) ritilvtfirr?;.;A kec'. t?iro`z . 411. zr r11;.? tytt tracr.ltr.c.. ? t. t? :11f,, 4 ? . ft k. -7- 1. :.? g..707:n ? t?fth e.qt?q???L-F?t-a-i?- (LI 1311.098 0 Te 1 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ; ? . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? ca-,L.-Aa-.71,-tatea.....- ? Y-4 aLt, ? . . is In the producing areas. oorruption aspects of this .):1 narcotics issues at the ind cooperation from the That is the ,expression we his concern for this issue. The time has come for ---t;- 7ograms which have been 3osta Rica,. Panama and ? _ iiplementing these recom.! ighed against the cost in out forth an effort worthy ..quality of our,eitizens 4yj ? r ? t! ' ,?t?-"re,?!- -44`,11.4AA":14 -It i? .? ' ? ; t ? 1 nt,T: ! t? ? .1: ? '.-1:":".r.` ? ;t Ix.- S.. ? 7,,s/ ? : ? .?? ' t? I. , .1r , ? r?7 hi ?????.0 '? ? ' ? ??;,: ^ ?t?,-1 4. ?? ?tt 1C--.?4 ? "I? ? '? ? "i '?? ? ? ? .i t?? i.e. jokit,L11-0.' f?h, ". tra i%!;ft^ ":"41;.3_i-4. 'XXV:nt.i - ?-ire/???-?.' 1.1 ? - irta'Alttl ?,:lt ':???.4, .1.1th? ?inft'?"! -no; -1=c1..fe..L.'1Vnt"11Z%-i? i?-'1 14- .4- rr.. ? A-10 tft ? ? .-.- c -rt AF'PE/9317C-:13 LETTER PRESIDENT FORD -FROM :PRESIDENT ECHEVERRIA ON 'y -"!? ' NARCOTICS COOPERATION ? 1:r-, A-1' 1:- ,441.1,ftlt,,4 , Following is English text of subject letter: Mr. Paasnonsti:? Messrs: Lester L. Wolff in Benjamin. man ?distin- guished Members of the House of Representatives of the United States of America, accornpanied by His Excellency -Joseph John Jove, your country's Ambassador to Mexico, paid me a visit 'last Wednesday, January 7, at which time we took up, :among other 'Subjecte?Ahe !natter of the increase in"drug -abuse in the United States and in the Illegal traffic in narcotics and psychotropic substances between our two countries.- - ? ;,. ? ? ? . - ? t. In vie*rof the importaiiee? and seriousness of the problem, I asked Messrs. Wolff and Gilman to meet with me again, which we did last Saturday, January 13, with the Attorney General of the Republic, the Secretaries of Fcreign Affairs, Public Education, and Health and Welfare, as well as the Director of the Mexican Center of Drug Addiction Studies, who has charge, of coordinating preventive, Curative, and rehabilitation activities in that field. t. As a result of those talks' it was possible to confirm the evident interaction' that exists between supply and demand and the complexity of the problem and of its iolution which takes in widely varying sociological aspects, involving educational factors?including those relating to mass communications media?health factors, and of course action directed toward the prosecution of crimes against health. ' ? " It was recognized also that in recent years, with strict respect for the sovereignty of each state, there has been effective cooperation between the two governments which has made it possible to obtain excellent results in the struggle against the drug traffic and the use and abuse of illicit drugs. Nonetheless, it is necessary to increase our joint action in order to obtain still better results. I put forward to the U.S. legislators the idea of creating twin national commis- sions, one in each of our countries which would undertake a study of all aspects of this question and propose solutions that would enable our two governments to embark on new lines of action and expand the coordination of their efforts. In my opinion each national commission might be composed of officials of the executive 'branch responsible for the prosecution of crimes against health, the elimination of the illicit use of narcotics and other dangerous drugs, and the cure and rehabilitation of the victims of drug addiction. Members of the House of Representatives and the Senate of the respective Congresses, as well as representa- - tives of family heads and of the mass communications media would also be invited to participate in the commissions. ? ? ? . . . . . . . ? . - Each national commission would study the ? problem and recommend actions which would be discussed at meetings of the two commissions. The commissions ihould establish machinery that would insure the efficacy and celerity of their work, possibly through executive committees, the frequency .of their meetings would be agreed upon according to their work req_uirements. , For my part, I am proceeding to establish the MexicanCommission pursuant to the terms stated above in the understanding that my government will continue to act intensively in the fight against the traffic in narcotics and other aspects of this problem, maintaining, as it has done hitherto, the close coordination existing between the competent agencies and organs of our two governments. In view of the foregoing, I take _pleasure in proposing that you consider the desirability of establishing a United States Commission for the purposes stated above,- which would be ln 'contact with the Mexican Commission on a standing basis. ? Feeling certain, as I do, that this proposal an a matter of such extreme impor- tance to mankind will Merit your sympathetic response.. I take this occasion to renew to you the 'assurance of my highest consideration and personal esteem. ? ? ? . . On 2. t - 1_ 1. ? o a a o 0 ? a Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? ?744.V4?444 ? ? 1 a.. " ? ilt ? ';'.a.t rfiv,gami it re; v..1.-? ???1.?:_cr ? nf- t.ui?Cm1 T v.LAl et Ttlo fr1;7.-. : - ? ?t??? r": m' .0,1?rt- ? 'sr ? ? L ???? V55' V ? r AP.PEND1X1.1,.it';13' . ? ? ? ? ^ . ? , ? 'LETTER FROM :PRESIDENT kiERALD'FORD'TO PRESIDENT ECREVERRIA ? -? ? TilrlrfilTai.i.l.r2;-../ =E;?-?71%0?:.%.a.,...,!.. ? . .. ? ??*. - (Translated 'prom Spanish by Library of Congress) V- L ?-? ;?. ? . . A i ??. ? ? 11.$ ?71 - ^?Mr: PRESIDENT tireatly:aPpreciate"-Your letter. relating to Our efforts to face ,the tragic problenipf the use of drugs that affects litany citizens at our two nations. iebeiye ',Yaur pleasure' 'and, of . xnajor - Importance:- have.givbn. instructions*.ify working team to Conidder. urgently the moat ffective way hi'Whicht,O,Cooperate closely With theehmmission'and the executive Committee that you-are setting 45 in Mexico. Your idea of parallel and similar organizations seems appropriate,ttopq,,copploh desire ,to :increase the effectiveness of Dur:eooperation. ? to w s' 'As you suggest, the initiative should he con-sidered V develOpnient that can support the measures that our governments are taking at the present time jointly and separately." ???-'`" ? : " ? ' ? .; , ? , Our success in reducing in a short time'the' critical narcotice problem that we are facing depends largely on the vigor with which we maintain the efforts that we are deploying now: This new Initiative will strengthen our cooperation in the long run. I am encouraged by the reports about the intense activity your government Is deploying at present and I have 'confidence in its permanent progress. V ., For our part, I have formed a special group under the direction of the White House 'for improving our own effectiveness in the fight' against the narcotics traffic that enters the United States from Mexico and the contraband that moves from the United States toward Mexico. These matters, it seems to me, must be subject to the mutual interest of our governments, as well as must be revised, permanently, in accord with the context of your initiative. , ' I am pleased with the fact that your initiative includes the aspects of prevention and rehabilitation, as well as of execution of the, law relating to the narcotics problem. The spirit of a federal program that couples the effort to control the demand for drugs with -the effort to control the supply of drugs is the basis of our program to reduce their consumption. ,. . . . . ? . ,You may be sure that for Dur part we shall also face all aspects relating to this Problem. . , ? , hope in the near future to rely on concrete proposals for 'action, which' will have to be combined with the new effort you have initiated. At that time it will ? be useful for my representatives to meet with yours in order to make sure that both of us are'ativancing in the coordinated manner that your letter contemplates. I take this opportunity to express to you my gratitude for the cordiality and good will with which you and the members of your government received my representa- tives,' Ambassador 'Jove, Ambassador Vance, and Attorney General Levi, at their recent meeting with Attorney General Ojeda Paullada. , : - I also hope that We can keep in contact to tighten the cooperation between our two countries in relation to this problem. . '?? Sincerely' '? ' - " , ?-? :-- ? ??"; ' ? .? ? ? ? ? ? ? . .0 LD ra:) t , 14"):" 'Llej`; brir' e*I"? :11111 I 'President. of Ihe'dniierSntal of .JAmerica. . 11511e.r? ccgtt.A!!'vloo ,T?ob treit .1:-r. ? . . t, ? .L tv,:c 2.(88) Luz - ?? ", J."1".-0?7'.:L Ott: lr. `...!^1*: ? kt.tiffE. iL31 ICI".1?11U -?:?? 1..7t.'72.1....LF?7'::,?-t 4.0 Vrirlti,..Ln:?-'`.5. ---igithibb,r4---ae-figi?WM?41????:;) 4")r.rf-M-111.1Li_b10797 .1?5?-?-h, ? .r -rocpri eravert? oIts.v...Ez 4 an I/K=7'4111;A ;a4.1 ,r?,, I nt. .m.a.tvr eli? t ? os eciftex. !In tfa.1 I?stiz?tvoi 'WT.; th,En iitvr beiice".4 o? A A?ntet learom.; brit arA!,t-te:gtrro., taui' ? 141117r7q. eti. Iry !. ? (TZ - 4 ? vItaAnt-.--7?raf,??:%E. 474i?frAk-tv #414 p ? ; - .1=7,-, - SPEECH OF TROL IN TH1 AELATIONS, ? ? fr Thank j;oit'an 'announcing .a n4 turned the corm _ has occurred to :i 14: lack of objectl ? I would like tc on the importan control program. in perspective v countries in Cen major actors in Drug Enforce= the leaders of f( mission which I where I was ab And finally, I wi which can contri Before I conth the Murphy Com of Foreign Polio perspective--tha1 relations, yet els the United State of the speech; an, "Most new pr, 1970's and .1980's domestic progra) require understai Internal economi( economic interde! ?? "The State De to issues in areal analysis.? - Tonight is a ! - because our polic returned from L agenda. Addition( commitment to .t commissioned a the Southwest B /This task force open to change a) answer period, J Washington. ,,Our relations_ I flw phase. .I feel tion. In the past, - of Central .and and have focused the powerful ecoi with the rising , and South Americ ? ? :`,?.-?? 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' ?"'^u^,?:V - ;Ing tc;:our efforts to:face itizens of our :06,Poesfl, of ,Major bf.. 3 'co nsider., urgently .the &oat mission and the executive ea" of Parallel 'and similar m desire .to :increase : the ? r ? ?-?* ? ?f%it.:Th t '`" a devefopment' that can the present time jointly arcotic problem that We dntain the efforts that We ir cooperation in the long activity your government nanent progress. _ ? he direction of the White ;ht against the narcotics ae contraband that moves rs, it seems to me, .must s well as must be revised, s the aspects of prevention relating to the narcotics the effort to control the A' drugs is the basis of our all aspects relating to this . gals for action,, which- Will iated. At that time it will ? I order to make sure that I your letter contemplates. for the cordiality and good nt received my represents- ttorney General Levi, at nada. . , . the cooperation between , ? g17. 1.1 7: 'GERALD x ORD, :Inited Stales of America. , ????_13-.r?loci etrl; le: ul zaul? t::titu td td 41:Auar ,6b 17.-Et b-t;?1 'Mara Litw baliatzrn: mrsr..1 winattrotz /111! PCIE ' ? . ouLD4-171rTAWWW7cr...Tr7'.i/.;+TYT17;:irifonFT-. 4.0..trs .0\ ftP PC 4.11,4m:Pct-frtit ork cl.ttrfrli tAttik,::k , Mot lat,?-t1),',14.4Vrq.s.4t$6,111.11"t..*:..0 013/Atil-b,.?-i t i4ro? i,c v4t; C.. ? .:hlt r't10.7-. 9.- i , ? ? _' ? ? ? , .? r APPENDIX 8 ? ? ? ?Si'EiC11. WOLFF,- g CONGRESS -AND' 'IN ARGOTIC/3 UON: ? -TROL IN THE AMERICAS" BEFORE THE CENTER FOR INTER-AMERICAN - RELATIONSi NEW Yoiac,?N.Y.; MARCH.15, 1976'. ???? ? j.roaCk...t.r413?7,' ; 2 , Thank. you and good evening. 4 hope :I ?alii 'not going to disappoint youby not announcing a new war on 'drugs and not 'informing you that we have finally turned 'the corner in our efforts to curb drug abuse and drug related crime. It has occurred to me that there has been a surplus of fiery rhetoric in the past and - a?lack Of objective reflection, .14"'" "7 *". / ? I would like to take a step lniCk this eveninklind provide youriiith'my.:thinights On, the importance of "formulating A-Constfuctive and' cOmprehensive narcotics control program. M:6 importantly. / will -place 'the -issue of narcotics control in &perspective with relation to the other concerns ,which 'we-share -with the countries in Central and South'AmeriCa.?1 hope ` to .analyze the roles which the major actors in this drama 'play : .the President, the ' State 'Department,' the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Domestic Council, the Congress, and the leaders of foreign 'nations. I will briefly describe the findings of the study mission which I led in January to Mexico, Costa Rica, Colombia, and Panama, Where I was able to have frank discussions with each of the 'chiefs of state. And finally, I will direct this talk toward the goal of developing federal policies which can contribute to a coherent and successful narcotics control program. Before I continue, I would like to read a quotation from a draft appendix to the Murphy Commission on the Organization of ?the Government tor the Conduct of Foreign Policy. I think this quotation will help to place narcotics in the proper perspective?that is, it is an issue 'which clearly has an impact upon our foreign relations, yet also directly affects domestic programs and the quality -of life in the United -States. I hope- you will keep the quotation in mind during the course of the speech; and I quote : ? . ? - "Most new problems confronting the U.S. foreign policy machinery. in the 1970's and 1980's will be like drugs in that they will deal with Issues related to domestic programs. Implementation of U.S. foreign policy will increasingly require understanding of the levers necessary to predict and potentially influence Internal economic and social behavior of important allies and adversaries. Socio- economic interdependence will continue to increase rapidly. e ? .. "The State Department should take the lead in suggesting creative answers to issues in areas which have traditionally been peripheral to national security analysis.", . - ...Tonight is a propitious time-to discuss narcotics control in ,the Americas because our :policy. is in a.true.atate of flux...The.Secretary of State has recently returned from -Latin America where narcotic control was prominently on his agenda. Additionally, within the past two weeks the President has reaffirmed his eommitment to the topic- of narcotics control. ,Furthermore, the President has commissioned Al Task Force from the Domestic Council to examine problems on the Southwest . Border: specifically illegal trafficking in aliens and narcotics. This task force is planning to, report to the President next week. Our policy is open to change and I hope that after the give and take during the question and answer period, have. new, ,suggestions; to pass. -on,.when I return ,to yyeaht!Igton. ??,? . ? , .?.. ,,Our relations. With '"the 'other nations in 'the Americas are 'clearly entering if. new phase. .1 feel this is appropriate as we are encountering a new world situa- tion. In the-past, we have clearly ignored the needs and interests -Of the peoples of Central .and South' 'America at ,hest,rwe. have taken the. _people for granted, and have focused what little 'resources we provided on the political leaders and the 'powerful economic cliques in the various countries. Now, we mutt' contend with the rising, demands and nationalistic trends of the peoples of Central and South 'America. Not only are we now faced with in an inter-dependent world, . . 1-5 .g f.4. 'qt....: 4;1 .? t ? i ? ? ' ? utio...tt7J4 A.IA t .. ? +1,, _a. , ft.v.Ezn ? "i a Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part -Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 20'13/08/06 : CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 e Jr.of? ???-, eer, 40 - but we are also aware of the movements toward self-determination which are ' taking place in almost every country in the world. On top of this, we aee the explosive problem developing from the use of Cuban troops in Angola, Zaire, Libya, and Syria. Premier Castro is appealing to minority populations around ? the world and the success or failure of his efforts at triggering the festering sores of oppression will have direct and immediate effects upon the national interests of the United States in 'Latin--,,kmerica and elsewhere. Contrary to the thinking of Chairman (Mao?diplomacy does not begin exclu- ? sively at the end de barrel of a .gun. The time for armed intervention In the ? affairs .of Central-and -;South America has long since passed. We have the agri- cultural and:technological-and . other. resources which should , be the guiding factors in our new policies. We ?mustleim /or policies -which clearly result in mutual improvement of theliVes of the citizens in each of the American countries. ' Let?me however turn to the .specific subject of narcotics control as it may well be the most 'important Issue our-131-,and multi-lateral Latino relations in the ? 'Corning decade. Alf*Onowrheroin'abusais-no*'-once again it the, highest level of the last five years It Japliguing'onotUhly:`,Nevi York City, Detroit, and other large urban' centers, but now is reaching into small tow?saTnd suburbs 'across the Plaited States, as NyelL Unfortunately,Aoday almost all of the heroin which is now abused in the United States, is product'of the opium fields Of, Western 'Mexico. Here we have a situation "*here the actioni of a campesino in Sinaloa directly affect the life of .a person in New York, The internal affairs of Mexico directly affecting the dOmestic-affairs of the United States. The only means avail? able for correcting this problem. with respect to heroin Mamie is through our foreign policy. ? ? ?, ? --- --? -??? ??? ? " We? now now have a new understanding of the -correlation between supply and demand. First of all, not everyone who experiments with heroin becomes an addict. 'More importantly, demand for. heroin, is not inelastic, as it was originally believed. As drug enforcement efforts become more successful, the availability of heroin is decreased, its price increases, and the number of addicts on the streets decreases. The average heroin user has only a certain earning capacity: in addi- tion, there is an evaluation of the risks involved in possessing and dealing in il- legal substances. At a certain level, the user makes the decision either to seek alter- nate substances like barbiturates or alcohol, a combination of both, or to begin a treatment program. Evidence supporting these premises are derived from the recent Turkish experience. We were able to see dramatic reductions in the num- ber of users when the Turkish Government banned the growing of poppies, cut off the flow of a major source of illicit opium, addict rehabilitation halved. Enforcement is only one of our options, .and not always the most attractive one. Furthermore, there are limits to the type of enforcement programs which are acceptable. As a strong proponent of enforcement, I will not permit abuse of the law as a law enforcement device. My observation is that domestically -we must increase the public education programs which inform our citizens of the end results and social cost of heroin abuse. At the same time we need to provide a comprehensive treatment program for -those seeking rehabilitation. However; I maintain that the most immediate effective means for reducing the number of heroin users, and concretely cutting into the massive level of drug-related crime, .is by eliminating the substances which are refined into narcotics at their source. ? At the present time our most important target must be the opium fields in the 'Sierra Madre Mountains in Mexico. We must work with the Mexican government to promote programs which -will 'destroy the illegal fields which exist, and to encourage the farmers to substitute income producing pursuits. Narcotics enforce- ment which is aimed at interdiction at the border or elsewhere will never remove more than five to ten percent of the average supply. Therefore, eradication is our most sensible option.' -?:? I ? - ? r ,?-, ? ;:- ? ?,,.? For this reason on can see that our 'international narcotics Control 'assisted& Is unique, it is different from all other aspects of our foreign assistance. It is, In -reality, reverse assistance aid in narcotics ;programs is for the people Of the , United States.' Narcotics control is' also unique in that it Cuts across-functional divisions which' are useful for other aspects of our foreign?Policy. 'Our, programa Must incitidethe input of experts in public ethication, Commerce,' psychology; medicine.- la* enforcement; drug treatment, and diplomacy:" Furthermore, our policies must deal with the issue on a regional basis rather than on a 'bilateral ? plane. The traffickers and financiers Involved in this nefarious trade 'do' not respect political -borders; but oPerate'whererer-they -meet -the -least resistance. Our policies must be innovative enough to respond to this challenge. Part of _ this response must be formulated by the Congress. ; '.Lately we hayi itha legislative -be a unified voice; hi is attempting to I government One determination of ration-of the _Intel , most recent exan and a Member o ? , Congratis are diffl , We have all heal ,has no real bite. ' was supreme.-It Congress could ? ?bite but they real -and our,teethare -The House. of to wear ..out vont .jI...needs ? and desire short terms maui 'Narcotics control Which citizen is crime? Who has drug abuse in ot friend's hesitatio even in daylight Representatives Congressional gories : first, rats' ;the scope and pf to combat the .pri ? tive programs. IS ? like to share. dm , ! level of drug ab pledged to do wi We have seen so: ,he sent Secretan ! On December .to the White H discussed the ne, this Presidential Rica, Colombia' e communicated wi I ? I was pleased ti . Congreesionali , of those individt I ): , Spark interest er. Department shys the hostility thea topic, we are abl ?. confidence 'that 4 take legislative' : ,foreign leaders a .1/ study missions It ; results in harsh ? land, it has mac : In each case the l the interim peric I think it is MI investigations; In ; the Congress and Department -*as ? desired in this ra The second vol problem. Sometie -What que-stiolfta countries and en, Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110007-4 ? , ? - r;it-HT,' Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06 : CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 . ? :ermination which are op of this, we see the saps in Angola, Zaire, ly populations around lggering the festering eta upon the national where, does not begin exclu- nd intervention in the ;ed. We have the agri- should :be ?the -guiding vhich clearly result in , he American countries. control as it may well Latino relations in' the am n at the highest level Ility,.Detroit,,and other .and,suburbs across the of the ,heroin which is plum fields of 'Western a campesino In Sinaloa .ernal affairs of Mexico s. The only means avail- I abuse is through our on between suP9IF and vith heroin becomes an stic, as it was originally ssful, the availability of Df addicts on the streets ming capacity: in addi- easing and dealing in 11- ision either to seek alter. on of both, or to begin a :s are derived from the c reductions in the num- rowing of poppies, cut off iilitation halved. mys the most attractive cement programs which will not permit abuse of is -that domestically we form our citizens of the time we need to provide rehabilitation: However, reducing the number of rel of drug-related crime, narcotics at their source. e the opium fields in the the Mexican government elds which exist, and -to rsuits. Narcotics enforce. !where will never remove ref ore, eradication is our rcoties eontrOl'assistanie foreign assistance. It is, s is for the people of the it cuts across functional Agit -policy Dur, programs _ . n, commerce,' psychology; omacy. Furthermore, our -ether than on a bilateral s nefarious trade do not meet the least resistance. froo this challenge. Part of _ ? ? ? ? ??? ? ? , , _ ? _v.. -Lately we have all? seen signs that the-power pendulum IS 'swinging- tioWard ithe legislative branch. The Congress has not always been able to speak with fa unified voice, but there is clearly .8. pattern of increased activity. The Congress is attempting to reassert its equality as one of the three branches of the federal ? ? ? ? government. One of the most noticeable areas where this is occurring is in the . ;determination of our' foreign policy. Congressional examinations ? of the oper- ? Ationof the _intelligence community and .of our policy in Angola are two of the ...,omost.recent examples. As a member of the International Relations Committee and a Member of. Congress for 12Iners,-'1 can say that the --Members of the -Congress are different today from those in the Congress when Pwas first elected. ?? ? 4.? ? We have, all-heard it said.-that the Congress is a body which barks loudly' but ..has no real bite. This may have been-true in the past when the seniority system cwas supreme. It was not far from the truth when observers concluded that the Congress could not make an impact upon foreign policy because they -Could ,bite but they really had false teeth. Well, Congressmen are n lot different-today ? land-ourAeeth are sharper, as many have-not been part of the system long enough ?go 'weer out our Incisors..,. 7 ? ? The ;House of RePreietitatives :was created as a -forum-for "Ilep-resetitinrthe- ? -needs-and -desires of..that ?amorphous group --referred to gas -"the people!' Our short terms insure that we be responsive to our constituents to -remain in office. ;Narcotics control is a gut issue which is of interest to citizens in every district. JWIlich citizen is unaffected-by ?the twenty -billion dollars of annual drug related -Who has not known someone who is disturbed -over the escalation of -drug abuse in our schools and our towns? Who among us has not heard of a friend's hesitations to walk the streets because of the fear of being mugged 'even in daylight? These concerns are voiced to each member of the House of Representatives when they get back to the hustings. Congressional action on narcotics control falls into four functional cate- .gories : first, raising the issue to the appropriate Individuals; second, investigating . the scope and patterns of narcotics abuse; third, legislating appropriate laws to combat the problem and fourth, monitoring the implementation of the correc- 'tive programs. I have actively participated in each of -these ventures and would -like to share some of my impressions with you. ? . v- ? ? On December 22, 1975, I was privileged- to lead a Congressional task force 'to the White House where we shared our concern over the increase in the level of drug abuse with the President. At the conclusion of the meeting he pledged to do whatever is necessary to constructively respond to this problem. We have seen some outward signs that the President will carry out this pledge: he sent Secretary Kissinger as his envoy to Latin America and he has personally communicated with the heads of state in Mexico and Colombia. I supplemented this Presidential pledge with a study mission of my own to Mexico, Costa ? Rica,' Colombia and Panama where I raised the issue of narcotics control and . discussed the need for cooperative programs with each of the Chiefs of State. ? I was pleased to receive .positive commitments for positive action from each , of those individuals.? ? Congressional missions can be Important several reasons. First of all they 'spark interest among our own officials and foreign leaders. While the .State --Department -shys -away 'from- active -narcotics enforcement programs because of the hostility they may receive from foreign officials who are sensitive about the topic, we are able to discuss these sensitive issues with the heads .of state with confidence 'that Congress is committed to narcotics control and are willing to :take legislative action to' support this position. As an aside, I must say that foreign leaders are very Cognizant of the Congressional power of the purse. My study missions in the past have served as lightning rods. Sometimes my presence results in harsh newspaper headlines as in Turkey. In other countries, like Thai- land, "it has reached the level of a contract being put .out on my life. However, ' 'in each case the level of cooperation has increased after my visits even if Only for the interim period. ?' ' ? ?.': ? - " ' 'I think it is highly Important for Congressmen not only ig.egagai hand ; Investigations, but also to personally inform foreign leaders of Interestsstate -:-the-Congress and-the' people-,Te represent-That That mayoe the th 'Department was designed to fulfill, but 'unfortunately they leave,emuch to .be desired in this region. ? to ? -AL' ? t + The second role of the Congress Is to investigate the 4nlititre inda.cotre'of the problem. Sometlines Congress has to not only dig for answers, it must learn -what question to ask. For me this means travelling to the producing and transit countries and meeting with all of the individuals who can influence OUT pro- _ -( , - Z.76- 4,1 ?,4?1. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 k _ 142 warn. In the area of narcotics control I refuse to limit myself to the 'State De- ? imartment, CIA, and DEA officials-For example,:duririg a recent visitto Thailand vI met with--the military leaders of the Shan ?Tstate of Burma who control the :distribution of 400 tons of opium gum each year. It is important that we hear all sides of the issue, that is, conferring with insurgents and traffickers as well .,as the official government spokesmen. Only then can appropriate policies be ,formulated. I might mention that my visit in South East Asia culminated in proposal for the United States to purchase 400 tons of opium from a ton- . isortium of Shan,groups. The second -facet of the investigative responsibility is _ met by. formal congressional hearings. 'As Chairman of the Ad Hoc Committee on .International Narcotics Control and also as the Chairman of the House Inter- . irrational -Relations Subcommittee on Future Foreign Policy', / have convened .numerous bearings on our narcotics programs overseas and the control situations Lin Various countries. ?- ? ? , - { Often the bearings result directly in the formulation of legislation, which is the ?Lth. ird role of the Congress in narcotics control. Last week the International Secu- rity ASsistance bill passed the House and two of its provisions are related to - :narcotics :control: The first-was one of my-amendments which would improve --Congress' oversight, capability, eand i even more -importantly, 'would insure that .narcotics control is a prominent item on our foreign policy agenda. This 'amend- .ment requires that no assistance may be providedto any country where illegal :traffic in opiates has been a -.significant problem 'until the President certifies in *writing to the Congress that the country in question is .significantly'reduCing the amount of opiates entering ,the market If ?the written. certification Cannot be _made, this provision .in the Foreign Assistance Act ? require-that all assistance, military and economic, will have to be terminated.-: z ? - The second amendment concerns the treatment of U.S. citizens imprisoned in Mexico and serves another type of function. It informs the President of 'congres- sional concern over this matter and insures that corrective steps are taken. Sec- tion 412 of the Bill states: "The Congress, while sharing the concern of the President over the urgent need for international cooperation to restrict traffic in !dangerous drugs, is concerned that such efforts Must be consistent with respect for fundamental human rights. The Congress, therefore, calls upon the President -to take steps to insure that United States efforts to secure stringent international -law enforcement measures are combined with efforts to secure fair and humane treatment for citizens of all countries." ... The President, through the Secretary of State, ie required to report every 120 days on the progress toward obtaining full respect for the human and legal rights of all U.S. citizens detained in Mexico. Congress certainly does not condone the involvement of U.S. citizens who engage in narcotics trafficking. However, this legislation is meant to require that the State Department implement a balanced approach toward narcotics enforcement. They must complement their enforce- ment incentives with actions which prevent the extortion, beatings, torture, forced confessions and other barbaric practices, which have been practiced in Mexico. Both of these legislative measures will complement the desire of Congress to monitor the implementation of our narcotics control program. For too long the .Congress has been willing to appropriate funds and then assume that our task is completed. WelaVebeen victimized by the programming, carryover and impound- ment of funds so that the ability of the Congress to control policy through the appropriations process has been severely, undermined. Oversight is a critical responsibility of the Congress. 'I.feel that it would be appropriate for the Con- gress to approve line item appropriations .for narcotics control so that we are more aware of the use of funds which taxpayers provide. .' , .? ? ; ? The State Department and the President have accused the Congress of med- dling in the administration of foreign policy. I have found that the greatest obstacle .toward the implementation of enunciated opolicies is not the Congress but the foreign policy bureaucracy. I might advise the State Department of the admonition to Heal Thyself. -. . ? . { ? ? ? r ; r?? ? My conclusion, 'from five years of InVolvement_in,sarcotics. control, is that 'the. major obstacle in the formulation and enactment of a Coherent and effective narcotics 'Control -policy is the action- lir,- more properly, -the :inaction of -the State Department and AID. The governing principle of the State .Department is to maintain friendly relations with foreign governments.:Theref ore, topics which could produce a hostile foreign reaction are avoided whenever possible. For example, in 1978 the President encouraged our State .Department to elicit - r-;.! . 4i .4...47 Iri.11. ae. {. Z`....14 !', _ - 4.4 -increased Conn try..41 saw that lion. The situation all other ? The ,Sti of-their -b _our.zdome - affairs. T. the cititer often lett of fthe e.,The vott meddling policy.,Tt eider the. _internal.s _ ance of1-)3 victiniised The pp narcotics ? Cabinet ( responsibi program. Office fou respect tc enunciate know the: Another.. r ant Seer( narcotics previousl; operation my receni 1975, D. labelled 4. the move division ! feasibilitj .In June ,the Sumn found, col type whic: costing on from the this exam _ taken out equipmen State. De Administi . For, too foreign -pc Impact up policyis .3 nations.,11 Cop:12311mb about the The appel the -negot President! present rti Domestic Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ' 7'777 4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002--4 ent visit to Thailand ma who control the ortant that we hear d traffickers " rropriate policies be Asia culminated in -opium from- a con- Ave responsibility is Hoc Committee on of the House Inter- I'?have convened ? ? he control situations islation,- which is the e International Seen- talons are related to rhich would improve r, 'would insure that agenda. This amend- !ountry where illegal President certifies in lficant13 reducing the rtification cannot be e that all assistance, . ? itizens imprisoned in President of 'congres- steps are taken. Sec- g the concern of the n to restrict traffic in Insistent with respect Is upon the President tringent international mre fair and humane KI to report every 120 uman and legal rights does not condone the icking. However, this implement a balanced dement their enforce- atings, torture, forced practiced in Mexico. desire of Congress to ram. For too long the 3sume that our task is xryover and impound- -01 policy through the ,versight is a critical n?opriate for the Con- ontrol so that we are . , the Congress of med- und that the greatest ,s is not the Congress tte Department of the cotics control, is that coherent and effective ',--the inaction of the the State Department sits. 'Therefore, topics led whenever possible. a. Department to elicit ?, ' ? ? 4.3 increased rcooperation-from- the -Mexicali -GOvernmene-in narcotics -C?ontrel. "The.' ?Country .Director Was In the process of negotiating a salinity 'convention and saw that pressing for -a narcotics agreement might interfere with the .conven ton.' The result was no :narcotics control Activity during that year. A similar situation is elirrentir taking place. In Panama where the; Canal is superseding all other concerns. ? The' State Department officials abroad often times take on the point of view ? of their host countries and tend to side with their concerns, rather than with our domestic needs.- Foreign policy becomes more important than domestic' affairs. The plight , of -the local farmer loomg more important to -them than ? the citizens in New York who are held hostage by the addict-population. I have often felt .that congressional visite are necessary, to .counter. their 'presentation_ otthe.interest of the VAL ? .. ? ? ? , The other .operating guideline of the State .the avoidance of meddling in the internal affairs of another -country. .1 .ani. sympathetic .to this policy. The problem Arises over the-definition of internal affairs. I'do not 'con" alder the -illegal growing of opium .for export anywhere in the world :to .be an Internal Affair. Unfortunately, the only time that we are able to engage-the assist- ance, ;of host governments .in -eradicating- those .poppy ;fields-is -when:they-are- victimized by a domestic abuseproblem.: nos rcaIrir.41-tit--,t1 6-'13 The problem with the State Department is not restricted to-its approach to narcotics -control but includes .their structure and :performance. In :1971, the ? Cabinet Committee on International .Narcotics .Control was ?created -with the responsibility for developing and coordinating our world-wide narcotics control' program. This response has been an abysmal failure. The -General Accounting Office found that after the .C.C.I.N.C. ,selected the 00 ,critical countries with respect to narcotics control, the policy . of our government was never clearly enunciated and passed on. One year. later,, several -of the Ambassadors did not know their country was on the list and very few had taken affirmative action. Another problem is the Executive Director of the cabinet committee, an Assist- ant Secretary in the State Department has overseen the disposition of the narcotics control budget since 1978. The purpose of this move from A.I.D., which previously controlled -the narcotics budget, was to streamline the procurement operation so that equipment would reach the field .more rapidly. Well, during. my recent trip I found that .we have taken a giant step backward.' In January 1975, D.E.A. put in a request for communications equipment . for a. project labelled "Operation 'Kitchen" in Colombia. The equipment was for monitoring the movement of known traffickers. Well, the State Department narcotics division retains several A.I.D. consultants and they were -called in to do a feasibility study. . ,? In June, the operation began and the study was still underway: At the end of the Summer the decision was made to reject the request. Yes, the consultants found, communication equipment was needed but they suggested an alternate type which was supposed to perform the same function. In January, Other devices, costing only $400 a piece, were flown in on the plane that I arrived on one month from the termination of the ongoing operation. I have since been informed that this example allowed the State Department narcotics adviser to get a handle on the problem and It will not occur in the future. .I feel that this budget should be taken out 'Ofthe hands of AID. completely, whereas they currently handle all equipment procurement.; I also think the budget should be taken from the State Department and given to the Administrator_ of the Drug Enforcement Administration. .. ? . ? ? ? , ;;, ? ' ? ?.' ??? ? ? - For too long, .narcotics control has been given a low .,priority ? status on our foreign policy agenda by the State Department. No other issue has as -direct an impact upon domestic conditions and it should be treated accordingly. Our foreign policy is meant to primarily benefit the United States, not the interests of other nations. Earlier in this speech ,I read a quotation from an appendix -to the Murphy% Commission. The entire analysis of that appendix complements my observations about the problems with the State Department's handling of narcotics control.. The appendix observes that the State Department is not likely to respond crea- tively or rapidly to new foreign policy initiatives. The only major success was the negotiation of the ban on T?takish poppy growing and that was a result of 'Presidential instruction ?.viAich was enforced by Domestic Council activity. At the present-time the major initiatives with Latin America .are .being handled by a Domestic Council task force. It Is time the State Departmentwas removed,from Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 , - - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06 : CIA-RDP98-013.94R000200116002-4 , - . ? , 2 ' the leaderahii,bf the 0.0.I.N.C. and also from coordinating our operations abroad.l border. carried if Narcotics control :would , be better -coordinated -by rthe Drug Enforcement cotics will never operation..interci Adri2iniatration.-- g ? ? With this discussion as background, I would like to discuss the findings of my' border delays az recent study mission to Mexico. I will discuss the nature of the problem, ? the centage of interd major obstacles which we face in narcotics enforcement, and, finally, the program I ? Second, the Me which can respond ta.the current conditions. You must forgive my lack of sophis- to meet the prob tication in the fields of sociology and anthropology and please understand-that-- -- Federal police,,a the over-simplidation of the structure of Mexico-is not-intended. However, I feel ? crimes, notjust ' thit it is necessary todificusa the social structure to place the trafficking syndrome thousand troops in the proter perspective. !,?91i.1---f ft;t:17---t1 N" ? /' 1". "" ? poppy headt his - ? 41._ Rather .than referring -tif Mexico as ga homogenous unit, it is more useful to' tion .of herbieide think of the country as a group of - isolated units with separate cultures. ?The ? loss in the overal , different:states function more:as independent entities than as states as- we use .Third there Ii the term- in the United States.-There: is clearly a lack of social integration' in ? producing -areas. Mexico which Is exacerbated by the geography of the country. Merits no moderni . Federal troops transportation system . to -make interaction "??betvieen?the varlouCregion a` easy.- past-with Amenl Furthermore;- the various states are made up of people who represent different! Guns have repla cultures. In short, the commitment-of the citizens is more directly to their respec-% traffickers have ; tire families, Villages, and states, rather than to the central governnient.q. ??? ? - than the officers The -opium farmers live in smallltowns and plant their illegal crops WI -the the insurgencies. : publicland in the Sierra Madre Mountains; however, they plant their food crops- :Fourth,-the In near their homes on private land. The central government and the laws against There is also Er opium cultivation are viewed almost as irrelevant. Very rarely is a- farmer -Am-. towns. Thus, eve prisoned for the cultivation of poppies, even though it is illegal. As I have main- there is some ref - tamed, -most of the opiumis planted in the western states which contain the village level. rugged Sierra Madres. These mountains help to physically isolate the people from Fifth, -the wid the policies of the central government in Mexico City. The federal tax revenue many parts of I goes mostly to the officials in Mexico City. These officials have only loose ties with and expect to be the- governors of the western states. These governors have small budgets and- with immunity. hence have weak ties with the peasants in the :small towns. The result is a lack Sixth, in rex .1 of effective policy implementation from' thePresident to the farmer. panies have beer An even more major -problem is the low pay which state and local officials travel using di] receive. This encourages the system of corruption which flourishes. It is easy more difficult. .11 ? .for a major trafficker to buy the protection of the local enforcement personnel. and air compani Local pollee have to purchase their jobs and this means 'they begin each week States. with a deficit. They make this up by extorting payments of protection or services. ?? Seventh, there and also from a 40% bounty which they receive for seized contraband. Narcotics In Mexico, or bet Is not categorized as contraband and thus there is little incentive for the local -Eighth, high Another complication is the outlook-of the Indians, a minority population who ria Was sincere policeman to interfere unless he is going to resell the merchandise himself., ' lag protection fr have long been ignored by the central government. These people have their own ? wherever it Was culture and subsist on an annual income of roughly $250 per year. Suddenly they in Sonora was d are provided with the chance to earn Toughly $2,000 for a kilo of opium and the more, an indicti choice is obvious. ? ? officials-in Mexi '-What then is the bottoin line on the'production of opium? Estimates vary' some very high from $1-2 billion dollars in Mexican 'wholesale prices on the amount of 'heroin -- Ninth, there 4 which was exported from Mexico last year. This total far outdistances the coin- anti-corruption bined value of the four leading legal exports from -Mexico: -sugar, shrimp, coffee, ? program. The I and cotton. It amounts to % of total exports, more than the total derived from Mexican Peden tourism: Although 'no income is provided the central- government from export has the manpo, duties, there has been no noticeable decline in the wealth of government officials. cooperation 'bet Many of the production areas are basically lawless and the federal authoritiesivision of theft are afraid to -conduct eradication programs. As many as 1,000 clandestine air- /1-' Tenth, there power of the trafficking groups. I have painted a 'rather dismal picture of opium: and out, and yet the federal farces cannot knock them out because of the military the' producing and warns the r going. No'opera trips in the mountains are known to be exclusively for flying contraband in cultivation in Mexico and the statistics bear (this .out. In 1972, 88% of the seized out. ''ur ? heroin in the-U.S. came from Mexico: Recent statistics point to 90% of the heroin: . Blevelith7ltai coming from MexicO./..;3., 47- ' - . , - - troubles: the. ME Let me review ? the"major obstacles -to controlling the growth Of opium 'in I ? them and 'ai'w Mexico and thin I will turn to our prospects for cold-rat ? .; 1 Juana traflickin First, the two thousand mile border which we share with Mexico' is impossible- ! What are th? to adequately patrol. We know that roughly two hundred planes a day fly pastI cation and enf !our radar net unnoticed. Contraband of every possible nature moves across our with little effe f Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Pari - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? our operat1onsabroid.1 e ?;Drug Enforcement use the findings of e of the problem, the d, finally, the prografir rive my lack of sophis- ? - - lease understand that: nded. However, I feel. ie trafficking syndrome ?-."7 ??? is' More traeful.te reparatekcultures.' The ? Ln as states as we use f social integration' In ry. There is no modernq Various -regions eat": ? - rho represent different lirectly to their respec-'7 ' ral government. ? ir illegal 'crops on the r plant their food crops t and the laws against ' rarely is w farmer im- Ilegal. As I have main; rtes which Contain the isolate the people from he federal tax revenue ave only loose ties with ave small budgets and ns. The result is a lack e farmer. rtate and local officials II flourishes. It is easy enforcement personnel. I they begin each week )f protection or services I contraband. Narcotics incentive for the local rchandise himself. Iinority population who ?. people have their own per year. Suddenly they ? a kilo -of, opium and the opium? 'Estimates vary; n the amount of heroin Lr outdistances the cols- o :?sugar, shrimp, coffee,1 the total derived from overnment from export of government officials. the federal authorities is 1,000 clandestine air- or flying -contraband in I because of the military. dismal picture of opium L 1972, 88% of the seized Ant to '90% of the heroin ? he growth of opium ',hi' ?, ? ? rith Mexico' is impossible t ed planes a day fly past' nature moves across our .?1 45 - ? - bo. rder. carried by Caro-boat,- man and _animal alike. -Sealing the 'border.ii. collo will never be very successful. -We have tried massive customs searches? operation ;intercept?and found that the only noticeable result was ,massive border ? delays'-and Mexican'liostility. The only means' for' ue .to..reduee the per. ' ? ' ?? centage of interdiction will be through crop eradication. ? ' :?? z?Second, the Mexicans have in the past failed to commit the resources' necessary -the problem up to-recently, the Attorney General had only 500 Mexican . Federal _police at his .disposal. They are responsible for. combatting .all.serious _ crimes,., not . just narcotics trafficking. The Army which .used to devote several ? thousand-troops to the mental eradication effort using sticks to knock off the poppy heads has held back on their deployment this year because of the introduc- - tion -of herbicides. -The --Army's role cannot be Aropped...without Some noticeable loss in the overall program..? ? 4t?. (-yr ? w.Third, there -is a lack -of- anil administrative Controlin.many,-Of the producing -areas. Guerrero -and Sinaloa for example, have- -large areas where Federal troops -will -not venture.. The ;trlafficking syndicates have _traded in the _past _with _American organizations for Anilitary supplies In-:return for :narcotics. . _ Guns have -replaced gold as-coin of the realm for narcotics. The result is that the traffickers have greater .quantities and more modern -forms of. military hardware than the officers 'who are trying to enforce the laws. It also provides weapons for the'insurgencies.' 7,11.1..T i%Sti ? r;Fourth, the lack of Federal control over practices -in the individual States.' There is also a-real lack of control by the Governors over the affairs in the small towns. Thus, even when the President in Mexico City makes a policy statement, there is some reason to believe that there will be a lack of implementation at the village level. - :*: e, - Fifth, the widespread corruption or system of 'fimordidan- which is endemic to many parts of Latin America. -As long as enforcement officials are poorly paid and expect to be paid for protection, the traffickers will be able to operate almost with immunity. ? !04). . ? ?. . In recent yeare we have found that -legitimate export and travel com- panies have been involved in the trafficking of narcotics. Prominent businessmen travel using diplomatic passports and -this makes customs ? interception -much more difficult. -Even more complex, are the problems which are caused by ship ? and air companies-which use their facilities to transport narcotics to the United States.'- . ? , c- ? Seventh,there is no sharing of narcotics intelligence between the-various states in Mexico, or between the various countries in Central America.-- _ Eighth, high ranking police and judicial officials have been involved in provid- ing protection for known traffickers. I was pleased to see that President Echever- ria 'was sincere in his pledge to search out corruption in the Mexican :system wherever it was found to exist. Inst one month ago an entire three judge panel in Sonora was dismissed for accepting 0600,000 from a trafficking group. Further- . more, an indictment is expected in the next two weeks of one of the major police officials-in Mexico.' Unfortunately,-we found that the trail of corruption leads to some very high places in Mexico City, where it will be harder to eradicate. --,?Ninth, there -is no overall investigative body In-Mexico which can conduct an? - anti-corruption -probe, -nor is there .a group to supervise the narcotics control program. The effort ? is split between the Attorney General who controls the Mexican 'Federal police and the eradication program, and also :the Army which has the manpower and equipment to implement the campaign. There is little cooperation between the Military; and Attorney General and there is rit'Vegue division of their responsibilities: *?3 ? t- ' ? P. J"-? ' ? -.U. ' l'? Tenth, there is a lack of narcotics' -conimunication -equipmeat: 1n nakhy of the producing areas the public ? radio announces the daily eradication schedule, and-warns the traffickers of the direction the 'herbicide spraying 'helicopters are 'going. No- operations can be planned and executed without the traffickers finding ---------------------.--Pi ? ? ?i nkV:".' ( Eleventh,- obi' new" Mew Of marihuana.- as a less harm" ful Substance -greatlf troubles the. Mexican leaders:-Marihuana abuse is a major domestic --problem for - - them and -as we move toward decriminalization; the ,joint efforts to curb 'Marti Juana trafficking will be questioned. ? '4-.!???- ' ".?? 1'; ? What ire the prospects for narcotici-Control?Iii- Mexico?"Aire cation and enforcement efforts have been conducted for 80 years in 'Mexico with little effect on the size of the crop. I felt that it was important to meet Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy ApproVed fot: Release 2013/08/06 : CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - ? ? ? 3" r .4t, ? ? ? ? -- ? , , ??, , ????????k- ?4?4- ??? - . 46 aslie-itrtiteinif3; Individual who can motivate the bureaucracy. ? ' ? to take; 'action, resolve be split :between the Attorney; General and the Army ancfmost Important of all,'`take Some steps to -counter corruption in the Govern; ment. I was pleased with President Echeverria's pledges to take corrective steps 'in each of these areas.. The -most-promising program from our point of view, is ,_3the' use of gramaxone; a widely used agricultural 'herbicide, on known poppy fields: r The- 'Mexicans"; are- 'Awing `a-primitive 'form ???of -serial infrared mapping -.system to lobate the-poppy fields and the aerial survey is also useful as a means verification. It is-suspected ?that '20% 'a the fields make up .70% of the ? ?lervest so the infrared, photography an be used to locate the large 'fields and ? the '18 helicopters we 'provided can -go in end 'spray thern: Last week I was informed that 9,000"lields'haveteen destroyed. I ...encouraged that theeradi; 'cation campaign will now be a year long effort which responds to 'the fact that 'many farmers plant two or threasuccessive Crops on the name field. -We estimate that 'there are 20,000?fielda so -we can see some progress is being made by the lelicePtet-Opraying-operation Unfortunately; !..''Before speaking Oflhe'IOther 'narcotics' tontrol program which -complements The eradication effort,I would like to_briefly 'discuss my observations of narcotics 'trafficking in ?Costat Rica, 'Panama,- and Oolombia.1==:, J. - -*:,Costa Rica-is currently used itaalransit,country for narcotics being smuggled :? into 'the U.S. This country has no military forces and the coastline is accessible .to the smugglers who bring In ,their cargo by boat or in light planes which land on' the hard-packed beaches. More importantly; -Costa Mica is 'used as a refuge by known 'traffickers. % In ?addition .there are ? several probes underway. The name of Robert ?Vesco has surfaced a number of times. I will investigate 'this possibility. ? ? ? Colombia is the 'major' base for the trafficking in cocaine. It has also become the Latin American 'Center for :trafficking in-counterfeit money and counterfeit passports. Only prosecution of major conspiracies will make a dent in the trade which is conducted thru Colombia. - Panama. has a double involvement in narcotics. trafficking. First of all, there are several hundred clandestine landing strips which are used as waystations for narcotics on the route north to -Mexico and the ELS. Secondly, the canal Is used for illicit sea cargo coming from all parts of the world, 'Much of the narcotics which reaches the .U.S. is concealed in ships and the search capability at the canal is inadequate to deal with the magnitude of the problem. ? ? Other South American nations like Peru and Chile produce -coca which is the base for cocaine. Argentina and Brazil are major import centers for nar- cotics produced in other parts of the world. I have met with the Ambassadors from many of the critical South American countries in an attempt to elicit their early support for control programs. If the eradication is successful in Mexico, the traffickers will try to move their operation to other areas. The officials in the target countries must be prepared before a foothold is secured. , Other than the use of herbicides, the -most constructive option for narcotics ? control ts the formation of a joint working force in Mexico and the U.S.... A permanent action-oriented -working -group -coordinating . the .activities of .two parallel commissions. The commissions -would coordinate the narcotics regula- tory, educational, rehabilitative and informational agencies. In these commis- sions we would focus all of ?our bilateral programs. The idea was proposed by President Echeverria in.A.meeting with. Congressman Ben Gilman and myself on January 7,-18743.,,,,f( -,prs ?? ? es, ? ? ?? qr ? ' ? ?r By the time we met With' the Mexican President on January 10, we discovered that a strange thing bad happened to his proposal. It seems a funny thing hap- pened to the translation. The foreign minister of Mexico informed one that the President really:said '"a commission not 'commissions." Well, when -the Pres- ? ident introduced the translator he said she was the best in the entire country - ? _ and I certainly agree. Nevertheless, on Saturday.pening, the President rejoined ! our discussion and moderated for a full 8 hours until 1:00 a.m. The result was his endorsement of parallel tommissions-with-a-loint executive committee, 4-1 am happy to inform', you that I was able to receive a translation toaair:iit President Ford's secret letter to President Echeverria expressing our President's view of the proposal. President Ford states :' ,.",-;' .,????? . ..; "I receive your, initiative with pleasure and consider it a prOposal 'of ,major n , - ? ' t it "I have given in effective way in ver tive committee tht similar ofganizati6 the effectiveness of Later in his Jetts group under the dit - .in the fight against _ contraband that m .me, must be subje( .be revised, perinea.- , The Success of structive example 'trol in the Anieria *to reach 'an agree' 'and Colombia- on1 - _with the coordinat years,- ? -,L.?'? " I nOW lOok to the ? Thank you: ? ? '4 ? 1 ? ? '. . ? , ? , 1. . I", ? tr7-1-- . 11:?-? ."? ?? ? ....!!".",t" ?!? C.1 ? :II r.e - ' 1.1.1 '? ;???? '?? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 " ?????-- - -?? ? ? ? ? ? ? "T.V4W?tr: Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 the 'bureaucracy* ii 'and the Army !n-in the Oovern;? torreetive steps' lpoint of view, is on known poppy iafrared mapping iseful as a means up 70% bf the !!. large 'fields 'and 'AO week-. I.mas K1 that theeradi:. ? to ?the fact that / leld.l'ire estimate !!ing 'made by the ' filch %complements tio-ns of narcotics r NI being smuggled tline-is accessible ght planes which kica is used as a probes underway. will investigate has also become y and counterfeit 'dent in the trade tr ? t: * ? Pirst of -all, there RI as ? waystations condly, .the canal )rid. Much of the I search capability ;le problem. t.e.?coca ? which is I centers for nar- the Ambassadors attempt to elicit is successful in lother areas. The ;hold is secured. ? tion for narcotics nd the U.S. . A activities ,of two narcotics regula- In these Commis-- was proposed by llman and myself ,????-r? 110, we discovered funny thing hap- ormed me that the 4, when the Pres- the entire country President rejoined M. The result was le committee. knslation todalot Ln our -President's ? ,:?1.4. ,??? ?-?C. ,proposar.Of ,major . "...**6! !)14,904 totwevrc ? ',14!?,.;.. ? - ' .47 "1 have given-instructions to my working team to consiaer urgently the most .effective way in which to cooperate closely, with the commission and the execu- :tive committee that you are setting ,up in Mexico. Your idea of parallel and similar organizations seems to me appropriate to our common desire to increase the effectiveness of our cooperation.". ' \ Later in his letter President Ford says: "For our part, I have formed a special group under the direction of the White House for improving our own effectiveness in the fight against the narcotics traffic that enters the U.S. from Mexico and the contraband that moves from.the.U.S. toward Mexico. These matters, it seems to -me, must be subject to the mutual interest of our _governments, as :well as must be revised, permknently, in accord with the context of your initiative." The success of this program initiated by 2 Congressmen' stands as a 'con- ? structive'eiample of congressional input into the formulation of narcotics con- trol in the Americas. On the strength 'of other meetings in Mexico we were able 'to reach an agreement Iii,principle with the 'Presidents of Costa Rica', 'Panama and Colombia on similar commission ideas. These commissions will provide 'its -with the coordination and monitoring capacity 'which has been needed for many -,?)::; La' V; ?jrto.F17.4. ?;,f,-?? I Yr _ rt. ? 10-ok.t. - '-' Thank _4.?turs:i .?`.r.17 'pt--.! ',?"?1'?5-: j1`..1. ? ? ,4?It? ;Mil CI,. -4.1?;ii%?1.IIIt1FI,hI tr,.! i/6.1/11- gr,e-r-iSt! t ti%`10i-',:r..?Ik?fsi; Pr ?? ? ??-1,- ? .7. ? ?, ..!?7) . ??4 ? ? . 11'17,11- trl "?ss.:;?? ''.%"?1` ' , e ' ? 7' ?? .;;;? !:! 'i? ? :????1 ? ?I'? - ? . a ,; -4 Ili ?.1, ?????? ?? ' :: ? ji ? ? ? , r ' ? '; ? I el:" ? . ? . ? ? ? ? .`1:,??FA. (2: ??. ??? T.4? ? ;. ? ???' )???? ? ? -?I ? ? 1! 2?7!?:?:17'? A ? 'T';'? ? r1i1? ?:?.7 ?? ? - Itt?1?????y:?tr t? 1 ityn ? II. ? f * ??) I?? ? ? :! .4. ? ; j? t ? n?? .? ?i:,- ??( m???.-9?. 0: i ??? ? s?-1!? ? ?.:, ?? ::7.? r " : ? ?....:.. . ?* ? .? 1.???' ? . : 1.? a 3'4 11'.f It? 7'3'. .11. ?-? *1?l ? .?? ^??? ?3?..1 '? ? ? .? ? ? ? ? ? . t? ? 3 e?tu *" 1%1" 1. ' ? ? ? .? :IP ? .? *- ' ' 3*) ? ' ? ? L.? :1111' ?-?SI ? t? .? ?". ?1..1 .?? ? ?: .???31;?, ? r .:r ? ????,,,?? 13;-- F. (I ? ??: ???? ? ? ? ;.. ? ? r? :?????? .s?.? ..1?: ? 2? - ..-.10?11rt?- ? at id.r111 4 9.1.9r19 r. ?3")-?--.???? 1:r. "???? 4-:f.:4?-. '? ? ? ??? 3.???111...7.1 fie? J?ivo' ? .; ?? ?-?? ?jj . ??I .!;".'. ? :??? -'-7? ? * . . ? .- !1*-1 . ? -- ? ? . ? ? cfrE^ 1');?, .17Er:1;;?.! ? ta-ir ir ? r - ? .i^ ti ? 'T., 6.0n. el,. frnr.t?Itl.t: e?Ir ,ttvIssfr ? itt eler311' 11.t.g!% t????413tIltt s 1.);'1 I. ?sOii* i41.1:1 Lan... ? -sr:. -:41st;:s 7: ? 1 ? a. 101cint.../....r. ii;:::?tr!.1.: fir 1. . ? 't ? 1.-3 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - . - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06 : CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? CONTROL asinger . - ?? ? Program Review Treatment ' R 6 D.' ' 1 . . _.L.4 Public Information iforicrEFE_ IEast Asian A Pacific ' Affairs (Ea) t . 4. , `?? ? , ,.? 1 ?:?;:"+"'' - ?? ,". TLC ' 4 *?,-;4-1; _ _ . r?-??? -lama 1:?# ; # reLior N's ? ht ? .1 ?k ji jloo77 7d belas.cynces,A caw 1 c: Ittly .7,cn luolprraST -3416.yrt: L..1.1145.7..... J ?t!' i(? 7z.4.4t. urri? 7'.k-r? .6. ,r?-?? hri.;V! .7.1( ?(:. 40 Id ,rst-inm.a.1 ; IVA. f??? #.11 iv.: ari rirrai.? I..'vr.t. F 1 ? ?k 0.?#F- "..?; tr. ? ; 4. ? .d? EI.. .r ; - APPENDIX 10 STATEMENT OF liciN.13ENJ-AMI-i4 A. LiriLMAN BEEVRE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON POLITICAL?AND MILPARY AFFAIRS OF THE HpusE INTERNATIONAL 'RELATIONS COMMITTEE, .3.A.NUABY ? 27, 1976 ?rwv r.. '.111??. r ?-??-? ? ? , U.S. CITIZENSIMPNISONED TN MEIT?ICO'?-?"--1,;:???..F.?:;-.1...i.;:i. ; ? .1 would like to take this opportunity to thank you Mr. Chairman and the other Members -of this subcommittee on Political and Military Affairs for conducting these important hearings-and affording me the testify before you today:: :?-?n4: ?41: t, ' ? - .1 14.As -iii-97y.,-)MOW-.Coiigresiman Leiter War and Ireently returned froma study mission on international narcotics trafficking that took to Mexico,- to Central and South America. While the thrust of our "mission was to assess the joint efforts of our two nations in the eradication and interdiction of illicit narcotics traffic, we also took-the .opportunity to express the deep concern of the Congress and the Ameridan people in trying to resolve the many problems arising from the imprisonment of American-citizens in Mexican jails. ? ?? ? ? ? In the numerous conferences with Mexican officials, I expressed the fear ?that any abuse of civil rights might lead to a cleavage in our joint efforts of seeking to prevent the use and abuse of narcotics in the United States and Mexico. We discussed this issue at great length with the Mexican Attorney General, with high-ranking members of the Mexican armed forces and with members of the Mexican Congress. As a result of these meetings, I was invited to take a first- hand lciok .at one of the Mexican Federal prisons where Americans were being held. At the invitation of Mexican Senator Humberto Mateos, I had the oppor- tunity to visit Lecumberri.prison, where Mrs. ,Mateos is engaged in volunteer work with the inmates. ?, Lecumberri Prison, located in the outskirts of Mexico City, is the oldest such institution still in use in the Federal District. With the exception of the addition of one-cell block, the basic-structure of the facility has remained unchanged since its construction in 1900. At the present time, the all-male facility is used to house inmates either awaiting sentencing or whose cases are on appeal. The period of time between trial and sentencing is at a minimum eight months and sometimes as much as two years. At the time of my visit in December of 1975,-there were 68 Americans being held in Lecumberri with the majority charged with narcotic trafficking. , ? ! ? . .? . ? ? .., By our standards, the methods of operation in the Mexican prison were both startling and appalling. The operation of Lecumberri is administered under the "Faena" system, typical of many Latin American countries. With only the basics for a crude existence being provided by the government, all additional necessities -for a mentally and physically healthy -life must be -purchised. Protection from-. harassment, adequate clothing, a clean cell and even a decent meal rested entirely upon the ability of the inmates to purchase those items from the administrators, guards or other inmates. For those who could afford it, there were even television, stereos and inmate servants. ? ?, '' ''' ?????.?? To the 68 Americans, this means their family and friends must support them throughout their entire prison term at great expense and inconvenience. Initially, a substantial protection fee is extracted from each prisoner and the prisoner then "buys his cell" similar to a condominium arrangement. On the average, a prisoner must spend about $50 a week to survive in Lecumberri. Unfortunately, this costly system has spread far beyond the basic wants and needs of food, clothing and shelter. There were itories of payments to send a letter, to see the adminis- Arators and even to visit the doctor. It is obvious that the one part of this system, -leading to earned good-time for work performed, .is of Corruption. For_ every two days working on a job, one day of your sentence is subtracted. This important aspect of this prison system has lead to the wholesale selling of prison jobs..through payment averaging about $1,500 a piece., ,? (51) 4?? sr, ,.? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Declassified in Part- Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 20 ? ? ? k. , ? mt. ? r4. ? - 13/08/06 7.CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 Throughout my visit to Lecumberri, I was accompanied by Peter Wood, a consular officer of the U?S. Embassy in Mexico City assigned to assisting impris- oned U.S. citizens: Mr. Wood' Was a welcome sight to many, of 'the American pris- oners, particularly since he was bringing money from their families for their sub- sistence. Mr. Wood is one of only two U.S. Officials who proCess all arrests of Americans in Mexico City Federal District each month and who routinely visit the prison to handle all of the U.S. inmate,problems. His visit on that occasion was____ extremely welcome since he had not been there for nearly a month and many ? of the prisoners were in dire need of money and assistance. With an' average of over 200 Americans jning arrested in Mexico City Federal' District each month,. ? Mr. Mood and his :assistant are confronted witha losing battle in trying to--keep ? If up with their escalating work load, in trying to keep =Accurate account ef the number and location of American prisoners and in trying to Provide the adequate Service they are entitled to as American citizens.' Most of the complaints expreseed to me by the American inmates dealt with . their problems .in understanding. and ;receiving their ? rights under the Mexiean legal. system. .Their frustration dealt .not ? only,with the simple -corruption ? exists behind the prison walls, :but .extended to' of -lack of and ;inadequate counsel, of exorbitant legal fees, of inability to communicate their arrest to US. .authorities,- of torture before and after their convictions and being forced to .sign confessio'ns written in;Spairish and not translated into.English. r. Other major problenis for .US. prisOnere' arising under the Mexican legal' aye- tem, includethe arrest and pre-conviction stages of the proceedings'. These -stages include problems of notification and access, interrogation, and incarceration. .. With?regard to notification and access, many prisoners complained that 'the American Embassy was not notified and Was not allowed access to them for many :weeks subsequent to their arrest. In my discussions with our embassy officials I learned that of 35 cases in the 'period from October '1975 to December 1975 only on two occasions was the embassy notified by the Mexican government of the ar- test of an American. I expressed personal concern about this issue in my talks with -Attorney General Pedro Ojeda and received his 'assurance that he would investi- gate the situation and would take appropriate steps to provide a remedy.. ? ' ? It is during the interrogation period, that many prisoners complained of re- ceiving severe beatings, electric shocks and "cold.water treatment".-Since there is no need for confessions in most narcotic possession 'cases, this type of coercion was entirely unnecessary and unwarranted. ,i; ; ? - ' The final phase that a prisoner is subjected to is the actual incarceration. Many of the earlier problems reoccur here. In addition to the' general problems of prison life, which I previously discussed, the prisoner is faced with threats of physical violence by guards and inmates alike in order to maintain control over . the system. Each cell block has an inmate "mayor",-who works with the prison administration to .control-all activities and thereby share the 'benefit "Of such a system. In cell block "0" where most of the Americans were housed, the "mayor" 'was a convicted.murderer. ? ??-? ? . ? n : Clearly, the overall situation 'in the Mexican penal system is appalling.' t is even sadder to note that in 'most -cases the Mexicans treat their. own citliens equally-as bad 'and often with more severity, since-they are 'assumed-to-under- stand the consequences of their acts. Prison is not nice place for anybody in 'any country. An observer might even say that with enough money life in Lecum- berri is better than in some American jails. But one thing is very clear, every prisoner:I talked to was not prepared for the fate that they are now facing.,. .! While we -certainly are: not empowered to modify the Mexican legal system even if we desired to do 'so, we can, however, bring pressure to .bear to signify the importance that we attach to this problem. We should increase 'our efforts in this" country to educate our youth about the horrors of foreign prisons before - they commit a crime.: We 'should also' insist that the 'State Department increase the size of their staff to adequatelythandle the case loads and. accurately.f ollow through on every single`case. We Should bring* pressure to bear on the Mexican government to insist on the fair and lawful treatment of all American-prisoners. arn-' sendini "allettei"rto "Secretary ;of-State --Kistiriger -expressing these.-Lvery thoughts: a; ft..:;4..c.. hut: r?? t ? .ne; Li ? Chairman; thank 'ybou 'for 'focusing' attentionnon this problem .and ..for helding these hearings. It is t through a 'public. forum, such as .this that we 'can help bring about some needed reforms for important civil rights.:.; ; rd:?!,; 4.W rt&J - ' - - ? ' -nrcryz,?-: j,R9cir .* 0011?7 ST. PARLIA: I:. welo our heihb Of narcotic; Despiteti narcotics,' United 'Sta ,drug' addle effects Opt that nearly the citizen! the costs o vicious bus ? Twenty-2 have final!, rnented. Ti of the enol and highwE growing as beginning The Con that confro ment, Com exchanging neighbors illegal narc in mind, w traffic and' discussions Oduber of Alfonso Lo: It was fp ment to job manent sol Our stud compounds effective ct soil conditi crops per y ,recognized who traffic - importance ? elimination the same c : beneSting't - In recop Presic interests in destroy, tili initiated a . will coordir 4eg41.09..11;, , ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 r. .4 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 )*?1" ? 7 .1 ? ' - . _ mied by Peter Wood, a igned to assisting impris- my of the American pris- eir families for their sub:. rho process all arrests of and who routinely visit visit on that occasion was ;arly u month and many slice. With an average of eral- District each month, g battle in trying to-keep accurate account of the g to provide the adequate erican inmates dealt with ights under the Mexican ie simple corruption that lack of and .inadequate nicate their arrest to U.S. s and being forced 'to sign English. r ? ??? - ler the Mexican legal sy'a- proceedings. These stages 1, and incarceration. niers .complained that the ;r1 access to them for many ith our embassy officials I 75 to December 1975 only ican government of the ar- ; this issue in my talks with ince that he would investi- rovide a remedy.. ; risoners complained of re- er treatment". Since there cases, this type of coercion s the actual incarceration. on to the general problems [ler is faced with threats of sr to maintain control over who works with the prison share the benefit of such a s were housed, the "mayor" r : ? ?? ' :* :" a system is appalling. It is ms treat their own citizens tliey?are assumed to under- nice. place for anybody in _ nough money life in Lecuni- e thing is very clear, every it they are now facing. r the Mexican legal system ? pressure to bear to signify should increase our efforts ors of foreign prisons before -State Department increase loads and accurately follow .ure to bear on the Mexican it of all American prisoners. Anger expressing these very - . .1".? n?lon this probleni .and for m such as this that we can t civil rights.' ?-?.!., 1.- s.? H. J.:I,. ? ifl? "Ite:?1 Isuvraitc! .? _ 4 ? ??? -rriOXr. 40,1"-,"I5kl .= ssr.:1.1 3?111....1a.1?11 42?:,:rtrto,:trulas. 1044 zi km? .u.z0Jizta.l. wt. .113(..e n. ac,,,L1f.ha?tIr fVtirir. is.A+7.11713n 1+:nr.'" 0? tr4r? 57nr: Lli.Eup?q:i ar.:- 1r*vo -rrin ?ty?Ot?LL:1-rfO:r.,.r ? e,: ? 11 :it; 7 .? . (.. ? 1, .4.4: .1?.,r? (1? ? ? APPENDIX 1 ?1. ;-r? ? ,!te?ir? , ? ,?-?41g1,,I Irle *if .1%.;!...t..? ? ? 'STIVrEVENT -1161;r:IteS+Erti;:? Hith4.-RENIAivrik A:" OILMAN' FRESEkTED- AT THE MEXICAN-UNITE IS STATES INTER- ? PARLLpiENTARY CON,VERENCE; FEBRUARY 26, .1.976,r,,!, ele :%,. fr, h;. ;,i';. 13i7.5i . We welcome the opportunity to' this important bonferente *ith' our 'neighboring Mexican-Colleagues..One;of the 'mist tritieal issues' confronting the bilateral relationsbetween our great nations is the significant illegal-traffic Of narcotics crossing our border.wTv-w 14..n; flPII'j7iL' 4.; t% ...-.?..,10f.;t7 ?.L .Ir; . Despite -considerable efforts .in' the ;last 'fe ears urtailhis "flow"-;4i narcotics,' 'recent -estimates -reveal that 'o'Ver-,90%.of ? alt'beroin -Seizures in the ,United States had -their sources in 'Meirico.?Beyond the 'obvious 'considerations of -drug addiction and abiuse, the Increase in narcotics trafficking _has .other Serious effectsOn the "societies of both our ciaticinS. For the citizens 'of Mexico, 'this means that nearlYra billion dollars a year is placed in the hands Of organized'criMe. For the citizens of the United States,' fhis translates into over $20 billion 'a. `year in , the costs of -drug related crime. Neither of our nations exploited by,this dirty, vicious business adds one single dime to its OvAi treasury. Twenty-six Years of enforcement efforts that began along our Common border have finally reached a stage where an effective bilateral program can be imple= mented. The basis for real action lies in the recognition by both of our countries. . ? '? of the enormity of this problem. While past seizures and arrests on the streets , and highways and at all ports of entry have had in themselves little effect on the growing narcotics traffic, events of 'the last few months have pointed -to the beginning of improved efforts at curbing this-traffic. !. ? '? ". that confronts our two nations. Assured by 'President Ford of his total 'commit- The Congress of the United States' recognizes the increasingnarcoties problem ment, Congressman -Gilman'and I undertook a vital Mission early last Month of exchanging ideas, views and information with the representatives of our American neighbors most affected 'by narcotics activities. The major sources of this vast illegal narcotics traffic has been traced to Latin America and Mexico. With this in mind, we traveled to many of those countries most affected by the narcotics traffic and held a series of conferences at the highest level's including in-depth discussions with President, Luis -Echeverria' Alvarez of Mexico', _President Daniel Oduber of Costa Rica; President Demetrio Lakaa 'of Panama, and President Alfonso Lopez of Colombia. " "''" ' 1. - ? ? ? It was gratifying to receive from each nation we visited the personal commit- ment to join with us in a cooperative effort to bring about a halt to illegal narcotics activities. These efforts represent .a monumental step forward in finding a per- manent solution to this deadly problem. Our study mission to Mexico confined the enormity of this problem which Is compounded by the existence of hundreds of clandestine airstrips, the lack of effective customs control along our common border and favorable climate and soil conditions which permit the growing of 'two and sometimes three poppy . crops per year in distant, often inaccessible mountainous areas. Our study mission , recognized the unmistakable relationship between the traffic in heroin and those . who traffic in marihuana. We recognize that current efforts to deemphasize the importance of marihuana abuse in the United States is detrimental to the effective elimination of this dangerous trade. Both marihuana and heroin traffickers use the same clandestine routes employing the same underworld organizations and benefiting the same criminal elements. . ? , _.. In recognition .of these obstacles, we held a _marathon session on January 10 ,with President Luis Echeverria Alvarez to put into perspective U.S.-Mexican -interests In coordinating an -all out attack on this menace which threatens to destroy. the youth of both our nations. At this meeting, President Echeverria . initiated a creative proposal for the establishment of formal organizations that will coordinate in their respective countries the entire spectrum of the narcotic regulatory, rehabilitative, and informational agencies. The proposal will lead to (fill.) ; Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ???. . . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/06/06 : CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? 54 - ? ? the7ereatiOn Of azi actiOn-Oriented,' joint working grOup that will present recom- mendations to both the Mexican and U.S. organizations in order to bring about ? . . ? , ? . ' President Echeverria's proposals have been hailed as a most significant forward step in bringing about a coordinated program aimed at reselling a permanent solution to this menacing problem: - -? - - --Hopefully, the implementation of this Agreement will bring an end to mere rhetoric and will launch a concrete actionoriented plan. The effectuation'of thi critical, _joint working group must be brought about without any delay. The ulti- mate success of .ciur combined' endeavor hes in the coordination of the .yarious, plans4Of our two governments: President Echeverria'sletter?outlining his proposal ? was met with immediate and positive ,response by President Ford. On our, part, we have initiated a series of meetings that will lead to the implementation of this - proposal. ? , .t. ? t,? -,? ??,? Much evidence has recently surfaced that illustrates the sincerity of our Mexican colleagues who have pledged their total commitment in permanently,solving this problem. In November 1975 through the efforts Of Mexican Attorney'General, Pedro Ojeda Paullada?the Mexican Government announced , the decision?to _use herbicides in the destruction of nave:Ale -fields. This decision could well be the most important enforcement tool placed in the hands of thousands of .army and judicial personnel attacking this problem In the mountainous terrain of Mexico. The successful program of joint prosecution is another significant milestone in the dedication of the enforcement and judicial branches of the Mexican, Govern- ment. We have been informed that the Mexican Supreme Court has recently disciplined three judges on Charges of taking some $600,000 in bribes from a northern Mexican heroin smuggling gang andtheir dismissal follows an investiga- tion by the office of the Mexican Attorney General. The dismissal of these officials is positive 'proof that a campaign against corrupt officials has been launched in Mexico. . ? . . The Mexican and United States Commitment to a total and permanent elimi- nation Of this problem is genuine. Our two governments must now join hands in putting our thoughts and words into deeds?in bringing forth a real attack on those criminal elements that persist in producing, distributing and selling heroin and marijuana. As legislators we have an Obligation to foster the public's will, but also to enhance and provide public safety. To achieve these goals, we must all work together, using our combined resources and efforts to win not only-the battles, but the entire war. ? The success of our joint endeavors must be measured by results rather than rhetoric. Such action will result in the elimination of illicit drug traffic and ulti- mately the eradication of drug abuse in our two nations. We want to extend our sincere appreciation to the President and people of Mexico for the proposed innovative initiatives which will benefit both our nations. Though we recognize this is primarily our problem, it illustrates what good friends working together can do to solve mutual problems. effective action and coordination of all drug abilse activities. - .0,0; .1 , ? ? '? ? ? ; 14 ?1' r ,1,?? . ?'-"..?- ? -.t? ? ,-. - ??? ? ,-..?,1,?? ? " "?? ? - ? ? - . ? : ! ? ??.104 AL! ? . I ? - ? " '.??? ?? ' ? - -4'/'; 0 ? ." ? *" Lite -41'?? ; ? 'If: 0.;...???? ?..?4 . ? ? %.0-?? e.g." ?2t.,' 4.-?: A4.4, .?: 11' " -.1.. ? ? i..0`.r ? r? : "" ? .0, DI. ?- qtt . ? .1 11,,,-.:?; . ?-; r.'? ?? . 5,- F.,t l'')-4-11. '71' C., tetIff?flft't; ":1???? - ?11!Y?1.-?,tf..1-1*:- - "'????J- ?-? : - - ?-k.':71?t; 110 ???--1-?-ill ? 9?:?1,1?.-.,:,??.-,vi.o 147; 1!1?;.(...z. :,....#+1,--,re4 ea:v. eatilr! ?Iir.,1`:.?itisli t'i? ? fir ";.117., t* 10, ??riktvrid stt"v,? 1'4' 4 $4.47?141tqaWrit...41-^-toiliati., j44. z&t4-- ? g ie-,6;11"?alt-ria L-4 .1-2.11 tr. I. frorii-./J4 r-q;??1!):??r,?, ? c-F1-..47;r:i col 1 - - .Palwoe.e. 34.11! liK?e. 14 .;f1.1 ? ;1- , ME-XlaN, VNIT) PRESENTED ..AT CONFERENcE ? si.i '171i.Ori ing, farming and ha the following ,result " _ 'Y& tPtANrjTj "r,11,?? , On the intensive plantations -were de ? 'That means an i preceding total.. II. At the presen that take part in th the former year. -HI:. The Campai fundamentally thrc , railroad and bus E laboratories in our I ? IV. There are ap: the Federal Judicis work done, during 1 prevention that the and the activities o: Welfare, the State Service. ? ? V. The critical zo: 10 areas which are ? 1. State of Oaxac, 2. Guerrero. 3. Michoacan ani 4. Jalisco and Na 5. Durango. . 6. Sinaloa. 7. Chihuahua fine -8. Baja California ? 9. Mexico City ar- 10. Nuevo Leon a VI. In a lapse of 1 plantations in the Michoacan. By depending on farming in the zone tion and transport ? that at present are f , Taking into coni priority, places of 5, tions that point out seen that starting m- a the Republic.- TI - orderly and systems destruction-before a ' The statistical an . term, the temporali harvest, achieving ?i ities in the Camp* - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? ? 7-741orro"r"k. e 1r,94. Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06 : CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 hat resent recom- in order to bring about ies. most significant forward reaehing ti permanent ? bring an end to mere The effectuation of this Lout any delay. The ulti- rdination of the variciud er 'outlining his proposal dent Ford.? On our, part, &implementation of this ? ? sincerity of our Mexican permanently solving this xican Attorney General, .nced the decision to use :cision could well be the - f thousands Of army and Linous terrain of Mexico. r significant milestone in of the Mexican Govern- reme Court has recently 500,000 in bribes from a issal follows an investiga- dismissal of these officials 'els has been launched in otai and permanent elimi- s must now join hands in orth a real attack on those ig and selling heroin and ? the public's will, but also 3 goals, we must all .work win not only the battles, ed by results rather than licit drug traffic and ulti- L President and people of Li benefit both our nations. ustrates what good friends ? ; ?;''s t_. , T 4 t'17 V7r7- - ? ?? '3: 2.-a! . ? it- ? - .1 7-17 ? 1.14!) ? . . !'24;t1: ? " ;J '? ? ? r. ? t. ? c6, ??? . ? .1,? ?? 7'? ?? APPENDIX 12 - .1- . . . ALEXI yv CAN _HrrE ?APER ON THE UADIPAIGN _AGAINST DRUG TRAFFIC PRESENT-ED AT. THE MEXICO-IJNETEIY STATES INTERP-iilifIADiENTARY 'CONFERENCE , ?? . s? - ? :1; On FebrUary 15,1976 the Intensive phase of the 'Campaign against' the sow-' lag, farming and harvest of narcotics, that was begun November 20 1975 'showed the following result: ' ' '.?.'? " ' . ' ", t ? ?r . ? ? r ? x .'PLANTATIONS 'OP POPPY AND MARIHUANA DESTROYED:' 11 047 ' On the intensive ph-ase-CorrespOnding-to the `Bathe tempOralitY,-aTofircif '3,361 plantations were destroyed last year. :2 - That means an increase in the destruction very superior to 300% above the preceding total. ' - II. At the present time there are 230 'elements on land, and 130 on 'air Services that take part in the Campaign, which represents a 75% increment with regard to the :former year. The Campaign also includes an aspect' of interception that is carried out fundamentally through retention? points on the roads, surveillance of airports, railroad and bus stations, and urban and suburban investigations about drug laboratories in our country. IV. There are approximately 2,200 elements of the Mexican Army that assist the Federal Judicial Police on the destruction of plantations. Combined to the work done during the Campaign we have the studies about investigation and prevention that the Mexican Center of Studies about Drug Addiction develops and the tictivities of support that are performed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the State and Municipal Governments and the staff of the Custom Service. ? . . ? -V. The critical zone of farming and traffic in the country has been divided into 10 areas which are as follows: 1. State of Oaxaca. 2. Guerrero. . 3. Michoacan and Colima.' 4. Jalisco and Nayarit. 5. Durango. 6. Sinaloa. 7. Chihuahua and Sonora. 8. Baja California. 9. Mexico City and Valley of Mexico. 10. Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. VI. In a lapse of time of two and a half months we have eradicated the poppy plantations in the States of Oaxaca, Guerrero, Colima, Nayarit, Jalisco and Michoacan. By depending on all the strength of destruction to eradicate the sowing and farming in the zone of Sinaloa, Chihuahua and Durango, the services for fumiga- tion and transport will allow that at the beginning of March all the plantations that at present are found growing on the said zone shall be destroyed. Taking into consideration the conditions of altitude, which include, with priority, places of 5,000 to 9,000 feet, the marginal zones and the climatic condi- tions that point out the optimum temperatures for the said crops Ws been fore- seen that starting next March new sowings will be started again in several States of the Republic. These forecasts will allow the mobilization of our forces in an orderly and systematic fashion to reach those zones of plantation and achieve their destruction before any possible harvest. - _ . The statistical analysis which has been begun will let us know, in a very short term, the temporalities, specific locations and systems of sowing, farming and harvest, achieving with this information the previous programming of the activ- ities in the Campaign and, consequently, optimum results. (55) 1, ? 1 - . ? Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 -? . Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 ? VII. Mexico faces with active seriousness the problem of the sowing, farming,- - and harvest of natural narcotics, concretely poppy and marihuana, that con- stitute a source of raw materials that concurring with other sources evolves 'toward the great market.. We don't consider that prodyction is the determinant factor in the economic mechanisms that Tule supply and demand; as 'Partial . . responsibility in the world problem, we have imposed on ourselves the total destruction of plantations of narcotics in our territory in the following three months.' this task, we have eradicated the crops of poppy inthe States of Oaxaca, _ ?Guerrerd, Colima, Nayarit; Jalisco and Michoacan; and by the Month of March :we will have .abated the totality of crops in Sinaloa, Chihuahua and Durango. We are also consciotiS that the destruction Of these crops does?not, mean' the overcoming of the problem, this Will have been Solved when the growers are ? ? 'coriyinced by our permanent action, that they will not be Able to achieve a single 4cirpp ol,n11:rOtic drugs):.,.. .7;? 74. ? "The'pdrinanefit action programmed with the Increase of human and material 'resources and the utilization of modern, technology in the agricultural field; -allows us to assert that-the 'destruction mechanism.wili function in accord with the constant cycles of Sdwing Of narcotics during the Whole-year, with the ininie? ?resultathat we hav,e,a,c,hieved up to now., ?.,.?, ?.7. . . VIII. 'In agreement with the bilateral treaties to fight the traffic of narcotics, :the Embassy, of. the United States.. in, Mexico relies on staff furnished by the Drug Enforcement Administration that, on service on the said Embassy, acts as: an informative link regarding the several -international operations against drugs. It is our opinion that 'these crimcs are generated in the United States and they, ' are finished there, with an intermediate process feasible to be developed in '7?Mexico or in any other ,Latin' American country. That is the reason 'why, we need the Current,of information that the American Embassy can provide means of staff specialized in the subject. At the same time, we feed. back that information in the cases that, because of technical reasons of,juridical type. or because of material impossibility,, we ,cannot proceed against the criminals in our country. 'The staff that we have previously mentioned does not act in any way on police functions, because this is against our legislation and we cannot admit it at all.: IX. We 'are conscious of our responsibility to exterminate the crops of narcotic'. drugs, Which will generate the lack of the Mexican product in the great market- ' of drugs in the United Statcs, but we also know that there must be some actions ' done in the market of consumption to abate the demand. The drug consuming countries recr gnize it that way, because the unlawfulness does not lie in the plant, but in the person who produces them has the need ,for its product and requires its contumption. ? Our Csmpaign programmation and the initial results indicate that Mexico will finish the production of these drugs in the national territory. 0, ; . ' ) r .T1 ???:ti t t ?$'' ?. ?. tit f f? .7 ? ? ?: ? ? , fr. ? .7,i? ? .3?Tti ,(01.M.,' I .;' r-./ iat). " ?? it .1 .? ".?t.. ? vri;???:(-?. t?ri. ...?:?;1? tit:ell-0:r ?:A. rr. ? ??ez. b???.- ?r",3, 1;?? .L.?? ?)7:??? .0,!' P.r? ?-41- ?? 3-. r?-!, ?il?:(!?:JEthfs .!It?:?!,:r.:? t:/:',I.tbri?-?:, fart, r;?:...::?:?-t?. MALT lu?lzrt.53.3 (4 te, 1, a?,?,.*: ' -?:?":??4 .7??1 ir:;rni.tuu ???-?:!-4 tnui: - ? ti-;??.'4.t-, 41,e,,IA.--J,?? ? v":,:". 4t`.;?,04 _ _ n?-! Lrs. 're 1)17f rt. t..1????;..1 4F.' iTrtilt? vit.asoci :r..7:4?strutf,!: 11; (/), Jg-c,ro: lirc nj4:5:1, f;:14 r1Ifnittn. 017 VZ7 7"%.1 tv:irroP to pro-0A-7-+? bo.'; tnoitzsat w13 ,Lrr.? J h.T.,t9tr.:fte'4.slq ?,t;'rqat Et.. Itr.11, 1'417; 111.:1 117 Ft.% 11?Ivoitin r? ? ? ???!-. ? ' - 4 "? ? ?. REPORT SUBMIT' ??:..aut,0131. ? (35,, 1,:4T1.16'?11;:reoccupation' understand -this :phefic ment of various theori greatimpact, thatite? that we have to face for the understanding and groups ? -;?%. ? Receiving expressio3 who began his term 'no at the end of his preiii necessary measures 'Co out until now by natio ; A national strategy guidelines, embracing t and drug abuse: the el problem, the modifica Support to the institut of political decisioiuna: In the task of coml the Offer of products n uals on one hand, and Thus, in order to co the Republic improve' nating them between Forces,. in order to act control, administratior Mexican society. The r already the recognition A combat strategy E for an integrated effor vention, treatment an between the institution: of Drug Addiction- pendencia) was'establis --We can -say-brieflyrt activities carried out lowering the growingi young. ; ? Thus, the Office of ?1 illegal traffic of,narcotic the Department of He of medicines with halt: social welfare used tog tion and activities inT and social rehabilitatio: the institutions of high research 'concerning di cultural aspects; the in ? 'Translated thelAtii? T.. -?!....11???,?? ? vivrrzw.4i 1. ? ? _ ?Pt- -r,-. ,31 Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 - Declassified in Part - Sanitized Copy Approved for Release 2013/08/06: CIA-RDP98-01394R000200110002-4 the sowing, farming, _ marihuana, that con- >ther sources evolves on is the determinant I demand; as partial ri ourselves the total a the following three the States of Oaxaca, i the tnontbef March tahua and ,Durango.' ps does .not mean the when the 'growers are ? 0:ile,to.aehieye a single ,..? ?bflii? ? ??:Mt?? huinan 'and material the' agricultural field; inetion in *cord with le year ;:with the same the' traffic of narcotics; staff furnished by the : said Embassy, acts ierations -against drugs. iThited States and .they to be developed in is the reason-'why: we assy -can provide us by ime, we feed back that mis of juridical type-or gainst the criminals in ict in any way on police cannot admit it at all. ate the crops of narcotic' uct in the great market' re must be some actions .d. The drug consuming less does not lie in the eed.for its product and - ? s indicate that Mexico territory. ;.? ? .t ? ! : .1 _L.: ? n? : .. ? . _ ? ?.: rkt?' ?.? i? ,?11. I r? . . .? ?? .4 I- ,F I ") 4.. 'IL -!!.? la: ? ???!' 7"` t''? ?t. zir`"Z-. ? :. ? P.,1111:,:ncet.tat oti7 ,frn? ! ?On'"?-s?!,t-tr? ,fetrslt; ftu r....i. v;( ? 4 rf 4 1 -X t ? ...IS r?k ? .' ' ' i .1 , . ? C ? V :Y..; . ?? . r. ?? ? e ? .., ---.1 -- .,? ? ? ? --- ' _ , "' z...,. . _rt' W'. 11".e. '-' ita.'S t ?13:.slirle,-) . . ? Thvti,